A COMPARISON OF DESIGN USING STRUT-AND-TIE MODELING AND DEEP BEAM

METHOD FOR TRANSFER GIRDERS IN BUILDING STRUCTURES


by



ERIC SKIBBE



B.S, Kansas State University, 2010



A REPORT


submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree


MASTER OF SCIENCE


Department of Architectural Engineering
College of Engineering




KANSAS STATE UNIVERSITY
Manhattan, Kansas


2010

Approved by:

Major Professor
Kimberly Waggle Kramer, P.E.


Copyright
ERIC SKIBBE
2010




Abstract
Strut-and-Tie models are useful in designing reinforced concrete structures with
discontinuity regions where linear stress distribution is not valid. Deep beams are typically short
girders with a large point load or multiple point loads. These point loads, in conjunction with the
depth and length of the members, contribute to a member with primarily discontinuity regions.
ACI 318-08 Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete provides a method for
designing deep beams using either Strut-and-Tie models (STM) or Deep Beam Method (DBM).
This report compares dimension requirements, concrete quantities, steel quantities, and
constructability of the two methods through the design of three different deep beams. The three
designs consider the same single span deep beam with varying height and loading patterns. The
first design is a single span deep beam with a large point load at the center girder. The second
design is the deep beam with the same large point load at a quarter point of the girder. The last
design is the deep beam with half the load at the midpoint and the other half at the quarter point.
These three designs allow consideration of different shear and STM model geometry and design
considerations.
Comparing the two different designs shows the shear or cracking control reinforcement
reduces by an average 13% because the STM considers the extra shear capacity through arching
action. The tension steel used for either flexure or the tension tie increases by an average of 16%
from deep beam in STM design. This is due to STM taking shear force through tension in the
tension reinforcement through arching action. The main advantage of the STM is the ability to
decreased member depth without decreasing shear reinforcement spacing. If the member depth is
not a concern in the design, the preferred method is DBM unless the designer is familiar with
STMs due to the similarity of deep beam and regular beam design theory.


Table of Contents
List of Figures ................................................................................................................................ vi 
List of Tables ................................................................................................................................. ix 
Acknowledgements ......................................................................................................................... x 
1.0  Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 1 
2.0  Background Information of Deep Beam Design ................................................................ 2 
2.1  Definitions for Deep Beams in ACI 318-08 ................................................................... 2 
2.2  A Brief History of Deep Beam Design ........................................................................... 3 
3.0  Deep Beam .......................................................................................................................... 5 
3.1  Code Requirements of Deep Beams ............................................................................... 6 
4.0  Deep Beam Method ............................................................................................................ 6 
4.1  Shear Design using Deep Beam Method ........................................................................ 6 
4.2  Flexure Design using Deep Beam Method ................................................................... 17 
4.3  Deep Beam Method Design Examples ......................................................................... 20 
4.3.1  Deep Beam Design Example 1 ................................................................................. 20 
4.3.2  Deep Beam Design Example 2 ................................................................................. 27 
4.3.3  Deep Beam Design Example 3 ................................................................................. 33 
5.0  Strut-and-Tie Model.......................................................................................................... 39 
5.1  Discontinuity Regions ................................................................................................... 40 
5.2  Struts and Ties............................................................................................................... 41 
5.3  Nodes and Nodal Zones ................................................................................................ 43 
5.4  Design of STM for Deep Beams ................................................................................... 48 
5.5.1  Struts ......................................................................................................................... 49 
5.5.2  Nodal Zones .............................................................................................................. 54 
5.5.3  Ties ............................................................................................................................ 54 
5.5  Design Examples .......................................................................................................... 55 
5.6.1  STM Design Example 1 ............................................................................................ 55 
5.6.2  STM Design Example 2 ............................................................................................ 63 
5.6.3  STM Design Example 3 ............................................................................................ 72 
iv
6.0  Results Comparison and Conclusion ................................................................................ 82 
References ..................................................................................................................................... 85 
Appendix A - Copy Write Permission Forms ............................................................................... 86 

v
List of Figures
Figure 3.1 - Deep Beam, Brunswick Building, Chicago; picture courtesy of (columbia.edu) ....... 5 
Figure 3.2 - Single Span Deep Beam; picture courtesy of (MacGregor & Wight, 2005) .............. 5 
Figure 4.1 - Cracking along Tensile Reinforcement for Standard Beam ....................................... 7 
Figure 4.2 - Cracking Causing Crushing of Compression area for a Deep Beam; courtesy of
(MacGregor & Wight, 2005) .................................................................................................. 7 
Figure 4.3 - Deep Beam Distances ................................................................................................. 8 
Figure 4.4 - Forces in Vertical Reinforcement Increase with Angle .............................................. 9 
Figure 4.5 – Section of a Deep Beam Showing the ........................................................................ 9 
Figure 4.6 - Critical Locations for Shear; courtesy of (Hassoun & Al-Manaseer, 2008) ............. 10 
Figure 4.7 - Forces on Inclined Cracking Plane ........................................................................... 14 
Figure 4.8 - Forces in Stirrups along inclined Crack .................................................................... 15 
Figure 4.9 - Unwanted Un-Reinforced Crack ............................................................................... 17 
Figure 4.10 - Non-Linear Stress Distribution; courtesy of (Hassoun & Al-Manaseer, 2008) ...... 18 
Figure 4.11 – Deep Beam Method Design Example 1 ................................................................. 21 
Figure 4.12 - Design Example 1 - Flexural Reinforcement .......................................................... 23 
Figure 4.13 – Deep Beam Method Design Example 1 - Shear Diagram ...................................... 23 
Figure 4.14 – Deep Beam Method Design Example 1 – End Cross Section ................................ 25 
Figure 4.15 – Deep Beam Method Design Example 1 - Longitudinal Section 2 ......................... 26 
Figure 4.16 – Deep Beam Method Design Example 2 ................................................................. 27 
Figure 4.17 – Deep Beam Method Design Example 2 - Shear Diagram ...................................... 28 
Figure 4.18 – Deep Beam Method Design Example 2 - Flexural Reinforcement ........................ 29 
Figure 4.19 – Deep Beam Method Design Example 2 – End Cross Section ................................ 31 
Figure 4.20 – Deep Beam Method Design Example 2 - Longitudinal Section ............................ 32 
Figure 4.21 – Deep Beam Method Design Example 3 ................................................................. 33 
Figure 4.22 – Deep Beam Method Design Example 3 - Shear Diagram ...................................... 34 
Figure 4.23 – Deep Beam Method Design Example 3 - Flexural Reinforcement ........................ 35 
Figure 4.24 – Deep Beam Method Design Example 3 – End Cross Section ................................ 38 
Figure 4.25 – Deep Beam Method Design Example 3 – Longitudinal Cut Section ..................... 38 
Figure 5.1 - Stut-and-Tie Model and Tied Arch Illustrations ....................................................... 39 
vi
Figure 5.2 - D – Regions; courtesy of (MacGregor & Wight, 2005)............................................ 40 
Figure 5.3 - D-Region Distances .................................................................................................. 41 
Figure 5.4 - Strut Diagram; courtesy of (MacGregor & Wight, 2005) ......................................... 42 
Figure 5.5 - Classifications of Nodes; courtesy of (Committee 318, 2008) ................................. 43 
Figure 5.6 - Hydrostatic Nodal Zone ............................................................................................ 44 
Figure 5.7 - Hydrostatic Nodal Zone Development Length ......................................................... 44 
Figure 5.8 - Extended Nodal Zone Strut Width Calculation; courtesy of (MacGregor & Wight,
2005) ..................................................................................................................................... 45 
Figure 5.9 - Extended Nodal Zone Geometries; courtesy of (Committee 318, 2008) .................. 46 
Figure 5.10 - Extended Nodal Zone Development Length ........................................................... 47 
Figure 5.11 - Strut Reinforcement; courtesy of (Committee 318, 2008) ...................................... 51 
Figure 5.12 - Types of Struts; courtesy of (Committee 318, 2008) .............................................. 52 
Figure 5.13 - Spread of Stresses and Transverse Tensions in a Strut; courtesy of (MacGregor &
Wight, 2005) ......................................................................................................................... 53 
Figure 5.14 - STM Design Example 1 .......................................................................................... 56 
Figure 5.15 – STM Design Example 1 - Shear Diagram .............................................................. 56 
Figure 5.16 - STM Design Example 1 – Node Locations ............................................................. 57 
Figure 5.17 - STM Design Example 1 - Geometry ....................................................................... 59 
Figure 5.18 - STM Design Example 1 - Actual Node Locations .................................................. 60 
Figure 5.19 - Tension Tie Reinforcement For Design Example 1 ................................................ 61 
Figure 5.20 - STM Design Example 1 Anchorage Length Available ........................................... 62 
Figure 5.21 - STM Design Example 1 - Final Design Cut Sections ............................................. 63 
Figure 5.22 - STM Design Example 2 .......................................................................................... 64 
Figure 5.23 – STM Design Example 2 - Shear Diagram .............................................................. 64 
Figure 5.24 - STM Design Example 2 – Node Locations ............................................................. 65 
Figure 5.25 - STM Design Example 2 - Geometry ....................................................................... 68 
Figure 5.26 - STM Design Example 2 - Actual Node Locations .................................................. 68 
Figure 5.27 - Tension Tie Reinforcement for Design Example 2 ................................................. 69 
Figure 5.28 - STM Design Example 2 Anchorage Length Available ........................................... 70 
Figure 5.29 - STM Design Example 2 - Final Design Cut Sections ............................................. 71 
Figure 5.30 – STM Design Example 3 ......................................................................................... 73 
vii
Figure 5.31 – STM Design Example 3 - Shear Diagram .............................................................. 73 
Figure 5.32 - STM Design Example 3 – Node Locations ............................................................. 74 
Figure 5.33 - STM Design Example 3 - Geometry ....................................................................... 77 
Figure 5.34 - STM Design Example 3 - Actual Node Locations .................................................. 78 
Figure 5.35 - Tension Tie Reinforcement for Design Example 3 ................................................. 78 
5.36 - STM Design Example 3 Anchorage Length Available ...................................................... 79 
Figure 5.37 - STM Design Example 3 - Final Design Cut Sections ............................................. 81 

viii
List of Tables
Table 1 - Deep Beam Summary .................................................................................................... 82 
Table 2 - STM Summary .............................................................................................................. 82 
Table 3 - Re-Designed Deep Beam Summary .............................................................................. 83 
Table 4 - Re-Designed STM Summary ........................................................................................ 83 

ix
x
Acknowledgements
I thank Professor Kimberly Kramer for her guidance throughout this project and for
permitting me to carry out this project.
I also thank Professor Asad Esmaeily for his explanations of the Strut-and-Tie model
extended nodal zones. He helped me understand the differences in geometry between STM and
Deep Beam Design.


1.0 Introduction
Transfer girders, deep beams, are commonly used in construction; thus, understanding the
design process and choosing an appropriate design process can only enhance the safety of
building design. American Concrete Institute Building Code Requirements for Structural
Concrete (ACI) 318-08 provides two methods for the design of deep beams, Strut-and-Tie
Modeling (STM) or Deep Beam Method (DBM). A deep beam is defined by ACI 318-08 as
having a clear span equal to or less than four times the overall depth of the beam or the regions
with concentrated loads within twice the member depth from the face of the support. The truss
analogy was first introduced during the late 1890’s and early 1900’s by W. Ritter and E. Morsch
(Schlaich, Schafer, & Jennewein, 1987). This method was introduced as the appropriate and
rational way to design cracked reinforced concrete through testing data by researchers. The STM
is a modified version of the truss analogy which includes the concrete contribution through the
concept of equivalent stirrup reinforcement. Once the concrete has cracked, the stresses are
transferred to the horizontal and vertical steel across the crack and back into the concrete. This
method, however, cannot be applied where geometrical or statical discontinuity occurred. In
1987, the Pre-stressed Concrete Institute Journal, PCI Journal, published a four part article on the
truss analogy, “Towards a Consistent Design of Structural Concrete” by Jorg Schlaich, Kurt
Schafer, and Mattias Jennewein, which generalized the truss analogy by proposing an analysis
method in the form of STMs that are valid in all regions of the structure (Schlaich, Schafer, &
Jennewein, 1987). The STM is included in the ACI code, ACI 318-08, found in Appendix A.
The more widely used approach by design professionals in the design of deep beams is
through a nonlinear distribution of the strain, DBM, which is covered in ACI 318, Sections
10.2.2, 10.2.6, 10.7 and 11.7. Actual stresses of a deep beam are non-linear. Typically, a
reinforced concrete beam is designed by a linear-elastic method of calculating the redistributed
stresses after cracking. Applying the linear-elastic method to a deep beam revealed that the
stresses determined were less than the actual stresses near the center of the span (Task
Committee 426, 1973).
This report analyzes the behavior of transfer girders using both DBM and the STM,
compares design results based on shear and flexure for both DBM and STM, and gives
1
recommendations based on economical considerations, technical background, and
constructability. The parametric study consists of three transfer girders with different loading
designed using DBM and STM.

2.0 Background Information of Deep Beam Design
Definitions are provided for reference. These definitions can be found in the ACI 318-08
(Committee 318, 2008). After the definitions, a brief history of deep beam design is given to
provide the reader a time line of design philosophies. Currently, ACI 318 does not provide
equations for the design of non-linear stress distribution. The ACI code design assumptions “The
strength of a member computed by the strength design method of the Code requires that two
basic conditions be satisfied: (1) static equilibrium and (2) compatibility of strains.” (Committee
318, 2008) For deep beams “an analysis that considers a nonlinear distribution of strain be used.”
The commentary references the user to three references for design of non-linear strain
distribution: (1) “Design of Deep Girders”, Portland Cement Association; (2) “Stresses in Deep
Beams”, ASCE; and (3) “Reinforced Concrete Structures”, Park, R and Paulay, T. This report
uses recommendations established by the Euro-International Concrete Committee which are in
agreement with the cited references in the ACI 318-08.
2.1 Definitions for Deep Beams in ACI 318-08
B-region: “A portion of a member in which the plane sections assumption of flexural
theory can be applied.”

Discontinuity: “An abrupt change in geometry or loading.”

D-region: “The portion of a member within a distance, h, from a force discontinuity or
geometric discontinuity.”

Deep Beam: “Deep beams are members loaded on one face and supported on the opposite
face so that compression struts can develop between the loads and supports and
meet dimensional requirements.”
2

Nodal Region: “The volume of concrete around a node that is assumed to transfer Strut-
and-Tie forces through the node.”

Node: “The point in a joint in a Strut-and-Tie model where the axes of the struts, ties, and
concentrated forces acting on the joint intersect.”

Strut: “A compression member in a Strut-and-Tie model. A strut represents the resultant
of a parallel or a fan-shaped compression field.”

Bottle Shaped Strut: “A strut that is wider at mid-length that at its end.”

Strut-and-Tie Model: “A truss model of a structural member, or of a D-region in such a
member, made up of struts and ties connected at nodes, capable of transferring the
factored loads in the supports or to adjacent B-regions.”

Tie: “A tension member in a Strut-and-Tie model.”
2.2 A Brief History of Deep Beam Design
The truss analysis, STM theory began in the late 19
th
century. Wilhelm Ritter developed a
truss mechanism to explain the contribution of stirrups to the shear strength of the beam in 1899.
Ritter’s mechanism did produce over conservative estimates because it neglected the tensile
strength within the concrete. In 1927, Richart proposed that the concrete shear strength and the
contribution of the steel stirrups be calculated independently then summed to determine the total
shear strength, much like what is currently in the code (Brown & Oguzhan, 2008).
In 1962, tests determined the shear strength of reinforced concrete deep beams
(Committee 326, 1962). The shear limits of reinforced concrete deep beams were proposed and
are found in this report in Section 4.1 in Equations 4.5 and 4.7. From 1962-1973, major
contributions in designing for shear were developed through numerous tests. Equations 4.10 and
4.11 in Section 4.1 are two equations developed for designing of deep beams for shear (Task
3
Committee 426, 1973). After shear design applications, researchers started studying other
regions in reinforced concrete structures where STM theory could be used.
In the 1980’s, STMs became very popular in the United States in academics and research.
Professors J. Schlaich and P. Marti proposed modeling techniques around discontinuity regions
(D-regions) where shear stresses and deformations are prominent (Brown & Oguzhan, 2008).
“For many years, D-region design has been by “good practice,” by rule of thumb or empirical.
Three landmark papers by Professor Schlaich of the University of Stuttgard and his coworkers
have changed this” (MacGregor & Wight, 2005).
Following their work, additional research was conducted to determine safe behavior
models – design assumptions that provide satisfactory results shown by tests. In 1984, the
Canadian code, The Canadian Standards Association, CSA, A23.3 was the first to adopt STM
theory in North America. The American Association of State Highway and Transportation
Officials, AASHTO, later accepted STM in 1989 for its Segmental Guide Specification and 1994
by the Bridge Design Specification. ACI first introduce STM theory in Appendix A in the ACI
318-02 Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete, where it remains in the ACI 318-08
Building Code (Brown & Oguzhan, 2008).

4
3.0 Deep Beam
Transfer girders in structures are typically deep beams. A transfer girder supports the
loads from columns above and transfers these loads to other support columns. A common
location for a transfer girder is entrances for parking garages or other unique structures where
large loads are applied to a structure with an opening at a column location (see Figures 3.1 and
3.2). “In general, deep beams are regarded as members loaded on their extreme fibers in
compressions. Examples of this type of member are pile caps and transfer girders. Members
loaded through the floor slabs or diaphragms are closer to the conditions that are idealized for
shear walls” (Task Committee 426, 1973).

Figure 3.1 - Deep Beam, Brunswick Building, Chicago; picture courtesy of (columbia.edu)

Figure 3.2 - Single Span Deep Beam; picture courtesy of (MacGregor & Wight, 2005)
5
3.1 Code Requirements of Deep Beams
The American Concrete Institute has developed the Building Code Requirements for
Structural Concrete (ACI 318) and Commentary (ACI 318R). Code “does not contain detailed
requirements for designing deep beams for flexure except that non-linearity of strain distribution
and lateral buckling is to be considered.” The code does contain the definition of deep beams,
shear requirements which tends to govern the size (depth) of a deep beam, minimum area of
flexural reinforcement, and minimum horizontal and vertical reinforcement on each face of deep
beams in Sections 10.5, 10.6, 10.7, and 11.7. These sections require that deep beams be designed
via nonlinear strain distribution or by using STM theory (Committee 318, 2008).
ACI 318-08, Section 10.7.1 states, “Deep beams are members loaded on one face and
supported on the opposite face so that compression struts can develop between the loads and the
supports.” ACI 318 further defines deep beams as members with one of the following to be
valid:
(a) the le , l
n
, is equal to or less than four times the overall depth c ar span

I
n
h
¸ 4.u (EQ’N 3.1)
where:
h = overall member depth;
l
n
= the clear span for distributed loads measures from the face of the support.
(b) or the regions with concentrated loads within twice the member depth from the face
of the support.

u
h
¸ 2.u (E’QN 3.2)
where:
a = regions loaded with the concentrated loads from the face of the support.

4.0 Deep Beam Method
4.1 Shear Design using Deep Beam Method
While other beams are typically governed by requirements for flexural strength, deep
beams are governed by requirements for shear strength. Therefore, the first type of failure that
designers should consider when designing a deep beam is shear failure to determine the depth of
6
the beam required for shear strength. Shear failure is “a failure under combined shearing force
and bending moment, plus, occasionally, axial load, or torsion, or both” (Task Committee 426,
1973). In designing a shorter member, shear typically sets the minimum depth for the beam.
As the depth of a member increases, inclined cracking from shear or flexure tends to
become steeper as shown in Figures 4.1 and 4.2. These steeper inclined cracks mean shear
transfer mechanisms and shearing failures differ considerably from typical beams. The most
common mode of shear failure is the crushing or shearing of the compression area over an
inclined crack. This is typically started by cracking along the tensile reinforcement (Task
Committee 426, 1973). Figures 4.1 and 4.2 illustrate cracking patterns for standard beams and
deep beams respectively while demonstrating the crushing shear failure that can occur in deep
beams.


Figure 4.1 - Cracking along Tensile Reinforcement for Standard Beam

Figure 4.2 - Cracking Causing Crushing of Compression area for a Deep Beam; courtesy of
(MacGregor & Wight, 2005)

7
The most important variable affecting the way a beam loaded with a concentrated load
fails in shear is the ratio of a/d, the distance from the load to the edge of the support over the
effective depth of the member as shown in Figure 4.3. Furthermore, this ratio can be expressed
as M/Vd, where M is the ultimate moment, and V is the ultimate shear strength at the critical
section of the beam (Task Committee 426, 1973). “This ratio recognizes the fact that a part of the
shearing force is carried by the web reinforcement and part by the longitudinal steel. Failure of
the beam is considered to occur when a failing stress is reached in the compression zone”
(Sheikh, de Paiva, & Neville, 1971). A common characteristic of deep beams is a ratio of M/Vd
less than 2.5 (Task Committee 426, 1973). This is typically attributed to three things common to
deep beams: a smaller moment, M; a larger effective depth, d; and a higher shear force, V.

Figure 4.3 - Deep Beam Distances
For deep beams, as the ratio of a/d decreases from about 2.5 to 0, the shear reinforcement
parallel to the force is less effective. Similarly, as the ratio a/d decreases to zero, the
reinforcement perpendicular to the force being applied to the member increases the shear
capacity through shear friction - concrete cracks are jagged and create an interlock between the
two sides of the crack creating a friction called shear friction (Task Committee 426, 1973). The
ratio of a/d decreases as the depth of the member increases. Thus, the cracks that form become
steeper with increasing depth of the beam. Because the angle of the cracks has increased, the
forces applied to the vertical shear reinforcement increase cause the vertical reinforcement to
8
become less effective as shown in Figure 4.4b. Figure 4.4a indicates the forces in vertical
reinforcement for a standard beam. The cracks form jaggedly, leaving plenty of edges to
interlock (aggregate interlock), creating a large coefficient of friction between the two edges of
the crack. The horizontal reinforcement holds these cracks together or keeps them from
becoming too large, thus increasing the friction between the two edges and the efficiency of the
horizontal reinforcement, shown in Figure 4.5.

Figure 4.4 - Forces in Vertical Reinforcement Increase with Angle

Figure 4.5 – Section of a Deep Beam Showing the
Horizontal Reinforcement Resisting Cracking
The first step in determining the required shear capacity is to determine the shear in deep
beams at the critical locations. To determine the critical locations of shear, Equations 4.1 and 4.2
are recommended by Hassoun and Al-Manaseer (Hassoun & Al-Manaseer, 2008).

9
(a) For a uniform load: x = 0.15l
n
≤ d (effective depth) (EQ’N 4.1)
(b) For a concentrated load: x = 0.050a ≤ d (effective depth) (EQ’N 4.2)
Figure 4.6 represents a deep beam with a distributed load across the beam or a concentrated load
at a distance, a, from the edge of the support. The location of the critical section is identified with
an x, as calculated using Equation 4.1 or 4.2.

Figure 4.6 - Critical Locations for Shear; courtesy of (Hassoun & Al-Manaseer, 2008)
These locations have been determined to produce reasonable shear values for design and analysis
which were determined through numerous tests (Hassoun & Al-Manaseer, 2008). When
designing a typical beam, ACI 318-08 Section 11.1.3 allows the shear force used for design to be
taken at a distance d from the support if it is a non-concentrated force and applied to produce
compression at the end regions. “The loads applied to the beam between the face of the column
and the point d away from the face are transferred directly to the support by compression in the
web above the cracks” (Committee 318, 2008).
The design of concrete sections subject to shear are based on ACI 318-08
Equation 11-1 øI
n
¸ I
u
(EQ’N 4.3)
where I
u
is the factored shear force and I
n
is the nominal shear strength computed by ACI 318-
08 Equation 11-2 øI
n
= ø(I
c
+I
s
) (EQ’N 4.4)
where I
c
is the shear strength of the concrete and I
s
is the added shear strength of the shear
reinforcement.
10
The maximum ultimate shear limit for deep beams recommendation depends on the
referenced code. M. Nadim Hassoun (Hassoun & Al-Manaseer, 2008) recommends the force øI
n

should satisfy either Equation 4.5, 4.6, or 4.7, whichever applies.
(a) For l
n
/d < 2 øI
n
¸ ø8¸¡'
c
b
w
J
(b) For 2 ≤ l
n
/d ≤ 5
2
(EQ’N 4.5)
øI
n
¸ ø[
3
¸ [1 +
n
d
u
I
¸ ¸¡'
c
b
w
J (EQ’N 4.6)
(c) For l
n
/d > 5 øI
n
¸ ø1u¸¡'
c
b
w
J (EQ’N 4.7)
where:
d= distance between the extreme compression fiber and centroid of tension
reinforcement, taken no less than 0.8h, d > 0.8h (Hassoun & Al-Manaseer,
2008);
h= overall depth or height of the beam;
b
w
= width of web;
f’
c
ø = 0.75 per ACI 318-08 Section 9.3.2.3.
= 28 day compressive strength of the concrete;
Older versions of ACI 318 had Equation 4.5 and anything above l
n
/d < 2, Equation 4.7
was specified. Based on the data collected through beam testing and concrete strength tests, the
nominal shear stress, V
n
, was limited to 8¸¡'
c
for l
n
/d < 2 and up to 1u¸¡'
c
for l
n
/d > 5
(Committee 326, 1962). As the length of the member increases, arching action and shear friction
become more efficient because the angle of the transfer of forces through arching action
decreases and the increased quantity of shear cracks producing shear friction. However, ACI
318-05 removed the aforementioned criteria and required all beams meeting the deep beam
criteria use Equation 4.7, found in ACI 318-08 Section 11.7.3. This criteria is the same for non-
deep beams.
ACI 318 provides two equations to use when determining the shear strength of a
reinforced concrete beam subject to shear and flexure only: ACI 318-08 Equation 11-3 and 11-5.
One equation allows for minor cracking and the other allows for no cracking. To determine the
shear strength of concrete for a typical beam, a non-deep beam commonly used in structures, in
shear and flexure only, use Equation 4.8 (ACI 318-08 Equation 11-5) if minor cracking is
allowed and Equation 4.9 (ACI 318-08 Equation 11-3) if no cracking is allowed.
11
I
c
= [1.9z¸¡'
c
+2Suup
w
v
u
d
M
u
¸ b
w
J ¸ S.Sz¸¡'
c
b
w
J (EQ’N 4.8)
where:
V
u
= factored shear at critical location;
M oment at critical location;
u
= factored m

v
u
d
M
u
¸ 1.u;
λ= m
r tio of A
s
to b
w
d.
odification factor for weight of concrete;
p
w
= a
I
c
= 2z¸¡'
c
b
w
J (EQ’N 4.9)
ACI 318 does not specify which equation to use when calculating the shear strength of
the concrete for a deep beam. To determine the shear strength of the concrete for a deep beam in
shear and flexure only, where no cracking is allowed, Equation 4.9 is used. To determine the
shear strength where minor cracking is allowed, Equation 4.10 has been developed but is not
included in the ACI 318-08. Equation 4.10 takes into account the effect of the factored moment
and shear at the critical location into account. This equation is based on the work of Crist (Crist,
Shear Behavior of Deep Reinforced Concrete Beams, v2 : Static Tests, October, 1967;Crist,
Static and Dynamic Shear Behavior of uniformily Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams, 1971) and
dePaiva (dePaiva & Seiss, 1965). “Their work led to the understanding of the reserve shear
capacity of a deep beam without web reinforcement and the development of the concrete shear
strength q 4 . e uation” (Task Committee 26, 1973)
I
c
= [S.S -
2.5M
v
u
u
d
¸ [1.9z¸ '
c
¡ +2Suup
w
v
u
d
M
u
¸ b
w
J ¸ 6z¸¡'
c
b
w
J (EQ’N 4.10)
where: 1.u < S.S -
2.5M
u
v
u
d
¸ 2.S.
In Equation 4.10, the factored shear and the factored moment at the critical location are
used because the dead load shears and the moments may interact additively significantly
decreasing the overall shear strength of the member at these locations (Task Committee 426,
1973). The second term in brackets,[1.9z¸¡'
c
+2Suup
w
v
u
d
M
u
¸, which is identical to Equation
4.8, includes the inclined cracking shear while the first term, [S.S -
2.5M
u
v
u
d
¸, represents the
increase in the shear over the initial cracking because of the increased shear friction from longer
cracks caused by factored shear and factored moment (Task Committee 426, 1973). The actual
12
value for
v
u
d
M
u
is used but is not limited to being less than 1.0 like non-deep beams because the
increased length of the crack and the shear reinforcement perpendicular to the force being
applied produce higher shear friction capacity. Equation 4.10 is limited to a factor 6¸¡'
c
as
opposed to S.S¸¡'
c
as in Equation 4.8. The 3.5 factor limits the overall shear strength of the
concrete to a reasonable value determined by researchers where cracked concrete will fail. The
factor increased to 6 for deep beams because of the increased shear capacity from shear friction
produced by increased shear crack length.
According to ACI 318-08 Section 11.4.6.1, where the ultimate shear being applied to the
beam is higher than one-half of the design shear capacity of the concrete, steel shear
reinforcement is required. This will never be the case for transfer girders because of the large
shear forces applied on them. The shear force resisted by the shear reinforcement V
s
is not
specifically specified in ACI 318 for deep beams; however, ACI 318 does include design
parameters for shear friction design method in Section 11.6.4. ASCE Task Committer 426
developed Equation 4.11 which includes the force along a known inclined crack using the shear
friction of the concrete and the shear strength of the vertical reinforcement (Task Committee
426, 1973).
I
s
= _
A
¡
S
¡
[1+
l
n
d
¸
12
+
A
¡h
S
h
[11-
l
n
d
¸
12
_ ¡
¡
J (EQ’N 4.11)
where:
A
v
= total area of vertical shear reinforcement spaced at S
v
in the horizontal
direction at both faces of the beam;
A
vh
= total area of horizontal reinforcement spaced at S
h
in the vertical direction
at both faces of the beam;
s
v
= vertical spacing of shear reinforcement;
s
h
= horizontal spacing of shear reinforcement.
Vertical reinforcement becomes less effective as the ratio of beam depth to span increases
because of the increased angle of the cracks. The effectiveness of the horizontal shear strength
increases as the shear friction in the beam increases. This is taken into account by using the
relationship of the angle to the ratio of l
n
/d in Equation 4.11. The derivation of Equation 4.11 is
shown below (Task Committee 426, 1973):
13
Considering the forces acting along the inclined crack:
S = F
Ð1
tonø (EQ’N 4.12)
where:
F
Ð1
=
tonø= coefficient of friction (lower bound value of 1.0 is typically
sued);
normal force on the inclined crack;
S= shear force along the crack.
Figure 4.7 is a graphical illustration of the shear force along the crack being calculated by
the normal force to the crack multiplied by the coefficient of friction. θ represents the
angle of the inclined crack to the longitudinal reinforcement.


