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Study on Domestic Market of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (MAPs) in Kathmandu Valley

Prepared by Narendra N Tiwari Ram C Poudel, Yadav Uprety Consultants - Winrock International BDS/MaPS

Prepared for Winrock International BDS/MaPS Bukhundole, Lalitpur

November, 2004

Study on Domestic Market of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (MAPs) in Kathmandu Valley

Prepared by Narendra N Tiwari Ram C Poudel, Yadav Uprety Consultants - Winrock International BDS/MaPS

Prepared for Winrock International BDS/MaPS Bukhundole, Lalitpur

November, 2004

Preface
The Non Timber Forest Products (NTFPs), previously known as Minor Forest Products, are one of the major components of global biodiversity. It is now widely recognized that NTFPs play an important role in a country's socio-economic development. One of the major goals of the tenth five-year plan projected by His Majesty's Government of Nepal is to uplift the socioeconomic status of majority of the people residing in the rural and remote areas of the country. Therefore, several government and non-government organizations are involved in various activities leading to poverty alleviation through sustainable utilization and marketing of the NTFPs/MAPs. This survey was conducted to assess the quantity of NTFPs/MAPs consumption in Ayurved product manufacturer/practitioners, herb processors/exporters based in Kathmandu valley. Based on information obtained from different stakeholders and experts the marketing chain is identified and trade status of the common herbs is also known. Assessed NTFPs/MAPs includes trade name, quantity, and tentative price. Winrock International BDS/MaPS is thankful for the interest and financial support to conduct this project. It gives us immense pleasure to extend our sincere thanks to Dr. Luke Colavito, Team Leader, SIMI Project for his support. We are also thankful to Mr. Pradip Maharjan, Marketing Team leader, BDS-MaPS for the continuous support and constructive suggestions. We would like to acknowledge all the company managers/proprietors of different Ayurvedic products manufacturers/practitioners, processors and exporters for the kind cooperation during the study. Similarly we are also thankful to the herb retailers of Kathmandu valley for providing their precious time even during the time of the festival. Last but not least, we extend our thanks to all the herb stakeholders who directly or indirectly involved in this survey. Dr. Narendra N. Tiwari (Team leader) Ram C. Poudel (Team member) Yadav Uprety (Team member)

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Executive summary
Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (MAPs) play vital role in Nepalese livelihood, health, and socio-economic prospects. The Non-timber Forest Products (NTFPs) trade is ancient and can be traced back to vedic peiod. The poor rural community in the Nepal Himalaya rely on the income made from sale of these NTFPs are still deprived from fair distribution of benefits. Thus, both the challenges and opportunities are ahead in the NTFP sector. This survey was conducted to assess the status of the Medicinal and Aromatic plants consumed in Kathmandu valley based governmental and non-governmental Ayurvedic companies/trading houses. Herbs consumed by Ayurvedic practitioners and local consumption inside valley is also documented. Total 214 species/forms of NTFPs/MAPs are recorded. These species are processed and traded in different forms of Ayurvedic formulations or as essential oils. The annual consumption of herbs in Kathmandu valley is 1031481 Kilogram from 186 species and 38975 Kilogram essential oil from 19 species. Some noteworthy NTFPs/MAPs having more then 1000 kg annual demand are: Taxus baccata (350200 kg), Pinus roxburghii (190000 kg), Piper longum (72500 kg), Piper chaba (55000 kg), Phyllanthus emblica (50000 kg), Ocimum santum ( 32000 kg), Rauvolfia serpentina (30225 kg), Operculina turpethum (30000 kg), Aegle marmelos (25000 kg), Swertia chirayita (21000 kg), Tinospora sinensis (20000 kg), Terminalia chebula (16625 kg), Cinnamomum tamala (16000 kg), Cinnamomum zeylanicum (12000 kg), Terminalia bellirica (10000 kg), Bombax ceiba (7250 kg), Zingiber officinale (6000 kg), Cinnamomum glaucescens (5000 kg), Withania somnifera (4035 kg), Zanthoxylum armatum (4000 kg), Commiphora mukul (2700), Cassia senna (2600 kg), Gymnema sylvestre (2520 kg), Glycyrrhiza glabra (2500 kg), Litsea cubeba (2500 kg), Morus nigra (2000 kg), Eclipta prostrata (1600 kg), Delphinium himalayi (1500 kg), Tribulus terrestris (1500 kg), Rhododendron arboreum (1480 kg), Cyperus rotundus (1400 kg), Pterocarpus santalinus (1250 kg), Asparagus racemosus (1200 kg), Valeriana jatamansii (1200 kg), Creteva religiosa (1180 kg), Litsea glutinosa (1058 kg), Curcuma longa (1000 kg), Solanum surattense (1000 kg), Rubia manjith (1000 kg), Piper nigrum (1000 kg), Elaeocarpus sphaericus (1000 kg), Rock exudates (800 kg). Similarly annual demand of essential oil bearing plants are: Cymbopogon winterianus (12350 kg), Artemisa vulgare (5500 kg), Gaultheria fragrantissima (5000 kg), Eucalyptus camadulensis (5000 kg), Cymbopogon flexuosus (3100 kg), Cymbopogon martini (1700 kg), Zanthoxylum armatum (1500 kg), Mentha arvensis (1200 kg), Nardostachys grandiflora (1000 kg), Cinnamomum tamala (600 kg), Juniperus indica (450 kg), Cinnamomum glaucescens (275 kg), Rhododendron anthopogon (250 kg), Matricaria chamomilla (250 kg), Ocimum basilicum (250 kg), Curcuma zedoaria (150 kg), Valeriana jatamansii (150 kg), Abies spectabilis (150 kg), Cymbopogon jwarancusa (100 kg) Among 214 species 128 NTFPs/MAPs species are fulfilled from Nepal, 75 NTFPs/MAPs species are imported especially from India and 11 NTFPs/MAPs species are usually taken both from either Nepal or India. The priority NTFPs/MAPS species of BDS/MaPS posses the good demand by the Ayurvedic manufacturers and essential oil exporters in the valley. To fulfill this demand, BDS/MaPS need to work with various stakeholders to establish the proper market chain. Furthermore based on cooperative concept this study has also purposed a market module, for BDS/MaPS pocket districts. This module incorporate BDS/MaPS pocket districts and their integrated work with herb retailers, NTFPs/MaPS processors, manufacturers and exporters residing Kathmandu valley.

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Contents
Page no. Preface Executive summary Chapter I 1.1. Introduction 1.2. Herbs and their consumption 1.3. Objective of the study 1.4. Methodology 1.4.1. Literature Review 1.4.2. Survey of Stakeholders 1.4.3. Secondary Data Collection 1.4.4. Listing of Major Herbs 1.4.5. Identification of Trade Links 1.4.6. Trade Status and Legal Provisions 1.4.7. Limitations 1.5. Study Team Composition 1.6. Executive Agency 7 8 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10

Chapter II 2.1. Ayurvedic Manufacturers, Practitioners, Herb Processors and Suppliers in Kathmandu Valley 11 2.1.1. Public Sector 11 2.1.2. Private Sector 11 2.2. NTFPs/MAPs demand 13 2.3. Traditional Market links of NTFPs/MAPs in Kathmandu Valley 2.4. BDS-MaPS priority NTFPs/MAPs and consumption in Kathmandu 2.5. Market opportunities 2.6. Existing National Policies on NTFPs/MAPs Management, Marketing and Trade Chapter III 3. Conclusion and Recommendation 4. Selective References Appendix I Annual consumption of herbs by different organizations residing Kathmandu Valley (in Kg) Appendix II Checklist for Market Study of NTFPs/MAPs in Kathmandu Valley Appendix III National Priority list of Herbs, List of plants for cultivation and research Appendix IV List of Organizations and Persons Visited and Interviewed

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List of Tables Table 1. Plants under HMG protected list categories List of Figures Figure 1. Ayurvedic/Traditional medicine manufacturers in Kathmandu Valley Table 2. Past and Present Herbs trade chain in Kathmandu Valley Figure 4. Consumption quantity of Number of NTFPs/MAPs in Kathmandu Valley Figure 3. NTFPs having annual demand more than 1000 kg in Kathmandu Valley Table 7. Processors and Exporters in Kathmandu Valley Table 3.MaPS vi . Herb Producers. Conventional trade link of NTFPs/MAPs in Kathmandu Valley Figure 5. Purposed NTFPs/MAPs market linkage for BDS . BDS-MaPS Project priority herbs/products and their demand in Valley Table 6. Annual demand of Herbs/Essential Oils in Kathmandu Valley (2060/61) Table 4. Number of specie with annual quantity of the consumption Table 5. Source and number of NTFPs/MAPs consumed in Kathmandu Valley Figure 2.

It was also reported that huge amount of NTFPs from the different parts of Nepal are exported to India via border towns (Edwards. (2003). ceremonial.Chapter I 1. Among all categories of NTFPs Medicinal and Aromatic plants (MAPs) play vital role in Nepalese livelihood. Malla et al. natural resource management. 1998). Harro (Terminalia chebula).. soil water conservation. thatching grasses. human and animal health as well as environmental conservation. charcoal.. Sal (Shorea robusta). 1 . 1995). Introduction Nepal is a small landlock country in south Asia extending along the Himalayas in between the latitude of 260 22' to 300 27' N and longitude 800 4' to 880 12' E. CECI (1997). health. however are still deprived from fair distribution of benefits. Shrestha et al. The trade of NTFPs/MAPs in Nepal is traditional and is very ancient. includes all biological materials and different services rendered by forests land.. As a result of extreme variations in altitude and climate. Edward (1995. In Nepal. Rawal (1997). Over 21. Rajbhandari (2001). from the tropical zone are highly exploited due to deforestation. Shrestha et al. tannins. etc. resins. fruits. 2004). NTFPs uses vary from site to site because of heterogeneous community and ethnics groups in Nepal (Uprety and Shrestha. animal bedding. It has been estimated that around 119 pure chemical substances extracted from some 90 species of higher plants are used in medicines throughout the world. Bet (Calamus tenuis). pesticides. and socio-economic prospects. honey. Uprety and Poudel (2004) etc. ornamental plants. fibre. both the challenges and opportunities are ahead in the NTFP sector. cosmetics. The poor rural community in the Nepal Himalaya rely on the income made from sale of these NTFPs. shifting cultivation and massive harvesting. can boost the nation's rural economy. veterinary. Thus. Barro (Terminalia bellirica). climate and geological conditions are responsible for making Nepal a glorious country in the world. (1997). etc. Olsen (1997). Non timber forest products (NTFPs). rattan. Amala (Phyllanthus emblica). and wildlife products (bones for ritual and decoration). (1998). wild edible plants (vegetables.000 plant names that have medicinal uses are reported by WHO (1992). NTFPs harvesting and its trade are a good primary source of earning cash in many parts of Nepal. Here the need of effective market information system is lacking which is prime concern of the NTFPs/MAPs business sector. spices and condiments). more than 1. dyes. for example. overgrazing. Role of NTFPs is crucial in socio-economic progress of the country. medicinal plants. Tiwari and Joshi (1990). Manandhar (2002). gums. Aryal (1993). which if addressed effectively from the concerned stakeholders and government policies. Basnet (2001) has reported 61 species of NTFPs from the Terai area. and Sarpagandha (Rauvolfia serpentina). There are very few parallels elsewhere in the world where one finds such a great physical. the vegetation of Nepal exhibits a wide range of diversity. 2001). Kurilo (Asparagus racemosus). Some of these NTFP species: Bojho (Acorus calamus). cultural and biological diversity within such a small area as in Nepal. approximately 14% of plant species are used as NTFPs (Rawal. Varying altitudes. Climatic conditions in Nepal ranges from the sweltering heat of the Terai in the lowland to the freezing cold of the Himalayas in the northern highland. 1996). green manure.1. an important commodity of the forestry sector.600 species of wild plants are used in traditional medicinal practice and majority of which await proper documentation (Shrestha et al. DMP (1982). Some of the important works so far carried out are: Amatya (1997). Bhyakur (Dioscorea deltoida). In Nepal. agricultural implements. Several works have been carried out on NTFPs/MAPs of Nepal. all having medicinal value. It is this unique diversity which has attracted people from round the globe to Nepal. Maharjan (2000). forest fire.