Figure 4.7 - Forces on Inclined Cracking Plane
The total transverse shear force acting at mid-length of the crack, the vertical component
of the shear, assuming the shear force along the crack is uniformly distributed, is shown
in Equa o 4 ti n .13.
I
¡
= Ssinø
where: (EQ’N 4.13)
V
v
= transverse resistance of the web reinforcement along the crack.
The normal forces on the inclined crack are assumed to develop through the tension in
stirrups. The tension develops in the reinforcing crossing the inclined crack when slip
occurs along the crack. When slip occurs, the crack width increases slightly because of
14
the roughness of the crack, thus creating tensile stress in the reinforcing. Assuming that
the stirrups are yielded at the ultimate load condition:
F
¡
= A
¡
¡
¡
(EQ’N 4.14)
From th ge of h s s s: e ometry t e force in the tirrup
F
Ð1
= ∑(F'
Ð1
)
ì
= ∑F
¡ì
sin(o
ì
+0) (EQ’N 4.15)
Figure 4.8 represents the summation of the forces in the stirrups to determine the force
perpendicular to the inclined crack, F
Ð1
. α represents the angle of the stirrups to the
longitudinal reinforcement and θ represents the angle of the inclined crack to the
longitudinal reinforcement.

Figure 4.8 - Forces in Stirrups along inclined Crack
Equation 4.15 leads to Equations 4.16 and 4.17.
I
s
= ∑
¡ì
sin(o
ì
+0)tonøsin
I

=
A
¡i
]
ji
d
s
i
¡
F 0 (EQ’N 4.16)
sin
2
(o
ì
+0)tonø (EQ’N 4.17)
Equation 4.17 represents the transverse capacity of a set of parallel web reinforcing
crossing an inclined crack. Considering an arbitrary number of parallel sets of web
reinforc g inc n d h verse capacity is given by Equation 4.18. in crossing an li e crack, t e trans
I
¡
= J ton0 ∑ j
A
¡i
]
ji
s
i
sin
2
(o
ì
+0)[
n
ì=1
(EQ’N 4.18)
The subscript i corresponds to each set of parallel web reinforcing designated
i = 1,2,…,n. In most cases where this equation is used, the shear reinforcement is placed
into the member in both a vertical and a longitudinal direction perpendicular to each
other.
o
1
= o
¡
= 9u° (EQ’N 4.19)
15
o
2
= o
h
= u° (EQ’N 4.20)
Equation 4.21 is the product of substituting Equation 4.19 and 4.20 into Equation 4.18
and assu ave the same yield strength, f
yi
. ming that all sets of web reinforcing h
I
s
= ¡
¡
J tonøj
A
¡
s
cos
2
0 +
A
¡h
s
h
sin
2
0[ (EQ’N 4.21)
where:
A
v
= area of vertical shear reinforcement;
s= spacing of vertical shear reinforcement;
A
vh
= area of horizontal shear reinforcemen;
s
h
= spacing of horizontal shear reinforcement.
A relationship of θ as a function of l
n
/d was determined through experimentation. A
lower boundary of the test data is given by cos
2
0
1
12
[1 +
I
n
d
¸. Equation 4.22 uses
trigonometry identities and the relation ntioned with Equation 4.21. ship me
I
s
= ¡
¡
J tonø_
A
¡
S
¡
[1+
l
n
d
¸
12
+
A
¡h
S
h
[11-
l
n
d
¸
12
_ (EQ’N 4.22)
ACI uses this equation assuming that the coefficient of frictions, tanΦ , equals 1.0 while
Crist ori n l s t tha = (Rogowsky & MacGregor, 1983). gi a ly ugges ed t tanΦ 1.5
I
s
= _
A
¡
S
¡
[1+
l
n
d
¸
12
+
A
¡h
S
h
[11-
l
n
d
¸
12
_ ¡
¡
J (EQ’N 4.11)
ACI 318-08 also specifies a maximum spacing of vertical and horizontal reinforcement
for deep beams. The maximum on center spacing for either is 12 inches or d/5, whichever is
smaller, to limit the location of where cracks can occur or restrain the width of the cracks, which
is especially important when considering horizontal reinforcement. The shear strength of deep
beams relies on the shear friction of the concrete after it cracks. If the cracks become too large,
the friction and bearing between the two edges of the crack will reduce significantly thus
decreasing the shear strength of the beam considerably.
The vertical shear reinforcement requires keeping a maximum on center spacing of 12
inches or d/5 to help restrain the width of the cracks, but mainly the spacing ensures
reinforcement will be present when a crack forms. Cracks become steeper as the ratio of depth to
clear span increases, thus reducing how far across the length of the beam a crack will spread;
16
reducing the spacing reinforcement ensures a crack will be crossed by reinforcement. Figure 4.9
represents a crack that is unreinforced which is these requirements are trying to prevent.

Figure 4.9 - Unwanted Un-Reinforced Crack
These spacing requirements for shear reinforcement can be found in ACI 318-08, Sections 11.7.4
and 11. 5 7. .
(EQ’N 4.23) S
¡
¸ J¡S ¸ 12in
S
h
¸ J¡S ¸ 12in (EQ’N 4.24)
ACI 318-08 specifies a minimum horizontal and vertical shear reinforcement area, A
vh
and A
v

respectively, in Sections 11.7.4 and 11.7.5 which should be used throughout the member as the
following:
A
¡
= u.uu1Sb
w
S
A
¡
= u.uu2Sb
w
S
¡
(EQ’N 4.26)
h h
(EQ’N 4.25)
4.2 Flexure Design using Deep Beam Method
The flexural design of a deep beam is similar to a typical beam with a few changes to the
internal moment arm and location of the tension reinforcement. The factored nominal strength,
øH
n
must be greater that the factored applied moment, Mu. The design flexural strength is
calculated using Equation 4.27.



17
øH
n
= øA
s
F
¡
]J (EQ’N 4.27)
where:
j= is a dimensionless ratio used to define the lever arm, jd. It varies because of
varying loads;
jd= the modified internal moment arm because of non-linearity of the strain
distribution, the distance between the resultant compressive force and the
resultant tensile force;
ø= 0.9 for tension controlled members per ACI 318-08 Section 9.3.2.1.
Figure 4.10 represents a deep beam and the non-linear stress distribution. C is the resultant
compression force and T is the resultant tensile force. The depth of the compression block is
represented by c and y represents jd which is the internal moment arm.

Figure 4.10 - Non-Linear Stress Distribution; courtesy of (Hassoun & Al-Manaseer, 2008)

To determine the amount of flexural steel required, the design flexural strength is set
equal to the factored moment, M
u
, and Equation 4.27 is rearranged to solve for required area of
steel, A
s
. ACI 318 limits the amount of steel that can be used to ensure a ductile failure. The
18
minimum steel requirements can be found in ACI 318-08 Equation 10-3, given here as Equation
4.28.
A
s
=
M
u
ø]
j
]d
¸
3¸]i
c
b
w
d
]
j
¸
200b
w
d
]
j
(EQ’N 4.28)
The recommended lever arm by CEB (Euro-International Concrete Committee, Comite
Euro-International du Beton) is shown in Equations 4.29 and 4.30. These equations take into
account the non-linear strain distribution which is required by ACI 318 rather than determining
the stre e w e ermined through testing of deep beams. sses directly. These valu s ere d t
¸ l¡b < 2 (EQ’N 4.29) ]J = u.2(l +2b) ¡or 1
]J = u.6l ¡or l¡b < 1 (EQ’N 4.30)
where:
l=effective span measured center to center of supports or 1.15l
n
, whichever is
smaller
Tension reinforcement should be evenly spaced along the face from the base of the beam
to the height specified in Equation 4.31, which was determined through testing by the CEB
(Kong, Robins, & Sharp, 1975). For a typical beam with a depth greater than 36 inches, skin
reinforcement is required to extend to h/2 from the tension face to control cracking per ACI 318-
08 Section 10.6.7. The reinforcement distributed on the face helps control cracking. Without this
reinforcement the width of the cracks in the web may exceed the allowable crack widths at the
flexural tension reinforcement. Prior to 1999, the ACI Code limits for crack control were based
on a maximum crack width of 0.016 inch for interior exposure and 0.013 inch for exterior
exposure (MacGregor & Wight, 2005). The role cracks have in corrosion of reinforcement is
controversial as research has shown that the two do not clearly correlate, thus, the exterior
exposure requirement has been eliminated (Committee 318, 2008). ACI 318 has specified a
maximum spacing of the flexure reinforcement at the face of the beam to keep cracks within the
crack limits. Multiple bars of a smaller diameter are better than one bar in crack control. ACI
318-08 Equation 10-4, given as Equation 4.32, specifies the maximum spacing the flexural
reinforc m w e ent is allo ed
y = u.2Sb -u.uSl < u.2b (EQ’N 4.31)


19
s = 1S [
40,000
]
s
¸ -2.Sc
c
¸ 12 [
40,000
]
s
¸ (EQ’N 4.32)
where:
c
c
= least distance from the surface of reinforcement steel to the tension face
f
s
= permitted to be taken as 2/3f
y
per ACI 318-08 Section 10.6.4

4.3 Deep Beam Method Design Examples
To accurately compare the final design, three simply supported girders with equal clear
spans and different loading patterns were designed. The first girder had a clear span of sixteen
feet and a width of 24 inches with a column bearing point at the center 1200 kip factored load.
The second example was the same as the first except the location of the factored load changed to
five feet from the centerline of the right hand support. The third example had the same
dimensional constraints with two point loads: a column bearing at the center, with a factored load
of 600 kips, and a second column at the quarter point of the girder with a factored load of 600
kips. These two loads equal the total point load applied on the first two examples. Each girder
was designed to have #5 bar shear reinforcement spacing of 8 to 10 inches. The maximum
allowed shear spacing according to Equation 4.26 is 10.33 inches with #5 bars and a beam width
of 24 inches. Normal weight concrete with a 28 day concrete compression strength equal to
4,000 psi and yield strength of the reinforcing bars equal to 60,000 psi is used.
4.3.1 Deep Beam Design Example 1
Design example one is a 24 inch wide transfer girder spanning 16 feet with a column at
mid-span with a total factored load of 1,200 kips. The girder is supported by 24 inch square
columns. An overall beam depth of 7 feet was determined by design. Figure 4.11 indicates the
transfer girder for design.

20

Figure 4.11 – Deep Beam Method Design Example 1

h = 7 ft f’
c
= 4,000 psi F
y
= 60,000 psi b
w
= 24 inches
Step 1: Check for Deep Beam Criteria
I
n
h
¸ 4.u
7
14
|
|
= 2.u ¸ 4.u
u
h
Deep Beam (EQ’N 3.1)
< 2.u
7
|
7
|
= 1.u < 2.u Deep Beam (EQ’N 3.2)

Step 2: Determine Flexural Reinforcement
Determine the applied ultimate moment.
Weight of the girder = w = l¡ 1Supc¡ × 7
i
×
24"
12"
, = 2,1uup
w Factored weight of girder =
u
= 1.2 × 2,1uupl¡ = 2,S2upl¡
H
u
=
PI
4
+
w
u
I
2
8
H
u
=
(600k+600k)16
|
×12"
4
+
2.52kI](16i×12")
2
8
= 69,212 k -in

Determine the area of steel required for a moment capacity higher than the applied
moment.
A
s
=
M
u
ø]
j
]d
¸
3¸]i
c
b
w
d
]
j
¸
200b
w
d
]
j

where: ¸ l¡b < 2 (EQ’N 4.29)
(EQ’N 4.28)
21
]J = u.2(l +2b) ¡or 1
]J = u.6l ¡or l¡b < 1 (EQ’N 4.30)
l= smaller of c/c of supports (16’) or 1.15l
n
(1.1S × 14
i
= 16.1)
l= 16 ft
1 ¸
I
h

=
16
|
7
|
= 2.29 > 2 (E’QN 4.18)
Use Equation 4.29 to account for non-linear stress distribution,
conservatively
]J u ) 2 × 7') × 12" = 72in = .2(l +2b = u.2(16' +
A
s,¡cqid
=
M
u
ø]
j
]d
=
69,212 k-ìn
0.9(60ksì)(72")
= 17.8uin
2

Try 18 -#9 bars. A
s (18) #9
= 18.0 in
2

Determine the flexural rein
.
forcement location.
y = u.2Sb -u uSl < u.2b
y = u.2S(84") -u.uS(16' × 12") = 11.4in < u.2(84") = 16.8in (EQ’N 4.31)
y = 11.4in = 12in

Figure 4.12 represents the flexural reinforcement of 3 rows spaced 4.5” on center of 6 #9
bars spaced 4” on center. The maximum allowable spacing allowed by ACI 318-08 is
determined from Equation 4.32.
s = 1S [
40,000
]
s
¸ -2.Sc ¸ 12 [
40,000
c
]
s
¸ (EQ’N 4.32)
s = 1S _
40,000
[
2
3
¸60,000psì
_ -2.S(S" -
1.128"
2
-u.62S") = 1u.4" ¸ 12 _
40,000
[
2
3
¸60,000psì
_ = 12"
10.4” > 4” OK
The minimum allowable spacing by ACI 318-08 Section 7.6 is d
b
but no less than 1”.
4” > 1.128” OK

22

Figure 4.12 - Design Example 1 - Flexural Reinforcement

Determine ac ual flexu
J = 84"‐7.S" = 76.S"
t ral reinforcement depth d.

Check the area of steel required against minimum steel requirements.
3¸]i
c
b
w
d
]
j
¸
200b
w
d
]
j

3¸4,000psì(24")(76.5")
60,000psì
= S.81in
2
¸
200(24")(76.5")
60,000psì
= 6.12in
2

18.0 in
2
> 6.12 in
2
OK
Use 18 -#9 bars. A
s (18) #9
= 18.0 in
2

Step 3: Determine Shear Reinforcement
Draw the ultimate shear diagram shown in Figure 4.13.

Figure 4.13 – Deep Beam Method Design Example 1 - Shear Diagram

Find critical shear locations.
x = 0.5a ≤ d (effective depth) 0.5(7’x12”) = 42 in ≤ 76.5 in (EQ’N 4.2)


23
Determine loads at critical section.
V
u,x
= 620k – (2.52klf) x (42”/12”) = 611k
M
u,x
= (611k x 42”/12”) + 0.5(620k-611k)(42”/12”) = 2,154 k-ft

Determine upper limit on shear strength.
Ma imum allowable øI
n
¸ ø1u¸¡'
c
x b
w
J
øI
n
¸ (u.7S)1u¸4,uuupsi
(EQ’N 4.7)
(24)(76.S)¡1uuu# = 87u.9k > 611k 0K

Determine Nominal Shear Strength provided by concrete wit m
I
c
= [S.S -
2.5M
u
v
u
d
h inor cracking allowed.
¸ [1.9¸¡'
c
+2Suup
w
v
u
d
M
u
¸ b
w
J ¸ 6¸¡'
c
b
w
J (EQ’N 4.10)
1.u < S.S -
2.5M
u
¸ 2.S 1.u .S -
2.5(2,154k-]t×12")
< S
611k(76.5")
=
v
u
d
2.12 ¸ 2.S
2.12 I
c
= ( ) _1.9¸4,uuupsi +2S
(24)(76.S")
uu
18in
2
611,uuu
#
(76.S")
uu
#-]t
× 12" 2,1S4,u
_
(24")(76.S")
1,uuu
= 64u.2k
6¸¡'
c
b
w
J = 6¸4,uuupsi
(24")(76.5")
1,000
= 696.7k
640.2k < 696.7k OK

Determine Horizontal and Vertical Shear Reinforcement w th Minor C
I
u
>
øv
c
2
6
i racking Allowed.
11k >
0.75(640.2k)
2
= 24uk Sbcor Rcin¡. RcquircJ (EQ’N 4.3)
I
u
¸ ø I
c
+
I =
v
u
( I
s
) (EQ’N 4.4)
-I I =
611k
-64u.2k = 174.Sk
s
ø
c s
0.75
I
s
= _
A
¡
S
¡
[1+
l
n
d
¸
12
+
A
¡h
S
h
[11-
l
n
d
¸
12
_ ¡
¡
J (EQ’N 4.11)
Try an S
v
= S spacing of 10 inches on center with No.5 bars
h
I
s
= _
0.62ìn
2
10"
_1+
14
|
×12"
¨6.S"
]
12
+
0.62ìn
2
10"
_11-
14
|
×12"
¨6.S"
]
12
_ (6uksi)(76.S") = 28Sk > 174.Sk 0K

Check minimum shear reinforcement require ent.
h h
)
2
(EQ’N 4.25)
m
24
A
¡
= u.uu1Sb
w
S = u.uu1S(24")(1u" = u.S6in < u.62in
2
0K
A
¡
= u.uu2Sb
w
S
¡
= u.uu2S(24")(1u") = u.6uin
2
< u.62in
2
0K (EQ’N 4.26)
S
¡
¸ J¡S ¸ 12in
5
76.S"
= 1S.S" > 12" 1u" < 12" 0K
S
h
¸ J¡S ¸ 12in
76.S"
5
(EQ’N 4.23)
= 1S.S" > 12" 1u" < 12" 0K (EQ’N 4.24)

Use #5 bars at 10 inches on center both vertically and horizontally.
Note: If a 6’ girder were used, the flexural reinforcement would be (19) #9 bars
and the shear reinforcement would be #5’s at 7” vertical and horizontal. The 7’
girder was used to keep the shear reinforcement closer to the maximum allowable
spacing and to make an easier comparison between the Strut-and-Tie Example 1
design which has a girder height of 7’ as well.
Cross sections of the completed design of the girder are shown in Figures 4.14 and 4.15
with dimensions and reinforcement.

Figure 4.14 – Deep Beam Method Design Example 1 – End Cross Section
25

Figure 4.15 – Deep Beam Method Design Example 1 - Longitudinal Section 2

26
4.3.2 Deep Beam Design Example 2
Design example two is a 24 inch wide transfer girder spanning 16 feet with a column at 5
feet from a support with a factored load of 1,200 kips. The girder is supported by 24 inch square
columns. A design height of 8 feet was determined by trial-and-error. Figure 4.16 indicates the
transfer girder for design.


Figure 4.16 – Deep Beam Method Design Example 2

h = 8 ft f’
c
= 4,000 psi F
y
= 60,000 psi b
w
= 24 inches
Step 1: Check for Deep Beam Criteria
I
n
h
¸ 4.u
8
14
|
|
= 1.7S ¸ 4.u
u
h
Deep Beam (EQ’N 3.1)
< 2.u
5
|
8
|
= u.6S < 2.u Deep Beam (EQ’N 3.2)

Step 2: Determine Flexural Reinforcement
Draw the ultimate shea d w 7
27
r iagrams sho n in Figure 4.1 .
Weight of the girder = w = 1Supc¡ × 8
i
×
24"
12"
, = 2,4uupl¡
Factored weight of girder = w
u
= 1.2 × 2,4uupl¡ = 2,88upl¡


Figure 4.17 – Deep Beam Method Design Example 2 - Shear Diagram

Determine the applied ultimate moment.
H
u
= |8S4k(S
i
) +u.S(848k -8S4k)(S
i
)] × 12" = Su,46u k -in

Determine the area of steel required for a moment capacity higher than the applied
ultimate moment.
A
s
=
M
u
ø]
j
]d
¸
3¸]i
c
b
w
d
]
j
¸
200b
w
d
]
j

where: ¸ l¡b < 2 (EQ’N 4.29)
(EQ’N 4.28)
]J = u.2(l +2b) ¡or 1
]J = u.6l ¡or l¡b < 1 ( 4.30) EQ’N
l= smaller of c/c of supports (16’) or 1.15l
n
(1.1S × 14
i
= 16.1)
l= 16 ft
1 ¸
I
h
=
16
|
8
|
= 2.u ¸ 2
]J u = × 8') × 12" = 76.8in
(E’QN 4.18)
= .2(l +2b) u.2(16' +2
A
s,¡cqid
=
M
u
ø]
j
]d
=
50,460 k-ìn
0.9(60ksì)(76.8")
= 12.17in
2

Try 16 -#8 bars. A
s (16) #8
= 12.64 in
2

Determine the flexural rein
.
forcement location.
y = u.2Sb -u uSl < u.2b
y = u.2S(96") -u.uS(16' × 12") = 14.4in < u.2(96") = 19.2in (EQ’N 4.31)
y = 14.4in = 15in

28
Figure 4.18 represents the flexural reinforcement of 4 rows spaced 3” on center of 4 #8
bars spaced at 6.5”. The maximum allowable spacing allowed by ACI 318-08 is
determined from Equation 4.32.
s = 1S [
40,000
]
s
¸ -2.Sc ¸ 12 [
40,000
c
]
s
¸ (EQ’N 4.32)
s = 1S _
40,000
[
2
3
¸60,000psì
_ -2.S(S" -
1.0"
2
-u.62S") = 1u.S" ¸ 12 _
40,000
[
2
3
¸60,000psì
_ = 12"
10.3” > 6.5” OK
The minimum allowable spacing by ACI 318-08 Section 7.6 is d
b
but no less than 1”.
4” > 1” OK



Figure 4.18 – Deep Beam Method Design Example 2 - Flexural Reinforcement

D termine act al f
J = 96"‐9" = 87"
e u lexural reinforcement depth d.

Check the area of steel required against minimum steel requirements
3¸]i
c
.
b
w
d
]
j
¸
200b
w
d
]
j

3¸4,000psì(24")(87")
60,000psì
= 6.6uin
2
¸
200(24")(87")
60,000psì
= 6.96in
2

12.64 in
2
> 6.96 in
2
OK
Use 16 -#8 bars. A
s (16) #8
= 12.64 in
2
29

Step 3: Determine Shear Reinforcement
Find critical shear locations.
x = 0.5a ≤ d (effective depth) 0.5(4’x12”) = 24 in ≤ 87 in (EQ’N 4.2)

Determine loads at critical section.
V
u,x
= 848k – (2.88klf) x (24”/12”) = 842k
M
u,x
= (842k x 24”/12”) + 0.5(848k-842k)(24”/12”) = 1,690 k-ft

Determine upper limit on shear strength.
Ma imum allowable øI
n
¸ ø1u¸¡'
c
x b
w
J
øI
n
¸ (u.7S)1u¸4,uuupsi
(EQ’N 4.7)
(24)(87")¡1uuu# = 99u.4k > 842k 0K

Determine Nominal Shear Strength provided by concrete wit m
I
c
= [S.S -
2.5M
u
v
u
d
h inor cracking allowed.
¸ [1.9¸¡'
c
+2Suup
w
v
u
d
M
u
¸ b
w
J ¸ 6¸¡'
c
b
w
J (EQ’N 4.10)
1.u < S.S -
2.5M
u
¸ 2.S 1.u .S -
2.5(1,690k-]t×12")
v
u
d
< S
842k(87")
= 2.81 >
2 )
2.S use 2.5
I
c
= ( .S _1.9¸4,uuupsi +2Suu
(24)(87"
12.64in
2
)
842,uuu
#
(87")
u
#-]t
× 12" 1,69u,uu
_
(24")(87")
1,uuu
= 912.6k
6¸¡'
c
b
w
J = 6¸4,uuupsi
(24")(87")
1,000
= 792.Sk
912.6k > 792.3k Use 792.3k

Determine Horizontal and Vertical Shear Reinforcement w th Minor C
I
u
>
øv
c
2
8
i racking Allowed.
42k >
0.75(792.3k)
2
= 297k Sbcor Rcin¡. RcquircJ (EQ’N 4.3)
I
u
¸ ø I
c
+
I =
v
u
( I
s
) (EQ’N 4.4)
-I I =
842k
-792.Sk = SSuk
s
ø
c s
0.75
I
s
= _
A
¡
S
¡
[1+
l
n
d
¸
12
+
A
¡h
S
h
[11-
l
n
d
¸
12
_ ¡
¡
J (EQ’N 4.11)
Try an S
v
= S
h
spacing of 9 inches on center with No.5 bars
30
I
s
= _
0.62ìn
2
9"
_1+
14
|
×12"
8¨"
]
12
+
0.62ìn
2
9"
_11-
14
|
×12"
8¨"
]
12
_ (6uksi)(87") = S6uk > SSuk 0K

Check minimum shear reinforcement requirement.
h h
)
2
(EQ’N 4.25) A
¡
= u.uu1Sb
w
S = u.uu1S(24")(9" = u.S2in < u.62in
2
0K
= u ) u.S4in
2
< (EQ’N 4.26) A
¡
= u.uu2Sb
w
S
¡
.uu2S(24" (9") = u.62in
2
0K
87"
S
¡
¸ J¡S ¸ 12in
5
= 17.4" > 12" 9" < 12" 0K
S
h
¸ J¡S ¸ 12in
87"
5
(EQ’N 4.23)
= 17.4" > 12" 9" < 12" 0K (EQ’N 4.24)

Use #5 bars at 9 inches on center both vertically and horizontally.
Note: If a 7’ girder were used, the flexural reinforcement would be (17) #8 bars
and the shear reinforcement would be #5’s at 6” vertical and horizontal. The 8’
girder was used to keep the shear reinforcement closer to the maximum allowable
spacing and to make an easier comparison between the Strut-and-Tie Example 2
design which has a girder height of 8’ as well.
Cross sections of the completed design of girder example #2 are shown in Figures 4.19
and 4.20 with dimensions and reinforcement.


Figure 4.19 – Deep Beam Method Design Example 2 – End Cross Section
31

Figure 4.20 – Deep Beam Method Design Example 2 - Longitudinal Section

32

4.3.3 Deep Beam Design Example 3
Design example three is a 24 inch wide transfer girder spanning 16 feet with a column at
midpoint with a factored load of 600 kips; and a second column load at the quarter point with a
factored load of 600 kips. The girder is supported by 24 inch square columns. A design height of
7 feet was determined by iteration. Figure 4.21 indicates the transfer girder for design.


Figure 4.21 – Deep Beam Method Design Example 3

h = 7 ft f’
c
= 4,000 psi F
y
= 60,000 psi b
w
= 24 inches
Step 1: Check for Deep Beam Criteria
I
n
h
¸ 4.u
7
14
|
|
= 2.u ¸ 4.u
u
h
Deep Beam (EQ’N 3.1)
< 2.u
3
|
7
|
= u.4S < 2.u Deep Beam (EQ’N 3.2)

Step 2: Determine Flexural Reinforcement
Draw the ultimate shea d o i F .
33
r iagram sh wn n igure 4.22
Weight of the girder = w = 1Supc¡ × 7' ×
24"
12"
, = 2,1uupl¡
Factored weight of girder = w
u
= 1.2 × 2,1uupl¡ = 2,S2upl¡


Figure 4.22 – Deep Beam Method Design Example 3 - Shear Diagram
Determine the applied ultimate mo ent.
H
u
= |76uk(4
i
) + u.S(77uk - 76uk)(4
i
) + 1Suk(4
i
) +u.S(16uk -1Suk)(4
i
)] × 12" = 44,16u k -in
m

Determine the area of steel required for a moment capacity higher than the applied
ultimate moment.
A
s
=
M
u
ø]
j
]d
¸
3 ]i ¸
c
b d
w
]
j
¸
200b
w
d
]
j

where: ¸ l¡b < 2 (EQ’N 4.29)
(EQ’N 4.28)
]J = u.2(l +2b) ¡or 1
]J = u.6l ¡or l¡b < 1 ( 4.30) EQ’N
l= smaller of c/c of supports (16’) or 1.15l
n
(1.1S × 14
i
= 16.1)
l= 16 ft
1 ¸
I
h

=
16
|
7
|
= 2.S > 2 (E’QN 4.18)
Conservatively use Equation 4.29 to account for non-linear stress
distribution
]J u ) 2 × 7') × 12" = 72in = .2(l +2b = u.2(16' +
A
s,¡cqid
=
M
u
ø]
j
]d
=
44,160 k-ìn
0.9(60ksì)(72")
= 11.S6in
2

Try 15-#8 bars. A
s (15) #8
= 11.85 in
2

Determine the flexural rein
.
forcement location.
y = u.2Sb -u uSl < u.2b
y = u.2S(84") -u.uS(16' × 12") = 11.4in < u.2(84") = 16.8in (EQ’N 4.31)
34
y = 11.4in = 12in
Figure 4.23 represents the flexural reinforcement of 3 rows spaced 4.5” on center of 5 #8
bars spaced at 5”. The maximum allowable spacing allowed by ACI 318-08 is determined
from Equation 4.32.
s = 1S [
40,000
]
s
¸ -2.Sc ¸ 12 [
40,000
c
]
s
¸ (EQ’N 4.32)
s = 1S _
40,000
[
2
3
¸60,000psì
_ -2.S(S" -
1.0"
2
-u.62S") = 1u.S" ¸ 12 _
40,000
[
2
3
¸60,000psì
_ = 12"
10.3” > 5” OK
The minimum allowable spacing by ACI 318-08 Section 7.6 is d
b
but no less than 1”.
4” > 1” OK



Figure 4.23 – Deep Beam Method Design Example 3 - Flexural Reinforcement

Determine ac ual flexu
J = 84"‐7.S" = 76.S"
t ral reinforcement depth d.

Check the area of steel required against minimum steel requirements.
3¸]i
c
b
w
d
]
j
¸
200b
w
d
]
j

3¸4,000psì(24")(76.5")
60,000psì
= S.81in
2
¸
200(24")(76.5")
60,000psì
= 6.12in
2

11.85 in
2
> 6.12 in
2
OK
Use 15 -#8 bars. A
s (15) #8
= 11.85 in
2
35

Step 3: Determine Shear Reinforcement
Find critical shear locations.
x = 0.5a ≤ d (effective depth) 0.5(3’x12”) = 18 in ≤ 87 in (EQ’N 4.2)

Determine loads at critical section.
V
u,x
= 770k – (2.52klf) x (18”/12”) = 766k
M
u,x
= (766k x 18”/12”) + 0.5(770k-766k)(18”/12”) = 1,152 k-ft

Determine upper limit on shear strength.
Ma imum allowable øI
n
¸ ø1u¸¡'
c
x b
w
J
øI
n
¸ (u.7S)1u¸4,uuupsi
(EQ’N 4.7)
(24)(76.S")¡1uuu# = 871k > 766k 0K

Determine Nominal Shear Strength provided by concrete wit m
I
c
= [S.S -
2.5M
u
v
u
d
h inor cracking allowed.
¸ [1.9¸¡'
c
+2Suup
w
v
u
d
M
u
¸ b
w
J ¸ 6¸¡'
c
b
w
J (EQ’N 4.10)
1.u < S.S -
2.5M
u
¸ 2.S 1 S -
2.5(1,152k-]t×12")
.u < S.
766k(76.5")
= 2 .S use 2.5
v
u
d
.91 > 2
2 ) I
c
= ( .S _1.9¸4,uuupsi +2Suu
(24)(76 S"
11.8Sin
2
. )
766,uuu
#
(76.S")
u
#-]t
× 12" 1,1S2,uu
_
(24")(76.S")
1,uuu
= 86S.Sk
6¸¡'
c
b
w
J = 6¸4,uuupsi
(24")(76.5")
1,000
= 696.7k
865.5k > 696.7k Use 696.7k

Determine Horizontal and Vertical Shear Reinforcement w th Minor C
I
u
>
øv
c
2
8
i racking Allowed.
42k >
0.75(696.7k)
2
= 261k Sbcor Rcin¡. RcquircJ (EQ’N 4.3)
I
u
¸ ø I
c
+
I =
v
u
( I
s
) (EQ’N 4.4)
-I I =
766k
-696.7k = S2Sk
s
ø
c s
0.75
I
s
= _
A
¡
S
¡
[1+
l
n
d
¸
12
+
A
¡h
S
h
[11-
l
n
d
¸
12
_ ¡
¡
J (EQ’N 4.11)
From reiterative design process try an S
v
= S
h
spacing of 8 inches on center with No.5
bars.
36
I
s
= _
0.62ìn
2
8"
_1+
14
|
×12"
¨6.S"
]
12
+
0.62ìn
2
8"
_11-
14
|
×12"
¨6.S"
]
12
_ (6uksi)(76.S") = SS6k > S2Sk 0K

Check minimum shear reinforcement requirement.
h h
) 0K (EQ’N 4.25) A
¡
= u.uu1Sb
w
S = u.uu1S(24")(8" = u.29in
2
< u.62in
2

= u ( u.48 < u. (EQ’N 4.26) A
¡
= u.uu2Sb
w
S
¡
.uu2S 24")(8") = 62in
2
0K
76.S"
S
¡
¸ J¡S ¸ 12in
5
= 1S.S" > 12" 8" < 12" 0K
S
h
¸ J¡S ¸ 12in
76.S"
5
(EQ’N 4.23)
= 1S.S" > 12" 8" < 12" 0K (EQ’N 4.24)

Use #5 bars at 8 inches on center both vertically and horizontally.
Note: A 6’ girder does not meet the requirements of Equation 4.7. If a 8’ girder
were used, the flexural reinforcement would be (14) #8 bars and the shear
reinforcement would be #5’s at 10” vertical and horizontal limited by maximum
spacing requirements. The 7’ girder was used to keep the shear reinforcement
closer to the maximum allowable spacing without having more reinforcement that
required for strength and to make an easier comparison between the Strut-and-
Tie Example 3 design which has a girder height of 7’ as well.

Cross sections of the completed design of the girder are shown in Figures 4.24 and 4.25
with dimensions and reinforcement.

37

Figure 4.24 – Deep Beam Method Design Example 3 – End Cross Section

Figure 4.25 – Deep Beam Method Design Example 3 – Longitudinal Cut Section



38
5.0 Strut-and-Tie Model
The second analysis method allowed by ACI 318 for the design of deep beams is STM.
STMs comprise compression struts and tension ties that transfer the forces through the member,
through the joints referred to as nodes, and to the supports; as opposed to DBM which transfers
the force through shear reinforcement and an internal moment couple with flexural
reinforcement. Both design processes have benefits and should be considered when designing
deep beams.
Before cracking has occurred in a reinforced concrete beam, an elastic stress field exists.
Cracking disturbs the stress field causing the internal forces to alter their path. These reoriented
forces can be modeled as an STM (MacGregor & Wight, 2005). The STM analysis evaluates
stresses as either compression (struts) or tension members (steel ties) and joins the struts and ties
through nodes and nodal regions (Schlaich, Schafer, & Jennewein, 1987). After inclined cracks
have formed in deep beams, the beam takes on a “tied arch” behavior allowing the forces to
transfer directly to the supports, not vertically through the member until being transferred by the
web and flexural reinforcement. This behavior provides some reserve shear capacity in deep
beams but not in shallower members. Shallow beams generally fail shortly after inclined cracks
form unless flexural reinforcement is provided (Rogowsky & MacGregor, 1983). Figure 5.1
represents a deep beam with a point load applied on the compression face. 5.1(a) illustrates the
struts and the ties used for design to transfer a point load to the supports and 5.1(b) represents a
uniformly loaded beam with a parabolic STM.

Figure 5.1 - Stut-and-Tie Model and Tied Arch Illustrations
39
In testing, the stresses in the tension chord reinforcement decreased much less at the ends
of the girder, indicating that the steel acts as a tension tie that carries a relatively constant force
from one end of the girder to the other, thus confirming the methodology of the STM (Rogowsky
& MacGregor, 1983). The STM was developed as a practical way to design for discontinuity
regions where non-linear, elastic behavior occurs (commonly referred to as D-Regions). ACI
318-08 Section 11.7.2 allows the use of STM for the design of deep beams. Deep beams
typically are used as girders with a discontinuity region caused by a large point load.
5.1 Discontinuity Regions
Members within a structure have discontinuity regions, D-regions, and beam regions also
known as Bernoulli regions, B-regions. B-regions are locations where beam theory applies in
which linear strain is assumed valid and the internal stress due to bending and torsional
moments, shear, and axial forces are easily derived (Schlaich, Schafer, & Jennewein, 1987). D-
regions are locations near concentrated loads, adjacent to holes, where abrupt changes in cross
section or direction occur, and reactions. At these locations, the distribution of the strain is
nonlinear and difficult to calculate (Schlaich, Schafer, & Jennewein, 1987). Figure 5.2 illustrates
where D-regions and B-regions occur in members within a structure.

Figure 5.2 - D – Regions; courtesy of (MacGregor & Wight, 2005)
40
When using the STM approach dividing the structure into B-regions and D-regions is
helpful. This specifies where in the structure a non-linear analysis of the stress trajectories is
required (Schlaich, Schafer, & Jennewein, 1987). To identify where these regions start and end,
Saint Venant’s Principle is used. Saint Venant’s Principle states that strains produced by a force
statically equivalent to zero force and zero couple to a small part of a surface of a body are
negligible at distances which are large compared to the small part of the body the force was
applied. This suggests that the localized effect of discontinuity dissipates approximately one
member depth distance, h, each way from the discontinuity. This principle is not precise; thus,
the different stiffness formed by unequal resistance to deformation in different directions due to
the unsymmetrical cracks along reinforced concrete members may influence the distance at
which the D-regions end is not a concern (Schlaich, Schafer, & Jennewein, 1987). Figure 5.3
illustrates the area D-regions occupy after concentrated loads and reactions.

Figure 5.3 - D-Region Distances
5.2 Struts and Ties
A strut represents the compression stress zone within the STM from one nodal zone to
the next. The compression stress acts parallel within the strut, which typically follows a load path
similar to a force diagram or moment diagram. The struts are typically idealized as a prismatic or
linear member within the deep beam even though struts typically vary in cross section
throughout the length of the strut to simplify the analysis of STM. As the stresses transfer
through the strut, they spread out forming a bottle shaped strut before condensing to enter the
nodal zone. As the stresses spread out, transverse tension forces arise that can produce
longitudinal cracking. If reinforcement is not provided to transfer the stresses after cracking has
41
occurred or to keep cracking from occurring, the member or structure may fail after cracking.
Once cracking has occurred, the internal stresses reorient to transfer to the supports. Without
reinforcement to transfer the stresses over the cracks, the stresses could redistribute to a different
load paths and consolidate causing concrete crushing and ultimately failing the member. With
adequate reinforcement, the strength of the strut directly relates to the crushing strength of the
concrete (MacGregor & Wight, 2005). If the crushing strength becomes an issue during design,
compression reinforcement can be added to the struts to increase strength allowing smaller nodal
regions as well as struts. Figure 5.4 illustrates the struts as bottle shaped struts as well as the
idealized prismatic strut transferring the force to the supports directly through the nodes and
nodal regions.

Figure 5.4 - Strut Diagram; courtesy of (MacGregor & Wight, 2005)
The ties consist of reinforcement as well as the surrounding concrete. The concrete does
not contribute to the resistance of forces but does increase the axial stiffness of the tie through
tension stiffening which is the capacity of the bonded concrete between neighboring cracks to
transfer tension through bond slip between the reinforcement and concrete causing the area to act
more like an uncracked section by contributing to the flexural stiffness, EI. The concrete helps
transfer loads from the struts to the ties or to bearing area by bonding with the reinforcement
(MacGregor & Wight, 2005). The most important part of the tie design is the detailing of the end
anchorage in the nodal regions. Sufficient anchorage can be produced through bonding/tension
splices, hooks, or mechanical anchorage.

42
5.3 Nodes and Nodal Zones
The nodes are idealized pinned joints where the forces meet from the struts and ties. The
nodal zone is the surrounding body of concrete that transfers the load from the struts to the ties or
supports. Because these joints are idealized as pinned joints, they must be at static equilibrium.
This implies that the forces must pass through a common point, or the forces can be resolved
around a certain point to remain in equilibrium. At nodal regions, at least three forces must keep
the node at equilibrium because the forces come into the node at different angles. These nodal
regions are classified as C-C-C for three compressive forces, C-C-T for two compressive forces
and one tensile force, C-T-T for one compressive force and two tensile forces, or T-T-T for three
tensile forces (MacGregor & Wight, 2005). Figure 5.5 represents the four nodal regions in static
equilibrium specified.

Figure 5.5 - Classifications of Nodes; courtesy of (Committee 318, 2008)
Nodal regions are idealized two different ways: hydrostatic nodal zone and extended
nodal zone. To design a hydrostatic nodal region, the nodal region must be perpendicular to the
axis of the strut or the tie, producing a uniaxial compression stress instead of a combined
compression and shear stress as illustrated in Figure 5.6. For a nodal region to be considered
hydrostatic, the region must have the same bearing pressure on all sides of the nodal zone
because the in-plane stresses in the node are the same from every direction (MacGregor &
Wight, 2005).
43

Figure 5.6 - Hydrostatic Nodal Zone
Determining hydrostatic node regions can be very difficult and time consuming if complicated
loading is applied to the member. The lengths of the edges of the nodal regions are based on the
applied force and the surface area required for the concrete to withstand crushing. When a
tension tie is applied to a node, the width of the nodal region is determined using a hypothetical
bearing plate on the end of the tie that exerts a bearing pressure on the node equal to the stresses
applied from the struts (MacGregor & Wight, 2005). As shown in Figure 5.7, the tension tie
reinforcement must be developed past the nodal region before the edge of the bearing, l
anc
, which
could require bent bars unless enough length on the opposite side of the connection exists to
develop the required development length.

Figure 5.7 - Hydrostatic Nodal Zone Development Length

Designing with an extended nodal zone is much easier when the member is subjected to a
more complicated loading pattern. This does not require the axis of the strut to be perpendicular
to the face of the nodal zone, and the width of the strut is taken within the strut and not at the
node. Figure 5.8 and 5.9 illustrates an extended nodal zone with the axis of the strut at an angle
44
other than perpendicular to the nodal zone and the width of the strut, w
s
, taken in compression is
w
s
= l
b
sin0 +w
t
cos0. Figure 5.9 differentiates the extended nodal zones by a single layer of
steel and multiple layers of steel.

Figure 5.8 - Extended Nodal Zone Strut Width Calculation; courtesy of (MacGregor &
Wight, 2005)




45


Figure 5.9 - Extended Nodal Zone Geometries; courtesy of (Committee 318, 2008)
An extended nodal zone also allows different stresses to be considered at the different edges of
the nodal zone because of different nodal zone widths if (1) the resultants of the three forces
coincide, (2) the stresses are within the limits allowed by code determined through testing, and
(3) the stress is constant on each of the nodal zone faces (MacGregor & Wight, 2005). One
benefit of the extended nodal zones is the tension tie reinforcement must have a development
length at the edge of the extended nodal zone, not the end of the bearing illustrated in Figure
5.10. This extra distance provides the benefits of the concrete compressed by the struts
46
increasing the bond between the concrete itself and the tension reinforcement (MacGregor &
Wight, 2005).

Figure 5.10 - Extended Nodal Zone Development Length

Hydrostatic nodal regions can be used with the extended nodal zones for anchorage based
on the work of the Portland Concrete Association (PCA). Designing with hydrostatic nodal
regions is conservative when designed nodal regions and will result in if not the same, a very
similar area of tension reinforcement. The extended nodal zone anchorage provides the benefits
of the concrete compressed by the struts increasing the bond between the concrete itself and the
tension reinforcement Geometry of STM, which can be applied to hydrostatic nodal regions
which also includes compression struts and tension ties.
Like typical beam design, designing for ductile failure requires the strength of the steel to
govern the design. When STM is used in the design of deep beams, four failure modes can occur:
(1) the ties can yield, (2) the strut could crush, (3) the node could fail if stresses are higher than
was designed, or (4) the anchorage of the tie could fail (MacGregor & Wight, 2005). The
following are considerations for the layout of struts and ties (MacGregor & Wight, 2005):
1. A clearly laid out load path keeping the STM in equilibrium must exist.
2. For a simply supported beam with two unequal loads that are not symmetric, the load
path and STM should have the same shape as the bending moment. This is the same
for a uniformly loaded beam with a parabolic STM.
3. The compressive struts should follow a realistic flow of the compressive forces and
stress trajectories. Generally, the strut direction should be within ±15° of the
compressive stress direction. It is assumed that the structure will have enough plastic
47
deformation capacity to adapt to a ±15° change in trajectories. Less restriction occurs
within the ties because the ties basically are always placed orthogonally in the
member in an absolute arrangement. The must follow, in general, the tensile stress
direction.
4. Struts cannot cross or overlap because the width of the individual struts has been
determined using their maximum allowable stress.
5. Ties can cross struts because it does not affect the maximum overall compression
strength of the strut.
6. An unsuitable location for a compressive strut is over a cracking zone which is why
having pictures or diagrams of how the cracking will form is a great way to help in
the layout of struts-and-ties.
7. Within a load spreading region, a 2-to-1 strut slope (parallel to load – to –
perpendicular to load) is conservative.
8. The width of the struts and nodal zones directly relate to the angles between the struts
and the ties. The optimum angle is 45° but should never be less than 25° according to
ACI 318. The larger the angles, the less width required for the compression struts.
9. The loads will try to follow the path with the least loads and deformations; therefore,
the loads will follow the path that requires the shortest ties because the ties are the
most deformable.
10. One of the first steps in designing an STM is determining the location of the nodes. A
good starting point would be the axis of tension, which should be about a/2 from the
tensile side, a being the depth of the rectangular stress block.
11. The angle between the strut and the tie should decrease to include extra web
reinforcement when considering ACI 318, Section A.3.3. The European design
standards recommend that if no axial load is applied to the beam, and if the ratio a/jd
= 2, all the shear should be carried by shear reinforcement, and if a/jd=0.5, all the
shear should be resisted by the compression strut.
5.4 Design of STM for Deep Beams
The design of an STM entails laying out a truss that fits within the deep beam with the
appropriate cover while being able to transfer the forces without failing. How the beam will react
48
determines the optimum design; one that requires the least amount of steel within a given beam.
ACI 318-08, Appendix A, specifies some strength and geometry limitations and design
equations. The internal factored forces, Fu, must be less than the design strength represented by
ACI 318-08 Equation A-1, given here as Equation 5.1.
øF
n
¸ F
u
(EQ’N 5.1)
The first step in the design process is to determine beam dimensions. Typically, the beam
width will be governed or equal to the column dimensions to which it is connected. To determine
the height of the beam, first determine the ultimate factored shear load applied on the beam must
be known. From Equation 4.7, a depth d can be determined that is required for the shear force.
The angle between the strut and the tie needs to be considered at this time as well. ACI 318-08,
Section A.2.5 states that the angle, θ, between any strut and tie must not be less than 25° or
greater than 65°in order to “mitigate cracking and to avoid incompatibilities” in the nodal regions
due to shortening of the struts and lengthening the ties occurring in the same direction. The
optimum angle to keep nodal regions and struts to a reasonable size is 40-45°. As the angle
increases, the force in the strut decreases requiring less strut width; however, to increase the
angle, the beam depth must increase. As the angle increases past 45°, increasing the angle
becomes less effective because the difference in the force in the strut from angle to angle
decreases in value.
Once the beam dimensions have been selected, deep beam criteria from Equations 3.1
and 3.2 should be checked to confirm that the member is indeed a deep beam so that ACI 318,
Appendix A, can be used for design. If the member is considered a deep beam, node locations
should be determined for the tension tie. The nodes should be approximately a/2 from the bottom
of the beam. A good estimate for this location is 0.05h or approximately 5 inches (MacGregor &
Wight, 2005).
5.5.1 Struts
Once the general location of the nodes has been determined, the effective compressive
strength of the concrete for both the struts and the nodal regions is determined. According to ACI
318-08, Equation A-2 given here as Equation 5.2, the nominal compressive strength of a strut
without longitudinal reinforcement, F
ns
, shall be taken as the smaller value at the two ends of the
strut.
49
F
ns
= ¡
cc
A
cs
(EQ’N 5.2)
where:
A
cs
= cross sectional area of one end of the strut;
f
ce
= effective compressive strength.
The effective compressive strength of the strut shall be taken as the smaller of the
effective compressive strength of the concrete in the strut or the concrete in the nodal zone
according to ACI 318-08, Section A.3.1. The compressive strength of the concrete in the strut is
determined using ACI 318-08, Equation A-3, and the strength in the nodal zone is determined
using Equation A-8, both given respectively below.
¡
cc
= u.8S[
s
¡'
c
¡
cc
= u.8S[
n
¡'
c
(EQ’N 5.4)
(EQ’N 5.3)
where:
[
s
= factor to account for the effect of cracking and confining reinforcement
on the effective compression strength of the concrete in a strut;
[
n
= factor to account for the effect of the anchorage of ties on the effective
compressive strength of a nodal zone.
When cracks form inclined to the axis of the strut, the strut is weakened. The [ -factor
considers how the forces will be transferred when cracks are formed, or indeed if the transfer is
not present. The 0.85 factor is equivalent to the 0.85 used to determine the average stress in the
Whitney stress block. The 0.85 takes into account that the strength of the concrete in beams tends
to be less than the cylinder strength test, f’
c
, due to the sustained loading, vertical migration of
bleed water decreasing the strength at the top of the beam, and the different shapes of the
compression zones and test cylinders (MacGregor & Wight, 2005).
According to ACI 318-08, Section A.3.2.1, for a uniform cross-section area over the
length of the strut, [
s
=1.0 which indicates that the strut has an equivalent stress block of depth,
a, and a width, b, identical to beams (MacGregor & Wight, 2005).
50
ACI 318-08, Section A.3.2.2 applies to bottle shaped struts (struts with a midsection
larger than the section at the nodes) without reinforcing across the potential cracking or with
reinforcing across the potential cracking to resist the transverse tensile force designed according
to ACI 318-08, Section A.3.3. When reinforcing is used, [
s
=0.75, and without reinforcing, the
strut should fail after cracking, giving a much lower value of [
s
=0.60λ with λ being the concrete
weight factor. When determining the area of steel required to resist transverse tensile cracks with
both longitudinal and vertical steel to reinforce against cracking, ACI 318-08, Equation A-4,
given as Equation 5.5, gives a minimum area of steel ratio taking into account the angle of the
reinforc n t f the strut as long as f’
c
is less than 6,000psi. eme t and he axis o

A
si
b
s
s
i
sino
ì
¸ u.uuS (EQ’N 5.5)
where:
A
si
= total area of surface reinforcement;
s
i
= spacing of surface reinforcement;
α
i
= angle from the reinforcement to the axis of the strut;
b
s
= the effective width, b
w
, of the beam.
Figure 5.11 illustrates vertical and horizontal reinforcement with spacing of s
1
and s
2
respectively
within the strut boundary, shown in Figure 5.12. The area of steel is multiplied by the angle of
the strut to vertical and horizontal reinforcement to get the perpendicular steel area crossing
through the strut axis which is divided by the area of concrete to achieve the steel ratio.

Figure 5.11 - Strut Reinforcement; courtesy of (Committee 318, 2008)
51

Figure 5.12 - Types of Struts; courtesy of (Committee 318, 2008)
As the concrete compressive strength increases, concrete tends to become more brittle,
and efficiency of calculating the effective compressive strength tends to decrease. For this
reason, the ACI Committee 318 decided that the load spreading to the reinforcement should be
calculated when f’
c
is higher than 6,000psi. The strength of the reinforcement should be equal to
the tension force lost when the concrete cracks. The slope of the load spreading struts is taken as
2 to 1, as permitted by ACI 318-08, Section A.3.3. Equation 5.6 is developed through the
geometry presented in Figure 5.13(b) (MacGregor & Wight, 2005).
I
n
=
C
n
2
_
b
c]
4 ⁄ -u 4 ⁄
b
c]
2 ⁄
] (EQ’N 5.6)
where:
T
n
= transverse tension force = A
s
f
y;

C
n
= nominal compressive force in the strut;
a= width of the bearing area at the end of the strut;
b
ef
= effective width of the bottle-shaped strut.
Figure 5.13(a) represents the bottle shaped region based on the effective width of the
strut, b
ef
. Jorg Schlaich and Dieter Weischede in Detailing of Concrete Structures recommended
that the length of the bottle strut region at one end is the length of 1.5b
ef
(MacGregor & Wight,
52
2005). Figure 5.13(c) represents the transverse tensile stresses caused by force T in Figure
5.13(b) distributed throughout the bottle shaped region.


Figure 5.13 - Spread of Stresses and Transverse Tensions in a Strut; courtesy of
(MacGregor & Wight, 2005)
The ACI Committee 318 used Equation 5.5 to simplify the design process when the
concrete compressive strength is less than 6,000psi but recommends that the actual strains and
forces needed to be calculated in reinforcement when 28 day concrete compressive strength
extends beyond 6,000 psi because of the increasingly brittle behavior of the high strength
concrete.
ACI 318-08, Sections A.3.2.3 gives the value [
s
=0.40 for struts in tension members or
tension flanges. Concrete is not good in tension, so the tension force will cause cracks to pull
apart thus greatly decreasing the strength of the strut. Section A.3.2.4 gives the value of [
s
=0.60
for all other situations not mentioned in the previous sections.
If a strut does not have enough strength, compression reinforcement can be added much
like a column that includes longitudinal reinforcement along the axis of the strut with ties or
spiral reinforcement in accordance with ACI 318-08, Section 7.10. ACI 318-08 Equation A-5,
shown here as Equation 5.7, is used to determine the compressive strength of a longitudinally
reinforced strut.
53
F
ns
= ¡
cc
A
cs
+A'
s
¡'
s
(EQ’N 5.7)
where:
A
cs
= cross sectional area at one end of a strut normal to the axis of the strut;
A’
s
= area of compression reinforcement;
f’
s
= stress in compression reinforcement under factored laods.
5.5.2 Nodal Zones
Nodal zones are designed assuming that they will fail by crushing (MacGregor & Wight,
2005). ACI 318-08, Equation A-7, shown as Equation 5.8, sets the limit of the nominal
compressive strength of a nodal zone, F
nn
. As in Section 4.5.1, the compressive strength of the
concrete in the node is determined using ACI 318-08 Equation A-8, shown as Equation 5.4.
F
nn
= ¡
cc
A
nz

¡
cc
= u.8S[
n
¡'
c
(EQ’N 5.4)
(EQ’N 5.8)
where:
A
nz
: smaller of (a) the area of the face of the nodal zone on which F
u
acts taken
normal to the line of action, or (b) the area of a section through the nodal
zone, taken normal to the line of action of the resultant force on the section.
ACI 318-08, Section A.5.2 gives values for [
n
based on the geometry of the nodal
region. If the nodal zone is bounded by compressive struts, C-C-C, [
n
= 1.0. If the nodal zone is
bounded by compressive struts with one tension tie, C-C-T, [
n
= 0.80; and if the nodal zone is
bounded by two or more tension ties, C-T-T or T-T-T, [
n
= 0.60. Tension ties decrease nodal
strengths because of the increased disruption due to the incompatibility of tension strains and
compressive strains (Committee 318, 2008). However, tests have shown that C-C-T and C-T-T
nodes develop [
n
= 0.95 when properly constructed (MacGregor & Wight, 2005). The values
selected are conservative and allow for construction tolerances.
5.5.3 Ties
Ties consist of reinforcement in the tension regions of the element being designed as well
as in the surrounding concrete. The concrete does not contribute to the resistance of forces but
does increase the axial stiffness of the tie through tension stiffening. The nominal strength of the
tie is determined using ACI 318-08 Equation A-6, given as Equation 5.9.
54
F
nt
= A
ts
¡
¡
+A
tp

sc
+A¡
p
) (EQ’N 5.9)
Where:

sc
+A¡
p
) ¸ ¡

and A
tp
is 0 for nonprestressed members.
According to ACI 318, Section A.4.2 and RA.4.2, the axis of the reinforcement in a tie
shall coincide with the axis of the tie, and the effective tie width, w
t
, is limited depending on the
reinforcement geometry and distribution. If the bars are in one layer, w
t
can be taken as the
diameter of the bar plus twice the cover, which is the lower limit of w
t
. The upper limit is
determined in accordance with equation 5.10.
w
t,mux
=
P
nt
]
cu
b
(EQ’N 5.10)
5.5 Design Examples
To accurately compare the design of deep beams through DBM and STM, the three
simply supported girders designed using DBM are designed using STM. Each girder’s height is
calculated to keep the angles of the STM near the optimum 40-45°. Because of the loading
geometry in design examples 2 and 3, it is difficult to get all angles near the 40-45°. The girder
depths were the same as for the DBM examples to make for an easy comparison of the steel and
how the girder transfers the forces. The girders are 24 inches wide with normal weight concrete
with 28-day compression strength at 4,000 psi and the yield strength of the reinforcing bars at
60,000 psi. All loads shown are factored for ultimate strength design.
5.6.1 STM Design Example 1
Design example 1 is a 24 inch wide transfer girder spanning 16 feet with a column at
mid-span with factored 1,200 Kip load. The girder is supported by 24 inch square columns. A
design height of 7 feet was determined by iteration. Figure 5.14 indicates the transfer girder for
design. The ultimate shear diagram is shown in Figure 5.15.