1996). etc and have become a good source of subsistence and income. Vaidhyas. trade. timber. 2000).6 million (Edwards. This is the place where the earliest practitioners of Ayurvedic system. medicine. Lemongrass etc. Trade also includes the plant species which have been either banned for collection. It was also observed that about one million US $ may be added to this figure. MAPs were used in traditional and Ayurvedic medicine in Nepal from time immemorial. or for export without processing in the country under Forest Act (1993) and Forest Regulations (1995). Jatamansi. detergents and other herbal based products. 2 . Medicinal plant trade is a blooming business worldwide and the third world countries including Nepal are the main supplier of resources harvested mainly from wild to meet the global demand for the drug discovery. India. shelter. Indus civilization evolved the Ayurveda medicines. like Rishis. Kabirajas. 2000). Herbs and their consumption The history of medicine and medicinal plants in Nepal can be traced back to the Vedic period.2. Nepal has been maintaining the tradition of supplying genuine medicinal plants to India and overseas. use. The percentage of annual consumption of Nepalese herbal products is 33% and 67% for domestic market and international market respectively (Lacoul and Pant. collection and trade of these species in raw form continue in Nepal and literally with no restriction. if trade of NTFPs are done systematically through proper channel. fodder. Nepalese medicinal plants have been well known in the regional and overseas markets. Germany. Since long time local people and traditional practitioners are managing these herbs in their own way however formally management of MAPs seems to be instituted when Department of Forest added one new section Medicinal Plant section on 1960. transportation and export. Even to this date. Citronella. clothes. Munies. Thus the traditional Dhami Jhaakri (traditional healers) and Ayurvedic institution were in existence.000 tons annually representing more than 95% of the quantity harvested from wild worth equivalent to US $ 8. particularly in the rural areas of Nepal (Malla. Japan. and newly introduced unconventional items like oil of Anthopogon. The future of the essential oil industry looks encouraging and promising with foreign companies entering in Nepal for the manufacture of cosmetics soaps. Pakistan. MAPs are termed as one of the important economic resources of Nepal. fuel-wood. South Korea. where Nepal Himalaya was mentioned as a sacred heaven of potent medicinal and aromatic plants. Domestic consumption of herbs/herbal products is very limited. however.000-15. Wintergreen. United Kingdom. etc. The trade of medicinal and aromatic plants from Nepal is roughly estimated at 10. The most dominating nations where Nepalese herbs/aromatics are consumed are France. Juniper demand is increasing from the foreign customers. Traditional medicines are developing with the social development since ancient time. Spain. Only a fraction of the total harvest of plants are processed in Nepal. They have been intertwined with the fabrics of life to supply food. from all over the subcontinents come to collect plants and mediate to discover new plants of therapeutic values. America. Italy. Different conventional oils such as Palmarosa. Australia.1.

tentative price and trade link of each herbal manufacturers. Literature Review Literature dealing with different aspects of NTFPs was reviewed from different Libraries. others to collect specific data. 1. d. The specific objectives are as follows: a. individuals working on herbs and MAPs traders in Kathmandu valley. annual demand of the herbs. Library. ICIMOD. some designed to initiate general discussion. Information on number of Ayurvedic formulations. Forestry Library. Survey of Stakeholders Major suppliers/manufacturers of Ayurvedic drugs registered on the Aushadi Baybastha Bivag (Department of Drug Administration). etc. Library. Production of the 3 .3. Identification of Trade Links Trade link of NTFPs/MAPs was identified by consulting various stakeholders of this sector.1. traditional practitioners. Kirtipur. Ayurvedic practitioners. source of supply.4. The link was trace out by direct interview with each and every partner. which reconfirm the annual demand of manufacturers and the stock capacity of the suppliers. Identification and recommendations of possible link development between supplier and producers/exporters in BDS/MaPS project district and Kathmandu based companies for the sustainable supply chain development. price and quantity of consumption. To list out the major MAPs requirements of these companies. 1. Ayurved experts and NGOs and INGOs working in the promotion of NTFPs.4. 1.4. ANSAB Library. 1. To identify the present networking and links. NTFP experts.4.2. Bijulibajar. Primary data related with different herbs consumed by valley based Ayurvedic pharmaceuticals. c. Methodology The principle approach of the study is by consulting the public and private sector Ayurvedic companies. Similarly various stakeholders were also identified from NEHHPA (2004). Objective of the study General objective of this study is to assess the market of NTFPs/MAPs consumption in Kathmandu valley by different Ayurvedic manufacturers. Similarly some important wave sites related with this issue were also surfed. if any. IUCN. Listing of Major Herbs Based on the demand and consumption of Ayurvedic manufacturers and practitioners the master checklist of herbs were prepared. government officials.4. of Kathmandu valley were identified and listed. To assess the status of government and non-governmental companies and trading houses related to the Medicinal and Aromatic plants and its derivative products.1. Bukhundole. practitioners and traders was highly emphasized during the survey. Baluwatar. Secondary Data Collection Relevant secondary information was obtained from available literature. These herbs were compared with priority species of BDS-MaPS pocket districts and other species which have high production value in Nepal. Interviews were informal but guided by key questions. and herbs traders were collected through interviews with key persons with systematic checklist prepared. Babarmahal. herb exporters and processors. between supplier and the buyers in Kathmandu. The detail methodology follows the steps below. Major library consulted were Tribhuvan University Central Library. Jawalakhel. WWF Library. personal contact individuals. b.3. 1.4.5. 1.4.

market networks and opportunities were reviewed. 1. Lalitpur 4 . Furthermore market link of each Ayurvedic formulations in different national and international markets and respective consumers were also identified. Dr. NTFPs expert) were assigned as team members. Limitations Market analysis and identification of NTFPs is directly related with the livelihood of the herbal practitioners.4.4. Narendra Nath Tiwari (Ayurvedic Doctorate.5. trade routes. To know the details on legal issues of NTFPs/MAPs government policies. Yadav Uprety (Ecologist. Again due to the limited time period of this survey intimacy with the key informants can't create further. Study Team Composition A study team consisted of team leader and two team member was formed by Winrock International and BDS/MaPS to furnish the study. 1. Conventional business and enterprises planning of the traders and the practitioners is confidential. 1.herbs and their supply sites is also identified. Bukhundole. volume of NTFPs in trade were identified. NTFPs expert) and Mr.7.6.6. Executive Agency Winrock International BDS/MaPS. Also the NTFPs in high demand and trade supply. manufacturers and suppliers. 1. NTFPs/MAPs expert) was appointed as a team leader and Mr. Trade Status and Legal Provisions Based on information obtained from key informants the marketing chain is identified and trade status of the herbs was known. Ram Chandra Poudel (Ethnobotanist. In most of the time the stakeholders don't want to disclose their practice and knowledge.

Public Sector Singha Durbar Vaidhya Khana. personal hygiene products and foods products including fruit juice. Besides this company also manufacture and supply different herbal products of valued potentialities. Herb Processors and Suppliers in Kathmandu Valley 2. Kathmandu is a herbal products processing. Ltd. is consuming huge amount of Gurjo and Bel for its Gurjo tea and Aegle squace common in local and in some international market of Europe. At present it is producing over 110 products. Practitioners. Dillibazar. produces some of its formulated products besides herbal teas and other cultivated items of herbs. Everest Herbs Processing Pvt.1. Ayurvedic Manufacturers. Similarly. Besides its different Ayurvedic formulations it has productions in diversified fields such as confectioneries.Chapter II 2. Old Baneshwor. Kathmandu manufacture 40 and 35 types of Ayurvedic formulations respectively. Ltd. manufacturing and exporting company.1. Herb Production and Processing Company Ltd. Gorkha Exim Pvt. are also engaged in the marketization of various wild and cultivated herbal based essential oils and few products inside Kathmandu valley through export. Bhaktapur and Traditional Himalayan Herbs. Buddha Nagar. Kathmandu prepares good range of herbal medicines that supply Ayurvedic preparations for Ayurvedic hospitals. especially on valued herbs. Ltd. a joint venture with Japanese collaborator.2. Sinchahiti. produces mainly cosmetics along with its formulated herbal products. Dabur Nepal. Male International Pvt. This company is dealing with 35 herbal products.1. Ltd. Suri Herbal Product Industry. These companies are exporting essential oils both of wild and cultivated herbs from their own farm as well as from other organizations owned farms. Male International is the leading organization that deal on the export of the organic certified essential oils and herbs in the valley. Private Sector Gorkha Ayurved Company a joint venture with French NGO. Parwanipur. The products of this company are doing good business inside and in some extent in overseas. Lalitpur and Natural Resources Industries Pvt Ltd.1. Exclusively manufacturing and exporting crude or processed Herbal products from Nepal is the emerging trade started some 10 -15 years ago. and Chaudhary Biosys (Nepal) Ltd. clinics. it is also engaged in the research oriented programs. Besides its supply of processed and semi-processed products in both local and international market. Alternative Herbal Products Pvt. Kathmandu produces large quantity of essential oils from the cultivated as well as wild herbs. Thimi. Cosmos Herbal Products. 2. Exclusive enterprises a NTFPs/MAPs processing and manufacturing company is producing several products since last eight years. Kathmandu are the emerging essential oil exporting companies. ayurvedic practitioners and people who prefer processed herbal products. Birgung a subsidy of Dabur India is said to be one of the largest organization. Beyond that time identification of potential herbs and their Ayurvedic use was initiated and continued by traditional herbal 5 . Besides manufacturing of herbal medicines these organizations also provide traditional healing services.

Kathmandu Sashi Overseas Enterprises. reduce adulleteration in the herbs and to facilitate the government in preparation and implementation of policies that can address all the problems in the conservation of traditional practice and the potential herbs. Thimi.. Mahaboudha. Kathmandu Everest Herbs Processing Pvt.. Chaudhary Biosys (Nepal) Ltd. Kathmandu Nepal Mentha Products Pvt.. Bauddha.. Teku. Bhaktapur Traditional Himalayan Herbs. Similarly one of the reputed herbal clinic in Paknajol. Sinchhahiti. Ltd. Ayurvedic/Traditional medicine manufacturers in Kathmandu Valley a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) Arogya Bhavan. Such practices are still continued by some of the reputed Ayurved practitioners resideing in the valley. Kathmandu Dabur Nepal Pvt. Koteshwore. Tusal prepare and provide different types of medicines according to the Tibetan system. These people inherit knowledge from their ancestors. Anamnagar. Kathmandu Himalayan Herbs Trader. make aware the concerned stakeholders about the potentialities of exact plant. Kathmandu Cosmos Herbal Pvt. Tripureshwor. Kathmandu Piyushbarshi Aushadhalaya. Kathmandu Himalayan Bio Trade (P) Ltd. Dillibazar. Buddhanagar. Kathmandu Singha Durbar Vidhyakhana Vikash Samiti. Kathmandu. Table 1. Kathmandu Kunphen Aushadhalaya. The Ayurvedic medicine producer Krishna Aushadhalaya along with its sells through retail shop also export certain Ayurvedic formulations in overseas. and are being practicing other ethnic medicines. etc... Khichapokheri. Kathmandu Herb Production and Processing Company Ltd. Recently a group of 55 traditional Ayurvedic practitioners and manufacturers of all over Nepal have formed an association "Nepal Traditional Ayurvedic Medicinal Practitioners Association". Baluwatar. Balaju. Lalitpur Natural Resources Industries Pvt Ltd. Tinkune Kathmandu Gorkha Ayurved Company Ltd. Herb Producers. Ltd. So in the past preparation of the herbal formulations was parallely move side by side with the treatment.. Kathmandu Suri Herbal Product Industry. Kathmandu Siddartha Herbal Industry. These practitioners has been not only engaged in the treatment of local people but also prepare different formulations effective for different disorders based on there need. Ltd.. which use medicinal and aromatic plants for traditional medicine preparations by traditional experienced Vaidhyas. Kupondole. Kathmandu Table 2. Mostly Tibetan manufacturer company consume potential herbs from high altitudes. Paknajol. Kathmandu Krishna Aushadhalaya. Bagbazar. Old Baneshwor. Yunani and Tibetan medicines systems.practitioners. New Baneshwor. Baluawatar. Kathmandu Exclusive Enterprises. Processors and Exporters in Kathmandu Valley a) b) c) d) Alternative Herbal Products (P) Ltd. There are some other small concerns. Dillibazar. Ltd. Kathmandu e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l) m) n) 6 . Kathmandu Male International Pvt. The major objective of this association is to handover the precious traditional practice to the new generations through well managed Ayurvedic Institution. Lalitpur Gorkha Exim Pvt. Arogya Bhavan is marketing some 21 formulations. These Aushadalaya are actually family owned. Among them some of the old reputed and popular herbal manufacturers and practitioners are: Piyushbarshi Aushadhalaya. the Kunphen and Himalaya Herbs Udyog. Sri Krishna Aushadhalayak. Balaju. who sells Ayurvedic formulations along with the treatment facilities. Ltd. Ltd. Arogya Bhawan. Balkhu.

Kamalkeshar (Nelumbo nucifera . Barro. Pipla mul. Assessed information on the annual consumption of some of the major Ayurved medicine manufacturers. Pipla. Supply of the herbs differs mainly in the product and its market demand. less supportive governmental policies and dominance of Indian Ayurvedic medicinal and other products in the local market. Name of the same plant is also repeated in the list due to the different trade name for the different parts and use forms of same NTFPs/MAPs. Nisodtha. However.2. the small scale Ayurvedic medicinal manufacturers need to compete for the real benefits from the products. Ashwagandha. So the NTFPs species like Thysanolaena maxima (broom grass). Darunhardra (Bark-Berberis). processors. Chirito. experts and with herb retailers. the list holds majority of herbs that are used in the preparation of Ayurvedic medicines. Sutho. Example of such plant are Bel chana. Bel mul. Bel. Satawari. Companies' consumption is comparatively greater in there own products. Nilkamal (Nelumbo nucifera – Flower). Jatamansi (oil). Rasanjan (Berberis-solid water extract). This list includes raw. majority of herb processing companies supply the products in overseas depend on the demand of foreign parties. Chabo. Basically. (Table 3 and Appendix I). The list provides the information on consumption quantities of both crude herbs and the essential oils. from the interviews and formal discussions with the authority of the above companies. Amala.2. So more over almost all the herbs consumption quantity reflects by this list. Gurjo. Girardinia diversifolia (Himalayan nettle) are intentionally not included in the list. Tamala (Cinnamomum-oil). On the retailer's request. Appendix I gives the comprehensive list of herbs and quantity demand in Kathmandu valley by various companies. This list is actually prepared through the formal and informal interviews for Ayurveda medicine manufacturers/producers. Talispatra/Tagar (Abies-leaves). Daphne bholua (Nepali paper plant). name of the retailers and respective firms are not given else where throughout this text. Pakhenbed and Tulsi. To clear this in some paragraphs NTFPs/MAPs species/forms is also used. Most of the data on consumption quantities and prices are taken from major herb retailers. Talispatra (Abies oil). Due to unstable political situation. In such a condition less or equal to 80 kg of other substituted herbs (around 80 species) are sufficient for each companies for their each products to fulfil the annual demand of the local market. Besides some common herbal products consumed in domestic market and limited number of formulations exported. 7 . Edgeworthia gardnerii (Nepali paper bush). Tejpat (Cinnamomum-leaves). Among them the noteworthy plant species are Harro. Those retailers are the main herb suppliers within and outside the valley. Total 214 species of NTFPs/MAPs are listed which are consumed by various companies. In case of some of the essential oil bearing plants the crude herbs are consumed by Ayurvedic products manufacturers/practitioners while large quantity of essential oil from the same plant is dealt by essential oil exporting companies. Other NTFPs that might be consumed in huge quantities are not taken into the consideration of the study. NTFPs/MAPs demand The exact number and quantity of the herbs demand in Kathmandu valley for the above mentioned enterprises is difficult to assess. herbal product producers and aroma crops producers. Various herbal product manufacturers have their own unique products. Tejpat. Pipla. Processing of the herbs mainly includes stem distillation of the main parts to get the essential oil. Sarpagandha.Stamens). etc.100 kg in average. Excluding limited number of Kathmandu based Ayurvedic manufacturers most of the herbal companies showed very low annual consumption of various NTFPs/MAPs. the name and tentative quantity of the herbs were assessed. processors and exporters shows very small demand of all the herbs. fresh or processed NTFPs/MAPs. These species consumption is above or around 500 kg in each companies. Jatamansi (raw material). For other herbs lum sum quantity is approximately 50 . Like wise some 9 species have duplicated in the list for different purposes.

(Malvaceae) Bombax ceiba L. f. ex Del. ex Parts used Seed Rhizome Heart Wood Unit Kg Kg Kg Kg Required Amount 125 6000 200 15 600 18000 25000 60 400 4035 800 1058 280 40 500 1500 40 150 25 15 120 7250 10000 1180 500 Tentative price kg-1 50 60 30 1500 200 60 16 100 45 145 60 140 25 60 175 300 60 15 25 100 60 58 23 55 210 Remarks Nepal Nepal Imported Imported Nepal Nepal/Imported Nepal/Imported Nepal Imported Imported Imported Nepal Nepal Nepal Nepal Nepal Nepal Nepal Imported Nepal Nepal Imported Nepal/Imported Imported Nepal Fruit Fruit Fruit Petiole Bark Root Bark Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Leaves Root Root Root Bark Bark Seed Bark Root/Seed Calcium compound Fruit pulp Bark Root Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg 8 . (Anacardeaceae) Zingiber officinale Rose. ) Roxb. Annual demand of Herbs/Essential Oils in Kathmandu Valley (2060/61) SN 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Name of species Trade name Scientific name Aaap ko Koya ko gudi Aduwa (Sutho) Aguru Akarkara Alaichi Amala (Dry) Amala (Fresh) Amlabetas Arjun ko bokra Ashogandha Mul Ashok ko bokra Astismahari (Fresh Hadchur) Asuro (Dry) Atibala Atiras Atis Babur ko bokra Bakaino Bakuchi Bakul (Maulashree) Balu (Bala) Bamsalochan Barro (Phal ko bokra) Baruntwak Batsanav bish Mangifera indica Wall. (Meliaceae) Psoralia corylifolia L. (Thymelaeaceae) Anacyclus pyrethrum Link (Compositae) Amomum subulatum Roxb. (Acanthaceae) Abutilon indicum L. (Polygonaceae) Terminalia arjuna (Roxb.) Willd. (Leguminosae) Melia azedarach L.Table 3. Aconitum ferox Wall. (Zingiberaceae) Aqularia agallocha Roxb. (Combretaceae) Creteva religiosa Fors.Don. (Zingiberaceae) Phyllanthus emblica L. (Bombacaceae) Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn.) C. (Ranunculaceae) Acacia nilotica (L. (Euphorbiaceae) Rheum australe D. (Leguminosae) Litsea glutinosa (Lour. (Lauraceae) Justicia adhatoda L. (Solanaceae) Saraca asoca (Roxb. (Malvaceae) Taraxacum officinale Weber (Compositae) Delphinium himalayi Munz. (Combretaceae) Withania somnifera Dunal. (Leguminosae) Mimusops elengi L. (Euphorbiaceae) Phyllanthus emblica L.) DC. Rob. (Sapotaceae) Sida spinosus L. ex DC) Wight & Am. B. (Capparaceae) Aconitum spicatum L.

) Pennell. ex Willd.Arg. (Lauraceae) Baliospermum montanum (Willd.) Corr. (Scrophurlariaceae) Habenaria sp.) Mool.f. (Myrsinaceae) Aegle marmelos (L. (Euphorbiaceae) Parts used Unit Required Amount Tentative price kg-1 Remarks 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 Bayar ko bokra Bayu bidang Bel Belmul Bhargitwak Bhringaraj (Dry) Bhui amala Bark Fruit Fruit Root Root Whole plant Whole plant Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg 50 700 25000 150 50 1600 300 60 130 20 80 58 50 80 Nepal Imported Nepal Nepal Nepal Imported Imported 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 Bidari kanda Bidhara beej Bihi Bijayasal Bojho Bramhi Bridhi Chabo Chakramarda Chiraito Kshira kakoli Chitu mul Chiuriko Ghiu Chuk (Amilo) Chutro ko bokra (Daruharidra) Dalchini Root Seed Fruit Heart wood Rhizome Whole plant Root Fruit Seed Whole plant Rhizome Root/Stem Seed Fruit Bark Bark Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg 250 80 600 200 400 300 200 55000 500 21000 200 800 280 1000 500 12000 82 135 70 65 55 180 120 50 40 200 60 70 85 170 70 100 Nepal Imported Nepal Nepal Nepal Imported Imported Nepal/Imported Nepal/Imported Nepal Nepal Imported Nepal Nepal Nepal Imported 49 Danti mul Root Kg 50 80 Nepal 9 .) Karst (Gentianaceae) Roscoea purpurea Smith. (Euphorbiaceae) Pueraria tuberosa (Roxb. (Zingiberaceae) Plumbago zeylanica L. (Rutaceae) Clerodendron serratum (L. (Orchidaceae) Piper chaba Hunter.) DC. (Leguminosae) Argyreia spinosa Sweet. (Rutaceae) Aegle marmelos (L. (Solanaceae) Pterocarpus marsupium Roxb.. (Leguminosae) Swertia chirayita Roxb. (Berberidaceae) Cinnamomum zeylanicum Breyn. (Piperaceae) Cassia tora L. ex Flem. (Compositae) Phyllanthus amarus Schumach. (Rutaceae) Berberis aristata DC. (Acoraceae) Bacopa monnieri (L. (Ranunculaceae) Ziziphus mauritiana Lam.) Muell. & Thonn. (Plumbagineaceae) Aesandra butyracea (Roxb. (Leguminosae) Acorus calamus L.) L.) Baehni (Sapotaceae) Citrus lemon (L. (Verbenaceae) Eclipta prostrata (L. (Rhamnaceae) Embelia ribes Burm. f.SN Name of species Trade name Scientific name Seringe.) Burm.) Corr. (Convolvulaceae) Solanum nigrum L.

) Skeels (Myrtaceae) Nardostachys grandiflora DC. (Leguminosae) Gymnema sylvestre R.Don. Br. (Combretaceae) Curcuma longa Roxb. (Zygophyllaceae) Chamalia sinensis Morchella conica Pers. (Umbelliferae) Datura metel L. (Solanaceae) Woodfordia fruticosa (L./Citrullus colosythis Schred. (Ericaceae) Terminalia chebula Retz. (Cucurbitaceae) Plantago erosa Wall. (Verbenaceae) Tribulus terrestris L. (Lytharaceae) Leucas cephalotes (Roth) Spreng. (Morchellaceae) Acacia arabica Willd. (Valerianaceae) Parts used Fruit/Bark Heart wood/Bark Seed Seed Flower Unit Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Required Amount 80 300 2000 30 350 Tentative price kg-1 58 20 60 150 35 Remarks Nepal Imported Imported Nepal Nepal 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 Whole plant Stem/Leaf Whole plant Bark Whole plant Leaves Whole plant Gum Leaf Stem Gum/resign Bark Fruit pulp Rhizome Fruit Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg 70 120 50 450 1500 40 500 50 100 100 45 65 60 Nepal Imported Nepal Nepal Nepal/Imported Nepal Nepal Nepal 180 2520 20000 2700 380 16625 1000 50 100 80 22 195 25 35 50 40 Imported Imported Nepal Imported Nepal Nepal/Imported Nepal Imported 71 Indarajau Seed Kg 800 55 Imported 72 Indrayani Fruit Kg 2500 150 Imported 73 74 Isamgol Jamun beej Seed husk Seed Kg Kg 20 50 55 Imported Imported 75 Jatamansi Rhizome Kg 300 65 Nepal 10 . (Zingiberaceae) Tamarandus indica L. ex G.SN 50 51 52 53 54 Name of species Trade name Scientific name Darim ko phal ko bokra Devdaru Dhaniya Dhatur beej Dhayero ko phool Drona puspi Durlavha Gandhaprashrini Gineri Gochhur Granthiparani Green tea Guchhi Chyau Gudh (Babul niryas) Gudmar Guduchi Gugul kora Gurans Harro (Phal ko bokra) Heledo (Haridra) Imili Punica granatum L. (Burseraceae) Rhododendron sp.-Ham) Wall. (Menispermaceae) Commiphora mukul Engl. (Asclepiadaceae) Tinospora sinensis (Lour. ex Don) G.) Merr. Don (Pinaceae) Coriandrum sativum L. (Apocynaceae) Trichosanthes tricuspidata Lour. (Labiatae) Fegonia cretica Paederia foetida L. (Rubiaceae) Premna integrifolia L.) Kurz. (Leguminosae) Holarrhena pubescens (Buch. (Punicaceae) Cedrus deodara (Roxb. (Plantaginaceae) Syzygium cumini (L.

f. Presl (Lauraceae) Pistacia chinensis Buange (Anacardiaceae) Piper cubeba L.f. (Orchidaceae) Celastrus paniculatus Willd (Celastraceae) Tachyspermum ammi (L. (Piperaceae) Acacia catechu (L. (Zingiberaceae) Thunbergia grandiflora Roxb. (Myricaceae) Mucuna pruriens (L. (Leguminosae) Cinnamomum camphora (L.Don.B. (Leguminosae) Gmelina arborea Roxb.) Willd. (Nelumbonaceae) Bauhinia variegata L. ex D. (Liliaceae) Nelumbo nucifera Gaert. (Euphorbiaceae) Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) DC. (Orchidaceae) Dendrobium sp. (Cucurbitaceae) Saussurea lappa C. f. (Solanaceae) Myrica esculenta Buch. (Acanthaceae) Fritillaria cirrhosa D. (Leguminosae) Myristica fragrans Houtt.) Sprague (Umbelliferae) Curcuma zedoaria Rosc. (Umbellferae) Micostylis sp. Clarke (Compositae) Holarrhena pubescens Parts used Seed Root/Stem Aril Fruit Root Whole plant Seed Fruit Rhizome Fruit Unit Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Required Amount 80 2500 500 1500 100 100 15 1000 250 30 Tentative price kg-1 Remarks Imported 82 Imported Imported Imported 60 60 120 55 30 100 Nepal Nepal Nepal Imported Nepal Nepal 86 87 88 89 90 91 Kaalmegh Kakoli Kamalkeshar Kanchanar bokra Kancho laha Kantakari Whole plant Bulb/Seed Stamen Bark Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg 350 20 90 200 500 1000 35 90 300 45 252 35 Imported Nepal Nepal Nepal Imported Nepal Fruit Kg 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 Kaphal ko bokra Kapikachhu beej Kapur Karkata shringi Kawakchini Kayatha Khamari Krishnaguru Kubhindo Kustha Kutajatawak Bark Seed Solid extract Insect gull Fruit Purified solid/extract Bark Infected parts Fruit Root Bark Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg 60 300 250 100 200 500 200 30 150 200 350 45 100 300 590 600 60 55 50 40 175 36 Nepal Imported Imported Nepal Imported Imported Nepal Imported Nepal Imported Nepal 11 . (Labiatae) Agaloca aculina Benincasa hispida Cogn. (Acanthaceae) Andrographic paniculata Nees.) J. Don.Ham. (Myristicaceae) Cuminum cyminum L. (Leguminosae) Lacifer lacca Solanum surattense Burm.SN 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 Name of species Trade name Scientific name Jayapal Jethimadhu Jipatri Jira Jiwak Jiwanti Joytismati Jwano Kachur Kakanash Croton tiglium L.

(Liliaceae) Rubia manjith Roxb. (Liliaceae) Chlorophytum borivillionam (Liliaceae) Cyperus scariosus R. (Leguminosae) Morus nigra L. (Bombacaceae) Cyperus rotundus L. (Taxaceae) Syzygum aromaticum (L. (Piperaceae) Madhuca longifolia Mac. (Sapotaceae) Polygonatum sp. (Symplocaceae) Taxus baccata L. (Labiatae) Bombax ceiba L. (Malvaceae) Lycopodium clavatum L. (Apocynaceae) Neopicrorhiza scrophulariiflora (Pennell) Hong (Scrophulariaceae) Mimosa pudica L.) Merr. (Leguminosae) Hibiscus abelmoschus L. (Cyperaceae) Phaseolus tribulus L.) Royle. ex G. (Myrtaceae) Polygonatum cirrhifolioum (Wall. (Rubiaceae) Centella asiatica (L.Don. (Umbelliferae) Piper nigrum L. (Liliaceae) Mentha spicata L.SN Name of species Trade name Scientific name Wall. (Lycopodiaceae) Maesua ferra L.) Moon (Asclepiadaceae) Aloe vera L. ex Flem. (Cyperaceae) Sida humilis Willd. (Malvaceae) Symplocus paniculata (Thunb.) Urbal.) Miq. (Ranunculaceae) Marsedenia tenacissima (Roxb. Br. (Gottiferae) Parts used Unit Required Amount Tentative price kg-1 Remarks 103 Kutki 104 105 106 107 108 Lajjalu Latakasturi Lodhatwak Loth salla Lwang Rhizome Kg 750 120 Nepal Root Seed Bark Leaf Flower bud Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg 60 700 380 350200 500 50 200 32 Nepal Imported Imported Nepal 475 Imported 109 Mahameda Rhizome Kg 30 120 Nepal 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 Majistha Mandukaparni Marich Mauwako phul Meda Mentha Mochras Mothe Mugdaparni Mulberry leaf Mungrelo Murwa Musabbar Musali seto Nagarmotha Nagbala Nagbeli Nagkehsar Root Whole plant Fruit Flower Rhizome Whole plant Exudates Tuberous root Whole plant Leaf Seed Root Leaf Root Root Whole plant Microspore Flower Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg 1000 200 1000 30 25 500 250 1400 75 2000 450 10 130 110 300 200 75 500 50 100 175 40 120 Nepal Imported Imported Nepal Nepal Nepal 105 50 65 Imported Imported Nepal Nepal 90 60 300 1000 80 170 250 335 Imported Nepal Imported Imported Imported Nepal Nepal Imported 12 . (Moraceae) Nigella sativa L.