55

Figure 5.14 - STM Design Example 1

Figure 5.15 – STM Design Example 1 - Shear Diagram

f’
c
= 4,000 psi F
y
= 60,000 psi b
w
= 24 inches

Step 1: Verify Trial Height
The minimum height allowed by code is determined with Equation 4.7 with d assumed
e i r h with to b 0.9h. Solv ng fo V
u
substituted for øI
n
:
øI
n
¸ ø1u
¸
¡
i
c
b
w
J 62u,uuu# ¸ (u.7S)1u¸4uuupsi(24")(u.9b) (EQ’N 4.7)
h = 54 in Use h = 7 ft

Step 2: Check for Deep Beam Criteria
I
n
h
¸ 4.u
7
14
|
|
= 2.u ¸ 4.u
u
h
Deep Beam (EQ’N 3.1)
< 2.u
7
|
7
|
= 1.u < 2.u Deep Beam (EQ’N 3.2)



56
Step 3: Establish Node Locations
Note: A good starting point for node locations is 5 inches from the top or bottom
face of the girder or 0.05h. Once designed, if the final locations show a difference
of roughly 1.5inches or less, the original locations are deemed acceptable
because the forces in the strut may increase from 1% to 2%, which should not
change the final design. Multiple iterations were performed and acceptable nodal
locations were determined. Because of the heavy loads applied on the structure
and the minimum height allowable being used, much deeper node locations must
be used.

The node at location C at the loading point is 9 inches from the top of the girder, and the
node location at the supports is 10 inches from the bottom of the girder shown in Figure
5.16.

Figure 5.16 - STM Design Example 1 – Node Locations

Angle between Struts and Tie = ton
-1
[
84"-10"-9"
8
|
×12"
¸ = S4.1° > 2S° ACI 318 A.2.5
57

Step 4: Determine Forces in Struts and Ties
Through Geometry of the Girder:
Length of Strut CA =
2 2
¸(84" -1u" -9") +(8' × 12") = 11S.9 in
Length of Strut CB = - 9
2
× 12")
2
¸(84" 1u" - ") +(8'

= 11S.9 in
Force in Strut CA =
115.9"
84"-10"-9"
62uk × = 1,1uSk
Force in Strut CB =
115.9"
8 -9

62uk ×
4"-10" "
= 1,1u
Force in Tie AB = 62uk ×
8
|
×12"
84"-10"-9"
Sk
= 916k

Step 5: Determine Effective Concrete Strength in Nodes and Struts
Because enough space within the girder for a bottle shape strut to form in Struts AC and
d steel will be 5 using ACI 318 A.3.3. AB exists an provided to resist cracking, [
s
=0.7
¡
cc
= u.8S[
s
¡'
c
¡
cc
= u.8S(u.7S)(4,uuu) = 2,SSu psi (EQ’N 5.3)
The struts within the columns do not have enough space for a bottle shaped strut to form;
thus [
s
=1.0 using ACI 318 A.3.2.1.
¡
cc
= u.8S[
s
¡'
c
¡
cc
= u.8S(1.u)(4,uuu) = S,4uu psi (EQ’N 5.3)
For the nodal region at C, a C-C-C situation is present; thus [
n
=1.0 using
A 318 A.5 .1
¡
cc
= u.8S[
n
¡'
c
¡
cc
= u.8S(1.u)(4,uuu) = S,4uu psi (EQ’N 5.4)
CI .2 .

For the nodal region at A and B, a C-C-T situation is present; thus [
n
=0.80 using
A 318 A.5 .2
¡
cc
= u.8S[
n
¡'
c
¡
cc
= u.8S(u.8u)(4,uuu) = 2,72u psi (EQ’N 5.4)
CI .2 .

Step 6: Determine STM Geometry
Note: Hydrostatic nodal regions were used; therefore, the stresses on each face of
the region must be identical, and the faces are perpendicular to the axis of the
struts. Extended nodal zones could be used, but hydrostatic nodal regions are
easy for this type of loading and add some conservatism in the design by
requiring a larger nodal zone. Because hydrostatic nodal zones are being used,
58
the minimum of the above effective concrete strength must be used to ensure a
static situation.
(EQ’N 5.1) øF
n
¸ F
u
with ø = u.7S
¡ =
P
A
; wiJtb o¡ tb w
s
=
P
c strut,
]×]
cc

Width of Strut CA =
s,CA
1,105,000#
(0.75 (24")
(EQ’N 5.11)
w =
)(2,550psì)
= 24.1 in
Width of Strut CB =
s,C
=
1,105,000#
(0. psì)(24

w
B
75)(2,550 ")
= 24.1
Width of Strut A =
s,A
620,000#
(0.75) )(24")
in
w =
(2,550psì
= 1S.S in
Width of Strut B = w
A
=
620,000#
.75)(2, )

=
s,
(0 550psì)(24"
1S.S in
Width of Strut C
1
=
s,C1
600,000#
(0.75) )(24")
w =
(2,550psì
= 1S.1 in
Width of Strut C
2
=
s,C
=
600,000#
(0. psì)(24

w
2
75)(2,550 ")
= 1S.1
Height of the Tie = w
1
=
916,000#
(0.75)(2,550psì)(24")
in
= 2u.u in (EQ’N 5.10)
Due to the compression strut width required within the column applying the
loads, a 30x24 inch column is required. All other dimensions fit within the girder
and supporting columns and follow the STM guidelines, shown in Figure 5.17.

Figure 5.17 - STM Design Example 1 - Geometry


59
Step 7: Verify Node Locations
Once all geometries were calculated, the design was drawn to scale and actual
node locations were determined shown in Figure 5.18. This could also be done
using geometry. The node at C is 9 inches from the top of the girder which is what
was used for design, and the nodes at A and B are 9.97 inches from the bottom of
the girder which is also very close to the 10 inches initially selected. If these
nodes were much further apart, new initial node locations would need to be
selected and everything recalculated until the differences were appropriate.


Figure 5.18 - STM Design Example 1 - Actual Node Locations

Step 8: Determi S e in ne t el Tie
F
nt
= A
ts
¡
¡
; A
ts
=
P
nt
ø]
j
=
916,000#
(0.75)(60,000psì)
= 2u.S in
2
(EQ’N 5.9)
Try 4 rows of 4 #10 bars
A
s
= (16)(1.27in
2
) = 2u.S2in
2

Figure 5.19 represents the tension tie reinforcement of 4 rows of 4 #10 bars spaced at
6.5”.

60

Figure 5.19 - Tension Tie Reinforcement For Design Example 1
Check Tie Location Requirements.
The centroid of the tie should line up with the node location; therefore, the centroid of the
6 ove the bottom of the girder. bottom tie reinforcement should start ” ab
y = 1u" theiefoie u=84" -1u" = 74"
Determine total effective height o reinforcement.
1u" +(2 rows o¡ stccl)(1.27") +(1.S rows o¡ spoccs)(1.41") = 14.66"
f
Check against he
2u">14.66" 0K
ight of tie.

Check the area of steel required against minimum steel requirements
3¸]i
c

b
w
d
]
j
¸
200b
w
d
]
j

3¸4,000psì(24")(74")
60,000psì
= S.61in
2
<
200(24")(74")
60,000
= S.92in
2

20.32 in
2
> 5.92 in
2
OK

Check Development length of #10 Hooked Bars.
Even though the nodal zones were designed using hydrostatic nodal zones, the anchorage
length used will fall within the extended nodal zone which is acceptable. Development
tion 12.5.1. for a hook can be determined using ACI 318-08 Sec
_
0.02¢
c
]
j
¸]i
c
] J
b
= _
0.02(1.0)(60,000psì)
¸4,000psì
] 1.27 = 24.1in
61

Figure 5.20 - STM Design Example 1 Anchorage Length Available
Available anchorage length: 32.25” – 1.5”cover = 30.75in
30.75in > 24.1in OK

USE 4 Rows of 4 #10 bars.

Step 9: Determine Crack Reinforcement per ACI A.3.3.1
Angle between stirrups and struts = 90°-34.1°= 55.9°
Try #5 stirrups vertically at 10 inches on center and #5 longitudinal bars at 12 inches on
nt . ce er
h h
(EQ’N 4.25) A
¡
= u.uu1Sb
w
S
¡
S (EQ’N 4.26) A = u.uu2Sb
w ¡

(2)(0.31ìn
2
)
S
h
=
.0015(24")
= 17.22" > 12"
(2)(0.31ìn
2
)
(2 )
OK
S
¡
=
.0025 4"
= 1u

A
si
.SS" > 1u" OK
b
s
s
i
sino
ì
¸ u.uuS
(2)(0.31)
(EQ’N 5.5)
(24)(10)
sin(SS.9°) = u.uu22
( )(0.31)

2
(24)(12)
sin S4.1°) = .uu12

A
si
b
s
s
i
( u
sino
ì
= u.uu22 +u.uu12 = u.uuS4 ¸ u.uuSu 0K
USE #5 Stirrups at 10 inches O.C. and #5 Longitudinal Reinforcement at 12 inches
O.C.
62
Cut sections of the completed design of the girder are shown in Figure 5.21 with
dimensions and reinforcement.


Figure 5.21 - STM Design Example 1 - Final Design Cut Sections

Note: If a 6’ girder were used, the Tension reinforcement would be (19) #11 bars
and the shear reinforcement would be #5’s at 10” vertical and #5’s at 12”
horizontal. The 7’ girder was used to keep the angle between the struts and tie
near 40° while making a good comparison to Deep Beam design example 1.

5.6.2 STM Design Example 2
Design example two is a 24 inch wide transfer girder spanning 16 feet with a column at 5
feet from a support with a factored load of 1,200 kips. The girder is supported by 24 inch square
columns. A design height of 8 feet was determined by iteration. Figure 5.22 indicates the transfer
girder for design. The calculated ultimate shear diagram is illustrated in Figure 5.23.
Note: Hydrostatic nodal regions were used to in the design. To have the forces at
each end of the tie equal each other, the weight of the girder is included at the
column load location. This is conservative as the struts are designed using the
heavier load.
63
Weight of the girder = w = 1Supc¡ × 8
i
×
24"
12"
, = 2,4uupl¡
Factored weight of girder = w
u
= 1.2 × 2,4uupl¡ = 2,88upl¡ × 16
i
= 46.u8k


Figure 5.22 - STM Design Example 2

Figure 5.23 – STM Design Example 2 - Shear Diagram

f’
c
= 4,000 psi F
y
= 60,000 psi b
w
= 24 inches

Step 1: Verify Trial Height
The minimum height allowed by code is determined in accordance with Equation 4.7
i with d assumed to be 0.9h. Solving for h w th V
u
substituted for øI
n
:
øI
n
¸ ø1u
¸
¡
i
c
b
w
J 8S7,uuu# ¸ (u.7S)1u¸4uuupsi(24")(u.9b) (EQ’N 4.7)
h = 83.6 in Use h = 8 ft


64
Step 2: Check for Deep Beam Criteria
I
n
h
¸ 4.u
8
14
|
|
= 1.7S ¸ 4
u
h
.u Deep Beam (EQ’N 3.1)
< 2.u
4
|
8
|
= u.S < 2.u Deep Beam (EQ’N 3.2)

Step 3: Establish Node Locations
Note: Multiple iterations were performed and acceptable nodal locations were
determined. Because of the heavy loads applied on the structure and the minimum height
allowable being used, much deeper node locations must be used.
The node at location C at the loading point is 7 inches from the top of the girder, and the
node location at the supports is 7 inches from the bottom of the girder shown in Figure
5.24.

Figure 5.24 - STM Design Example 2 – Node Locations

Angle between Strut CA and Tie =
-1
96"-7"-7"
ton [
5
|
×12"
¸ = SS.8° > 2S°
Angle between Strut CB and Tie = ton
-1
[
96"-7"-7"
11
|
×12"
ACI 318 A.2.5
¸ = S1.8° > 2S° ACI 318 A.2.5


65

Step 4: Determine Forces in Struts and Ties
Through Geometry of the Girder:
Length of Strut CA =
2
¸(96" -7" -7") +(S' × 12")
2
= 1u1.6 in
Length of Strut CB = - 1' × 12")
2
¸(96" 7" -7")
2
+(1 = 1SS.4 in
Force in Strut CA =
101.6"
9 "
8S7k ×
6‐7-7
= 1,u62
Force in Strut CB =
155.4"
k
S89k ×
96‐7-7"
= 7S7
Force in Tie AB = 8S7k ×
5
|
×12"
96‐7-7"
k
= 627k = S88k ×
11
|
×12"
96‐7-7"
= 627k
Note: If the weight of the girder was not consolidated to the loading point, the
forces in the Tie AB from the struts at the supports would not be equal, which will
make forming a hydrostatic nodal zone very difficult.

Step 5: Determine Effective Concrete Strength in Nodes and Struts
Because the girder has enough space for a bottle shaped strut to form in Struts AC and
vi g ACI 318 A.3.3. AB and steel will be pro ded to resist cracking, [
s
=0.75 usin
¡
cc
= u.8S[
s
¡'
c
¡
cc
= u.8S(u.7S)(4,uuu) = 2,SSu psi (EQ’N 5.3)
For the struts within the columns, not enough space for a bottle shaped strut to form, thus
= 318 A .2 [
s
1.0 per ACI .3 .1.
¡
cc
= u.8S[
s
¡'
c
¡
cc
= u.8S(1.u)(4,uuu) = S,4uu psi (EQ’N 5.3)
For the nodal region at C, a C-C-C situation is present, thus [
n
=1.0 per
A 318 A.5 .1
¡
cc
= u.8S[
n
¡'
c
¡
cc
= u.8S(1.u)(4,uuu) = S,4uu psi (EQ’N 5.4)
CI .2 .

For the nodal region at A and B, a C-C-T situation is present, thus [
n
=0.80 per
A 318 A.5 .2
¡
cc
= u.8S[
n
¡'
c
¡
cc
= u.8S(u.8u)(4,uuu) = 2,72u psi (EQ’N 5.4)
CI .2 .

Step 6: Determine STM Geometry
Note: Hydrostatic nodal regions were determined; therefore, the stresses on each
face of the region must be identical, and the faces are perpendicular to the axis of
66
the struts. Extended nodal zones could be used, but hydrostatic nodal regions are
easy for this type of loading and add some conservatism in the design by
requiring a larger nodal zone. Because hydrostatic nodal zones are being used,
the minimum of the above effective concrete strength must be used to ensure a
static situation.
(EQ’N 5.1) øF
n
¸ F
u
with ø = u.7S
¡ =
P
A
; wiJtb o¡ tb w
s
=
P
c strut,
]×]
cc

Width of Strut CA =
s,CA
1,062,000#
(0.75) )(24")
(EQ’N 5.11)
w =
(2,550psì
= 2S.1 in
Width of Strut CB =
s,C
=
737,000#
(0. psì)(24

w
B
75)(2,550 ")
= 16.1
Width of Strut A =
s,A
857,000#
(0.75) )(24")
in
w =
(2,550psì
= 18.7 in
Width of Strut B = w
A
=
389,000#
.75)(2, )

= .
s,
(0 550psì)(24"
8 S in
Width of Strut C
1
=
s,C1
857,000#
(0.75) )(24")
w =
(2,550psì
= 18.7 in
Width of Strut C
2
=
s,C
=
389,000#
(0. psì)(24
w
2
75)(2,550 ")
= 8.S"
Height of the Tie = w
1
=
627,000#
(0.75)(2,550psì)(24")
in
= 1S.7 in (EQ’N 5.10)
The compression strut width required within the column applying the loads means
a 30x24 inch column is required. All other dimensions fit within the girder and
supporting columns and follow the guidelines for STM shown in Figure 5.25.
67

Figure 5.25 - STM Design Example 2 - Geometry

Step 7: Verify Node Locations
Once all geometries were calculated, the design was drawn to scale and actual
locations were determined illustrated in Figure 5.26. This could also be done by
geometry. The node at C is 7 inches from the top of the girder, which is equal to
the 7 inches initially selected, and the nodes at A and B are 6.85 inches from the
bottom of the girder, which is very close to the 7 inches initially selected. Initial
node selections are considered acceptable.


Figure 5.26 - STM Design Example 2 - Actual Node Locations
68

Step 8: Determine Steel in Tie
F
nt
= A
ts
¡
¡
; A
ts
=
P
nt
ø]
j
=
627,000#
(0.75)(60,000psì)
= 1S.9 in
2
(EQ’N 5.9)
Try 3 rows of 3 #11 bars.
A
s
= (9)(1.S6in
2
) = 14.u4in
2

Figure 5.27 represents the tension tie reinforcement of 3 rows of 3 #11 bars spaced at
9.5”.


Figure 5.27 - Tension Tie Reinforcement for Design Example 2
Check Tie Location Requirements.
The centroid of the tie should line up with the node location; therefore, the centroid of the
b v ttom of the girder. bottom tie reinforcement should start 7” a o e the bo
y = 6.87S" theiefoie u=96" -6.87S" = 89.12S"
Determine total effective height of reinforcement.
6.87S" +(1.S rows o¡ stccl)(1.41") +(1.u row o¡ spoccs)(1.41") = 1u.4"
Check against he
1S.7">1u.4" 0K
ight of tie.

Check the area of steel required against minimum steel requirements.
3¸]i
c
b
w
d
]
j
¸
200b
w
d
]
j

3¸4,000psì(24")(89.125")
60,000psì
= 6.76in
2
<
200(24")(89.125")
60,000
= 7.1Sin
2

14.04 in
2
> 7.13 in
2
OK

69
Check Development length of #11 Hooked Bars.
Even though the nodal zones were designed using hydrostatic nodal zones, the anchorage
length used will fall within the extended nodal zone which is acceptable. Development
tion 12.5.1. for a hook can be determined using ACI 318-08 Sec
_
0.02¢
c
]
j
¸]i
c
] J
b
= _
0.02(1.0)(60,000psì)
¸4,000psì
] 1.41 = 26.8in

Figure 5.28 - STM Design Example 2 Anchorage Length Available

Available anchorage length: 26” – 1.5”cover = 24.5in
26.8in > 24.5in NG
Some solutions for getting enough development length would be to increase the column
width or exchange #11 bars for #10 bars or smaller
Try 3 rows of 6 #8 bars.
. A
s
= (18)(u 79in
2
) = 14.22in
2
> 1S.9in
2
0K
_
0.02¢
c
]
j
¸]i
c
] J
b
= _
0.02(1.0)(60,000psì)
¸4,000psì
] 1.u = 19.uin < 24.Sin 0K
All other checks OK by inspection
USE 3 Rows of 6 #8 bars.

Step 9: Determine Crack Reinforcement per ACI A.3.3.1
Angle between stirrups and struts = 90°-53.8°= 36.2°
70
Try #5 stirrups vertically at 10 inches on center and #5 longitudinal bars at 12 inches on
nt . ce er
h h
(EQ’N 4.25) A
¡
= u.uu1Sb
w
S
¡
S (EQ’N 4.26) A = u.uu2Sb
w ¡

(2)(0.31ìn
2
)
S
h
=
.0015(24")
= 17.22" > 12"
(2)(0.31ìn
2
)
(2 )
OK
S
¡
=
.0025 4"
= 1u

A
si
.SS" > 1u" OK
b
s
s
i
sino
ì
¸ u.uuS
(2)(0.31)
(EQ’N 5.5)
(24)(10)
sin(S6.2°) = u.uu1S
( )(0.31)

2
(24)(12)
sin SS.8°) = .uu17

A
si
b
s
s
i
( u
sino
ì
= u.uu1S +u.uu17 = u.uuS2 ¸ u.uuSu 0K
USE #5 Stirrups at 10 inches O.C. and #5 Longitudinal Reinforcement at 12 inches
O.C.
Cut sections of the completed design of the girder are shown in Figure 5.29 with
dimensions and reinforcement.


Figure 5.29 - STM Design Example 2 - Final Design Cut Sections
71

Note: If a 7’ girder were used, the Tension reinforcement would be (17) #9 bars
and the shear reinforcement would be #5’s at 10” vertical and #5’s at 12”
horizontal. The 8’ girder was used to keep the angle between the struts and tie
around 45°.

5.6.3 STM Design Example 3
Design example three is a 24 inch wide transfer girder spanning 16 feet with a column at
midpoint with a factored load of 600 kips; and a second load at the quarter point with factored
load of 600 kips. The girder is supported by 24 inch square columns. A design height of 7 feet
was determined by iteration. Figure 5.30 indicates the transfer girder for design. The calculated
ultimate shear diagram is illustrated in Figure 5.31.
Note: Due to the offset of the load, the weight of the girder is included in the DL
at the column load point. Also, because two loads are applied, getting a
hydrostatic nodal zone would be very difficult. The following calculations take
advantage of th a o x to ACI 318. e ll wable e tended nodal zone according
Weight of the girder = w = 1Supc¡ × 7' ×
24"
12"
, = 2,1uupl¡
Factored weight of girder = w
u
= 1.2 × 2,1uupl¡ = 2,S2upl¡ × 16
i
= 4u.S2k

72

Figure 5.30 – STM Design Example 3

Figure 5.31 – STM Design Example 3 - Shear Diagram

f’
c
= 4,000 psi F
y
= 60,000 psi b
w
= 24 inches

Step 1: Verify Trial Height
The minimum height allowed by code is determined in accordance with Equation 4.7
i with d assumed to be 0.9h. Solving for h w th V
u
substituted for øI
n
:
øI
n
¸ ø1u
¸
¡
i
c
b
w
J 77u,uuu# ¸ (u.7S)1u¸4uuupsi(24")(u.9b) (EQ’N 4.7)
h = 75.2 in Use h = 7 ft

Step 2: Check for Deep Beam Criteria
I
n
h
¸ 4.u
7
14
|
|
= 2.u ¸ 4.u
u
h
Deep Beam (EQ’N 3.1)
< 2.u
3
|
7
|
= u.4 < 2.u Deep Beam (EQ’N 3.2)

73
Step 3: Establish Node Locations
The node at location C is 9 inches from the top of the girder, the node location at the
supports is 8 inches from the bottom of the girder, and the node location at D is 31 inches
from the top of the girder shown in Figure 5.32.

Figure 5.32 - STM Design Example 3 – Node Locations

Angle between Strut AD and Tie =
-1
84"-31"-8"
ton [
49.4"
¸ = 42.S° >
Angle between Strut DC and Tie =
-1
31"-9"
2S° ACI 318 A.2.5
ton [
37.8"
¸ S > ACI 318 A.2.5 = u.2° 2S°
Angle between Strut CB and Tie = ton
-1
[
84‐8-9"
94.7"
¸ = SS.S° > 2S° ACI 318 A.2.5

Step 4: Determine Forces in Struts and Ties
Through Geometry of the Girder:
Length of Strut AD =
2 2
¸(84" -S1" -8") +(49.4") = 66.8 in
Length of Strut DC = ) (
2
¸(S1"
2
+ 49.4") = S8.S in
Length of Strut BC = ¸(84" -9" -8")
2
+(94.7")
2

= 116 in
74
Force in Strut BC =
116"
-
47uk ×
84" 9"-8"
= 1S. k
Force in Strut DC =
8 7
(64u.S2 -47u)k ×
58.3"
31"
= S2u.Sk
Force in Strut AD =(6uuk +64u.S2k - k) ×
8 8"
= 1,14S.Sk 47u
66.8"
4"-S1"-
Maximum Force in Tie AB =
49.4"
84 31
77uk ×
"-8"- "
= 691
Minimum Force in Tie AB = 47uk ×
94.7"
84"-9"-8"
.6k
= 664k
Note: Because the forces on each side are not equal, it is impossible to get a
hydrostatic nodal zone with the current geometry. Because this geometry
represents the actual path of the forces, this geometry will be used as will
extended nodal zones.

Step 5: Determine Effective Concrete Strength in Nodes and Struts
Because the girder has enough space for a bottle shape strut to form in Struts AD, DC,
e p using ACI 318 A.3.3. and BC, and steel will b rovided to resist cracking, [
s
=0.75
¡
cc
= u.8S[
s
¡'
c
¡
cc
= u.8S(u.7S)(4,uuu) = 2,SSu psi (EQ’N 5.3)
The struts within the columns do not have enough space for a bottle shaped strut to form,
[ so
s
=1.0 using ACI 318 A.3.2.1.
¡
cc
= u.8S[
s
¡'
c
¡
cc
= u.8S(1.u)(4,uuu) = S,4uu psi (EQ’N 5.3)
For the nodal region at C and D, a C-C-C situation is presen;, thus [
n
=1.0 according to
A 318 A.5 .1
¡
cc
= u.8S[
n
¡'
c
¡
cc
= u.8S(1.u)(4,uuu) = S,4uu psi (EQ’N 5.4)
CI .2 .
For the nodal region at A and B, a C-C-T situation is present, so [
n
=0.80 using
A 318 A.5 .2
¡
cc
= u.8S[
n
¡'
c
¡
cc
= u.8S(u.8u)(4,uuu) = 2,72u psi (EQ’N 5.4)
CI .2 .

Step 6: Determine STM Geometry
Note: Extended nodal regions were determined; therefore,, the stresses on each
face of the region do not have to be identical, and the faces do not have to be
rpendicula xis of the struts. pe r to the a
øF
n
¸ F
u
with ø = u.7S (EQ’N 5.1)
75
¡ =
P
A
; wiJtb o¡ tbc strut, w
s
P
c
=
]×]
c
(EQ’N 5.11)
Width of Strut A = w
s,A
=
770#,000
(0.75)(2,720psì)(24")
= 1S.7 in
To get enough strut width in strut AD, use w
s,A
= 16.75 in > 15.7 in.
Note: The 16.75 inch width was determined through geometry because the STM was
drawn to scale. The 6.7 inche thin th at A. 1 5 s fits wi e column
Width of Strut B = w
B
=
470,000#
)(2, 24")
=
s,
(0.75 720psì)(
9.6 in
Width of Strut C
2
=
s,C2
470,000#
(0.75
w =
)(3,400psì)(24")
= 7.7" in
Width of Strut C
1
=
s,C1
640,320#-470,000#
(0.75 sì)(24ì
w =
)(3,400p n)
= 2.8 in
Width of Strut D = w
s,Ð
=
600,000#
(0.75 )(24"

)(3,400psì )
= 9.8" i
Required Width of Strut AD = w
s,AÐ
=
1,143,500#
(0.75)(2,550psì)(24")
n
= 24.9 in
Available Width of Strut throug curr t geo 24.5 .9 in OK h en metry = in ≈ 24
Required Width of Strut DC = w
s,ÐC
=
320,300#
(0.75)(2,550psì)(24")
= 7 in
Available Width of Strut throug cur nt geo 18.4 OK h re metry = in > 7 in
Required Width of Strut BC = w
s,BC
=
813,700#
(0.75)(2,550psì)(24")
= 17.7 in
Available Width of S u hroug nt geo e 0.4 in > 17.7 in OK tr t t h curre m try = 2
Height of the Tie = w
1
=
691,600#
(0.75)(2,720psì)(24")
= 14.1 in (EQ’N 5.10)
To get the required Width of Strut in Strut AD, tie height = 18.1”

Because of the extended nodal zone, 24 inch columns still work for the
compression struts. Because the geometry determined fits within the girder and
follows the rules of STM, this geometry and forces are deemed accurate shown in
Figure 5.33.
76

Figure 5.33 - STM Design Example 3 - Geometry

Step 7: Verify Node Locations
Once all geometries were calculated, the design was drawn to scale and actual
node locations were determined shown in Figure 5.34. This could also be done
through geometry. The node at C is 9.8 inches from the top of the girder, which is
very close to the 9 inches initially selected, and the nodes at A and B are 9 inches
from the bottom of the girder, which is also very close to the 8 inches initially
selected. Node at D was chosen as 31inches and final location was very close at
31.6 inches. Initial node selections are considered acceptable.