(Leguminosae) Trichosanthes dioica Roxb. (Berberidaceae) Mictostylis sp. (Leguminosae) Pterocarpus santalinus L. (Meliaceae) Citrus lemon (L.Don (Rosaceae) Berginia ciliata (Haw. (Meliaceae) Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Compositae) Cassia fistula L. (Piperaceae) Piper longum L. (Saxifragaceae) Betea monosperma (Lam. var kamaonia C.) Kuntze.) Sternb.) Burm.SN 128 129 130 131 132 Name of species Trade name Scientific name Neem ko pat Nematwak Nimbusatwa Nilkamal Nisotha Azadirachta indica A. f. f.DC. (Cucurbitaceae) Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L (Nyctagineaceae) Cissampelos pareira L. (Moraceae) Piper longum L. (Leguminosae) Berberis aristata DC. (Fumariaceae) Uraria lagopus DC (Leguminosae) Callicarpa marcrophylla Vahl. Juss. f. (Menispermaceae) Ficus religiosa L.f. (Juglandaceae) Stereospermum chelonoides (L. (Compositae) Inula cappa DC. (Nyctagenaceae) Inula racemosa Hook. (Piperaceae) Fumaria indica (Hauss) Pugsley.) DC. (Bigoniaceae) Prunus cerasoides D. (Rutaceae) Nelumbo nucifera Gaert. (Verbenaceae) Boerhavia diffusa L. (Orchidaceae) Parts used Leaf Bark Fruit Flower Root/Bark Unit Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Required Amount 500 180 200 100 30000 Tentative price kg-1 45 65 140 100 85 Remarks Nepal Nepal Nepal Nepal Imported 133 Okhar Fruit Kg 500 Imported 134 135 136 Padari/ Patla Paiyun ko bokra Bark Bark Stem Kg Kg Kg 300 10 520 60 40 250 Imported Nepal Nepal Pakhanbedh Palas ko beej Parbar panchang Parijat Patha Pipal ko bokra Pipla mul Pipla Pitta papada Prishniparni Priyangu Punarnawa mul Puskar mul Raasna Rajbriksha Raktachandan Rasanjan Resvak 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 Seed Whole plant Leaves Root Bark Root/Stem Fruit Whole plant Whole plant Fruit Root Root Twigs Fruit Wood Solid water extract Whole plant Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg 120 300 220 250 20 500 72000 120 700 45 250 170 580 10 1250 330 100 40 100 20 25 50 75 50 65 80 80 54 240 46 Imported Nepal Nepal Nepal Nepal Nepal Imported Imported Imported Nepal Imported Imported Nepal Nepal 95 150 110 Imported Nepal Imported 13 . (Nelumbonaceae) Operculina turpethum (L.) Silva (Convolvulaceae) Juglans regia L.

(Umbelliferae) Anthum sp. (Liliaceae) Moringa oleifera Lam.) Pers. (Euphorbiaceae) Litsea cubeba (Lour.) K. (Leguminosae) Cassia senna L. (Pinaceae) Bombax ceiba L. (Labiatae) Elaeocarpus sphaericus (Gaertn.) R.) Benth.) Voigt (Leguminosae) Rock exudates Mallotus philippensis (Lam.) DC. (Gnetaceae) Foenicum vulgare L. (Ericaceae) Pogostemon bengalensis Kuntz. (Sapindaceae) Rhododendron arboreum Sm. (Apocynaceae) Hemidesmus indicus R. Schum.-Arg. (Bombacaceae) Desmodium gangeticum (L. (Apocynaceae) Asparagus racemosus Willd.Br. Br. (Leguminosae) Evolvulus alsinoides L. Parts used Root Fruit Unit Kg Kg Required Amount 100 500 Tentative price kg-1 120 30 Remarks Imported Nepal 156 Rohita ko bokra Bark Kg 1480 40 Nepal 157 Rudilo Leaves Kg 70 20 Nepal 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 Rudraksha Sal dhup Salla ko khoto Sallo ko bokra Salmali mul Salparni Sanayapati Sankhapuspi Sariwa kalo Sariwa seto Sarpagandha mul Satawari Satuwa Shobhanjan (Sigrubij) Shrikhanda Sikakai Silajit Sindure Siltimbur Somlata Soup Madishe Soup Nepali Fruit Exaduate Resin Bark Root Whole plant Leaf Whole plant Root Root Root Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg 1000 300 190000 10 25 260 2600 100 100 100 30225 40 65 55 35 40 80 80 180 45 45 340 Nepal Imported Nepal Nepal Imported Nepal Imported Imported Imported Imported Nepal/Imported 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 Root Root Seed Heart wood Fruit Fruit stellates/hair glands Fruit Whole plant Fruit Fruit Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg 1200 10 8 400 250 800 150 2500 10 1500 500 215 Nepal Nepal 90 155 Nepal Imported Nepal 1500 250 125 80 Nepal Nepal Nepal Nepal Imported 50 Nepal 14 . (Lauraceae) Ephedra gerardiana Wall. (Dipterocarpaceae) Pinus roxburghii Sargent. (Eleocarpaceae) Shorea robusta Gaertn. (Moringaceae) Santalum album L (Santalaceae) Acacia rugata (Lam. (Pinaceae) Pinus roxburghii Sargent. (Orchidaceae) Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn.SN 154 155 Name of species Trade name Scientific name Ridhi Rittha Habenaria sp. (Liliaceae) Paris polyphylla Smith. (Asclepiadaceae) Rauvolfia serpentina (L.) Muell. (Convolvulaceae) Ichnocarpus frutescens (L.

) Ness & Eberm. (Labiatae) Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Sacc. (Lauraceae) Valeriana jatamansii Jones. (Lauraceae) Sesamum indicum L. (Pinaceae) Oroxylum indica (L. (Valerianaceae) Elettaria cardamomum Maton.) Kurz.) Drury.) Nash (Gramineae) Cordyceps sinensis (Berk. (Bigononiaceae) Cinnamomum tamala (Buch.Don) Mirb. (Brassicaceae) Ocimum santum L. (Rutaceae) Brassica campestris L. (Euphorbiaceae) Total (Herbs) Parts used Unit Required Amount Tentative price kg-1 Remarks 180 Sugandhakokila Root Kg 5000 Nepal 181 Sugandhawal Root Kg 1200 80 Nepal 182 183 184 Sukmel Supari Surankandha Fruit Fruit Bulb Kg Kg Kg 1000 1200 400 Imported Nepal/Imported Nepal 185 Talamkhana Seed Kg 20 270 Nepal/Imported 186 Talispatra Leaf Kg 250 45 Nepal 187 Tatelo Bark/Fruit Kg 400 55 Imported 188 Tejpat Leaf Kg 16000 46 Nepal 189 190 191 192 193 Til ko tel Timur Tori ko tel Tuilsipatra Usir Seed Fruit Seed Whole plant Root Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg 2850 4000 400 32000 70 115 Imported Nepal 90 83 26 90000200000 Nepal Nepal/Imported Nepal 194 195 Yarsagumba Eerand mul Kg Root Kg 50 1031481 Nepal Nepal 35 ESSENTIAL OILS 196 197 198 199 Anthopogon Artemisia Chamomile Citronella Rhododendron anthopogon D. (Compositae) Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt Leaves Leaves Flower Leaves Kg Kg Kg Kg 250 5500 250 12350 4000 2200-6000 13000 440 Nepal Nepal Nepal Nepal 15 .SN Name of species Trade name Scientific name (Umbelliferae) Cinnamomum glaucescens (Nees. (Zingiberaceae) Areca catechu L. (Pedaliaceae) Zanthoxylum armatum DC. (Ericaceae) Artemisa vulgare L.-Ham.Don. (Clavicipidaceae) Ricinus communis L. (Acanthaceae) Abies spectabilis (D. (Palmae) Amophophullus campanulatus Blume (Araceae) Ural ferox (Hygrophila auriculita (Schumach. (Compositae) Matricaria chamomilla L.) Heine.

Don) Mirb. (Labiatae) Nardostachys grandiflora DC. (Lauraceae) Zanthoxylum armatum DC.) W. (Rutaceae) Total (Essential oils) Parts used Unit Required Amount Tentative price kg-1 Remarks 200 Leaves Kg 5000 1050 850-6001000 3798 700012000 4200-2500 1700 Nepal 201 202 203 204 205 Eucalyptus French basil Jatamansi Juniper Kachur Leaf Whole plant Rhizome Leaf Rhizome Kg Kg Kg Kg Kg 5000 250 1000 450 150 Nepal Nepal Nepal Nepal Nepal 206 Lemongrass Leaf Kg 3100 710 Nepal 207 208 Mentha Palmarosa Leaf Leaf Kg Kg 1200 1700 745 940 Nepal Nepal 209 Soti ghans Leaf Kg 100 500 Nepal 210 Sugandhawal Rhizome Kg 150 25000 Nepal 211 Sugandhakokila Stem Kg 275 1500-2000 Nepal 212 Talispatra Leaf Kg 150 4-5000 Nepal 213 Tejpat Leaf Kg 600 3-3500 Nepal 214 Timur Fruit Kg 1500 38975 3000 Nepal 16 . (Lauraceae) Abies spectabilis (D. (Labiatae) Cymbopogon martini (Roxb. (Zingiberaceae) Cymbopogon flexuosus (Nees ex Steud.) Ness & Eberm. (Myrtaceae) Ocimum basilicum L.)Wats (Graminae) Cymbopogon jwarancusa (Jones) Schultes (Gramineae) Valeriana jatamansii Jones. (Cupressaceae) Curcuma zedoaria Rosc.) Drury. Watson (Gramineae) Mentha arvensis L.-Ham. (Valerianaceae) Cinnamomum glaucescens (Nees. (Pinaceae) Cinnamomum tamala (Buch. (Valerianaceae) Juniperus indica Bertol.SN Name of species Trade name Scientific name Dhasingre (Graminae) Gaultheria fragrantissima Wall. (Ericaceae) Eucalyptus camadulensis Sm.

17 . For example Nishod (Operculina turpenthum) is abundant in Terai forest however this species is still not exploited for the commercial purposes. quality control. 140 128 No. Cyprus rotundus. Bombax ceiba. Centella asiatica. 0. processing practices and lack of government policies these species are not supplied in the market. Stereospermum chelonoides. of NTFPs/MAPs consumed 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 11 75 Nepal Imported Nepal / Imported Figure 1. and storage facilities these goods are not supplied in good quality. Syzigium cumini.9 -1% in Citronella. Source and number of NTFPs/MAPs consumed in Kathmandu Valley A great number. Because crude herbs quantity depends on the oil yield of the plant. Tamarandus indica. Nepali Peeper (2 – 3%). Boerhavia diffusa etc are very common in Nepal but neglected in the Nepalese herb market. this number also includes lots of Nepalese NTFPs/MAPs.5% essential oil yield. Among 214 species 128 NTFPs/MAPs species are fulfilled from Nepal. Operculina turpethum. Cedrus deodara. For example Creteva religiosa. 4% oil yield in Lemon grass. For crude herbs consumers like Ayurvedic companies the quanitites is same but for oil exporting companies residing Kathmandu valley their subsequent oil quantity is many fold greater than the oil quantity. 75 NTFPs/MAPs species are imported especially from India and 11 NTFPs/MAPs species are usually supplied both from either Nepal or India. Furthermore the retailer claimed that Dalchini (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) collected from various parts of Nepal do not possess the marketable quality and necessary test so the demand of Dalchini is fulfilled from India. Eucalyptus (1. that are available in Nepal but not still introduced in the trade. Amala are available in Terai forests but due to lack of appropriate harvesting. Coriandrum sativum. Similarly Harro. Some of the NTFPs/MAPs could be fulfilled by the domestic production but due to lack of proper identification. Annually large quantity of these herbs are imported from India to fulfil the demand of Kathmandu valley.The crude herbs and essential oils demand is given in the metric unit Kilogram. For example Dhasingre have 0.3 –3%). 75 NTFPs/MAPs are imported from India. Butea monosperma. Phyllanthus amarus. Eclipta prostrata. Barro.2-0. processing. Excluding some strictly Indian species that are not available in Nepal. Market analysis of the above-mentioned herbs revel that large number of NTFPs/MAPs are supplied from Nepal however in comparision with use of native NTFPs/MAPs species the list of imported plants is also not short. Hollarhena pubescens.5 % essential oil yield. and in Indian Valerian 0. Acacia catechu. Saussurea lappa.

It can be argued that the quality of Harro. then there will definitely reduction in the import of such Herbs in Nepal. 43 and 52 number of NTFPs/MAPs species/forms in 1001-5000 kg. 251-500 kg and 51-250 kg respectively. The herb retailers estimation is far more different than this estimation. it is necessary to supply required quantity regularly to the retailers through several Community forest cooperatives. SN. 196-214 in table 3). 33. 0-50 kg. above 5001 kg. Table 4. Consumption quantity of number of NTFPs/MAPs in Kathmandu Valley 18 . In the case of Imported and Nepal/Imported categories of NTFPs/MAPs if the quantity and quality of Nepalese NTFPs/MAPs would be assessed. in this case the personnel biasness of the retailers is also prominent because they prefer to take all the herbs from India which is very easy for them. After the quality assessment of these species. Number of species with annual quantity of the consumption Quantity of the herbs ( in kg) Number of NTFPs/MAPs species/forms 0-50 51-250 251-500 501-1000 1001-5000 above 5001 60 50 Number of NTFPs/MAPs 33 52 43 24 26 17 (herb) + 19 (oil) = 36 52 40 30 20 10 0 0-50 50-250 33 43 36 24 26 250-500 500-1000 1000-5000 above 5000 NTFPs/MAPs in Kilogram Figure 2. Among the total 214 different traded NTFPs/MAPs species/forms the least 24 number of herbs species/forms are traded in between 501-1000 kg quantity which are then followed by 26. Barro and Amala from Nepal is not maintained by the collectors. 36. The practices of the quality control for these species is poor in Nepal. Here also 36 numbers of NTFPs/MAPs species/forms came under above 5000 kg categories which is due to the assumption that the raw material of the consumed quantity of 19 essential oil bearing conventional/wild herbs need more than 5000 kg raw material to acquire the mentioned oil demand of subsequent NTFPs/MAPs (see essential oil category. While taking other exotic herbs they also take common herbs with guarantee of quantity and quality according to their need. But it is the matter of the study that the quality of Nepalese Dalchini need to be further verified. Furthermore. They claim that Nepalese NTFPs/MAPs species are only 20% in the market while 80% NTFPs/MAPs are fulfilled by Indian herbs.

transporters and even the small suppliers are quite unaware about their quality. Besides the NTFPs/MAPs supplied by the retailers of the Kathmandu valley the herbal practitioners/manufacturers also purchase the raw materials from the local collectors nearby 19 . origin and final consumption of their products. INDIAN HERB RETAILERS INDIAN HERB RETAILERS Local consumption Terai. monopoly of the traders and weak government policies.1996). Since time immemorial the indigenous community of Kathmandu valley. Mid hills traders (RETAILERS) Local Traders of Kathmandu Valley (NEWAR) Terai. the Newars. Mid hills traders Local consumption Terai. Mid hills traders Local consumption (RETAILERS) MARWADI Traders IN Kathmandu Valley Terai. Mid hills traders Local consumption TIBETAN HERB RETAILERS TIBETAN HERB RETAILERS PAST PRESENT Figure 3. The ultimate target of both types of the organizations is to increase the production for local consumption as well as to meet the international market. midhills. Traditional Market links of NTFPs/MAPs in Kathmandu Valley Kathmandu. These companies either manufacture their own products or just collect processed or crude herbs and directly export it. These well established major Marwadi or Terai traders supply not only the Nepalese herbs of different rural parts but also fulfil the demand of huge amount of Indian herbs inside the country. Past and Present Herbs trade chain in Kathmandu Valley Due to lack of information on the herbs to the consumers. were the major suppliers of herbs for the different Ayurvedic manufacturers residing different parts of Nepal.2. In many cases the harvesters. high hills ayurvedic manufacturers/practitioners and Tibetian herbal practitioners/manufacturers (Edwards.3. Kathmandu valley an important junction of India-Tibet market channel for bi-directional movement of Himalayan and tropical herbs is still playing vital role in the movement of different herbs from different parts of Nepal to India and vice versa. These traders were also the trade link of potential NTFPs/MAPs from Himalayan and Tibetan part to the south (India). These traders have facilitated various Indian herbs for low land. collectors. As time passed on Newar traders of Kathmandu valley are then gradually replaced by the Marwadi retailers to whom the Kathmandu based local traders were dealing on the herbs. the capital city holds most of the herbal based companies of the country. This kind of practice still can be observed in Tibetan medicine and Nepal/India based Ayurvedic practitioners/manufacturers. herbs business is one of the secret business where the trade channel is the confidential part which could not disclosed through the stakeholders.

This type of practice summarise the trade channel however due to advance money taken by collectors from roadhead traders/village traders. who function as the primary suppliers of the herbs. They are in regular communication with Indian business to obtain the latest market information. whether it is form Nepal or India. Despite the interwoven market chain built by the retailers from Kathmandu or Terai some of the manufacturing/processing/exporting companies are now quite sure about the origin of 20 . Within the chain of retailers it is hard to trace out that which is the Nepalese and which of Indian origin and also their quality too.Kathmandu valley. Furthermore. Sometimes it is also said that some Nepalese common herbs have low quality than Indian herbs. Due to successful launch of community forest approach. Dealing with the trade linkage and channels Figure 3 describes herbs movement in India. Herbs supply in Kathmandu valley also shows similar trend where herbs passes up to processing/exporting companies from various tiers of stakeholders. hazardous collection. now the CFUGs can also come and discuss with the concerned authority of the herbal company and supply their herbs in the mutually understanding prices. Due to accessibility of road and communication facilities roadhead traders are the main centre of NTFPs /MAPs trade. Due to this the harvesters up to roadhead traders always get very little sum of the money that increases several folds in the markets of India and western countries. however due to discontinuous supply of herbs from community forest people. Further the roadhead traders are connected with the most powerful group of intermediateries the Terai or midhills trader. These practices have reducing the bargaining power of the roadhead/village traders and maintain the monopoly of the Terai traders over the price and quality fixing of the herbs from north. These traders have large catchment areas from where varieties of NTFPs/MAPs come. Roadhead traders or village traders should negotiate for the price of their herbs according to the terai traders. For this reason roadhead traders pay government royalties and obtain permission to export the NTFPs/MAPs. Herbs from the collectors then decentralises to the different tiers of stakeholders. premature collection and illegal poaching also observed to pay back the advances. which further reach up to collectors via village traders. which totally depends on the amount of benefits and ease of control over the trade of the herbs by the retailers. due to the secret connection of the retailers to different Nepalese and Indian traders even the Ayurveda manufacturers/practitioners can't trace the herbs they consume. The herbs that are very common in Nepal can not directly get access up to processing/exporting companies of Kathmandu valley and forced to enter the secret supply business of retailers. again manufacturer/processors need to depend on retailers. The Kathmandu based processing/exporting companies some times fulfil their annual demand of the herbs directly from the collectors or road head traders. In general. whose assistance in the marketing chain improves the economics of collection and increases the volume of the trade. To establish and continue the control over the NTFPs/MAPs the roadhead traders also supply working capital as monetary advances. Figure 3 and 4 gives the conventional market channel of the herbs in Kathmandu valley. In this case the herbs retailers in Kathmandu are by passed. In this way roadhead traders have more control over the village traders of different localities with diverse resources. herders. The terai traders are typically Marwari a cultural group with close links in India. farmers). The retailers residing Kathmandu valley get highest margin while the harvesters/collectors get the least. The collectors are close linked with village traders and village traders with road head traders. Nepal and its neighbouring Tibetan parts in brief. trade channel of herbs begins from the harvesters/collectors (CFUGs. Collectors have good knowledge on the available local resources. These Terai or Midhills traders are so interconnected that herbs from roadhead traders/village traders can't by pass them.

Cinnamomum leaf are such crops that are providing real benefit to the farmers and processors with market transparencies. Hence from the market survey of different herbs what also becomes clear that until and unless we can't deal or export our products in processed form we can't get real benefit from the products. Xanthoxylum. Mulberry leaf. Artemisia. Valerine can be seen. Lemongrass. Citronella.their products and also the sustainability of their trade. Chamomile. Jatamansi. Several CFUGs are benefited from this system. They fulfil their own demand from their own farm. Anthopogon. Juniper. The manufacturing/processing or exporting companies own large hectares of conventional crop farms. Abies. French basil. 21 . Similarly same trend in some wild herbs like Wintergreen. Calamus. There is not any cheating in these products and both collectors and exporters are sharing good benefits. Mentha. If they could not fulfil their demand they encourage community forest user groups to plant the herbs whose buy by guarantee is provided by the company.

HARVESTERS. FOOD. SOAP. FARMERS & HERDERS VILLAGE TRADERS ROAD-HEAD TRADERS MIDDLEMAN HERBAL FARMS TERAI & MIDHILLS TRADERS INDIAN RETAILERS CRUDE HERBS RETAILERS IN KATHMANDU AYURVEDIC MANUFACTURERS AND TRADITIONAL PRACTITIONERS/PRODUCERS ESSENTIAL OIL PRODUCERS HERBS SHOPS PERFUME.CFUGs. FOOD. SOAP. Conventional trade link of NTFPs/MAPs in Kathmandu Valley 22 . CHEMICAL PRODUCERS AYURVED MEDICINE RETAILERS PERFUME. CHEMICAL RETAILERS CONSUMERS Figure 4.

Piperaceae Chlorophytum borivillianum Liliaceae Asparagus racemosus Willd. Zingiberaceae Nardostachys grandiflora DC.2. Watson Gramineae Mentha arvensis L. Asteraceae Swertia chirayita Karst. BDS-MaPS priority NTFPs/MAPs and consumption in Kathmandu The market survey shows that the priority NTFPs/MAPS species of BDS/MaPS also posses the good demand by the Ayurvedic manufacturers and essential oil exporters in the valley (Table 5). green rhizome/ / Essential oil Fresh/Dry plants Rhizome powder Essential oil Dry leaves/ Essential oil Essential oil Dry roots Essential oil Dry fruits Root Dry roots Crude material Essential oil Dry leaves/ Essential oil Dry fruits/ Essential oil Dry plant Scientific Names Amomum subulatum Roxb Zingiberaceae Phyllanthus emblica L. Morchellaceae Curcuma longa L. Zingiberaceae Morchella conica Pers. Liliaceae Rock exadute Cymbopogon jwarancusa Schultes Gramineae Cinnamomum tamala Nees & Eberm. Valerianaceae Cymbopogon flexuosus W. Hypocreaceae Amount in Kg 600 18000 (dry) 25000 (fresh) 4035 25000 -250 (oil) 21000 12350 (oil) -250 (oil) 6000 -1000 1000 (oil) 3100 (oil) 1200 (oil) -1700 (oil) 72000 -1200 800 100 (oil) 16000 (dry) 600 (oil) 4000 (dry) 1500 (oil) -- 23 . Labiatae Zingiber officinale Rosc. Gramineae Piper longum L.) Correa Rutaceae Aconitum spicatum Ranunculaceae Matricaria chamomilla L. Table 5. Gentianaceae Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt Gramineae Hippophae tibetana Schleecht Elaeagnaceae Ocimum basilicum L. Euphorbiaceae Withania somnifera Duna Solanaceae Aegle marmelos (L. Lauraceae Zanthoxylum armatum DC.4. Rutaceae Cordyceps sinensis (Berk) Sac. BDS-MaPS Project priority herbs/products and their demand in Valley SN 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Trade names Alaichi Amala Ashwagandha Bel Bish Chamomile Chiraito Citronella Dalechuk French Basil Ginger Gucchi chyau Haledo Jatamansi Lemon grass Mentha Padamchal Palmarosa Pipla Safed Musali Satawari Shilajit Soti ghans Tej pat Timur Yarsagumba Types of products Dry fruits Fresh/Dry fruits Dry roots Fresh/Dry fruits Dry roots Dry flower/ Essential oil Dry plant Essential oil Ripe fruits Essential Oil Dry. Labiatae Rheum australe D. Don Polygonaceae Cymbopogon martini Wats.

Like wise Nepalese Tejpat (Cinnamomum tamala) is not available in the market. To address such species the quality should be ensured and try to introduced in the market. other species can be supplied regularly in the valley through the cooperative based market chain. BDS/MaPS should integrate and revise the priority list according to the Government priority and the high demand herbs in Kathmandu valley. company need to work with the different cooperatives from different localities. The retailers. Forty one NTFPs/MAPs species with thousand kg or more demand are listed in table 6. Among the total number of species Nepalese species comprises 20. because the retailers claimed that it posses low quality than Indian Tejpat. The species like Alaichi. traditional practitioners. So there is a great opportunity for the extension of the market in Kathmandu valley. Pipla. So it shows that including both categories Imported and Nepal/Imported. Amala. Similarly. manufacturers and exporters in Kathmandu valley and outside. Ayurvedic manufacturers. Bel. 2. 24 . Imported 14 and Nepal/Imported species 7. Mentha and Yarsagumba other species from the pocket areas of BDS/MaPS are either not traded in Kathmandu valley or they could not traced out in the market of Kathmandu valley whether they are from the BDS/MaPS pocket areas or not. To fulfill this demand detail species status and proper market chain is needed. Cooperative concept would energies the government capital as well as maintain the sustainable conservation of the NTFPs/MAPs. Jatamansi. The market chain (Figure 5) is purposed by taking inputs from retailers. HMG has also listed thirty NTFPs/MAPs species in National priority list of the herbs and twelve species in list of plants for cultivation and research (Appendix III). In this context to gain the optimum benefits. if the supply could be made regularly whenever needed with good quality. For this a well managed trade link can be incorporated with all the stakeholders. Soti ghans and Timur having good demand in valley are common in the pocket districts. Tejpat. For example commonly available Silajit from Dolpa is scarce in the valley because it has been not supplied due lack of trade link. Ayurvedic manufacturers and traditional practitioners are ready to consume the species. Here the role of BDS/MaPS is very crucial for the initiation and development of the proper market chain. exporters and experts.5. Avoiding spices and condiments from India this table only include the NTFPs/MAPs supplied from Nepal and India as well. Collection and supply of market through micro or macro entrepreneurs can fulfil the demand of both collectors and processors/manufacturers. So for the promotion of these priority species a proper market chain can be followed as discussed in Figure 5. The market module developed in Figure 5 describes the cooperative concept of different BDS/MaPS pocket districts and their integrated work with retailers and NTFPs/MAPS processors. the Imported NTFPs/MAPs accounts 21(14+7) species. For the Kathmandu based production companies. This practice might be helpful for the promotion of the NTFPs/MAPs trade. Market opportunities From the present study it is concluded that the demand of the priority species of BDS/MaPS in the valley is high.Except Silajit. and livelihood upliftment of the stakeholders involved.