77

Figure 5.34 - STM Design Example 3 - Actual Node Locations

Step 8: Determi S e in ne t el Tie
F
nt
= A
ts
¡
¡
; A
ts
=
P
nt
ø]
j
=
691,600#
(0.75)(60,000psì)
= 1S.4 in
2
(EQ’N 5.9)
Try 4 rows of 4 #9 bars.
A
s
= (16)(1.uin
2
) = 16in
2

Figure 5.35 represents the tension tie reinforcement of 4 rows of 4 #9 bars spaced 6.5”.


Figure 5.35 - Tension Tie Reinforcement for Design Example 3

Check tie location requirements.
The centroid of the tie should line up with the node location; therefore, the centroid of the
above the bottom of the girder. bottom tie reinforcement should start 9”
y = 9" theiefoie u=84" -9" = 7S"
78
Determine total effective height o reinforcement.
9" +(2 rows o¡ stccl)(1.128") +(1.S rows o¡ spoccs)(1.41") = 1S.S7"
f
Check against heig
18.1">1S.S7" 0K
ht of Tie

Check the area of steel required against minimum steel requirements.
3¸]i
c
b
w
d
]
j
¸
200b
w
d
]
j

3¸4,000psì(24")(75")
60,000psì
= S.69in
2
<
200(24")(75")
60,000
= 6.uin
2

16.0 in
2
> 6.0 in
2
OK

Check Development length of #9 Hooked Bars.
Development for a hook can be determined using AC
_
0.02¢
c
]
j
¸]i
c
I 318-08 Section 12.5.1.
] J
b
= _
0.02(1.0)(60,000psì)
¸4,000psì
] 1.128 = 21.4in


5.36 - STM Design Example 3 Anchorage Length Available

Available anchorage length: 30” – 1.5”cover = 28.5in
28.5in > 21.4in OK

USE: 4 Rows of 4 #9 bars.


79
Step 9: Determine Crack Reinforcement per ACI A.3.3.1
Angle between stirrups and struts = 90°-42°= 48°
Try #5 stirrups vertically at 10 inches on center and #5 longitudinal bars at 12 inches on
nt . ce er
h h
(EQ’N 4.25) A
¡
= u.uu1Sb
w
S
¡
S (EQ’N 4.26) A = u.uu2Sb
w ¡

(2)(0.31ìn
2
)
S
h
=
.0015(24")
= 17.22" > 12"
(2)(0.31ìn
2
)
(2 )
OK
S
¡
=
.0025 4"
= 1u
A
si
.SS" > 1u" OK

b
s
s
i
s (EQ’N 5.5) ino
ì
¸ u.uuS
(2)(0.31)
(24)(10)
sin(48°) = u.uu19
(2)(0.31)

(24)(12)
sin 42°) = u.uu14

A
si
b
s
s
i
(
sino
ì
= u.uu19 +u.uu14 = u.uuSS ¸ u.uuSu 0K
USE #5 Stirrups at 10 inches O.C. and #5 Longitudinal Reinforcement at 12 inches
O.C.
Cut sections of the completed design of the girder are shown in Figure 5.37 with
dimensions and reinforcement.

80

Figure 5.37 - STM Design Example 3 - Final Design Cut Sections

Note: A 6’ girder does not meet the requirements of Equation 4.7. If a 8’ girder
were used, the Tension reinforcement would be (14) #9 bars and the shear
reinforcement would be #5’s at 10” vertical and #5’s at 12”. The 7’ girder was
used to keep the angles between the struts and longitudinal plane around to 40°.



81
6.0 Results Comparison and Conclusion
The deep beams designed in these examples varied in depth from 7 ft. to 8 ft. with the
same amount of loading at varying locations. Table 1 summarizes the deep beams designs
specifying concrete and steel quantities.
Table 1 - Deep Beam Summary
Girder  Dimensions 
Horizontal 
Steel 
Vertical 
Steel 
Shear Reinf. 
Volume 
(in
3

Flexural 
Steel 
Flexural 
Steel Area 
(in
2

DB 1  7' x 2'  #5's @ 10"  #5's @ 10"  887.2  18 #9 bars  18.0 
DB 2  8' x 2'  #5's @ 9"  #5's @ 9"  1,190.40  16 #8 bars  12.6 
DB 3  7' x 2'  #5's @ 8"  #5's @ 8"  1,123.40  15 #8 bars  11.9 

The depth of the beams was governed by the maximum shear force applied to the
structure and the shear reinforcement spacing desired. When the point load was in the center,
shear was the lowest and moment was the greatest out of the three, represented by the smaller
quantity of shear reinforcement and the greater amount of flexural steel. As the force was moved
closer to the supports, the maximum shear became larger, and the moment decrease and
represented in Design #2 with a deeper member with less flexural steel and more shear
reinforcement than Design #1. For Design #3, the force was split evenly between the two
previous locations, which produced the least amount of moment among the three beams and a
shear force between the previous two.
Because the STM takes into consideration the extra shear capacity developed through
arching action, the shear reinforcement required is decreased. Table 2 shows a design summary
of the three girders designed using the Strut-and-Tie method.
Table 2 - STM Summary
Girder  Dimensions 
Horizontal 
Steel 
Vertical 
Steel 
Shear Reinf. 
Volume 
(in
3

Tensile 
Steel 
Tensile Steel 
Area (in
2

STM 1  7' x 2'  #5's @ 12"  #5's @ 10"  887.2  16 #10 bars  20.3 
STM 2  8' x 2'  #5's @ 12"  #5's @ 10"  976.5  18 #8 bars  14.2 
STM 3  7' x 2'  #5's @ 12"  #5's @ 10"  887.2  16 #9 bars  16.0 

The total steel reinforcement weight calculated using DBM for DB1, DB2, and DB3 are
3,964 lbs, 4,689 lbs, and 4,421 lbs respectively. The total steel reinforcement weight calculated
82
using STM for STM1, STM2, and STM3 are 4,085 lbs, 4,054 lbs, and 3,855 lbs respectively. As
the applied load moves towards the supports creating more shear force, the total reinforcement
weight decreases from DBM to STM. Comparing the two different designs, the shear or cracking
control reinforcement decreases by an average 13% because the STM considers the extra shear
capacity through arching action. The tension steel used for either flexure or the tension tie
increases by an average of 16% from deep beam to STM design. This is due to STM taking shear
force through tension at the nodes in the tension reinforcement to keep the nodes in equilibrium.
In Table 4 and Table 5, examples #1, #2, and #3 were redesigned for both Deep Beam
and STM. The first two girders were designed by decreasing the depth by one foot. The third
girder was designed by increasing the depth by one foot as the depth could not be decreased by
one foot due to allowable shear requirements. The shear reinforcement spacing for the girders
designed using DBM decreases as the beam height decreases because there is less concrete shear
strength available. The reinforcement for STM stayed the same as the girders height decreased;
however, the tension tie reinforcement increased because the shear force is taken through the
tension steel instead of vertical and horizontal shear reinforcement.

Table 3 - Re-Designed Deep Beam Summary
Girder  Dimensions 
Horizontal 
Steel 
Vertical 
Steel 
Tensile 
Steel 
Tensile 
Steel Area 
(in
2

DP 1  6' x 2'  #5's @ 7"  #5's @ 7"  19 #9 bars  29.6 
DP 2  7' x 2'  #5's @ 6"  #5's @ 6"  17 #8 bars  26.5 
DP 3  8' x 2'  #5's @10"  #5's @ 10"  14 #8 bars  14.0 

Table 4 - Re-Designed STM Summary
Girder  Dimensions 
Horizontal 
Steel 
Vertical 
Steel 
Tensile Steel 
Tensile 
Steel Area 
(in
2

STM 1  6' x 2'  #5's @ 12"  #5's @ 10"  19 #11 bars  29.6 
STM 2  7' x 2'  #5's @ 12"  #5's @ 10"  17 #11 bars  26.5 
STM 3  8' x 2'  #5's @ 12"  #5's @ 10"  14 #9 bars  14.0 

STM is a method for designing a structure based on how forces are actually transferred to
the supports or reactions. The main benefit of this method is the possibility of decreased member
83
depth without increasing vertical and horizontal shear reinforcement; however, tensile
reinforcement will increase because of the decreased angle between the struts and tie. If member
depth is not an issue, the preferred method is the DBM because it is more widely known and
understood. STM takes more time in design, especially if the designer is not familiar with the
method. Neither method is more difficult to construct unless compression steel is added along
the axis of the struts in an STM design or shear reinforcement at small spacing in DBM design,
which could cause some minor constructability issues. Based on this investigation it is
recommended that STM be considered when the designer needs to decrease the depth of the
member and desires to keep shear reinforcement at reasonable spacing. If this is not required,
DBM will produce accurate results within less calculation time.






84
References
Brown, M. D., & Oguzhan, B. (2008). Design of Deep Beams Using Strut-and-Tie Models-Part
1: Evaluating U.S. Provisions. ACI Structural Journal , 395-404.
Committee 318, A. C. (2008). Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete. Detroit:
American Concrete Institute.
Committee 326, A.-A. (1962). Shear and Diagonal Tension. Proceedings, American Concrete
Institue v59 (pp. 1-30, 277-334, 353-396). American Concrete Institute.
Crist, R. A. (October, 1967). Shear Behavior of Deep Reinforced Concrete Beams, v2 : Static
Tests. Kirtland Air Force Base, N.M.
Crist, R. A. (1971). Static and Dynamic Shear Behavior of uniformily Reinforced Concrete Deep
Beams. Kirtland Air Force Base, N.M.: University of New Mexico.
dePaiva, H., & Seiss, C. P. (1965). Strength and Behavior of Deep Beams in SHear. Journal of
the Structural Division, ASCE v91, Proc. Paper 4496 , 19-42.
Hassoun, M. N., & Al-Manaseer, A. (2008). Shear and Diagonal Tension. In Reinforced
Concrete: Mechanics and Design 4th Edition (pp. 251-299). New Jersey: John Wiley &
Sons.
Kong, F. K., Robins, P. J., & Sharp, G. R. (1975). The Design of Reinforced Concrete Deep
Beams in Current Practice. The Structural Engineers v53 , 173-180.
MacGregor, J. G., & Wight, J. K. (2005). Discontinuity Regions and Strut-and-Tie Models. In J.
G. MacGregor, & J. K. Wiight, Reinforced Concrete Mechanics and Design Fourth
Edition (pp. 844-933). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Rogowsky, D. M., & MacGregor, J. G. (1983). Shear Strength of Deep Reinforced Concrete
Continuous Beams. Edmonton, Alberta: Department of Civil Engineering, University of
Alberta.
Schlaich, J., Schafer, K., & Jennewein, M. (1987, May-June). Towards a Consistent Design of
Structural Concrete. PCI Journal , pp. 74-150.
Sheikh, M. A., de Paiva, H. A., & Neville, A. M. (1971). Flexure-Shear Strength of Reinforced
Concrete Deep Beams. The Structural Engineer v49 , 359-363.
Task Committee 426, A.-A. (1973, June). Shear Strength of Reinforced Concrete Members.
ASCE Journal Structural Division v99 , pp. 1091-1187.

85
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Abstract
Strut-and-Tie models are useful in designing reinforced concrete structures with discontinuity regions where linear stress distribution is not valid. Deep beams are typically short girders with a large point load or multiple point loads. These point loads, in conjunction with the depth and length of the members, contribute to a member with primarily discontinuity regions. ACI 318-08 Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete provides a method for designing deep beams using either Strut-and-Tie models (STM) or Deep Beam Method (DBM). This report compares dimension requirements, concrete quantities, steel quantities, and constructability of the two methods through the design of three different deep beams. The three designs consider the same single span deep beam with varying height and loading patterns. The first design is a single span deep beam with a large point load at the center girder. The second design is the deep beam with the same large point load at a quarter point of the girder. The last design is the deep beam with half the load at the midpoint and the other half at the quarter point. These three designs allow consideration of different shear and STM model geometry and design considerations. Comparing the two different designs shows the shear or cracking control reinforcement reduces by an average 13% because the STM considers the extra shear capacity through arching action. The tension steel used for either flexure or the tension tie increases by an average of 16% from deep beam in STM design. This is due to STM taking shear force through tension in the tension reinforcement through arching action. The main advantage of the STM is the ability to decreased member depth without decreasing shear reinforcement spacing. If the member depth is not a concern in the design, the preferred method is DBM unless the designer is familiar with STMs due to the similarity of deep beam and regular beam design theory.

........................................................................................................................................................................ 3  Deep Beam ......1  STM Design Example 1 .......................................................................................................................3  Introduction ...... 40  Struts and Ties............................................................................1  4............................................................................................................................................................................. 43  Design of STM for Deep Beams ........3  Deep Beam Design Example 3 .........................................................................................4  Strut-and-Tie Model............................0  3......................................................................................... 55  5........................1  Struts .................5.............................2  4...2  Deep Beam Design Example 2 .................................. 2  Definitions for Deep Beams in ACI 318-08 .......................3.......................................................................................3.............................................. 55  5..... 2  A Brief History of Deep Beam Design ................................... 6  Deep Beam Method ..............................................................................................................................................5...........................................................3  5................................... 49  5..................................................1  4.................................... 6  Shear Design using Deep Beam Method ................................................................................................ 5  Code Requirements of Deep Beams ............... 54  5..................................... 33  5................................ 20  4........6..... 72  iv .......3  Ties..............Table of Contents List of Figures ..............................3..........................................2  5............................2  STM Design Example 2 ..............................................................................................1  5. 20  4..................0  5.......................1  2..............................................0  4................5  Design Examples ......... 39  Discontinuity Regions..............................5......................................... 27  4...................................... x  1..............................................................................3  STM Design Example 3 ................................................................................................................................................ ix  Acknowledgements ........................................................................................................2  Nodal Zones ........................6.......................................................................0  2....... 48  5................................................0  2............ 54  5.................. 63  5........................................................6............ 17  Deep Beam Method Design Examples .......... 41  Nodes and Nodal Zones ................................................................. 6  Flexure Design using Deep Beam Method ....1  Deep Beam Design Example 1 .... 1  Background Information of Deep Beam Design ........................ vi  List of Tables ................2  3......................

........................................... 82  References ........0  Results Comparison and Conclusion ................................................................................................................................................................................ 85  Appendix A ...........6........... 86  v .............Copy Write Permission Forms .................................

.....17 – Deep Beam Method Design Example 2 .............Critical Locations for Shear................... 38  Figure 5..................................... Chicago.. 29  Figure 4..1 ........................ 7  Figure 4.. 28  Figure 4.......Cracking Causing Crushing of Compression area for a Deep Beam. 7  Figure 4...Deep Beam Distances .................................................. 2008) ............................Flexural Reinforcement ..Forces on Inclined Cracking Plane ........................11 – Deep Beam Method Design Example 1 ... courtesy of (Hassoun & Al-Manaseer................ 27  Figure 4........3 ............... 18  Figure 4.......edu) ....... courtesy of (MacGregor & Wight. 9  Figure 4...................8 ...15 – Deep Beam Method Design Example 1 .................Unwanted Un-Reinforced Crack ..................... 32  Figure 4.....Design Example 1 .........................21 – Deep Beam Method Design Example 3 ....... 5  Figure 4.Shear Diagram ..................Deep Beam... 26  Figure 4....... picture courtesy of (MacGregor & Wight.....22 – Deep Beam Method Design Example 3 ..................23 – Deep Beam Method Design Example 3 ..4 ...........................................24 – Deep Beam Method Design Example 3 – End Cross Section ...............9 ...............Cracking along Tensile Reinforcement for Standard Beam .. 38  Figure 4........Flexural Reinforcement .............25 – Deep Beam Method Design Example 3 – Longitudinal Cut Section ............................ 2005) ..... 25  Figure 4......6 .................14 – Deep Beam Method Design Example 1 – End Cross Section ...............................Shear Diagram ................................................1 ....................................16 – Deep Beam Method Design Example 2 ............. 2005) ....... 14  Figure 4.................5 – Section of a Deep Beam Showing the ......10 ...... Brunswick Building.............7 .......... 35  Figure 4...... 39  vi ...12 ............. 10  Figure 4....................................................................................13 – Deep Beam Method Design Example 1 .........19 – Deep Beam Method Design Example 2 – End Cross Section ............................................Shear Diagram .......................... picture courtesy of (columbia........Forces in Vertical Reinforcement Increase with Angle ..............Single Span Deep Beam..................18 – Deep Beam Method Design Example 2 .......... 21  Figure 4.........................................................2 ...................... courtesy of (Hassoun & Al-Manaseer...20 – Deep Beam Method Design Example 2 ....................... 23  Figure 4.......... 2008) ........1 .............................. 23  Figure 4.....List of Figures Figure 3...Longitudinal Section ................ 9  Figure 4..................... 8  Figure 4...........Flexural Reinforcement . 31  Figure 4................ 5  Figure 3.....Longitudinal Section 2 ....Stut-and-Tie Model and Tied Arch Illustrations .Non-Linear Stress Distribution.2 ................ 15  Figure 4........... 17  Figure 4........................ 34  Figure 4.. 33  Figure 4..Forces in Stirrups along inclined Crack .......................

..... 59  Figure 5.. 52  Figure 5.....................................6 ...3 .Figure 5..21 ............................ 2005) .... 60  Figure 5.11 .............................................. 71  Figure 5..Spread of Stresses and Transverse Tensions in a Strut...................18 .............10 ................................................ 68  Figure 5............STM Design Example 2 ......................................STM Design Example 1 Anchorage Length Available......................4 ............Extended Nodal Zone Geometries......27 ............ 57  Figure 5... 63  Figure 5.Shear Diagram ....... 2008) ........... courtesy of (Committee 318.........................................22 ......24 ......... 45  Figure 5............ 2008) ............... 61  Figure 5...........................Hydrostatic Nodal Zone ..STM Design Example 2 – Node Locations..... 65  Figure 5..............23 – STM Design Example 2 ...STM Design Example 1 ................................................Actual Node Locations.. 47  Figure 5.Extended Nodal Zone Development Length ................................15 – STM Design Example 1 .............17 .............................................................STM Design Example 1 ....................... 42  Figure 5................. 40  Figure 5................................ courtesy of (Committee 318............Strut Reinforcement....... 62  Figure 5..................... 2005)..................Tension Tie Reinforcement for Design Example 2.......................................STM Design Example 2 ...........25 .......30 – STM Design Example 3 ..........STM Design Example 1 – Node Locations........ 68  Figure 5....................... 70  Figure 5..................... 46  Figure 5.........13 ... courtesy of (MacGregor & Wight.....29 .......Tension Tie Reinforcement For Design Example 1 .......Actual Node Locations...................................................19 ........Types of Struts....Strut Diagram....................Geometry............................Final Design Cut Sections .....Shear Diagram ...........Final Design Cut Sections ........... 64  Figure 5................................... 41  Figure 5....................12 ......................... 69  Figure 5........20 ............................................... 53  Figure 5....................................STM Design Example 2 Anchorage Length Available.....................7 ........... courtesy of (MacGregor & Wight........ courtesy of (Committee 318................................................... 73  vii ..... courtesy of (MacGregor & Wight......................... courtesy of (Committee 318.................16 ....................28 .......................5 .....................STM Design Example 1 ...STM Design Example 1 ......................2 ............................................. 2005) ........... 44  Figure 5.................... 56  Figure 5..............Hydrostatic Nodal Zone Development Length ........................... 56  Figure 5..............14 ..............9 ..........................Extended Nodal Zone Strut Width Calculation.................... courtesy of (MacGregor & Wight... 51  Figure 5....D – Regions............ 64  Figure 5.............. 2008) ......................................STM Design Example 2 ........................................D-Region Distances ......................STM Design Example 2 ......Classifications of Nodes..........8 . 43  Figure 5............................ 44  Figure 5.....................................26 . 2008) ............Geometry............. 2005) ................

..STM Design Example 3 .37 ........STM Design Example 3 .................. 77  Figure 5....34 ..........................................................................35 ......33 ..Final Design Cut Sections ...... 73  Figure 5............ 78  Figure 5...... 81  viii .....................32 ..............................................STM Design Example 3 – Node Locations......................................31 – STM Design Example 3 ...........Actual Node Locations................ 79  Figure 5....Figure 5.............................................. 78  5.........Tension Tie Reinforcement for Design Example 3......................... 74  Figure 5..STM Design Example 3 Anchorage Length Available ............Geometry....36 .................STM Design Example 3 .Shear Diagram ...................

...Re-Designed STM Summary .................STM Summary ......................................................................................................Deep Beam Summary . 83  ix .................................................................... 82  Table 2 .........................Re-Designed Deep Beam Summary ...............................................................List of Tables Table 1 ............................................................. 83  Table 4 ............. 82  Table 3 ............................

I also thank Professor Asad Esmaeily for his explanations of the Strut-and-Tie model extended nodal zones.Acknowledgements I thank Professor Kimberly Kramer for her guidance throughout this project and for permitting me to carry out this project. x . He helped me understand the differences in geometry between STM and Deep Beam Design.

This method. which is covered in ACI 318. Ritter and E.2. 1973). found in Appendix A. Typically. Kurt Schafer. A deep beam is defined by ACI 318-08 as having a clear span equal to or less than four times the overall depth of the beam or the regions with concentrated loads within twice the member depth from the face of the support. and gives 1 . published a four part article on the truss analogy. 1987).7 and 11. cannot be applied where geometrical or statical discontinuity occurred. the stresses are transferred to the horizontal and vertical steel across the crack and back into the concrete. The more widely used approach by design professionals in the design of deep beams is through a nonlinear distribution of the strain. “Towards a Consistent Design of Structural Concrete” by Jorg Schlaich. thus. American Concrete Institute Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI) 318-08 provides two methods for the design of deep beams.1. In 1987.2. 10. which generalized the truss analogy by proposing an analysis method in the form of STMs that are valid in all regions of the structure (Schlaich. compares design results based on shear and flexure for both DBM and STM. Strut-and-Tie Modeling (STM) or Deep Beam Method (DBM). 10. a reinforced concrete beam is designed by a linear-elastic method of calculating the redistributed stresses after cracking. and Mattias Jennewein.2. understanding the design process and choosing an appropriate design process can only enhance the safety of building design. PCI Journal. Schafer.7. Schafer. This method was introduced as the appropriate and rational way to design cracked reinforced concrete through testing data by researchers. Applying the linear-elastic method to a deep beam revealed that the stresses determined were less than the actual stresses near the center of the span (Task Committee 426. The truss analogy was first introduced during the late 1890’s and early 1900’s by W. Actual stresses of a deep beam are non-linear. This report analyzes the behavior of transfer girders using both DBM and the STM. however. The STM is included in the ACI code.6. ACI 318-08. DBM. the Pre-stressed Concrete Institute Journal. & Jennewein. are commonly used in construction. & Jennewein. deep beams. The STM is a modified version of the truss analogy which includes the concrete contribution through the concept of equivalent stirrup reinforcement. 1987). Once the concrete has cracked. Morsch (Schlaich. Sections 10.0 Introduction Transfer girders.

from a force discontinuity or geometric discontinuity. ACI 318 does not provide equations for the design of non-linear stress distribution. T.” The commentary references the user to three references for design of non-linear strain distribution: (1) “Design of Deep Girders”.recommendations based on economical considerations. h. 2008) For deep beams “an analysis that considers a nonlinear distribution of strain be used.1 Definitions for Deep Beams in ACI 318-08 B-region: “A portion of a member in which the plane sections assumption of flexural theory can be applied. These definitions can be found in the ACI 318-08 (Committee 318. 2. 2008).” Deep Beam: “Deep beams are members loaded on one face and supported on the opposite face so that compression struts can develop between the loads and supports and meet dimensional requirements. After the definitions. 2.” 2 . The ACI code design assumptions “The strength of a member computed by the strength design method of the Code requires that two basic conditions be satisfied: (1) static equilibrium and (2) compatibility of strains. Park. Portland Cement Association. and constructability. technical background. ASCE. and (3) “Reinforced Concrete Structures”. R and Paulay. The parametric study consists of three transfer girders with different loading designed using DBM and STM.” D-region: “The portion of a member within a distance. (2) “Stresses in Deep Beams”. Currently.” (Committee 318.0 Background Information of Deep Beam Design Definitions are provided for reference.” Discontinuity: “An abrupt change in geometry or loading. a brief history of deep beam design is given to provide the reader a time line of design philosophies. This report uses recommendations established by the Euro-International Concrete Committee which are in agreement with the cited references in the ACI 318-08.

Ritter’s mechanism did produce over conservative estimates because it neglected the tensile strength within the concrete. Richart proposed that the concrete shear strength and the contribution of the steel stirrups be calculated independently then summed to determine the total shear strength. 1962).5 and 4.” Tie: “A tension member in a Strut-and-Tie model.” 2.1 in Equations 4. Equations 4.” Strut: “A compression member in a Strut-and-Tie model. Wilhelm Ritter developed a truss mechanism to explain the contribution of stirrups to the shear strength of the beam in 1899. ties.1 are two equations developed for designing of deep beams for shear (Task 3 . In 1962.2 A Brief History of Deep Beam Design The truss analysis.7. tests determined the shear strength of reinforced concrete deep beams (Committee 326.11 in Section 4. major contributions in designing for shear were developed through numerous tests. capable of transferring the factored loads in the supports or to adjacent B-regions.10 and 4. much like what is currently in the code (Brown & Oguzhan. made up of struts and ties connected at nodes. From 1962-1973.” Node: “The point in a joint in a Strut-and-Tie model where the axes of the struts. and concentrated forces acting on the joint intersect. 2008).Nodal Region: “The volume of concrete around a node that is assumed to transfer Strutand-Tie forces through the node.” Bottle Shaped Strut: “A strut that is wider at mid-length that at its end. A strut represents the resultant of a parallel or a fan-shaped compression field. STM theory began in the late 19th century. In 1927. The shear limits of reinforced concrete deep beams were proposed and are found in this report in Section 4. or of a D-region in such a member.” Strut-and-Tie Model: “A truss model of a structural member.

A23.3 was the first to adopt STM theory in North America. In 1984. Following their work. 2005). 2008).” by rule of thumb or empirical. later accepted STM in 1989 for its Segmental Guide Specification and 1994 by the Bridge Design Specification. the Canadian code. where it remains in the ACI 318-08 Building Code (Brown & Oguzhan. Schlaich and P. The Canadian Standards Association. D-region design has been by “good practice. additional research was conducted to determine safe behavior models – design assumptions that provide satisfactory results shown by tests. “For many years. Professors J. AASHTO. researchers started studying other regions in reinforced concrete structures where STM theory could be used. After shear design applications. In the 1980’s. The American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Marti proposed modeling techniques around discontinuity regions (D-regions) where shear stresses and deformations are prominent (Brown & Oguzhan. 4 . 2008).Committee 426. ACI first introduce STM theory in Appendix A in the ACI 318-02 Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete. CSA. 1973). Three landmark papers by Professor Schlaich of the University of Stuttgard and his coworkers have changed this” (MacGregor & Wight. STMs became very popular in the United States in academics and research.

deep beams are regarded as members loaded on their extreme fibers in compressions. Brunswick Building.0 Deep Beam Transfer girders in structures are typically deep beams.Deep Beam. 2005) 5 . Examples of this type of member are pile caps and transfer girders.edu) Figure 3.3. picture courtesy of (MacGregor & Wight. Figure 3.1 and 3. 1973). picture courtesy of (columbia.Single Span Deep Beam.2). “In general. A transfer girder supports the loads from columns above and transfers these loads to other support columns.2 . Chicago. A common location for a transfer girder is entrances for parking garages or other unique structures where large loads are applied to a structure with an opening at a column location (see Figures 3. Members loaded through the floor slabs or diaphragms are closer to the conditions that are idealized for shear walls” (Task Committee 426.1 .