(Euphorbiaceae) Ocimum santum L. NTFPs having annual demand more than 1000 kg in Kathmandu Valley SN 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Name of species Trade name Scientific name Loth salla Salla ko khoto Pipla Chabo Amala (Dry/Fresh) Tuilsipatra Sarpagandha mul Nisotha Bel Chiraito Taxus baccata L. (Piperaceae) Piper chaba Hunter. (Solanaceae) Zanthoxylum armatum DC.000 25000 21000 Imported Nepal Nepal Guduchi Harro (Phal ko bokra) Tejpat Stem Fruit pulp 20.) Merr. (Piperaceae) Phyllanthus emblica L.) Corr. ex Flem. (Lauraceae) Terminalia bellirica (Gaertn. (Zingiberaceae) Cinnamomum glaucescens (Nees.) Ness & Eberm.) Drury.) Karst (Gentianaceae) Tinospora sinensis (Lour. (Combretaceae) Cinnamomum tamala (Buch. (Rutaceae) Swertia chirayita Roxb.000 30225 Remarks Nepal Nepal Imported Nepal/Imported Nepal/Imported Nepal/Imported Nepal/Imported Root/Bark Fruit Whole plant 30.Table 6. (Leguminosae) Gymnema sylvestre R. (Lauraceae) Withania somnifera Dunal. (Leguminosae) Parts used Leaf Resin Fruit/ Root/Stem Fruit Fruit Whole plant Root Required Amount 350200 190000 72500 55000 50000 32. (Apocynaceae) Operculina turpethum (L.000 16625 Nepal Nepal/Imported Leaf 16000 Nepal 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Dalchini Barro (Phal ko bokra) Bamsalochan Aduwa (Sutho) Sugandhakokila Ashogandha Mul Timur Gugul kora Sanayapati Gudmar Jethimadhu Bark 12000 Imported Fruit pulp Calcium compound Rhizome Root Root Fruit Gum/resign Leaf Leaf Root/Stem 10. (Bombacaceae) Zingiber officinale Rose.-Ham.000 7250 6000 5000 4035 4000 2700 2600 2520 2500 Nepal/Imported Imported Nepal Nepal Imported Nepal Imported Imported Imported Imported 25 . (Pinaceae) Piper longum L. Br. (Labiatae) Rauvolfia serpentina (L.) Silva (Convolvulaceae) Aegle marmelos (L. (Lauraceae) Cinnamomum zeylanicum Breyn.) Benth. (Burseraceae) Cassia senna L. ) Roxb. (Asclepiadaceae) Glycyrrhiza glabra L. (Rutaceae) Commiphora mukul Engl. (Combretaceae) Bombax ceiba L. (Taxaceae) Pinus roxburghii Sargent. (Menispermaceae) Terminalia chebula Retz.

(Rubiaceae) Piper nigrum L. (Ericaceae) Cyperus rotundus L. (Zingiberaceae) Solanum surattense Burm.) L. B. (Piperaceae) Elaeocarpus sphaericus (Gaertn. (Lauraceae) Morus nigra L. ex Flem. (Solanaceae) Rubia manjith Roxb. (Cyperaceae) Pterocarpus santalinus L. (Leguminosae) Asparagus racemosus Willd. (Moraceae) Eclipta prostrata (L. (Eleocarpaceae) Parts used Fruit Leaf Whole plant Root Whole plant Bark Tuberous root Wood Root Required Amount 2500 2000 1600 1500 1500 1480 1400 1250 1200 Remarks Nepal Nepal Imported Nepal Nepal/Imported Nepal Imported Imported Nepal Sugandhawal Baruntwak Astismahari (Fresh Hadchur) Heledo (Haridra) Kantakari Root Bark Whole plant Rhizome Fruit 1200 1180 1058 1000 1000 Nepal Imported Nepal Nepal Nepal Majistha Marich Rudraksha Root Fruit Fruit 1000 1000 1000 Nepal Imported Nepal 26 . (Zygophyllaceae) Rhododendron arboreum Sm.) Pers. (Compositae) Delphinium himalayi Munz. (Liliaceae) Valeriana jatamansii Jones. f. f. (Ranunculaceae) Tribulus terrestris L. (Lauraceae) Curcuma longa Roxb.) K. (Capparaceae) Litsea glutinosa (Lour. (Valerianaceae) Creteva religiosa Fors.SN 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 Name of species Trade name Scientific name Siltimbur Mulberry leaf Bhringaraj (Dry) Atis Gochhur Rohita ko bokra Mothe Raktachandan Satawari Litsea cubeba (Lour.) C. Schum.f. Rob.

CF Cooperative Surkhet CF Cooperative Shyanjga CF Cooperative Ayurvedic companies & traditional practitioners Kathmandu Essential oil producer Kathmandu Perfume. food. CF Cooperative Banke. CF Cooperative Kailali. Purposed NTFPs/MAPs market linkage for BDS . retailers in Kathmandu India (Different manufacturer) Terai traders Roadhead traders Village traders Harvesters Figure 5.MaPS 27 .Western districts product other than BDS-MaPS pocket districts CONSUMERS Dolpa. soap. CF Cooperative Bardiya. Chemical producers Kathmandu Exporters Regional cooperative Nepalgunj Kathmandu based Herb enterprise (Coordinate Nepal based herbs Initiation of BDS-MaPS) Suppliers.

However. transportation and export SN Scientific name Local name English name Use 1 Panchaule Orchid Medicinal and Tonic Dactylorhiza hatagirea 2 Okhar ko Bokra Walnut Dye Juglans regia 3 Kutki Gentian Medicine Neopicrorhiza srcophulariifolia Plants banned for export outside the country in unprocessed form 4 Jatamansi Spikenard Medicine and incense Nardostachys grandiflora 5 Sarpagandha Rauvolfia Medicine Rauvolfia serpentine 6 Sugandhakokila Nepali Sassafras Aromatic Cinnamomum glaucescens 7 Sugandhawal Valerian Medicine and incense Valeriana jatamansi 8 Jhyau Lichen Medicine Parmelia spp. particularly the NTFPs/MAPs. Forest Act 1993. transportation. 9 Talis Patra Fir Incense Abies spectabilis 10 Taxus baccata Lauth salla Himalayan Yew Medicine 11 Cordyceps sinensis Yarshagumba Tonic 12 Stone exudates Silajit Stone exudstes Medicine Plants banned for Transportation. several policies. The Forest Act (1993) restricts NTFPs/MAPs use by imposing a licensing systems for NTFPs removal. use. however. a royalty system. Generally. The Forest Rules (1995) further describes the regulations. Accordingly. controlling authority at the local district forest office. Forest Regulation 1995 and their amendments.2. HMG. sale. sale. The role of government agencies is perceived to be a controlling authority rather than an agency that enables local environments. distribution and export of any products without any justification. the national policy objectives do not seem to be properly translated into regulations and practices in order to generate desired impacts on local communities and conservation (Subedi. the national policy framework is innovative and provides opportunities for sustainable use and equitable sharing of benefits. 2000). plans. export and felling for commercial purpose 13 Michelia champaca Chanp Magnolia Timber 14 Acacia catechu Khayar Cutch Tree Medicine 15 Shorea robusta Sal Common Sal Timber 16 Bombax ceiba Simal Silk cotton tree Timber 17 Dalbergia latifolia Satisal Rose wood Timber 18 Pterocarpus marsupium Bijaya Sal Indian Keno tree Timber 19 Juglans regia Okhar Walnut Timber . Table 7. use. in pursuant with section 70 (a) of the Forest Act 1993. distribution. Marketing and Trade The policy and regulatory environment plays a very significant role in all the facets of trade including the trade of NTFPs/MAPs. Policies greatly influence the regulatory mechanism and procedures in which the NTFPs have been traded. acts and law interact to regulate and set the context in which NTFPs/MAPs are managed and utilized for subsistence and commerce (Subedi.6. and export. Tenth Five Year Plan etc. Existing National Policies on NTFPs/MAPs Management. Plants under HMG protected list categories Plants banned for collection. has imposed restrictions on the collection of 19 different forest products under three different categories mentioned below. The existing acts and regulations are still restrictive in nature to support efficient and sustainable use of forests resources. Nepal does not have specific policy and legal framework relating to NTFPs/MAPs subsector. The most relevant legal provisions include Master Plan for Forestry Sector 1989. in practice. The Forest Rules (1995) stated that species not mentioned in the legislation cannot be traded until sanctioned by the government. with a notice published in Nepal Rajpatra in 31 December 2001. and severe punishment for NTFPs collecton. sale. 2000). It further states that the government may impose a ban on the collection.

These procedures lack institutional support and the provisions for public goods (such as information. 2000). research. HMG has also proposed MAP list for development of herbs. research and its cultivation based on national and international demand as per distribution. The policy try to address the royalty issues. local use. Though the details of this document is till not available but some of the changes are made. A new policy 'Herbs and NTFP development policy 2060' has been drafted.The procedures and provisions in NTFPs trade that are in current practice seem to contain a set of complex and restrictive provisions to obtain permits and to extract and utilize forest products. HMG has formed the Herbs and NTFP coordination committee for the promotion of all NTFPs. Recently. technology. These provisions are also significant for the trade and conservation of NTFPs/MAPs. and Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD). quality issues. market information issues. benefit sharing issues. conservation issues. and the contribution for the overall poverty alleviation issues. Nepal is also a signatory of some of the major international regulations such as Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). 29 . infrastructure. The priority list is provided in Appendix III. Moreover. and finance) to private and community enterprises (Subedi. medicinal importance etc.

But the share taken by the domestic products is minimal. The priority of the country should be to market such products. To promote the Nepalese species there is an urgent need of quality and quantity assessment. Ayurvedic practitioner. Most of the data on consumption quantities and prices are taken from major herb retailers. There is a increasing trend in the production of traditional medicines. To fulfil this demand.Chapter III 3. For this government should have specific policy for the promotion of the domestic companies. Among 214 species 128 NTFPs/MAPs species are fulfilled from Nepal. NTFPs/MAPs trade in the Kathmandu valley is a very traditional and unpredictable. BDS/MaPS need to work with various stakeholders for the establishment of proper market chain. herb retailers. It is beyond doubt that the country and the people involved in medicinal herbs utilization will benefit highest if finished consumer products can be produced with the available or cultivable raw material. Majority of common species having high demand in valley are fulfilled from the Indian market. action plan development and its monitoring is one of the main means to arrive at a better planning for sustainable management of the resources. Some Ayurvedic practitioners guess that the domestic production fulfils 15% of the consumption (Amatya. The market of MAPs is expanding day by day and this is an opportunity as well as a challenge for a more sustainable. medicinal and aromatic plants are of special significance to the Nepalese economy because of their value to the local collectors. Herb business which directly links with the Nations capital and livelihood of different levels of the stakeholders is still not considered seriously by the government and civil society. Continuous MAPs inventory. Total 214 species of NTFPs/MAPs are listed which are consumed by various companies. There are several constrains if the domestication and the formal development of NTFPs/MAPs market to be address. From the present study it is known that the data on the import or domestic production of traditional Ayurvedic medicines has not yet been compiled in detail. these includes: • • • • • • • lack of infrastructure in the rural areas. 2000). Those retailers are the main herb suppliers within and outside the valley. efficient and equitable management of these resources. The domestic market for traditional medicine should not be ignored. Ayurvedic companies and essential oil producers/exporters. Import of such products is to check if that product replaces the domestic products. But the recorded information on the status of this resource is crucially lacking. making access to markets difficult low volume of products poor or variable quality of products no continuity of supply poor handling and storage qualities limited knowledge of the product among consumers ineffective enforcement of rules and regulations 30 . Herb retailers and manufacturers are not ready to provide the information about the consumption. The priority NTFPs/MAPs species of BDS/MaPS posses the good demand by the Ayurvedic manufacturers and essential oil exporters in the valley. 75 NTFPs/MAPs species are imported especially from India and 11 NTFPs/MAPs species are usually taken both from either Nepal or India. fresh or processed forms. Conclusion and Recommendation Among all categories of Non timber Forest Products. the small traders. These items are used as raw. Nepal has been regarded as a leading supplier since quite a long time.

To organize and develop this trade on a sustainable basis. micro-enterprises need to be developed with the active participation of Community Forest User Groups or trained local people/collectors. A holistic approach to the domestication and commercialization of NTFPs should involve the local community at grassroots level from the very beginning. 31 . Under the provisions of the Forest Act. It requires a multidisciplinary team. government officials on NTFPs management lengthy and costly export formalities inequitable and unfair distribution of profits among the NTFPs collectors and traders lack of NTFP processing facilities in local level control of limited retailers in the market lack of market information system among the Nepalese collectors in local level Some plants of high market potential are available in fewer numbers. This is a long-term slow process. financial and marketing capacity. financial and marketing capacity of the local people needs to be promoted. Collection/harvesting of NTFPs is more on individual basis. There are no quick-fix solutions. each having its own specialist inputs. In order to exploit the comparative advantage of these potential NTFPs/MAPs well managed agroenterprises need to be established. 1995 there are restrictions/ and ban on exporting. Coordination among the promoting organization. farmers and traders is very important. government offices. 1993 and the Forest Regulations. So the technical. felling and transportation of certain valuable NTFPs/MAPs.• • • • • • weak Institutional capacity of CFUGs. These should be processed. Some restricted herbs can't be marketed or exported in crude forms. preferably by collaborating agencies. Normally in our case processing of NTFPs is not an easy task for the commodity group with very limited technical.