0 where: h = overall member depth.0 where: a = regions loaded with the concentrated loads from the face of the support.7. ln = the clear span for distributed loads measures from the face of the support. These sections require that deep beams be designed via nonlinear strain distribution or by using STM theory (Committee 318.3. ACI 318-08.1) 4.1 Code Requirements of Deep Beams The American Concrete Institute has developed the Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete (ACI 318) and Commentary (ACI 318R).” ACI 318 further defines deep beams as members with one of the following to be valid: (a) the clear span.1 states.5. the first type of failure that designers should consider when designing a deep beam is shear failure to determine the depth of 6 .6.2) (EQ’N 3. 2008). and 11. Code “does not contain detailed requirements for designing deep beams for flexure except that non-linearity of strain distribution and lateral buckling is to be considered.0 Deep Beam Method 4. “Deep beams are members loaded on one face and supported on the opposite face so that compression struts can develop between the loads and the supports. minimum area of flexural reinforcement.7. Therefore. Section 10. 10. (E’QN 3.” The code does contain the definition of deep beams. is equal to or less than four times the overall depth 4. deep beams are governed by requirements for shear strength. and minimum horizontal and vertical reinforcement on each face of deep beams in Sections 10. 10. 2.1 Shear Design using Deep Beam Method While other beams are typically governed by requirements for flexural strength. ln. shear requirements which tends to govern the size (depth) of a deep beam. (b) or the regions with concentrated loads within twice the member depth from the face of the support.7.

1973).the beam required for shear strength. inclined cracking from shear or flexure tends to become steeper as shown in Figures 4. or both” (Task Committee 426. Figures 4.2 .Cracking Causing Crushing of Compression area for a Deep Beam. Figure 4.1 and 4. Shear failure is “a failure under combined shearing force and bending moment.1 and 4. shear typically sets the minimum depth for the beam.2 illustrate cracking patterns for standard beams and deep beams respectively while demonstrating the crushing shear failure that can occur in deep beams. 2005) 7 . plus. This is typically started by cracking along the tensile reinforcement (Task Committee 426. These steeper inclined cracks mean shear transfer mechanisms and shearing failures differ considerably from typical beams.2. As the depth of a member increases. courtesy of (MacGregor & Wight. In designing a shorter member. or torsion. 1973). occasionally. axial load. The most common mode of shear failure is the crushing or shearing of the compression area over an inclined crack.Cracking along Tensile Reinforcement for Standard Beam Figure 4.1 .

Deep Beam Distances For deep beams. the cracks that form become steeper with increasing depth of the beam. the forces applied to the vertical shear reinforcement increase cause the vertical reinforcement to 8 . Thus.3. a larger effective depth. 1973).5 to 0. “This ratio recognizes the fact that a part of the shearing force is carried by the web reinforcement and part by the longitudinal steel. Similarly. Figure 4. Failure of the beam is considered to occur when a failing stress is reached in the compression zone” (Sheikh. 1973). and V is the ultimate shear strength at the critical section of the beam (Task Committee 426. this ratio can be expressed as M/Vd. A common characteristic of deep beams is a ratio of M/Vd less than 2. V. This is typically attributed to three things common to deep beams: a smaller moment. the distance from the load to the edge of the support over the effective depth of the member as shown in Figure 4. d. where M is the ultimate moment. M. the reinforcement perpendicular to the force being applied to the member increases the shear capacity through shear friction . and a higher shear force. the shear reinforcement parallel to the force is less effective. The ratio of a/d decreases as the depth of the member increases.3 . as the ratio of a/d decreases from about 2.The most important variable affecting the way a beam loaded with a concentrated load fails in shear is the ratio of a/d.5 (Task Committee 426. 1973). Furthermore. & Neville. de Paiva. Because the angle of the cracks has increased. 1971).concrete cracks are jagged and create an interlock between the two sides of the crack creating a friction called shear friction (Task Committee 426. as the ratio a/d decreases to zero.

creating a large coefficient of friction between the two edges of the crack.4a indicates the forces in vertical reinforcement for a standard beam.Forces in Vertical Reinforcement Increase with Angle Figure 4. 9 . 2008). thus increasing the friction between the two edges and the efficiency of the horizontal reinforcement. The horizontal reinforcement holds these cracks together or keeps them from becoming too large. leaving plenty of edges to interlock (aggregate interlock). Figure 4. Figure 4.4 .2 are recommended by Hassoun and Al-Manaseer (Hassoun & Al-Manaseer. The cracks form jaggedly.become less effective as shown in Figure 4. To determine the critical locations of shear.5.5 – Section of a Deep Beam Showing the Horizontal Reinforcement Resisting Cracking The first step in determining the required shear capacity is to determine the shear in deep beams at the critical locations.1 and 4. shown in Figure 4.4b. Equations 4.

2008).2.Critical Locations for Shear.1.1 or 4. The design of concrete sections subject to shear are based on ACI 318-08 Equation 11-1 where where is the factored shear force and 08 Equation 11-2 is the shear strength of the concrete and reinforcement.6 represents a deep beam with a distributed load across the beam or a concentrated load at a distance. “The loads applied to the beam between the face of the column and the point d away from the face are transferred directly to the support by compression in the web above the cracks” (Committee 318. as calculated using Equation 4.3) is the nominal shear strength computed by ACI 318(EQ’N 4. a.3 allows the shear force used for design to be taken at a distance d from the support if it is a non-concentrated force and applied to produce compression at the end regions.4) is the added shear strength of the shear 10 . courtesy of (Hassoun & Al-Manaseer.050a ≤ d (effective depth) (EQ’N 4. When designing a typical beam. from the edge of the support. Figure 4.(a) For a uniform load: (b) For a concentrated load: x = 0. 2008) These locations have been determined to produce reasonable shear values for design and analysis which were determined through numerous tests (Hassoun & Al-Manaseer.6 . 2008). (EQ’N 4.1) (EQ’N 4.2) Figure 4. ACI 318-08 Section 11. The location of the critical section is identified with an x.15ln ≤ d (effective depth) x = 0.

found in ACI 318-08 Section 11. arching action and shear friction become more efficient because the angle of the transfer of forces through arching action decreases and the increased quantity of shear cracks producing shear friction.The maximum ultimate shear limit for deep beams recommendation depends on the referenced code.8h (Hassoun & Al-Manaseer.7. 2008). d > 0.7 was specified.2. Based on the data collected through beam testing and concrete strength tests.8 (ACI 318-08 Equation 11-5) if minor cracking is allowed and Equation 4.8h.7.9 (ACI 318-08 Equation 11-3) if no cracking is allowed. the nominal shear stress. 2008) recommends the force should satisfy either Equation 4. in shear and flexure only. h= overall depth or height of the beam. ACI 318-05 removed the aforementioned criteria and required all beams meeting the deep beam criteria use Equation 4. Vn. M. Nadim Hassoun (Hassoun & Al-Manaseer.3. whichever applies. bw= width of web.5) (EQ’N 4.7) (Committee 326.7.6) (EQ’N 4. or 4.75 per ACI 318-08 Section 9. a non-deep beam commonly used in structures. Equation 4. To determine the shear strength of concrete for a typical beam. taken no less than 0. ACI 318 provides two equations to use when determining the shear strength of a reinforced concrete beam subject to shear and flexure only: ACI 318-08 Equation 11-3 and 11-5. use Equation 4. One equation allows for minor cracking and the other allows for no cracking. (a) For ln/d < 2 (b) For 2 ≤ ln/d ≤ 5 (c) For ln/d > 5 where: d= distance between the extreme compression fiber and centroid of tension reinforcement.5 and anything above ln/d < 2. However. was limited to 8 for ln/d < 2 and up to 10 for ln/d > 5 10 8 10 (EQ’N 4.6.5. As the length of the member increases. f’c= 28 day compressive strength of the concrete.3. This criteria is the same for nondeep beams. 4. Older versions of ACI 318 had Equation 4. 1962).3. 11 . = 0.

The actual 12 .10 takes into account the effect of the factored moment and shear at the critical location into account. 1. 1965). where no cracking is allowed. 3. = ratio of As to bwd.10 has been developed but is not included in the ACI 318-08.8. v2 : Static Tests. 2 (EQ’N 4. October. 1.5. 4. The second term in brackets. 2500 2.0. 1967. Mu= factored moment at critical location. To determine the shear strength where minor cracking is allowed.5 (EQ’N 4. 1971) and dePaiva (dePaiva & Seiss. 1973).1. 1973).0 In Equation 4.5 . Shear Behavior of Deep Reinforced Concrete Beams. represents the increase in the shear over the initial cracking because of the increased shear friction from longer cracks caused by factored shear and factored moment (Task Committee 426. 6 (EQ’N 4. the factored shear and the factored moment at the critical location are used because the dead load shears and the moments may interact additively significantly decreasing the overall shear strength of the member at these locations (Task Committee 426. λ= modification factor for weight of concrete.9 is used.9 3.10) where: 1.9 2500 .5 . 1973). 1. This equation is based on the work of Crist (Crist. which is identical to Equation . Equation 4.8) Vu= factored shear at critical location. Equation 4. Equation 4. “Their work led to the understanding of the reserve shear capacity of a deep beam without web reinforcement and the development of the concrete shear strength equation” (Task Committee 426. includes the inclined cracking shear while the first term.5 . 3.9) ACI 318 does not specify which equation to use when calculating the shear strength of the concrete for a deep beam.Crist. Static and Dynamic Shear Behavior of uniformily Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams. To determine the shear strength of the concrete for a deep beam in shear and flexure only.10.9 where: 2500 3.

4.5 factor limits the overall shear strength of the concrete to a reasonable value determined by researchers where cracked concrete will fail.1. steel shear reinforcement is required. The shear force resisted by the shear reinforcement Vs is not specifically specified in ACI 318 for deep beams.11 which includes the force along a known inclined crack using the shear friction of the concrete and the shear strength of the vertical reinforcement (Task Committee 426. Vertical reinforcement becomes less effective as the ratio of beam depth to span increases because of the increased angle of the cracks. This will never be the case for transfer girders because of the large shear forces applied on them.11.value for is used but is not limited to being less than 1.6. ACI 318 does include design parameters for shear friction design method in Section 11. This is taken into account by using the relationship of the angle to the ratio of ln/d in Equation 4. (EQ’N 4.6. sv= vertical spacing of shear reinforcement. sh= horizontal spacing of shear reinforcement. Equation 4.11) where: Av= total area of vertical shear reinforcement spaced at Sv in the horizontal direction at both faces of the beam. 1973): 13 . 1973).10 is limited to a factor 6 opposed to 3. The factor increased to 6 for deep beams because of the increased shear capacity from shear friction produced by increased shear crack length. The derivation of Equation 4.11 is shown below (Task Committee 426. Avh= total area of horizontal reinforcement spaced at Sh in the vertical direction at both faces of the beam.5 as as in Equation 4. The effectiveness of the horizontal shear strength increases as the shear friction in the beam increases. The 3.8. ASCE Task Committer 426 developed Equation 4. however. According to ACI 318-08 Section 11. where the ultimate shear being applied to the beam is higher than one-half of the design shear capacity of the concrete.0 like non-deep beams because the increased length of the crack and the shear reinforcement perpendicular to the force being applied produce higher shear friction capacity.4.

7 is a graphical illustration of the shear force along the crack being calculated by the normal force to the crack multiplied by the coefficient of friction.7 . The tension develops in the reinforcing crossing the inclined crack when slip occurs along the crack. When slip occurs. is shown in Equation 4. the vertical component of the shear.13) Vv= transverse resistance of the web reinforcement along the crack.Forces on Inclined Cracking Plane The total transverse shear force acting at mid-length of the crack.Considering the forces acting along the inclined crack: (EQ’N 4. assuming the shear force along the crack is uniformly distributed. The normal forces on the inclined crack are assumed to develop through the tension in stirrups.12) where: = normal force on the inclined crack. θ represents the angle of the inclined crack to the longitudinal reinforcement. Figure 4.13. where: (EQ’N 4. the crack width increases slightly because of 14 .0 is typically sued). = coefficient of friction (lower bound value of 1. Figure 4. S= shear force along the crack.

Forces in Stirrups along inclined Crack Equation 4. ∑ (EQ’N 4.19) 15 .8 represents the summation of the forces in the stirrups to determine the force perpendicular to the inclined crack.n.17. α represents the angle of the stirrups to the Figure 4. 90° (EQ’N 4.2.the roughness of the crack. Considering an arbitrary number of parallel sets of web reinforcing crossing an inclined crack.17) Equation 4.…. longitudinal reinforcement and θ represents the angle of the inclined crack to the Figure 4. Assuming that the stirrups are yielded at the ultimate load condition: (EQ’N 4.18.15) .17 represents the transverse capacity of a set of parallel web reinforcing crossing an inclined crack. ∑ (EQ’N 4. the transverse capacity is given by Equation 4. longitudinal reinforcement.14) From the geometry of the forces in the stirrups: ∑ ∑ (EQ’N 4.8 .16 and 4.15 leads to Equations 4. In most cases where this equation is used. thus creating tensile stress in the reinforcing.16) (EQ’N 4. the shear reinforcement is placed into the member in both a vertical and a longitudinal direction perpendicular to each other.18) The subscript i corresponds to each set of parallel web reinforcing designated i = 1.

but mainly the spacing ensures reinforcement will be present when a crack forms. 16 . which is especially important when considering horizontal reinforcement. Equation 4. (EQ’N 4.19 and 4.0 while Crist originally suggested that tanΦ =1. fyi. A lower boundary of the test data is given by 1 . (EQ’N 4. 1983). to limit the location of where cracks can occur or restrain the width of the cracks.0° (EQ’N 4.11) ACI 318-08 also specifies a maximum spacing of vertical and horizontal reinforcement for deep beams. Cracks become steeper as the ratio of depth to clear span increases. s= spacing of vertical shear reinforcement.18 and assuming that all sets of web reinforcing have the same yield strength.21 is the product of substituting Equation 4. sh= spacing of horizontal shear reinforcement.21. whichever is smaller. tanΦ .5 (Rogowsky & MacGregor.20 into Equation 4. (EQ’N 4. Avh= area of horizontal shear reinforcemen. A relationship of θ as a function of ln/d was determined through experimentation. equals 1. The maximum on center spacing for either is 12 inches or d/5.20) Equation 4.21) where: Av= area of vertical shear reinforcement. thus reducing how far across the length of the beam a crack will spread.22) ACI uses this equation assuming that the coefficient of frictions.22 uses trigonometry identities and the relationship mentioned with Equation 4. The shear strength of deep beams relies on the shear friction of the concrete after it cracks. If the cracks become too large. The vertical shear reinforcement requires keeping a maximum on center spacing of 12 inches or d/5 to help restrain the width of the cracks. the friction and bearing between the two edges of the crack will reduce significantly thus decreasing the shear strength of the beam considerably.

Avh and Av respectively.5. Sections 11.Unwanted Un-Reinforced Crack These spacing requirements for shear reinforcement can be found in ACI 318-08.24) ACI 318-08 specifies a minimum horizontal and vertical shear reinforcement area.2 Flexure Design using Deep Beam Method The flexural design of a deep beam is similar to a typical beam with a few changes to the internal moment arm and location of the tension reinforcement.7.4 and 11.9 represents a crack that is unreinforced which is these requirements are trying to prevent.23) (EQ’N 4. The factored nominal strength.0025 (EQ’N 4.7.7.27.9 . /5 /5 12 12 (EQ’N 4. in Sections 11.0015 0.25) (EQ’N 4.reducing the spacing reinforcement ensures a crack will be crossed by reinforcement.5 which should be used throughout the member as the following: 0.26) 4. Figure 4.7. 17 . must be greater that the factored applied moment. Figure 4. Mu.4 and 11. The design flexural strength is calculated using Equation 4.

Non-Linear Stress Distribution. The depth of the compression block is represented by c and y represents jd which is the internal moment arm. As. Figure 4. C is the resultant compression force and T is the resultant tensile force. Figure 4. the design flexural strength is set equal to the factored moment. courtesy of (Hassoun & Al-Manaseer.1.10 .2. and Equation 4.10 represents a deep beam and the non-linear stress distribution. It varies because of varying loads. jd. The 18 . Mu.9 for tension controlled members per ACI 318-08 Section 9.3. jd= the modified internal moment arm because of non-linearity of the strain distribution. ACI 318 limits the amount of steel that can be used to ensure a ductile failure. = 0.27 is rearranged to solve for required area of steel. 2008) To determine the amount of flexural steel required. the distance between the resultant compressive force and the resultant tensile force.(EQ’N 4.27) where: j= is a dimensionless ratio used to define the lever arm.

15ln . For a typical beam with a depth greater than 36 inches. The role cracks have in corrosion of reinforcement is controversial as research has shown that the two do not clearly correlate. skin reinforcement is required to extend to h/2 from the tension face to control cracking per ACI 31808 Section 10. ACI 318-08 Equation 10-4.7. Multiple bars of a smaller diameter are better than one bar in crack control. the exterior exposure requirement has been eliminated (Committee 318. These values were determined through testing of deep beams.6 where: l=effective span measured center to center of supports or 1.32. 1975).31.29 and 4.25 0.31) 2 / 1 1 / 2 (EQ’N 4. which was determined through testing by the CEB (Kong.6. Comite Euro-International du Beton) is shown in Equations 4. Prior to 1999.minimum steel requirements can be found in ACI 318-08 Equation 10-3.28. ACI 318 has specified a maximum spacing of the flexure reinforcement at the face of the beam to keep cracks within the crack limits. whichever is smaller Tension reinforcement should be evenly spaced along the face from the base of the beam to the height specified in Equation 4.05 0. specifies the maximum spacing the flexural reinforcement is allowed 0.2 0. given here as Equation 4. the ACI Code limits for crack control were based on a maximum crack width of 0. Robins.28) The recommended lever arm by CEB (Euro-International Concrete Committee. (EQ’N 4.29) (EQ’N 4. & Sharp. given as Equation 4. These equations take into account the non-linear strain distribution which is required by ACI 318 rather than determining the stresses directly. 2005). 2008).30. The reinforcement distributed on the face helps control cracking. Without this reinforcement the width of the cracks in the web may exceed the allowable crack widths at the flexural tension reinforcement.013 inch for exterior exposure (MacGregor & Wight.016 inch for interior exposure and 0. 0. thus.30) 19 .2 (EQ’N 4.

Normal weight concrete with a 28 day concrete compression strength equal to 4. An overall beam depth of 7 feet was determined by design. 2. with a factored load of 600 kips. The first girder had a clear span of sixteen feet and a width of 24 inches with a column bearing point at the center 1200 kip factored load. The second example was the same as the first except the location of the factored load changed to five feet from the centerline of the right hand support.4 4. These two loads equal the total point load applied on the first two examples. The maximum allowed shear spacing according to Equation 4.26 is 10. and a second column at the quarter point of the girder with a factored load of 600 kips.200 kips. The third example had the same dimensional constraints with two point loads: a column bearing at the center.000 psi and yield strength of the reinforcing bars equal to 60.15 .5 12 .3 Deep Beam Method Design Examples To accurately compare the final design. (EQ’N 4. 20 .33 inches with #5 bars and a beam width of 24 inches.6. Figure 4. The girder is supported by 24 inch square columns.3. three simply supported girders with equal clear spans and different loading patterns were designed.11 indicates the transfer girder for design. Each girder was designed to have #5 bar shear reinforcement spacing of 8 to 10 inches.1 Deep Beam Design Example 1 Design example one is a 24 inch wide transfer girder spanning 16 feet with a column at mid-span with a total factored load of 1. 4.000 psi is used.32) where: cc= least distance from the surface of reinforcement steel to the tension face fs= permitted to be taken as 2/3fy per ACI 318-08 Section 10.

0 2.000 psi Fy = 60.2 0.29) (EQ’N 4. 2.1) (EQ’N 3.100 " 69.Figure 4.212 Determine the area of steel required for a moment capacity higher than the applied moment.28) where: 0.30) .520 " 2. Weight of the girder = Factored weight of girder = 150 1.0 4.2) Step 2: Determine Flexural Reinforcement Determine the applied ultimate moment.0 Deep Beam Deep Beam (EQ’N 3.100 2.0 1.000 psi bw = 24 inches Step 1: Check for Deep Beam Criteria 4.2 7 24" 12" .11 – Deep Beam Method Design Example 1 h = 7 ft f’c = 4.0 2.0 2. (EQ’N 4.6 2 / 1 1 21 / 2 (EQ’N 4.

8 (EQ’N 4. . 4” > 1.32. 0.5 3" (EQ’N 4.6 is db but no less than 1”.1) (E’QN 4.32) .15 l= 16 ft 1 2.128” OK 22 . 2.625" 10. 12 2. The maximum allowable spacing allowed by ACI 318-08 is determined from Equation 4.4" 12 .5” on center of 6 #9 bars spaced 4” on center.05 12in 0.25 84" 0.29 to account for non-linear stress distribution.80 2 7 12" 72 Try 18 -#9 bars.5 .15ln (1.25 y = 11.4 0. . " 2 0.2 .31) 0.12 represents the flexural reinforcement of 3 rows spaced 4.05 16 Figure 4. .2 12" 11. conservatively 0.0 in2 Determine the flexural reinforcement location. 15 15 .18) Use Equation 4. .4” > 4” OK The minimum allowable spacing by ACI 318-08 Section 7. " 0.29 2 14 16. 12" 10.l= smaller of c/c of supports (16’) or 1. As (18) #9 = 18.2 16 17.4in 0. .2 84" 16.

" 6.Flexural Reinforcement Determine actual flexural reinforcement depth d. " 5.12 18. .5a ≤ d (effective depth) 0.5" 76.5" Check the area of steel required against minimum steel requirements. .0 in2 > 6. 84"‐7.12 in2 OK Use 18 -#9 bars.81 " . x = 0. As (18) #9 = 18. Figure 4.13. " .5 in (EQ’N 4.0 in2 Step 3: Determine Shear Reinforcement Draw the ultimate shear diagram shown in Figure 4.Design Example 1 .13 – Deep Beam Method Design Example 1 . .12 .Shear Diagram Find critical shear locations.Figure 4.5(7’x12”) = 42 in ≤ 76.2) 23 .

5" 18 12" 24 76. " " (EQ’N 4.60 24 0.5" 1.000 6 6 4.9 611 (EQ’N 4.5 /1000# 870. Vu. 640.26) .5 640.000 611.7 640. " 60 76.12 2.11) Try an Sv = Sh spacing of 10 inches on center with No.5 1. 1.7) Determine Nominal Shear Strength provided by concrete with minor cracking allowed.0 3.2 3.52klf) x (42”/12”) = 611k Mu.10) 2.000 10 24 76.36 0.000# 76.5 2500 1.154 k-ft Determine upper limit on shear strength. 3.x= 620k – (2.0 2500 " .5 bars .75 10 4. Maximum allowable 0.0015 0.5 1. " 24" 76. (EQ’N 4.62 (EQ’N 4.3) (EQ’N 4.x= (611k x 42”/12”) + 0.5" 2. " " . " . .25) (EQ’N 4.000 OK 696.12 . .7k Determine Horizontal and Vertical Shear Reinforcement with Minor Cracking Allowed.Determine loads at critical section. 611 .9 4.2 174.62 0.5(620k-611k)(42”/12”) = 2.5 2.5 (EQ’N 4. 240 . 6 . " " .000# .154.4) . 0. .2k < 696.0015 24" 10" 0.5" 285 174.0025 24" 10" 0. .9 2.0025 0.5 Check minimum shear reinforcement requirement.

The 7’ girder was used to keep the shear reinforcement closer to the maximum allowable spacing and to make an easier comparison between the Strut-and-Tie Example 1 design which has a girder height of 7’ as well.3" 12" 12" 10" 10" 12" 12" (EQ’N 4.5" 15.24) Use #5 bars at 10 inches on center both vertically and horizontally.3" 15.14 – Deep Beam Method Design Example 1 – End Cross Section 25 ./5 /5 12 12 76. Note: If a 6’ girder were used. Cross sections of the completed design of the girder are shown in Figures 4.23) (EQ’N 4. Figure 4.5" 76.15 with dimensions and reinforcement. the flexural reinforcement would be (19) #9 bars and the shear reinforcement would be #5’s at 7” vertical and horizontal.14 and 4.

Figure 4.Longitudinal Section 2 26 .15 – Deep Beam Method Design Example 1 .

75 0.0 1. Figure 4.3.400 .16 – Deep Beam Method Design Example 2 h = 8 ft f’c = 4.000 psi Fy = 60. The girder is supported by 24 inch square columns.17.0 2.0 Deep Beam Deep Beam (EQ’N 3. A design height of 8 feet was determined by trial-and-error.4.2 Deep Beam Design Example 2 Design example two is a 24 inch wide transfer girder spanning 16 feet with a column at 5 feet from a support with a factored load of 1. Weight of the girder = 150 8 24" 27 12" 2.0 2.16 indicates the transfer girder for design.000 psi bw = 24 inches Step 1: Check for Deep Beam Criteria 4.200 kips.63 4. Figure 4.2) Step 2: Determine Flexural Reinforcement Draw the ultimate shear diagrams shown in Figure 4.1) (EQ’N 3.

64 in2 Determine the flexural reinforcement location.0 2 2 0.2 .2 0.05 16 28 .2 96" 19.2 (EQ’N 4.1) l= smaller of c/c of supports (16’) or 1.Factored weight of girder = 1.6 2 / 1 1 14 / 2 (EQ’N 4.2 12" 14.2 16 12.460 Determine the area of steel required for a moment capacity higher than the applied ultimate moment.4in 0.25 y = 14.28) where: 0. .15 l= 16 ft 1 0. 834 5 0.29) (EQ’N 4.4 0.31) 0.Shear Diagram Determine the applied ultimate moment. (EQ’N 4. . As (16) #8 = 12.8 (E’QN 4.30) 16.05 15in 0. 0.25 96" 0.2 2.18) Try 16 -#8 bars.15ln (1.17 2 8 12" 76.400 2. " 2.880 Figure 4.5 848 834 5 12" 50. .17 – Deep Beam Method Design Example 2 .

Figure 4.5” OK The minimum allowable spacing by ACI 318-08 Section 7. 12 2. .5 3" (EQ’N 4.Flexural Reinforcement Determine actual flexural reinforcement depth d.64 in2 > 6. " " 6. 96"‐9" 87" Check the area of steel required against minimum steel requirements.6 is db but no less than 1”.3" 12 .96 12. " 6. 15 15 . The maximum allowable spacing allowed by ACI 318-08 is determined from Equation 4.96 in2 OK Use 16 -#8 bars. 4” > 1” OK Figure 4. 2.18 – Deep Beam Method Design Example 2 .32. 12" 10.3” > 6.64 in2 29 .18 represents the flexural reinforcement of 4 rows spaced 3” on center of 4 #8 bars spaced at 6.5”. As (16) #8 = 12. .5 .32) . . .60 " . .625" 10. " 0.

5 .000# " . 6 " " (EQ’N 4. 1.000# 87" 12.3 912.2) Determine loads at critical section.3k Use 792.000 10 24 87" /1000# 990.x= (842k x 24”/12”) + 0.690 k-ft Determine upper limit on shear strength. (EQ’N 4.9 2.11) Try an Sv = Sh spacing of 9 inches on center with No.9 4.7) Determine Nominal Shear Strength provided by concrete with minor cracking allowed.5 1.5 2500 2500 1.000 2.0 3. 3. " 6 6 4. 842 .0 3. . x = 0.Step 3: Determine Shear Reinforcement Find critical shear locations. Maximum allowable 0.5(848k-842k)(24”/12”) = 1.64 12" 24 87" 1.6k > 792.5 .x= 848k – (2. Vu.5 bars 30 .75 10 4.690.4) . .81 24" 87" 1.3 330 (EQ’N 4.10) 2.88klf) x (24”/12”) = 842k Mu. 297 .3k Determine Horizontal and Vertical Shear Reinforcement with Minor Cracking Allowed.000 842. .6 use 2.000 792.5a ≤ d (effective depth) 0.3) (EQ’N 4.5 2.5(4’x12”) = 24 in ≤ 87 in (EQ’N 4. 792.4 842 (EQ’N 4.5 1.5 912.