Edwards. Aryal..P. 1951. Saharanpur and Teepress Books. Thapathali. K.T. 2004. HIMAL 6 (1): 9-11. Bartlett. Bangkok. Biodiversity in Nepal: Status and Conservation. N. Amatya. Socioeconomic and Institutional impact of community based ecosystems management project in Humla. Rasaily. Inventory of four high value non-timber forest products in Jumla. Kathmandu. Plant resources (a newsletter). Nepal. Marketing of Multipurpose Tree Products in Asia. and R.M. 1997. S. flow channels and marketing of NTFPs in Rapti zone Nepal. 1998. Discussion paper series no. I. In proceeding Nepal Japan Joint Symposium on Conservation and Utilization of Himalayan Medicinal Resourcesk Kathmandu. Proceedings of the third regional workshop on "Community based NTFPs management" (Amatya. and J. Wild Edible Plants of Nepal.1982. Arnold. Thapathali. J. ICIMOD.K and S. K..) 150-153. Curtis. Amatya. The trade in Non-Timber forest products from Nepal: Institutions for local development. Forest research and survey center. Sukla. Investigating Oportunities for the Promotion of Non-Timber Forest Products in SindhuPalchowk and Kabhre Palanchok District of Nepal. Terai Arc landscape asessment: Biodiversity component. 1995.M. D. Nepal-UK Forestry Research Project. DMP. G. Nepal. Joshi.C. Karki. Diverted wealth: The trade in Himalayan Herbs.M. J. Department of Medicinal Plants. D. J. 1998. Edwards. CECI. Kathmandu: ANSAB. Agroforestry for the development of Non-Timber Forest Products in Nepal. Nepal.M. Campbell. Kathmandu. 1983. A. Economic Consideration in Agroforestry. Nepal. Institute of Forestry. Chandrasekharan. 1993.. Nepal. Buddha Academy Publishers and Distributors Pvt. Utilization of Himalayan medicinal plant resources: Status. B. Agroforestry system 1: 6. A report submitted to WWF. Department of Plant Resources. Chaudhary. Joshi. 1998. and SEEPORT. Bhandari. 1997. Kathmandu. Production. Fox. E. Kathmandu: ICIMOD. Kathmandu. USA. Thailand. Datta. 1996.H. An Upland forest continuum in the Prairie forest border region of Wisconsin. 1996.4. Community Based Economic Development Project (CBED/HMG/N-CIDA). problem and prospects. R.B. McIntosh. M. Nepal Australia Community Forestry Project. Common Wealth Forestry Review 71 (2): 95-100 Basnet.K. MNR 98\1 Kathmandu. Ed. FORSEC Monographs. 2000. Francisco. K. A. 2000. Ecology 32: 476-496.R. 1994. Devi. 1995. M. IOF / ITTO. Genetic Heritage of medicinal and aromatic plants of Nepal Himalayas. Nepal. Denholm.P. Kathmandu. D. Non-timber forest products from Nepal. Situation analysis of Banke and Bardia districts: A forest enterprise development perspective. Pokhara. 32 .N. U. Tribhuvan University. DPR. G. Ltd. John. Inspiration in Community Forestry: Report of the Seminar on Himalayan Community Forestry. and N. ANSAB. A Review of Community Forestry Advances in Nepal. The possibility and potentiality of cultivation for high mountainous medicinal plants-a case study from Humla district. Ban Udhyam-BSP/New ERA. 1993. Kathmandu. 1999. and R.D. Society and Non-timber Forest Products in Tropical Asia. 1998. S. Selective References Achet. 2001. Nepal. R and H. S. S.. 2001. 1992. S. Pokhara. Mountain Natural Resources NTFPs Institutions and Income generation in Nepal Lessons for community forestry. J. Aspects of the trade in Medicinal and aromatic plants.

221-232.R. NTFPs and Their importance. 1997. 2000.P. 2001.N. Identification Manual for some NTFPs of Nepal. N. Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs) in the Critical Bottlenecks and Corridors of Terai Arc Landscape-Nepal: Documentation.L. 2004. Ghimire. In proceeding Nepal Japan Joint Symposium on Conservation and Utilization of Himalayan Medicinal Resourcesk Kathmandu. Shrestha. A project report submitted to Hill Agriculture Research Project. Nepal. Medicinal plants of Nepal: I-III. A report submitted to WWF-Nepal.S.B. M.. 28: 181-190. INBAR Technical Report No. MAPDON – Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Database of Nepal. Thapathali. Policy and Regulatory Environment for the Conservaton and Utilization of Himalayan Medicinal Resources in Nepal. N.N.. Finnida. Y and R. Timber Press. Ethnobotany of Nepal. Plants and Peoples of Nepal. Oregon. R. Tripureshwor. 266-279. K.K. Utilization. Baluwatar.C. Rattan and medicinal plants in mountain development. Nepal. pp. The role of bamboo. Markets and Margins: Implications for development. Rajbhandari. Maharjan. 9. In Proceedings of Nepal-Japan Joint Symposium 2000.) The role of bamboo. Status of commercialization of medicinal and aromatic plants of Nepal. Malla. Nepalese Herbs & Herbal Exporter Directory. 10). C. 1997. and fodder in the national income accounting framework: Banko Jankari 5:1. S. 2004. Subedi. 2004. Kathamandu. 189-206. In proceeding Nepal Japan Joint Symposium on Conservation and Utilization of Himalayan Medicinal Resourcesk Kathmandu. Tiwari. and B. Rajbhandari. P. The trade in Medicinal and Aromatic plants from Central Nepal to Northern India. Uprety. 1990. and S. Nepal Herbs and Herbal Products Association. S. S. Tiwari. N. 174-188. Uprety and Poudel. 2002.).. Subedi. Medicinal plants. The Rising Nepal (Feb. Y.N. Rajbhandari. Shrestha. Nepal.. Pakhribas. 33 .N.C. FRIS project paper no. C. Nep.P. Assoc. 2000. Joshi. Shakya. Y.R.K. (Eds. Rawal. Kathamandu. Shrestha. Kathmandu. and M. et al. In Kaki et al.Forest resource information system project (FRISP) HMG/N. K. Accounting for market and non-market production of timber. Tiwari and S. 2001. USA. Pokhara. J. P.P. 2004. 2003. Kathmandu. NEHHPA. Department of Plant Resources. Vertical scaling of methodology for domestication of Chiraito in Nepal. S. rattan and medicinal plants in mountain development. Med. Olsen. M. Uprety. K. Trade and People’s Livelihood. R.K. 15. 1995.B. 1997. N. In Karki M. 53-74. Nepal. Dhankuta. pp 26 Olsen. K. Shrestha. (Eds. Ethnobotanical Society of Nepal (ESON). Economic Botany 52 (3): 279-292.S.R.Katila.. B. Poudel. Nepal. fuel wood. 1998. Shrestha. Community based natural resource management: medicinal and aromatic plants in Nepal. Manandhar.

*Dabur Nepal Pvt. Male International Pvt. Gorkha Ayurveda Company Traditional Himalayan Herbs Siddartha Herbal Industry Aarogya Bhavan Works 6 2 1 800 200 4 10 120 30 15 15 3 18 4 5 Singhadurbar Vaidyakhana VS Krishna Aushadhalaya SN Trade of the Herbs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Aaap ko Koya ko gudi Aduwa (sutho) Aguru Akarkara Alaichi Amala (Dry) Amala (Fresh) Amalbetas Anthopogon Argeli Arjun Artemisia Ashogandha Mul Ashok Astismahariri (Fresh Hadchur) Asuro (Dry) Atibala Atiras Babur ko bokra Bakainu Bakuchi 700 - 25 7 2 3500 10000 15 40 1345 75 705 70 10 380 10 25 3000 10000 20000 - 600 150 300 5000 5000 100 1000 300 500 100 - 100 5000 - 70 500 - 70 50 - 150 350 - 4 2 1 800 150 4 10 100 30 15 10 2 15 2 3 3 1 500 200 6 50 100 25 5 10 1 2 1 3 3 2 1 500 75 3 30 100 35 10 5 5 10 3 3 100 25 50 15 10 5 3 Piyusbarsi Aushadhalaya - 1 - 34 . Ltd. *Cosmos Herbal Products Pvt.Appendix I Annual consumption of herbs by different organizations residing Kathmandu Valley (in Kg) Kunphen/Other Tibetan Aushadalaya 32 115 22 45 Everest Herbs Processing Pvt. Suri Herbal Product Industry Natural Resources industries Alternative Herbal Products Pvt. lLtd. Ltd. Ltd. Ltd.

Ltd. Suri Herbal Product Industry Natural Resources industries Alternative Herbal Products Pvt. Ltd. *Cosmos Herbal Products Pvt.Kunphen/Other Tibetan Aushadalaya 39 23 40 - Everest Herbs Processing Pvt. *Dabur Nepal Pvt. Ltd. Male International Pvt. Ltd. Gorkha Ayurveda Company Traditional Himalayan Herbs Siddartha Herbal Industry SN Trade of the Herbs 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 Bakul (Maulashree) Balu (Bala) Bamsalochan Barro (Phal ko bokra) Baruntwak Batsanav bish Bayar ko bokra Bayu bidang Belchana Belmul Bhagitwak Bhringaraj (Dry) Bhui amala Bidari kanda Bidhara biz Bihi Bijayasal Bojho Bramhi Bridhi Chabo Chakramarda Chaku Chamomile Chiraito Chiraka koli 700 - 5 45 725 2367 1 100 10 180 265 15 17 326 50 45 24 60 5 90 10 14 15 20 115 100 10 20 50000 20000 - 300 4000 200 300 150 200 150 80 100 300 100 - 200 - 300 - 30 - 1000 - 10 60 370 1 10 5 10 140 10 2 10 2 3 2 20 1 4 5 1 10 5 22 18 2 10 50 300 1 5 15 150 30 3 15 1 5 3 30 1 3 1 1 10 20 10 1 13 50 100 1 2 2 10 20 10 2 5 5 1 2 8 1 2 2 12 1 30 75 1 10 10 5 2 2 10 1 2 10 - - 10 65 350 1 17 10 15 120 25 4 30 5 5 3 25 1 5 7 1 15 25 15 1 35 Aarogya Bhavan Works Singhadurbar Vaidyakhana VS Krishna Aushadhalaya Piyusbarsi Aushadhalaya . lLtd.

Ltd. lLtd. *Cosmos Herbal Products Pvt. Suri Herbal Product Industry Natural Resources industries Alternative Herbal Products Pvt. Gorkha Ayurveda Company Traditional Himalayan Herbs Siddartha Herbal Industry SN Trade of the Herbs 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 Chitu mul Chiuriko Ghiu Chuk (Amilo) Chutro ko bokra (Daruharidra) Citronella Dalchini Danti mul Darim ko phal ko bokra Devdaru Dhaniya Dhasingre Dhatur biz Dhayeri ko phool Drona puspi Durlavha Eucalyptus French basil Ghambhari Gandhaprashri ni Geranium Gineri Gochhur Granthiparani - 25 215 200 130 27 35 65 10000 - 300 300 400 150 300 200 50 - 2000 2000 500 200 - 2000 2000 2500 200 - 1000 1000 500 100 2500 - - 80 5 10 8 5 2 4 2 5 2 30 5 25 5 15 35 5 100 10 1 3 10 6 1 2 5 2 15 10 7 2 10 5 1 5 1 10 10 5 - 500 100 - 75 2 10 1 3 4 2 35 15 - 5 200 10 10 3 25 20 20 25 - 5 20 260 10 20 30 - 36 Aarogya Bhavan Works Singhadurbar Vaidyakhana VS Krishna Aushadhalaya Piyusbarsi Aushadhalaya . Ltd.Kunphen/Other Tibetan Aushadalaya 25 55 - Everest Herbs Processing Pvt. *Dabur Nepal Pvt. Ltd. Male International Pvt. Ltd.

Ltd. Ltd. *Cosmos Herbal Products Pvt. lLtd. Gorkha Ayurveda Company Traditional Himalayan Herbs Siddartha Herbal Industry SN Trade of the Herbs 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 Green tea Guchhi Chyau Gud Gudh (Babul niryas) Gudmar Guduchi Gugul kora Gum acacia Gurans Harro (Phal ko bokra) Heledo (Haridra) Imili Indarajau Indrayani Isamgol Jamun biz Jatamansi Jayapal Jethimadhu Jhyau Jipatri Jira Jiwak Jiwanti Joytismati 10000 700 - 2710 40 5 180 1350 45 2325 150 5 100 5 15 20 590 15 15 5 2000 - 7000 200 - 500 300 - 500 325 200 - 500 250 - 120 15 2 200 40 5 10 600 50 2 7 1 5 3 15 5 50 10 5 3 2 1 150 10 1 250 50 500 25 5 3 30 60 50 2 2 80 15 100 10 3 1 2 1 10 5 1 1 - 75 15 75 15 6 15 5 - 50 - 100 10 1 200 60 550 25 5 4 75 2 4 1 300 5000 100 500 200 700 50 200 - 1 2 0. Ltd.5 37 Aarogya Bhavan Works Singhadurbar Vaidyakhana VS Krishna Aushadhalaya Piyusbarsi Aushadhalaya .Kunphen/Other Tibetan Aushadalaya 50 29 111 32 11 7 18 - Everest Herbs Processing Pvt. Suri Herbal Product Industry Natural Resources industries Alternative Herbal Products Pvt. Ltd. Male International Pvt. *Dabur Nepal Pvt.

Ltd. Ltd. Suri Herbal Product Industry Natural Resources industries Alternative Herbal Products Pvt. *Cosmos Herbal Products Pvt. lLtd. Ltd.Kunphen/Other Tibetan Aushadalaya 16 51 18 21 16 55 - Everest Herbs Processing Pvt. Ltd. Gorkha Ayurveda Company Traditional Himalayan Herbs Siddartha Herbal Industry SN Trade of the Herbs 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 Juniper Jwano Kachur Kaju Kakanash Kakoli Kalmegh Kamalkeshar Kanchanar bokra Kancho laha Kantakari Kaphal ko bokra Kapikachhu beej Kapur Karkata shringi Kauso Kawakchini Kayatha Khamari Khayar seto Krishnaguru Kubhindo Kustha Kutajatawak Kutki - 15 15 5 5 35 100 60 5 60 40 80 155 1 5 130 15 20 60 215 - - 150 100 250 70 125 25 - 150 100 - 150 25 - - 5 3 1 3 4 1 15 10 35 5 3 2 2 5 10 1 10 8 2 30 5 25 10 2 1 2 25 5 30 2 5 4 5 3 30 5 1 40 3 20 2 1 2 10 12 1 1 2 2 2 3 15 2 10 10 2 2 3 2 2 2 10 - 50 - 3 1 3 30 7 25 3 5 7 3 5 25 5 1 30 3 30 - 300 70 100 500 - 38 Aarogya Bhavan Works Singhadurbar Vaidyakhana VS Krishna Aushadhalaya Piyusbarsi Aushadhalaya . Male International Pvt. *Dabur Nepal Pvt.