" " " 60 87" 360 330 Check minimum shear reinforcement requirement. " " " .54 0.4" 12" 12" Use #5 bars at 9 inches on center both vertically and horizontally.20 with dimensions and reinforcement.0015 0.4" 17.32 0.19 and 4.62 0. 0. The 8’ girder was used to keep the shear reinforcement closer to the maximum allowable spacing and to make an easier comparison between the Strut-and-Tie Example 2 design which has a girder height of 8’ as well.0025 /5 /5 12 12 0.0025 24" 9" 87" 87" 0. the flexural reinforcement would be (17) #8 bars and the shear reinforcement would be #5’s at 6” vertical and horizontal. Note: If a 7’ girder were used..26) (EQ’N 4. Cross sections of the completed design of girder example #2 are shown in Figures 4.23) (EQ’N 4. Figure 4.0015 24" 9" 0.62 9" 9" 12" 12" (EQ’N 4.24) 17.19 – Deep Beam Method Design Example 2 – End Cross Section 31 .25) (EQ’N 4.

Figure 4.20 – Deep Beam Method Design Example 2 .Longitudinal Section 32 .

Figure 4.3 Deep Beam Design Example 3 Design example three is a 24 inch wide transfer girder spanning 16 feet with a column at midpoint with a factored load of 600 kips. Weight of the girder = 150 7 24" 12" 2.0 2.21 – Deep Beam Method Design Example 3 h = 7 ft f’c = 4.2) Step 2: Determine Flexural Reinforcement Draw the ultimate shear diagram shown in Figure 4. and a second column load at the quarter point with a factored load of 600 kips.22.1) (EQ’N 3. The girder is supported by 24 inch square columns. A design height of 7 feet was determined by iteration.3.000 psi bw = 24 inches Step 1: Check for Deep Beam Criteria 4.0 2.21 indicates the transfer girder for design. Figure 4.43 4.100 33 .4.000 psi Fy = 60.0 Deep Beam Deep Beam (EQ’N 3.0 2.0 0.

160 Determine the area of steel required for a moment capacity higher than the applied ultimate moment.2 0.30) 16. .8 (EQ’N 4.520 Figure 4.2 12" 11.4 0.22 – Deep Beam Method Design Example 3 .3 2 (E’QN 4.Shear Diagram Determine the applied ultimate moment.36 2 7 12" 72 Try 15-#8 bars.2 84" 16.18) Conservatively use Equation 4. " 2 0.1) l= smaller of c/c of supports (16’) or 1.05 12in 34 0. 0. .29 to account for non-linear stress distribution 0.25 84" 0. 760 4 0.Factored weight of girder = 1.100 2.2 2. (EQ’N 4.15 l= 16 ft 1 2.25 y = 11.28) where: 0.5 770 760 4 150 4 0.2 16 11.85 in2 Determine the flexural reinforcement location.29) (EQ’N 4.4in 0.2 .05 16 . As (15) #8 = 11.15ln (1.31) 0.5 160 150 4 12" 44.6 2 / 1 1 14 / 2 (EQ’N 4.

15 15 . .85 in2 > 6.5" Check the area of steel required against minimum steel requirements. 12 2.5” on center of 5 #8 bars spaced at 5”.85 in2 35 . " 5. " 0.23 – Deep Beam Method Design Example 3 . 2. .5" 76.5 3" (EQ’N 4.5 .12 11. The maximum allowable spacing allowed by ACI 318-08 is determined from Equation 4.23 represents the flexural reinforcement of 3 rows spaced 4. 4” > 1” OK Figure 4. As (15) #8 = 11.12 in2 OK Use 15 -#8 bars. 12" 10.Flexural Reinforcement Determine actual flexural reinforcement depth d. .81 " .32. .Figure 4.6 is db but no less than 1”. 84"‐7. " .32) . .625" 10.3" 12 . .3” > 5” OK The minimum allowable spacing by ACI 318-08 Section 7. " 6.

Step 3: Determine Shear Reinforcement Find critical shear locations. x = 0.5a ≤ d (effective depth) 0.5(3’x12”) = 18 in ≤ 87 in (EQ’N 4.2)

Determine loads at critical section. Vu,x= 770k – (2.52klf) x (18”/12”) = 766k Mu,x= (766k x 18”/12”) + 0.5(770k-766k)(18”/12”) = 1,152 k-ft Determine upper limit on shear strength. Maximum allowable 0.75 10 4,000 10 24 76.5" /1000# 871 766 (EQ’N 4.7)

Determine Nominal Shear Strength provided by concrete with minor cracking allowed. 3.5 1.0 3.5
2.5
. .

1.9 2.5
2500
" ,

2500 1.0 3.5
. ,

6
" . "

(EQ’N 4.10) 2.91 2.5 use 2.5
865.5

1.9 4,000

766,000# 76.5" 11.85 12" 24 76.5" 1,152,000#
. "

24" 76.5" 1,000

6

6 4,000

696.7

865.5k > 696.7k

Use 696.7k

Determine Horizontal and Vertical Shear Reinforcement with Minor Cracking Allowed. 842
. .

261

.

(EQ’N 4.3) (EQ’N 4.4)

.

696.7

325 (EQ’N 4.11)

From reiterative design process try an Sv = Sh spacing of 8 inches on center with No.5 bars.

36

. "

" . "

. "

" . "

60

76.5"

356

325

Check minimum shear reinforcement requirement. 0.0015 0.0025 /5 /5 12 12 0.0015 24" 8" 0.0025 24" 8"
76.5" 76.5"

0.29 0.48

0.62 0.62 8" 8" 12" 12"

(EQ’N 4.25) (EQ’N 4.26) (EQ’N 4.23) (EQ’N 4.24)

15.3" 15.3"

12" 12"

Use #5 bars at 8 inches on center both vertically and horizontally. Note: A 6’ girder does not meet the requirements of Equation 4.7. If a 8’ girder were used, the flexural reinforcement would be (14) #8 bars and the shear reinforcement would be #5’s at 10” vertical and horizontal limited by maximum spacing requirements. The 7’ girder was used to keep the shear reinforcement closer to the maximum allowable spacing without having more reinforcement that required for strength and to make an easier comparison between the Strut-andTie Example 3 design which has a girder height of 7’ as well. Cross sections of the completed design of the girder are shown in Figures 4.24 and 4.25 with dimensions and reinforcement.

37

Figure 4.24 – Deep Beam Method Design Example 3 – End Cross Section

Figure 4.25 – Deep Beam Method Design Example 3 – Longitudinal Cut Section

38

& Jennewein. These reoriented forces can be modeled as an STM (MacGregor & Wight. This behavior provides some reserve shear capacity in deep beams but not in shallower members. 1987).1(a) illustrates the struts and the ties used for design to transfer a point load to the supports and 5. Figure 5.1 . Before cracking has occurred in a reinforced concrete beam. Schafer.1 represents a deep beam with a point load applied on the compression face. the beam takes on a “tied arch” behavior allowing the forces to transfer directly to the supports. not vertically through the member until being transferred by the web and flexural reinforcement. 2005). STMs comprise compression struts and tension ties that transfer the forces through the member. Shallow beams generally fail shortly after inclined cracks form unless flexural reinforcement is provided (Rogowsky & MacGregor. and to the supports. 5. 1983).1(b) represents a uniformly loaded beam with a parabolic STM. an elastic stress field exists. as opposed to DBM which transfers the force through shear reinforcement and an internal moment couple with flexural reinforcement.0 Strut-and-Tie Model The second analysis method allowed by ACI 318 for the design of deep beams is STM.Stut-and-Tie Model and Tied Arch Illustrations 39 . After inclined cracks have formed in deep beams. through the joints referred to as nodes. Both design processes have benefits and should be considered when designing deep beams. Cracking disturbs the stress field causing the internal forces to alter their path. Figure 5.5. The STM analysis evaluates stresses as either compression (struts) or tension members (steel ties) and joins the struts and ties through nodes and nodal regions (Schlaich.

1 Discontinuity Regions Members within a structure have discontinuity regions. Dregions are locations near concentrated loads. Figure 5. D-regions.In testing.2 . Figure 5. B-regions are locations where beam theory applies in which linear strain is assumed valid and the internal stress due to bending and torsional moments. Schafer. elastic behavior occurs (commonly referred to as D-Regions). 2005) 40 . B-regions. The STM was developed as a practical way to design for discontinuity regions where non-linear. At these locations.7.D – Regions. 1987). Schafer.2 illustrates where D-regions and B-regions occur in members within a structure. & Jennewein. 1983). 1987). thus confirming the methodology of the STM (Rogowsky & MacGregor. shear. courtesy of (MacGregor & Wight. the stresses in the tension chord reinforcement decreased much less at the ends of the girder. ACI 318-08 Section 11. and reactions.2 allows the use of STM for the design of deep beams. Deep beams typically are used as girders with a discontinuity region caused by a large point load. the distribution of the strain is nonlinear and difficult to calculate (Schlaich. and beam regions also known as Bernoulli regions. and axial forces are easily derived (Schlaich. where abrupt changes in cross section or direction occur. indicating that the steel acts as a tension tie that carries a relatively constant force from one end of the girder to the other. & Jennewein. adjacent to holes. 5.

Saint Venant’s Principle is used. Schafer. To identify where these regions start and end. This suggests that the localized effect of discontinuity dissipates approximately one member depth distance.2 Struts and Ties A strut represents the compression stress zone within the STM from one nodal zone to the next.D-Region Distances 5. The struts are typically idealized as a prismatic or linear member within the deep beam even though struts typically vary in cross section throughout the length of the strut to simplify the analysis of STM. 1987).When using the STM approach dividing the structure into B-regions and D-regions is helpful. Figure 5.3 illustrates the area D-regions occupy after concentrated loads and reactions. This principle is not precise. h. thus. The compression stress acts parallel within the strut. the different stiffness formed by unequal resistance to deformation in different directions due to the unsymmetrical cracks along reinforced concrete members may influence the distance at which the D-regions end is not a concern (Schlaich. 1987). transverse tension forces arise that can produce longitudinal cracking. & Jennewein. & Jennewein. As the stresses spread out. If reinforcement is not provided to transfer the stresses after cracking has 41 . which typically follows a load path similar to a force diagram or moment diagram. As the stresses transfer through the strut. This specifies where in the structure a non-linear analysis of the stress trajectories is required (Schlaich.3 . they spread out forming a bottle shaped strut before condensing to enter the nodal zone. Schafer. each way from the discontinuity. Saint Venant’s Principle states that strains produced by a force statically equivalent to zero force and zero couple to a small part of a surface of a body are negligible at distances which are large compared to the small part of the body the force was applied. Figure 5.

the member or structure may fail after cracking. 42 . Sufficient anchorage can be produced through bonding/tension splices. With adequate reinforcement. The concrete does not contribute to the resistance of forces but does increase the axial stiffness of the tie through tension stiffening which is the capacity of the bonded concrete between neighboring cracks to transfer tension through bond slip between the reinforcement and concrete causing the area to act more like an uncracked section by contributing to the flexural stiffness.occurred or to keep cracking from occurring. compression reinforcement can be added to the struts to increase strength allowing smaller nodal regions as well as struts. The most important part of the tie design is the detailing of the end anchorage in the nodal regions. hooks. 2005). Figure 5. EI.4 illustrates the struts as bottle shaped struts as well as the idealized prismatic strut transferring the force to the supports directly through the nodes and nodal regions. Once cracking has occurred. the stresses could redistribute to a different load paths and consolidate causing concrete crushing and ultimately failing the member. The concrete helps transfer loads from the struts to the ties or to bearing area by bonding with the reinforcement (MacGregor & Wight. the internal stresses reorient to transfer to the supports. If the crushing strength becomes an issue during design.Strut Diagram. Figure 5. Without reinforcement to transfer the stresses over the cracks. the strength of the strut directly relates to the crushing strength of the concrete (MacGregor & Wight.4 . 2005). courtesy of (MacGregor & Wight. or mechanical anchorage. 2005) The ties consist of reinforcement as well as the surrounding concrete.

Figure 5. 2005). the region must have the same bearing pressure on all sides of the nodal zone because the in-plane stresses in the node are the same from every direction (MacGregor & Wight.Classifications of Nodes. or the forces can be resolved around a certain point to remain in equilibrium. The nodal zone is the surrounding body of concrete that transfers the load from the struts to the ties or supports.5. 43 . the nodal region must be perpendicular to the axis of the strut or the tie.3 Nodes and Nodal Zones The nodes are idealized pinned joints where the forces meet from the struts and ties. At nodal regions.5 . producing a uniaxial compression stress instead of a combined compression and shear stress as illustrated in Figure 5. To design a hydrostatic nodal region. Because these joints are idealized as pinned joints. courtesy of (Committee 318.6. C-T-T for one compressive force and two tensile forces. For a nodal region to be considered hydrostatic. This implies that the forces must pass through a common point. These nodal regions are classified as C-C-C for three compressive forces. they must be at static equilibrium. 2008) Nodal regions are idealized two different ways: hydrostatic nodal zone and extended nodal zone. C-C-T for two compressive forces and one tensile force. or T-T-T for three tensile forces (MacGregor & Wight. at least three forces must keep the node at equilibrium because the forces come into the node at different angles. Figure 5.5 represents the four nodal regions in static equilibrium specified. 2005).

Figure 5. the tension tie reinforcement must be developed past the nodal region before the edge of the bearing.7 .Hydrostatic Nodal Zone Determining hydrostatic node regions can be very difficult and time consuming if complicated loading is applied to the member. The lengths of the edges of the nodal regions are based on the applied force and the surface area required for the concrete to withstand crushing. Figure 5. 2005).9 illustrates an extended nodal zone with the axis of the strut at an angle 44 .8 and 5. lanc. When a tension tie is applied to a node.7.Hydrostatic Nodal Zone Development Length Designing with an extended nodal zone is much easier when the member is subjected to a more complicated loading pattern.6 . which could require bent bars unless enough length on the opposite side of the connection exists to develop the required development length. and the width of the strut is taken within the strut and not at the node. This does not require the axis of the strut to be perpendicular to the face of the nodal zone. Figure 5. As shown in Figure 5. the width of the nodal region is determined using a hypothetical bearing plate on the end of the tie that exerts a bearing pressure on the node equal to the stresses applied from the struts (MacGregor & Wight.

other than perpendicular to the nodal zone and the width of the strut. taken in compression is . ws. courtesy of (MacGregor & Wight. 2005) 45 .8 . Figure 5.Extended Nodal Zone Strut Width Calculation.9 differentiates the extended nodal zones by a single layer of steel and multiple layers of steel. Figure 5.

This extra distance provides the benefits of the concrete compressed by the struts 46 . (2) the stresses are within the limits allowed by code determined through testing.9 . and (3) the stress is constant on each of the nodal zone faces (MacGregor & Wight. 2005). not the end of the bearing illustrated in Figure 5.Figure 5. courtesy of (Committee 318.Extended Nodal Zone Geometries. One benefit of the extended nodal zones is the tension tie reinforcement must have a development length at the edge of the extended nodal zone. 2008) An extended nodal zone also allows different stresses to be considered at the different edges of the nodal zone because of different nodal zone widths if (1) the resultants of the three forces coincide.10.

The following are considerations for the layout of struts and ties (MacGregor & Wight.10 . designing for ductile failure requires the strength of the steel to govern the design. Designing with hydrostatic nodal regions is conservative when designed nodal regions and will result in if not the same. the load path and STM should have the same shape as the bending moment. or (4) the anchorage of the tie could fail (MacGregor & Wight. which can be applied to hydrostatic nodal regions which also includes compression struts and tension ties. 2005): 1. 2005). A clearly laid out load path keeping the STM in equilibrium must exist. The extended nodal zone anchorage provides the benefits of the concrete compressed by the struts increasing the bond between the concrete itself and the tension reinforcement Geometry of STM. 2005). a very similar area of tension reinforcement. Generally. Figure 5. It is assumed that the structure will have enough plastic 47 . Like typical beam design. 2.Extended Nodal Zone Development Length Hydrostatic nodal regions can be used with the extended nodal zones for anchorage based on the work of the Portland Concrete Association (PCA). the strut direction should be within ±15° of the compressive stress direction. When STM is used in the design of deep beams.increasing the bond between the concrete itself and the tension reinforcement (MacGregor & Wight. This is the same for a uniformly loaded beam with a parabolic STM. For a simply supported beam with two unequal loads that are not symmetric. (2) the strut could crush. The compressive struts should follow a realistic flow of the compressive forces and stress trajectories. 3. (3) the node could fail if stresses are higher than was designed. four failure modes can occur: (1) the ties can yield.

The larger the angles. 6. Ties can cross struts because it does not affect the maximum overall compression strength of the strut. 4. Struts cannot cross or overlap because the width of the individual struts has been determined using their maximum allowable stress. One of the first steps in designing an STM is determining the location of the nodes. The angle between the strut and the tie should decrease to include extra web reinforcement when considering ACI 318. 9. the loads will follow the path that requires the shortest ties because the ties are the most deformable. therefore. the less width required for the compression struts. 10. all the shear should be resisted by the compression strut.3. the tensile stress direction. How the beam will react 48 . 11. a being the depth of the rectangular stress block. Less restriction occurs within the ties because the ties basically are always placed orthogonally in the member in an absolute arrangement.4 Design of STM for Deep Beams The design of an STM entails laying out a truss that fits within the deep beam with the appropriate cover while being able to transfer the forces without failing.5. A good starting point would be the axis of tension. Section A. Within a load spreading region. and if a/jd=0. The loads will try to follow the path with the least loads and deformations. The must follow. and if the ratio a/jd = 2. The European design standards recommend that if no axial load is applied to the beam. 8. 5. An unsuitable location for a compressive strut is over a cracking zone which is why having pictures or diagrams of how the cracking will form is a great way to help in the layout of struts-and-ties. which should be about a/2 from the tensile side. in general. 7. The optimum angle is 45° but should never be less than 25° according to ACI 318.deformation capacity to adapt to a ±15° change in trajectories. all the shear should be carried by shear reinforcement. a 2-to-1 strut slope (parallel to load – to – perpendicular to load) is conservative. The width of the struts and nodal zones directly relate to the angles between the struts and the ties.3. 5.

the force in the strut decreases requiring less strut width. node locations should be determined for the tension tie.2. To determine the height of the beam. The nodes should be approximately a/2 from the bottom of the beam. ACI 318-08. Section A. the effective compressive strength of the concrete for both the struts and the nodal regions is determined. As the angle increases. Appendix A. Appendix A. 5. 2005). A good estimate for this location is 0. If the member is considered a deep beam. the beam width will be governed or equal to the column dimensions to which it is connected. the nominal compressive strength of a strut without longitudinal reinforcement. The angle between the strut and the tie needs to be considered at this time as well.05h or approximately 5 inches (MacGregor & Wight. to increase the angle.1. Typically. first determine the ultimate factored shear load applied on the beam must be known. 49 . one that requires the least amount of steel within a given beam.determines the optimum design. (EQ’N 5. increasing the angle becomes less effective because the difference in the force in the strut from angle to angle decreases in value. The optimum angle to keep nodal regions and struts to a reasonable size is 40-45°.5 states that the angle. the beam depth must increase.5. given here as Equation 5. a depth d can be determined that is required for the shear force. between any strut and tie must not be less than 25° or greater than 65°in order to “mitigate cracking and to avoid incompatibilities” in the nodal regions due to shortening of the struts and lengthening the ties occurring in the same direction. From Equation 4. however. As the angle increases past 45°. deep beam criteria from Equations 3. Once the beam dimensions have been selected.2 should be checked to confirm that the member is indeed a deep beam so that ACI 318. θ. must be less than the design strength represented by ACI 318-08 Equation A-1. Fns. can be used for design.1 and 3. Equation A-2 given here as Equation 5. The internal factored forces.1) The first step in the design process is to determine beam dimensions. Fu. specifies some strength and geometry limitations and design equations. According to ACI 318-08.1 Struts Once the general location of the nodes has been determined.7. shall be taken as the smaller value at the two ends of the strut. ACI 318-08.2.

85 0. and a width. or indeed if the transfer is not present.85 where: = factor to account for the effect of cracking and confining reinforcement on the effective compression strength of the concrete in a strut. The 0.1.(EQ’N 5. The -factor considers how the forces will be transferred when cracks are formed. and the strength in the nodal zone is determined using Equation A-8. due to the sustained loading. = factor to account for the effect of the anchorage of ties on the effective compressive strength of a nodal zone. fce = effective compressive strength.1.3. The effective compressive strength of the strut shall be taken as the smaller of the effective compressive strength of the concrete in the strut or the concrete in the nodal zone according to ACI 318-08. f’c.75. According to ACI 318-08. ACI 318-08.2) where: Acs = cross sectional area of one end of the strut. Equation A-3.3.85 used to determine the average stress in the Whitney stress block.0 which indicates that the strut has an equivalent stress block of depth.3) (EQ’N 5.3. The compressive strength of the concrete in the strut is determined using ACI 318-08. Section A.60λ with λ being the concrete strut should fail after cracking. When cracks form inclined to the axis of the strut. vertical migration of bleed water decreasing the strength at the top of the beam.85 factor is equivalent to the 0.4) . Section A. the =0.3. When reinforcing is used. giving a much lower value of 50 (EQ’N 5. 2005). both given respectively below.3.2. a.2. and the different shapes of the compression zones and test cylinders (MacGregor & Wight. and without reinforcing. =0. identical to beams (MacGregor & Wight. The 0.2 applies to bottle shaped struts (struts with a midsection larger than the section at the nodes) without reinforcing across the potential cracking or with reinforcing across the potential cracking to resist the transverse tensile force designed according to ACI 318-08.85 takes into account that the strength of the concrete in beams tends to be less than the cylinder strength test. Section A. for a uniform cross-section area over the length of the strut. Section A. 2005). b. 0. =1. the strut is weakened.

Strut Reinforcement. Figure 5.000psi. Equation A-4.11 .5) Figure 5. of the beam. When determining the area of steel required to resist transverse tensile cracks with both longitudinal and vertical steel to reinforce against cracking. αi= angle from the reinforcement to the axis of the strut.weight factor. gives a minimum area of steel ratio taking into account the angle of the reinforcement and the axis of the strut as long as f’c is less than 6. bs= the effective width.003 (EQ’N 5. given as Equation 5. shown in Figure 5. si= spacing of surface reinforcement.12. The area of steel is multiplied by the angle of the strut to vertical and horizontal reinforcement to get the perpendicular steel area crossing through the strut axis which is divided by the area of concrete to achieve the steel ratio. 2008) 51 . courtesy of (Committee 318.5. ACI 318-08. 0. ∑ where: Asi= total area of surface reinforcement.11 illustrates vertical and horizontal reinforcement with spacing of s1 and s2 respectively within the strut boundary. bw.

⁄ ⁄ ⁄ (EQ’N 5. The strength of the reinforcement should be equal to the tension force lost when the concrete cracks.3. bef= effective width of the bottle-shaped strut. Figure 5.Figure 5. Jorg Schlaich and Dieter Weischede in Detailing of Concrete Structures recommended that the length of the bottle strut region at one end is the length of 1.12 .3. as permitted by ACI 318-08. 2005).000psi.13(b) (MacGregor & Wight.Types of Struts.6 is developed through the geometry presented in Figure 5. Equation 5. bef. 2008) As the concrete compressive strength increases. a= width of the bearing area at the end of the strut.6) where: Tn= transverse tension force = Asfy. Section A.13(a) represents the bottle shaped region based on the effective width of the strut. concrete tends to become more brittle. The slope of the load spreading struts is taken as 2 to 1.5bef (MacGregor & Wight. For this reason. 52 . Cn= nominal compressive force in the strut. the ACI Committee 318 decided that the load spreading to the reinforcement should be calculated when f’c is higher than 6. courtesy of (Committee 318. and efficiency of calculating the effective compressive strength tends to decrease.

courtesy of (MacGregor & Wight. ACI 318-08 Equation A-5.000psi but recommends that the actual strains and forces needed to be calculated in reinforcement when 28 day concrete compressive strength extends beyond 6.2. 2005) The ACI Committee 318 used Equation 5.4 gives the value of for all other situations not mentioned in the previous sections.13(c) represents the transverse tensile stresses caused by force T in Figure 5. If a strut does not have enough strength.40 for struts in tension members or =0.000 psi because of the increasingly brittle behavior of the high strength concrete.7. Section A.13(b) distributed throughout the bottle shaped region. Concrete is not good in tension.60 tension flanges. Section 7.5 to simplify the design process when the concrete compressive strength is less than 6.2. Figure 5. is used to determine the compressive strength of a longitudinally reinforced strut.3.3 gives the value =0.2005). Sections A.10. 53 . Figure 5. ACI 318-08. so the tension force will cause cracks to pull apart thus greatly decreasing the strength of the strut.3.13 . compression reinforcement can be added much like a column that includes longitudinal reinforcement along the axis of the strut with ties or spiral reinforcement in accordance with ACI 318-08. shown here as Equation 5.Spread of Stresses and Transverse Tensions in a Strut.

5. or (b) the area of a section through the nodal zone. However. (EQ’N 5. tests have shown that C-C-T and C-T-T nodes develop = 0. As in Section 4. shown as Equation 5. the compressive strength of the concrete in the node is determined using ACI 318-08 Equation A-8. f’s= stress in compression reinforcement under factored laods.8.7) where: Acs= cross sectional area at one end of a strut normal to the axis of the strut. Equation A-7. A’s= area of compression reinforcement. 54 . 5. 2008). The nominal strength of the tie is determined using ACI 318-08 Equation A-6.4) = 0. shown as Equation 5. given as Equation 5. taken normal to the line of action of the resultant force on the section. (EQ’N 5.85 where: Anz: smaller of (a) the area of the face of the nodal zone on which Fu acts taken normal to the line of action.2 gives values for based on the geometry of the nodal = 1.5.5. C-C-T. ACI 318-08.5. ACI 318-08. 2005). Section A.1.5.0.4. bounded by two or more tension ties.9. 2005).60. The concrete does not contribute to the resistance of forces but does increase the axial stiffness of the tie through tension stiffening. If the nodal zone is bounded by compressive struts.8) 0.3 Ties Ties consist of reinforcement in the tension regions of the element being designed as well as in the surrounding concrete.95 when properly constructed (MacGregor & Wight. bounded by compressive struts with one tension tie. Fnn. C-C-C. If the nodal zone is = 0.(EQ’N 5.80. C-T-T or T-T-T.2 Nodal Zones Nodal zones are designed assuming that they will fail by crushing (MacGregor & Wight. and if the nodal zone is region. The values selected are conservative and allow for construction tolerances. sets the limit of the nominal compressive strength of a nodal zone. Tension ties decrease nodal strengths because of the increased disruption due to the incompatibility of tension strains and compressive strains (Committee 318.

and the effective tie width.2 and RA. the three simply supported girders designed using DBM are designed using STM. Because of the loading geometry in design examples 2 and 3. which is the lower limit of wt. Each girder’s height is calculated to keep the angles of the STM near the optimum 40-45°.(EQ’N 5.15. Section A. (EQ’N 5. is limited depending on the reinforcement geometry and distribution. 5.4. the axis of the reinforcement in a tie shall coincide with the axis of the tie. The upper limit is determined in accordance with equation 5. All loads shown are factored for ultimate strength design.6. 55 . A design height of 7 feet was determined by iteration. The ultimate shear diagram is shown in Figure 5.000 psi and the yield strength of the reinforcing bars at 60. wt can be taken as the diameter of the bar plus twice the cover. If the bars are in one layer.4. The girders are 24 inches wide with normal weight concrete with 28-day compression strength at 4. The girder depths were the same as for the DBM examples to make for an easy comparison of the steel and how the girder transfers the forces. Figure 5.10) 5.9) Where: and Atp is 0 for nonprestressed members.2. wt.1 STM Design Example 1 Design example 1 is a 24 inch wide transfer girder spanning 16 feet with a column at mid-span with factored 1.5 Design Examples To accurately compare the design of deep beams through DBM and STM. . it is difficult to get all angles near the 40-45°. The girder is supported by 24 inch square columns.000 psi. According to ACI 318.10.14 indicates the transfer girder for design.200 Kip load.

STM Design Example 1 Figure 5.9 (EQ’N 4.000 psi bw = 24 inches Step 1: Verify Trial Height The minimum height allowed by code is determined with Equation 4.Figure 5.Shear Diagram f’c = 4.000 psi Fy = 60.9h.15 – STM Design Example 1 .2) 56 .1) (EQ’N 3.0 Deep Beam Deep Beam (EQ’N 3.7 with d assumed to be 0.14 .0 2.0 2.0 1.7) 0.0 2.0 4.75 10 4000 Step 2: Check for Deep Beam Criteria 4.000# Use h = 7 ft : 24" 0. Solving for h with Vu substituted for 10 h = 54 in 620.