Kunphen/Other Tibetan Aushadalaya 19 - Everest Herbs Processing Pvt. Ltd.5 25 5 50 2 2 3 2 1 15 1 2 1 1 3 2 10 2 15 10 50 200 - 3 2 17 1 2 5 3 1 2 1 50 3 1 1 20 3 45 39 Aarogya Bhavan Works Singhadurbar Vaidyakhana VS Krishna Aushadhalaya Piyusbarsi Aushadhalaya . Male International Pvt. Ltd. *Cosmos Herbal Products Pvt. *Dabur Nepal Pvt. Ltd. Ltd. lLtd. Suri Herbal Product Industry Natural Resources industries Alternative Herbal Products Pvt.5 40 3 1 0. Gorkha Ayurveda Company Traditional Himalayan Herbs Siddartha Herbal Industry SN Trade of the Herbs 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 Lajjalu Latakasturi Lemongrass Lodhatwak Lokta Loth salla Lwang Mahameda Majistha Marich Mandukaparni Masaparni Mauwako phul Mayur ko putchar Meda Mentha Mochras Mothe Mudilo Mukdaparni Mulberry leaf Mungrelo Murwa Musabbar Musali seto Nagarmotha 2000 - 31 15 91 14 77 5 13 18 20 13 80 862 40 13 5 5 5 40 25 15000 - 200 400 300 200 500 150 200 350 50 150 1500 500 - 2000 - 2000 500 2000 - 500 - 5 5 15 5 2 1 5 3 2 1 1 30 1 2 3 1 15 3 40 2 3 10 1 2 5 3 1 1 0.

Kunphen/Other Tibetan Aushadalaya 20 25 - Everest Herbs Processing Pvt. lLtd. *Dabur Nepal Pvt. Ltd. Ltd. Ltd. Gorkha Ayurveda Company Traditional Himalayan Herbs Siddartha Herbal Industry SN Trade of the Herbs 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 Nagbala Nagbeli Nagkehsar Neem ko pat Nematwak Nimbusatwa Nirgundi Nirkamal Nisodh Okhar Paanch Aulae Padari Paiyun ko bokra Pakhanbedh Palas ko biz Palmarosa Parbar panchang Parijat Pashanbeda Patha Patla Pipal ko bokra Pipla Pipla mul Pitta papada Prishniparni - 15 190 60 110 55 20 5785 5 5 10 30 220 20 15 70 100 30 70000 - 150 100 400 50 200 800 120 80 200 50 500 100 - 1500 - 50 3000 - - 500 - 2 50 10 1 15 5 15 250 1 1 2 1 5 3 1 1 2 2 32 2 75 15 1 20 2 60 5 20 20 300 3 3 30 25 2 30 1 3 4 2 3 2 1 2 1 10 10 3 5 3 2 1 10 10 - 3 60 5 25 20 325 - 4 - 4 35 30 3 30 40 Aarogya Bhavan Works Singhadurbar Vaidyakhana VS Krishna Aushadhalaya Piyusbarsi Aushadhalaya . *Cosmos Herbal Products Pvt. Male International Pvt. Suri Herbal Product Industry Natural Resources industries Alternative Herbal Products Pvt. Ltd.

lLtd. Suri Herbal Product Industry Natural Resources industries Alternative Herbal Products Pvt. Gorkha Ayurveda Company Traditional Himalayan Herbs Siddartha Herbal Industry SN Trade of the Herbs 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 Priyanku Punarnawa mul Puskar mul Raasna Rajbriksha Raktachandan Rasanjan Resvak Ridhi Rittha Rohita ko bokra Rudhilo Rudrakshya Sal dhup Salla ko khoto Sallo ko bokra Salmali mul Salparni Sanayapati Sankhapuspi Saphed chandan Sariwa kalo Sariwa seto Sarpagandha mul Satawari Satuwa - 25 50 140 58 1012 311 20 20 296 146 170 5 15 26 260 10 - 100 150 50 50 300 100 50 250 100 500 - 30000 - - - - 1 25 3 2 2 10 5 1 1 15 2 1 2 2 20 40 1 1 2 25 6 5 1 20 5 3 20 10 1 1 20 3 2 1 30 50 1 3 20 5 - 5 3 4 10 1 1 10 25 1 12 5 2 5 2 8 10 2 1 15 30 10 5 - - 2 21 5 3 25 10 1 1 25 5 2 2 25 60 1 10 10 20 455 - - 3 20 10 - 41 Aarogya Bhavan Works Singhadurbar Vaidyakhana VS Krishna Aushadhalaya Piyusbarsi Aushadhalaya . *Dabur Nepal Pvt.Kunphen/Other Tibetan Aushadalaya 25 18 - Everest Herbs Processing Pvt. Male International Pvt. Ltd. *Cosmos Herbal Products Pvt. Ltd. Ltd. Ltd.

Ltd. Ltd. Ltd.5 50 1 1 1 1 1 1 0. Suri Herbal Product Industry Natural Resources industries Alternative Herbal Products Pvt. Male International Pvt. *Cosmos Herbal Products Pvt. *Dabur Nepal Pvt.5 2 1 10 15 35 2 1 1 8 10 30 3 - 1 45 1 - 1 1 15 30 40 100 20 3 1 1 20 30 45 125 25 10 5 10 20 25 985 865 170 4300 42 Aarogya Bhavan Works Singhadurbar Vaidyakhana VS Krishna Aushadhalaya Piyusbarsi Aushadhalaya .Kunphen/Other Tibetan Aushadalaya 50 15 15 - Everest Herbs Processing Pvt. Gorkha Ayurveda Company Traditional Himalayan Herbs Siddartha Herbal Industry SN Trade of the Herbs 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 Silajit Sipligan Shobhanjan (Sigrubij) Shrikhanda Sikakai Siltimbur Sindure Somlata Soup Madhise Soup Madhise Soti ghans Sugandhakokil a Sugandhawal Sukmel Supari Surankanda Sutho (Aduwa) Tagar Talamkhana Talispatra Tatelo Tejpat Til ko tel Timur Tori ko tel Tuilsipatra - 2 30 100 5 75 - 7000 3000 - 201 150 100 150 300 150 600 300 300 250 50 50 400 - 50 25 50 50 50 500 - 100 50 50 50 50 - 1000 300 100 - 15 10 1 30 2 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 15 32 35 120 5 15 3 0. lLtd. Ltd.

Everest Herbs Processing Pvt. 2000. *Cosmos Herbal Products Pvt. 25 1 30 2 *Dabur Nepal Pvt. Ltd. Ltd. 43 Piyusbarsi Aushadhalaya Siddartha Herbal Industry Aarogya Bhavan Works Kunphen/Other Tibetan Aushadalaya . The Bold case of the amount represents the essential oil. Gorkha Ayurveda Company Natural Resources industries Male International Pvt.224 225 226 227 SN Usir Yarsagumba Yelandamul Yelbalu Trade of the Herbs Alternative Herbal Products Pvt. 2 3 1 Traditional Himalayan Herbs Suri Herbal Product Industry 5 Krishna Aushadhalaya 6 5 Singhadurbar Vaidyakhana VS * Amatya. lLtd. Ltd. Ltd.

Which NTFPs/MAPs have high demand in your company ? 11. What are the NTFPs/MAPs species your company use to manufacture the Herbal products ? 2. How many products are you manufacturing regularly ? 13. From where and whom do you consult to purchase the herbs ? 4. quality and quantity of the herbs ? 5. What do you expect from BDS-MaPS for the establishment of trade link of the BDSMaPS priority NTFPs/MAPs up to your company ? 44 . Does the government policies favours your herbal business ? 9. What is your annual demand for the specified herbs ? 3. Do you have any trade linkage with Nepalese collectors/CFUGs/Harvestors/Herb retailers ? 7. What is the local and international market for your products ? 12. Can you purpose any alternative supply system ? 8. Are you satisfied with the supply system. What is your suggestions for the promotion of the Nepalese NTFPs/MAPs ? 14.Appendix II Checklist for Market Study of NTFPs/MAPs in Kathmandu Valley 1. How can we supply the Nepalese raw materials in the market? 10. What is the status of the Nepalese herbs ? 6.

8. 15. Dhasingare Gaultheria fragrantissima Wall.-Mazz Gurjo Tinospora sinensis (Lour.Appendix III National Priority list of Herbs SN 1.) Benth. 21. 29. Bojho Acorus calamus Linn. ex Kurz Yarshagumba Cordyceps sinensis (Berk. Amala Phyllanthus emblica Linn. 22.-Mazz Okhar Julans regia Linn. 2. Species Panchaule Dactylorhiza hatagirea (D. 7. Pipla Piper longum Linn. 12. 2. 6. 12. 17. Timur Zanthoxylum armatum DC. Sarpaghandha Rauwolfia serpentina (L. 8. Bhakur Dioscorea deltoidea Wall. 10 4.) Merr. 10. 4. 18.Don) Soo Jones Kutki Neopicrorhiza scrophulariifolia (Pennel) Hong Jatamansi Nardostachys grandiflora DC. 6. ex Kurz Satawari Asparagus racemosus Willd. 20. 45 . 2004 11.) Merr. 9. Tejpat Cinnamomum tamala (Buch. Ritha Sapindus mukorossii Gaertn. Timur Zanthoxylum armatum DC. 27. 5. ex Fleming) Karstrn Sarpaghandha Rauwolfia serpentina (L. Gurjo Tinospora sinensis (Lour. List of plants for cultivation and research SN 1. 14. Guchichau Morchella conica Pers Jangali Sayapatri Tagetes minuta Linn. Juss. Jhau Lichens Padamchal Rheum australe Royle Majitho Rubia manjith Roxb.-Ham) Ness & Eberm. 26.) sacc Lotha Salla Taxus baccata Linn. 16. Pipla Piper longum Linn. 13. 5. ex Fleming) Karstrn Jatamansi Nardostachys grandiflora DC.) Benth. Satawari Asparagus racemosus Willd. 7. Sughandhawal Valeriana jatamansi Jones Chiraito Swertia chirayita (Roxb. 3. 25.) sternb.ex Fleming Sughandhakokila Cinnamomum glaucescens (Ness) Hand. Sughandhakokila Cinnamomum glaucescens (Ness) Hand. 28. Sughandhawal Valeriana jatamansi Jones Lotha Salla Taxus baccata Linn. Neem Azadirachta indica A.Don) Soo Jones Kutki Neopicrorhiza scrophulariifolia (Pennel) Hong Chiraito Swertia chirayita (Roxb. 24. 11. 30. 9. Source: DPR. 23. Species Panchaule Dactylorhiza hatagirea (D. Bikha Aconitum spicatum (Bruhl) Stapf Lagupatra Podophyllum hexandrum Royle Pakhanved Berginia ciliata (Haw. 3.

Rakesh Aggrawal Mr. Govinda Pokhrel General Manager Mr. Nardevi Sagarmatha Ayurvedic Ausadhi Udyog. Buddha Nagar. Narendra N Tiwari General Manager Dr. Madu Bajra Bajracharya President Mr. Dillibazar. Kedar N. Newroad. Kathmandu Ph: Person visited with Mr. Bhaktapur Ph: 6633605 SinghDarbur Baidhya Khana Bikas Samiti. Kathmandu Ph: 4781769 Darbur Nepal Pvt Ltd. Sinchahiti. Rajan Pokhrel Proprietor Proprietor -- Mr. Kathmandu Ph: 4492174 Arogya Bhavan Works. Kathmandu Ph: 6633125 Everest Herbs Production Private Ltd. Sudeep Rimal Mr. Tusal Gorkha Ayurved Company Ltd. Dhananjaya Mr. Dharma Ratna Shakya Mr. Kathmandu Ph:4413462 Lo Kunfen Aushdhalaya. Dillibazar. Ram Narayan Sah Position Proprietor General Manager Dr. Kathmandu Ph: 4478010 Piyusbarshi Ausadhalaya. Prem Raj Tiwari General Manager Proprietor Proprietor Proprietor Proprietor Traditional practitioner General Manager 46 . Tinkune. Kathmandu Ph: 4469892 Alternative Herb Production. Paknajol. Govinda Ghimire Mr. Kathmandu Nepal Traditional Ayurved Practitioners Association Mahaboudha. Bhaktaput Ph: 6632942 Aggrawal Traders. Baneshwor. Kathmandu Ph: 4770174 Herb Production & Processing Company Ltd. Kedar Uprety Mr. Sumir Rimal Dr. Lalitpur Ph: 5530518 Siddhartha Herbal Industry. Rana Bdr Rawal General Manager Dr. Madu Bajra Bajracharya Amchi Kunsang Dorge Lama General Manger Proprietor Proprietor Dr. Dhurba R Bhattari General Manager Mr.Appendix IV List of Organizations and Persons Visited and Interviewed Name of the Organization Suri Herbal Product. Badri Narayan Dr. Kathmandu Ph: 4412407 Trade house. Koteshwor. Mahaboudha. Thimi. Kathmandu Ph: 4223960 Male' International Pvt Ltd. Bauddha. Gaushala. Kathmandu Traditional Himalayan Herbs. Gysto Bista Mr. Teku. Anamnagar. Kathmandu Kunfen Ausadhalaya. Mustang Ph: 2023016 Himalaya Herbal Udyog. Wangchuk Lama Mr.

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