The node at location C at the loading point is 9 inches from the top of the girder.16 . Once designed. which should not change the final design. Figure 5.5inches or less. if the final locations show a difference of roughly 1.1° 25° ACI 318 A. much deeper node locations must be used. the original locations are deemed acceptable because the forces in the strut may increase from 1% to 2%.05h.16.Step 3: Establish Node Locations Note: A good starting point for node locations is 5 inches from the top or bottom face of the girder or 0. Multiple iterations were performed and acceptable nodal locations were determined.STM Design Example 1 – Node Locations " " " " Angle between Struts and Tie = 34.5 57 .2. Because of the heavy loads applied on the structure and the minimum height allowable being used. and the node location at the supports is 10 inches from the bottom of the girder shown in Figure 5.

" " " " 9" 9" " " 8 8 1. " " " " " . 0. (EQ’N 5.3.0 4. 0.2.85 0. a C-C-C situation is present.85 0. 0. and the faces are perpendicular to the axis of the struts.75 using ACI 318 A.85 0.000 3.Step 4: Determine Forces in Struts and Ties Through Geometry of the Girder: Length of Strut CA = Length of Strut CB = Force in Strut CA = 620 Force in Strut CB = 620 Force in Tie AB = 620 " 84" 84" 10" 10" . therefore.80 4.5.85 thus 0.000 2.400 (EQ’N 5.1.85 ACI 318 A.550 The struts within the columns do not have enough space for a bottle shaped strut to form.4) =0.9 916 Step 5: Determine Effective Concrete Strength in Nodes and Struts Because enough space within the girder for a bottle shape strut to form in Struts AC and AB exists and steel will be provided to resist cracking.0 4.720 (EQ’N 5.4) 0.85 1.85 1.2.105 1.000 =0.2. a C-C-T situation is present.1.2. the stresses on each face of the region must be identical. =1.400 =1. Extended nodal zones could be used.75 4.5.3.3) 2.0 using (EQ’N 5. 58 .0 using ACI 318 A.3) For the nodal region at C.105 12" 12" 115.000 3. thus 0. Because hydrostatic nodal zones are being used. thus Step 6: Determine STM Geometry Note: Hydrostatic nodal regions were used. but hydrostatic nodal regions are easy for this type of loading and add some conservatism in the design by requiring a larger nodal zone.3. 0.9 115.85 ACI 318 A.80 using For the nodal region at A and B.

11) 24. .5 13. . . . # " (EQ’N 5.1 24.17.the minimum of the above effective concrete strength must be used to ensure a static situation. . Width of Strut CA = Width of Strut CB = Width of Strut A = Width of Strut B = Width of Strut C1 = Width of Strut C2 = Height of the Tie = . . .STM Design Example 1 . . . . .0 (EQ’N 5. a 30x24 inch column is required. .1 13.1 20. # " . with . . .17 . . . 0. Figure 5. All other dimensions fit within the girder and supporting columns and follow the STM guidelines. . .75 .1 13.Geometry 59 .10) Due to the compression strut width required within the column applying the loads. # " # " # " # " . # " . . .1) (EQ’N 5. . . . shown in Figure 5.5 13. . .

3 (EQ’N 5.27 6. Try 4 rows of 4 #10 bars 16 1. 20. This could also be done using geometry.19 represents the tension tie reinforcement of 4 rows of 4 #10 bars spaced at . and the nodes at A and B are 9.STM Design Example 1 . .18 .Actual Node Locations Step 8: Determine Steel in Tie . # 20.Step 7: Verify Node Locations Once all geometries were calculated. .97 inches from the bottom of the girder which is also very close to the 10 inches initially selected.32 Figure 5. The node at C is 9 inches from the top of the girder which is what was used for design.9) 60 .18. If these nodes were much further apart. Figure 5. new initial node locations would need to be selected and everything recalculated until the differences were appropriate.5”. the design was drawn to scale and actual node locations were determined shown in Figure 5.

Tension Tie Reinforcement For Design Example 1 Check Tie Location Requirements. The centroid of the tie should line up with the node location. the centroid of the bottom tie reinforcement should start 6” above the bottom of the girder.66" Determine total effective height of reinforcement. . 1. . therefore.27" Check against height of tie. 10" therefore d 84" 10" 2 10" 74" 1. the anchorage length used will fall within the extended nodal zone which is acceptable. Even though the nodal zones were designed using hydrostatic nodal zones.Figure 5.5. .41" 14.19 .92 20. .1. .5 1. " " 5. Development for a hook can be determined using ACI 318-08 Section 12.27 24. . " 5.1 61 .66" Check the area of steel required against minimum steel requirements .61 " .32 in2 > 5.92 in2 OK Check Development length of #10 Hooked Bars. 20" 14. 1.

25) (EQ’N 4.STM Design Example 1 Anchorage Length Available Available anchorage length: 32.1in OK USE 4 Rows of 4 #10 bars. 0.003 12" OK 10" OK (EQ’N 5.75in > 24.5) 0.0012 0.1 Angle between stirrups and struts = 90°-34.26) 17.75in 30.9° 34.1°= 55. 55.0022 0.0012 0.1° ∑ 0.0030 ∑ . . 62 .3.3.C.Figure 5.33" 0.C.20 . .5”cover = 30. " " (EQ’N 4. .0022 USE #5 Stirrups at 10 inches O.22" 10.0025 .0015 0. and #5 Longitudinal Reinforcement at 12 inches O.25” – 1.9° Try #5 stirrups vertically at 10 inches on center and #5 longitudinal bars at 12 inches on center. . Step 9: Determine Crack Reinforcement per ACI A.0034 0.

21 with dimensions and reinforcement. This is conservative as the struts are designed using the heavier load.STM Design Example 1 . Note: Hydrostatic nodal regions were used to in the design. the weight of the girder is included at the column load location.6. To have the forces at each end of the tie equal each other.22 indicates the transfer girder for design. The calculated ultimate shear diagram is illustrated in Figure 5. Figure 5.200 kips. Figure 5. 63 . the Tension reinforcement would be (19) #11 bars and the shear reinforcement would be #5’s at 10” vertical and #5’s at 12” horizontal.23.Final Design Cut Sections Note: If a 6’ girder were used.Cut sections of the completed design of the girder are shown in Figure 5. The 7’ girder was used to keep the angle between the struts and tie near 40° while making a good comparison to Deep Beam design example 1.21 . The girder is supported by 24 inch square columns. A design height of 8 feet was determined by iteration.2 STM Design Example 2 Design example two is a 24 inch wide transfer girder spanning 16 feet with a column at 5 feet from a support with a factored load of 1. 5.

7) 64 .000 psi Fy = 60.23 – STM Design Example 2 .08 2.Shear Diagram f’c = 4.22 .400 Figure 5.2 8 24" 12" 2.7 with d assumed to be 0.9h. Solving for h with Vu substituted for 10 h = 83.9 (EQ’N 4.000# Use h = 8 ft 0.400 2.STM Design Example 2 Figure 5.880 16 46.6 in 857.75 10 4000 : 24" 0.000 psi bw = 24 inches Step 1: Verify Trial Height The minimum height allowed by code is determined in accordance with Equation 4.Weight of the girder = Factored weight of girder = 150 1.

2) Step 3: Establish Node Locations Note: Multiple iterations were performed and acceptable nodal locations were determined.0 2. The node at location C at the loading point is 7 inches from the top of the girder.75 0. and the node location at the supports is 7 inches from the bottom of the girder shown in Figure 5.STM Design Example 2 – Node Locations " " " " " " " " Angle between Strut CA and Tie = Angle between Strut CB and Tie = 53.1) (EQ’N 3.8° 25° 25° ACI 318 A. much deeper node locations must be used.24 .24.0 Deep Beam Deep Beam (EQ’N 3.5 4.2.5 65 . Figure 5.2.5 ACI 318 A. Because of the heavy loads applied on the structure and the minimum height allowable being used.Step 2: Check for Deep Beam Criteria 4.0 2.0 1.8° 31.

1.3) For the struts within the columns.2.85 0. which will make forming a hydrostatic nodal zone very difficult.85 ACI 318 A.062 737 5 11 12" 12" 101.2. and the faces are perpendicular to the axis of 66 .85 1.2. thus Step 6: Determine STM Geometry Note: Hydrostatic nodal regions were determined. 0.75 4.400 (EQ’N 5.3.80 per For the nodal region at A and B.85 0. therefore. a C-C-C situation is present.85 ACI 318 A.000 3.0 per (EQ’N 5. 0.400 =1.000 3.3.6 155. 0. " ‐7 " ‐7 " " " 7" 7" 1.000 =0.5.75 using ACI 318 A. thus 0.0 per ACI 318 A.720 (EQ’N 5.4 627 = 388 " ‐7 " 627 Note: If the weight of the girder was not consolidated to the loading point.550 (EQ’N 5.0 4.0 4. a C-C-T situation is present. " ‐7 .2. thus 0. Step 5: Determine Effective Concrete Strength in Nodes and Struts Because the girder has enough space for a bottle shaped strut to form in Struts AC and AB and steel will be provided to resist cracking.85 1.3.4) =0.000 2. 2.5.Step 4: Determine Forces in Struts and Ties Through Geometry of the Girder: Length of Strut CA = Length of Strut CB = Force in Strut CA = 857 Force in Strut CB = 389 Force in Tie AB = 857 96" 96" 7" 7" .3) For the nodal region at C. not enough space for a bottle shaped strut to form.85 =1. the stresses on each face of the region must be identical. 0.80 4.1.4) 0. the forces in the Tie AB from the struts at the supports would not be equal.85 0.

.11) 23.7 8. All other dimensions fit within the girder and supporting columns and follow the guidelines for STM shown in Figure 5. . . # " # " # " # " . # " (EQ’N 5. .7 8. . .5 18.5" 13. . . . . Extended nodal zones could be used. . . the minimum of the above effective concrete strength must be used to ensure a static situation. . 67 . # " # " .25.75 .1) (EQ’N 5.1 18. . . . . .1 16. .the struts. with . . . Width of Strut CA = Width of Strut CB = Width of Strut A = Width of Strut B = Width of Strut C1 = Width of Strut C2 = Height of the Tie = . . 0. . but hydrostatic nodal regions are easy for this type of loading and add some conservatism in the design by requiring a larger nodal zone.7 (EQ’N 5. .10) The compression strut width required within the column applying the loads means a 30x24 inch column is required. . Because hydrostatic nodal zones are being used.

the design was drawn to scale and actual locations were determined illustrated in Figure 5. which is very close to the 7 inches initially selected.Figure 5. The node at C is 7 inches from the top of the girder. Initial node selections are considered acceptable.Actual Node Locations 68 .26.25 .STM Design Example 2 . Figure 5. and the nodes at A and B are 6.Geometry Step 7: Verify Node Locations Once all geometries were calculated.STM Design Example 2 . which is equal to the 7 inches initially selected. This could also be done by geometry.26 .85 inches from the bottom of the girder.

.04 in2 > 7.56 9.27 .875" 1.41" 89.04 Figure 5.4" Determine total effective height of reinforcement.5 6.13 in2 OK 69 . " . " 6.5”.125" 1. 6. Check against height of tie.76 " .875" therefore d 96" 6. .41" 10.4" Check the area of steel required against minimum steel requirements. The centroid of the tie should line up with the node location.875" 1.7" 10. . # 13.0 1. the centroid of the bottom tie reinforcement should start 7” above the bottom of the girder. Try 3 rows of 3 #11 bars.13 14. 13. 14. .Step 8: Determine Steel in Tie . therefore.9) Figure 5. . 9 1. " 7.27 represents the tension tie reinforcement of 3 rows of 3 #11 bars spaced at .9 (EQ’N 5.Tension Tie Reinforcement for Design Example 2 Check Tie Location Requirements.

8°= 36.1 Angle between stirrups and struts = 90°-53. 1. Step 9: Determine Crack Reinforcement per ACI A. 13. the anchorage length used will fall within the extended nodal zone which is acceptable.STM Design Example 2 Anchorage Length Available Available anchorage length: 26” – 1. Development for a hook can be determined using ACI 318-08 Section 12.79 .2° 70 .9 1.8in > 24.Check Development length of #11 Hooked Bars.3. . . .5.5”cover = 24. .5 All other checks OK by inspection USE 3 Rows of 6 #8 bars. .5in NG Some solutions for getting enough development length would be to increase the column width or exchange #11 bars for #10 bars or smaller Try 3 rows of 6 #8 bars.1.28 . Even though the nodal zones were designed using hydrostatic nodal zones. 14.5in 26.3.0 24. .8 Figure 5.0 19. .41 26. 18 0. .22 .

0.29 with dimensions and reinforcement.29 .0015 USE #5 Stirrups at 10 inches O. . and #5 Longitudinal Reinforcement at 12 inches O.2° 53.Final Design Cut Sections 71 .5) 0. 36. .0015 0.STM Design Example 2 .C. Cut sections of the completed design of the girder are shown in Figure 5. " " (EQ’N 4. . Figure 5.Try #5 stirrups vertically at 10 inches on center and #5 longitudinal bars at 12 inches on center.26) 17.0030 ∑ .25) (EQ’N 4.22" 10.8° ∑ 0.003 12" OK 10" OK (EQ’N 5.0025 .33" 0.0017 0.0015 0.0032 0.0017 0. .C.

A design height of 7 feet was determined by iteration. Also. Note: Due to the offset of the load.520 16 40. the Tension reinforcement would be (17) #9 bars and the shear reinforcement would be #5’s at 10” vertical and #5’s at 12” horizontal. The calculated ultimate shear diagram is illustrated in Figure 5.6. Weight of the girder = Factored weight of girder = 150 1.31.2 7 24" 12" 2.30 indicates the transfer girder for design.100 2. getting a hydrostatic nodal zone would be very difficult.100 72 .32 2. The following calculations take advantage of the allowable extended nodal zone according to ACI 318. The girder is supported by 24 inch square columns.3 STM Design Example 3 Design example three is a 24 inch wide transfer girder spanning 16 feet with a column at midpoint with a factored load of 600 kips.Note: If a 7’ girder were used. Figure 5. the weight of the girder is included in the DL at the column load point. and a second load at the quarter point with factored load of 600 kips. The 8’ girder was used to keep the angle between the struts and tie around 45°. because two loads are applied. 5.

0 2.2 in 770.4 4.000 psi Fy = 60.Shear Diagram f’c = 4.9h.0 Deep Beam Deep Beam (EQ’N 3.75 10 4000 : 24" 0.7) Step 2: Check for Deep Beam Criteria 4. Solving for h with Vu substituted for 10 h = 75.30 – STM Design Example 3 Figure 5.000# Use h = 7 ft 0.Figure 5.0 2.0 0.9 (EQ’N 4.0 2.31 – STM Design Example 3 .7 with d assumed to be 0.2) 73 .1) (EQ’N 3.000 psi bw = 24 inches Step 1: Verify Trial Height The minimum height allowed by code is determined in accordance with Equation 4.

Step 3: Establish Node Locations The node at location C is 9 inches from the top of the girder.2.5 ACI 318 A.5 25° Step 4: Determine Forces in Struts and Ties Through Geometry of the Girder: Length of Strut AD = Length of Strut DC = Length of Strut BC = 84" 31" 84" 9" 31" 8" 49.32.STM Design Example 3 – Node Locations " " .32 .4" 58.7" 74 116 66. " " Angle between Strut AD and Tie = Angle between Strut DC and Tie = Angle between Strut CB and Tie = 42.8 49.2° 35. " ‐8 .2.3 94. the node location at the supports is 8 inches from the bottom of the girder.4" 8" .2. Figure 5.5 ACI 318 A.3° 25° 25° ACI 318 A. " " " " . and the node location at D is 31 inches from the top of the girder shown in Figure 5.3° 30.

this geometry will be used as will extended nodal zones.1) 75 . so 0.2.000 =0. the stresses on each face of the region do not have to be identical. thus Step 6: Determine STM Geometry Note: Extended nodal regions were determined. " " 470 640.75 using ACI 318 A.85 so 0.143.5. " " 1. and the faces do not have to be perpendicular to the axis of the struts.000 2. a C-C-T situation is present.85 0.2.85 1.0 4.400 (EQ’N 5. with 0.5.6 664 Note: Because the forces on each side are not equal.2.720 (EQ’N 5. =1. DC. " " 31" " " " 470 .0 using ACI 318 A.4) =0. " " . therefore.80 using For the nodal region at A and B. 0.5 Maximum Force in Tie AB = 770 Minimum Force in Tie AB = 470 691.3.3.3) =1.000 3.75 (EQ’N 5.85 ACI 318 A.000 3.85 ACI 318 A. 0.75 4.550 The struts within the columns do not have enough space for a bottle shaped strut to form.1. 0.85 0. and steel will be provided to resist cracking. Because this geometry represents the actual path of the forces.Force in Strut BC = 470 Force in Strut DC = 640.2.4) 0... 0.400 (EQ’N 5.32 Force in Strut AD = 600 " " 9" " 813.3) 2.3. (EQ’N 5.80 4.85 1.1.0 according to For the nodal region at C and D.7 .0 4. Step 5: Determine Effective Concrete Strength in Nodes and Struts Because the girder has enough space for a bottle shape strut to form in Struts AD.3 . a C-C-C situation is presen. it is impossible to get a hydrostatic nodal zone with the current geometry.32 " " 320.85 0. and BC.

8" . use ws. # " 14. # " 17. . Note: The 16. . .9 in OK Required Width of Strut DC = .75 inches fits within the column at A. tie height = 18. .75 in > 15. . . .10) To get the required Width of Strut in Strut AD. # " 7 Available Width of Strut through current geometry = 18. " (EQ’N 5. . Because the geometry determined fits within the girder and follows the rules of STM. . . .1 (EQ’N 5. # . . . .. Width of Strut A = . . #.7 To get enough strut width in strut AD.7 in.1” Because of the extended nodal zone. . .5 in ≈ 24.4 in > 7 in OK Required Width of Strut BC = . 24 inch columns still work for the compression struts. . . 76 . . .7 Available Width of Strut through current geometry = 20.A= 16. .11) 15.8 9.7" 2. .6 7. # " .75 inch width was determined through geometry because the STM was drawn to scale.4 in > 17. . . . . The 16.7 in OK Height of the Tie = . Width of Strut B = Width of Strut C2 = Width of Strut C1 = Width of Strut D = . this geometry and forces are deemed accurate shown in Figure 5. . .33. # " Required Width of Strut AD = 24. # " # # " 9.9 Available Width of Strut through current geometry = 24.

Initial node selections are considered acceptable.8 inches from the top of the girder.Figure 5.33 . The node at C is 9.STM Design Example 3 .34.6 inches. which is very close to the 9 inches initially selected. This could also be done through geometry.Geometry Step 7: Verify Node Locations Once all geometries were calculated. Node at D was chosen as 31inches and final location was very close at 31. which is also very close to the 8 inches initially selected. and the nodes at A and B are 9 inches from the bottom of the girder. the design was drawn to scale and actual node locations were determined shown in Figure 5. 77 .

the centroid of the bottom tie reinforcement should start 9” above the bottom of the girder.Figure 5.9) Figure 5.0 16 Figure 5.35 .34 .Tension Tie Reinforcement for Design Example 3 Check tie location requirements. . 16 1.STM Design Example 3 .5”.4 (EQ’N 5. .35 represents the tension tie reinforcement of 4 rows of 4 #9 bars spaced 6. 9" therefore d 84" 9" 75" 78 . . therefore.Actual Node Locations Step 8: Determine Steel in Tie . Try 4 rows of 4 #9 bars. # 15. The centroid of the tie should line up with the node location.

1. Development for a hook can be determined using ACI 318-08 Section 12.5”cover = 28.STM Design Example 3 Anchorage Length Available Available anchorage length: 30” – 1.Determine total effective height of reinforcement. .4 5. . " " 5.37" Check the area of steel required against minimum steel requirements.37" Check against height of Tie 18. 9" 2 1.0 in2 OK Check Development length of #9 Hooked Bars. " 6.36 .1.128 21. .5. 79 . .41" 13.0 16.5in 28.5in > 21.5 1. .4in OK USE: 4 Rows of 4 #9 bars.69 " .128" 1.1" 13. .0 in2 > 6. .

.C. 0. Cut sections of the completed design of the girder are shown in Figure 5.26) 17.0033 0.37 with dimensions and reinforcement.5) ∑ .0014 0. and #5 Longitudinal Reinforcement at 12 inches O.Step 9: Determine Crack Reinforcement per ACI A.33" 0. 48° 42° 0. 80 .25) (EQ’N 4.3. . .1 Angle between stirrups and struts = 90°-42°= 48° Try #5 stirrups vertically at 10 inches on center and #5 longitudinal bars at 12 inches on center.003 12" OK 10" OK (EQ’N 5.C. " " (EQ’N 4.0025 .0019 USE #5 Stirrups at 10 inches O.0014 0.3.0019 0.22" 10.0015 0.0030 ∑ 0. .

Figure 5.Final Design Cut Sections Note: A 6’ girder does not meet the requirements of Equation 4. the Tension reinforcement would be (14) #9 bars and the shear reinforcement would be #5’s at 10” vertical and #5’s at 12”. If a 8’ girder were used.7. 81 .37 .STM Design Example 3 . The 7’ girder was used to keep the angles between the struts and longitudinal plane around to 40°.

421 lbs respectively. Table 1 .964 lbs. Table 2 .2  16 #10 bars  #5's @ 10"  976. As the force was moved closer to the supports. with the same amount of loading at varying locations.689 lbs. represented by the smaller quantity of shear reinforcement and the greater amount of flexural steel. and the moment decrease and represented in Design #2 with a deeper member with less flexural steel and more shear reinforcement than Design #1.0  12.40  #5's @ 8"  1. Table 1 summarizes the deep beams designs specifying concrete and steel quantities.40  Vertical  Steel  Flexural  Steel  18 #9 bars  16 #8 bars  15 #8 bars  Flexural  Steel Area  (in2)  18. to 8 ft.  Volume  (in3)  #5's @ 10"  887. and 4. Because the STM takes into consideration the extra shear capacity developed through arching action.9  The depth of the beams was governed by the maximum shear force applied to the structure and the shear reinforcement spacing desired.2  16 #9 bars  Vertical  Steel  Tensile Steel  Area (in2)  20.5  18 #8 bars  #5's @ 10"  887. the shear reinforcement required is decreased.Deep Beam Summary Girder  DB 1  DB 2  DB 3  Dimensions  7' x 2'  8' x 2'  7' x 2'  Horizontal  Steel  #5's @ 10"  #5's @ 9"  #5's @ 8"  Shear Reinf. DB2. the force was split evenly between the two previous locations.STM Summary Girder  STM 1  STM 2  STM 3  Dimensions  7' x 2'  8' x 2'  7' x 2'  Horizontal  Steel  #5's @ 12"  #5's @ 12"  #5's @ 12"  Shear Reinf.123.190. and DB3 are 3.6.0  The total steel reinforcement weight calculated using DBM for DB1.2  16. For Design #3. The total steel reinforcement weight calculated 82 . shear was the lowest and moment was the greatest out of the three. 4.2  #5's @ 9"  1.6  11. which produced the least amount of moment among the three beams and a shear force between the previous two.3  14. When the point load was in the center.0 Results Comparison and Conclusion The deep beams designed in these examples varied in depth from 7 ft. Table 2 shows a design summary of the three girders designed using the Strut-and-Tie method.  Tensile  Volume  Steel  3 (in )  #5's @ 10"  887. the maximum shear became larger.

The main benefit of this method is the possibility of decreased member 83 . The third girder was designed by increasing the depth by one foot as the depth could not be decreased by one foot due to allowable shear requirements. The shear reinforcement spacing for the girders designed using DBM decreases as the beam height decreases because there is less concrete shear strength available. This is due to STM taking shear force through tension at the nodes in the tension reinforcement to keep the nodes in equilibrium. Table 3 .0  Table 4 . Comparing the two different designs. however. The reinforcement for STM stayed the same as the girders height decreased. the total reinforcement weight decreases from DBM to STM. the tension tie reinforcement increased because the shear force is taken through the tension steel instead of vertical and horizontal shear reinforcement. 4. The first two girders were designed by decreasing the depth by one foot. STM2. In Table 4 and Table 5. examples #1. and 3.6  #5's @ 10"  17 #11 bars  26. As the applied load moves towards the supports creating more shear force.5  14.Re-Designed Deep Beam Summary Girder  DP 1  DP 2  DP 3  Dimensions  6' x 2'  7' x 2'  8' x 2'  Horizontal  Steel  #5's @ 7"  #5's @ 6"  #5's @10"  Vertical  Steel  #5's @ 7"  #5's @ 6"  #5's @ 10"  Tensile  Steel  19 #9 bars  17 #8 bars  14 #8 bars  Tensile  Steel Area  (in2)  29.085 lbs. and #3 were redesigned for both Deep Beam and STM. the shear or cracking control reinforcement decreases by an average 13% because the STM considers the extra shear capacity through arching action.5  #5's @ 10"  14 #9 bars  14. The tension steel used for either flexure or the tension tie increases by an average of 16% from deep beam to STM design.855 lbs respectively.Re-Designed STM Summary Girder  STM 1  STM 2  STM 3  Dimensions  6' x 2'  7' x 2'  8' x 2'  Horizontal  Steel  #5's @ 12"  #5's @ 12"  #5's @ 12"  Tensile  Tensile Steel  Steel Area  (in2)  #5's @ 10"  19 #11 bars  29. and STM3 are 4.using STM for STM1.054 lbs.6  26.0  Vertical  Steel  STM is a method for designing a structure based on how forces are actually transferred to the supports or reactions. #2.

depth without increasing vertical and horizontal shear reinforcement; however, tensile reinforcement will increase because of the decreased angle between the struts and tie. If member depth is not an issue, the preferred method is the DBM because it is more widely known and understood. STM takes more time in design, especially if the designer is not familiar with the method. Neither method is more difficult to construct unless compression steel is added along the axis of the struts in an STM design or shear reinforcement at small spacing in DBM design, which could cause some minor constructability issues. Based on this investigation it is recommended that STM be considered when the designer needs to decrease the depth of the member and desires to keep shear reinforcement at reasonable spacing. If this is not required, DBM will produce accurate results within less calculation time.

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References
Brown, M. D., & Oguzhan, B. (2008). Design of Deep Beams Using Strut-and-Tie Models-Part 1: Evaluating U.S. Provisions. ACI Structural Journal , 395-404. Committee 318, A. C. (2008). Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete. Detroit: American Concrete Institute. Committee 326, A.-A. (1962). Shear and Diagonal Tension. Proceedings, American Concrete Institue v59 (pp. 1-30, 277-334, 353-396). American Concrete Institute. Crist, R. A. (October, 1967). Shear Behavior of Deep Reinforced Concrete Beams, v2 : Static Tests. Kirtland Air Force Base, N.M. Crist, R. A. (1971). Static and Dynamic Shear Behavior of uniformily Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams. Kirtland Air Force Base, N.M.: University of New Mexico. dePaiva, H., & Seiss, C. P. (1965). Strength and Behavior of Deep Beams in SHear. Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE v91, Proc. Paper 4496 , 19-42. Hassoun, M. N., & Al-Manaseer, A. (2008). Shear and Diagonal Tension. In Reinforced Concrete: Mechanics and Design 4th Edition (pp. 251-299). New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. Kong, F. K., Robins, P. J., & Sharp, G. R. (1975). The Design of Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams in Current Practice. The Structural Engineers v53 , 173-180. MacGregor, J. G., & Wight, J. K. (2005). Discontinuity Regions and Strut-and-Tie Models. In J. G. MacGregor, & J. K. Wiight, Reinforced Concrete Mechanics and Design Fourth Edition (pp. 844-933). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall. Rogowsky, D. M., & MacGregor, J. G. (1983). Shear Strength of Deep Reinforced Concrete Continuous Beams. Edmonton, Alberta: Department of Civil Engineering, University of Alberta. Schlaich, J., Schafer, K., & Jennewein, M. (1987, May-June). Towards a Consistent Design of Structural Concrete. PCI Journal , pp. 74-150. Sheikh, M. A., de Paiva, H. A., & Neville, A. M. (1971). Flexure-Shear Strength of Reinforced Concrete Deep Beams. The Structural Engineer v49 , 359-363. Task Committee 426, A.-A. (1973, June). Shear Strength of Reinforced Concrete Members. ASCE Journal Structural Division v99 , pp. 1091-1187.

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