2 Force and Motion Chapter 1 Motion I

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26
1 Motion I

Practice 1.1 (p. 6)
1 C
2 D
3 (a) Possible percentage error
=
3600 24
10
6
×

× 100%
= 1.16 × 10
–9
%
(b)
6
10
1

= 1 000 000 days
It would take 1 000 000 days to be in
error by 1 s.
4 (a) One day
= 24 × 60 × 60
= 86 400 s
(b) One year
= 365 × 86 400
= 31 500 000 s
5 Let t be the period of time recorded by a
stop-watch.
Percentage error =
t
0.4
× 100%≤ 1%
t ≥ 40 s
The minimum period of time is 40 s.
6 (a) Percentage error
=
measured time
time reaction to due error
× 100%
=
10
3 0.
× 100%
= 3%
(b) From (a), the percentage error of a short
time interval (e.g. 10 s) measured by a
stop-watch is very large. Since the time
intervals of 110-m hurdles are very short
in the Olympic Games, stop-watches are
not used to avoid large percentage
errors.
7 (a) From 1 January 2009 to 10 January 2009,
the watch runs slower than the actual
time by 9 minutes.
Therefore, when the actual time is
2:00 pm on 10 January 2009, the time
shown on the watch should be 1:51 pm
on 10 January 2009.
(b) Percentage error
=
60 24 9
9
× ×
× 100%
= 6.94 × 10
–2
%

Practice 1.2 (p. 15)
1 C
2 B
3 D
4 D
5 (a) Total distance she travels
=
2
15 2
2
20 2
2
10 2 × ×
+
× ×
+
× ×

= 141 m
(b) Magnitude of total displacement
= 10 × 2 + 20 × 2 + 15 × 2
= 90 m
Direction: east
Her total displacement is 90 m east.
6 His total displacement is 0.
7 With the notation in the figure below.

Since ZX = ZY = 1 m, α = β = 60°.
Therefore, XY = ZX = ZY = 1 m
The magnitude of the displacement of the ball
is 1 m.
2 Force and Motion Chapter 1 Motion I

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27
8 (a) The distance travelled by the ball will be
longer if it takes a curved path.
(b) No matter which path the ball takes, its
displacement remains the same.

Practice 1.3 (p. 23)
1 B
Total time
= 9821
8 . 0
5000
4 . 1
5000
= + s
Average speed = 02 . 1
9821
5000 5000
=
+
m s
–1

2 C
Total time = 9821 + 10 × 60 =10 421 s
Average speed = 96 . 0
421 10
5000 5000
=
+
m s
–1

3 D
When the spacecraft had just finished 1
revolution, the spacecraft returned to its
starting point. Therefore, its displacement was
zero and its average velocity was also zero.
4 D
5 (a) Average speed
= 3 . 10
69 . 9
100
= m s
–1

(b) Yes. This is because the magnitude of
the displacement is equal to the distance
in this case.
6 (a) Two cars move with the same speed, e.g.
50 km h
–1
, but in opposite directions.
(b) A man runs around a 400-m playground.
When we calculate his average speed,
we can take 400 m as the distance and
his average speed is non-zero. But since
his displacement is zero (he returns to
his starting point), his average velocity
is zero.
7 (a) Length of the path
= 0.8 × 120 = 96 m
(b) Length of AB along the dotted line
=

96
= 30.6 m
(c) Magnitude of Jack’s average velocity
= 51 . 0
120
2 6 . 30
=
×
m s
–1


Practice 1.4 (p. 31)
1 C
2 B
Final speed
= 1.5 × 1 – 0.2 × 1 = 1.3 m s
–1

3 A
By
t
u v
a

= ,
v = u + at
) . (
.
5 1
6 3
36
− + = × 2
= 7 m s
–1

= 7 × 3.6 km h
–1

= 25.2 km h
–1

Its speed after 2 s is 25.2 km h
–1
.
4 B
Take the direction of the original path as
positive.
Average acceleration of the ball
=
8 . 0
17 10 − −

= –33.8 m s
–2

The magnitude of the average acceleration of
the ball is 33.8 m s
–2
.
5 By
t
u v
a

= ,
t =
a
u v −
=
5 . 6
0
6 . 3
100

= 4.27 s
The shortest time it takes is 4.27 s.
2 Force and Motion Chapter 1 Motion I

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28
6
Time / s 0 2 4 6 8
Speed / m s
–1
2 7 12 17 22
5 . 2
8
2 22
=

=

=
t
u v
a m s
–2

The acceleration of the car is 2.5 m s
–2
.
7 (a) I will choose ‘towards the left’ as the
positive direction.
(b)


(c) By
t
u v
a

= ,
15 3 ) 2 ( 9 = × − − = − = at v u m s
–1

The initial velocity of the skater is
15 m s
–1
.
8 (a) The object initially moves towards the
left and accelerates towards the left. It
will speed up.
(b) The object initially moves towards the
right and accelerates towards the left. It
will slow down. Its velocity will be zero
and then increases in the negative
direction (moves towards the left).

Revision exercise 1
Multiple-choice (p. 35)
1 C
2 D
3 B
4 D
Average speed
=
5
60 80 +

= 28 km h
–1
Average velocity
=
5
60 80
2 2
+

= 20 km h
–1
5 C
Total time
=
3
10
2
10
+
= 8.33 s
Average speed
=
33 . 8
20

= 2.4 m s
–1

Her average speed for the whole trip is
2.4 m s
–1
.
6 C
7 C
8 C
9 B
10 A
Magnitude of displacement
=
2 2
6000 2000 +
= 6324.6 m
Magnitude of average velocity
=
3600 4
6 . 6324
×

= 0.439 m s
–1


2000
6000
tan = θ
° = 6 . 71 θ
His average velocity is 0.439 m s
–1

(S ° 6 . 71 E).
2 Force and Motion Chapter 1 Motion I

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29
11 C
Total time s 780 min 13 = =
Average speed
1
s m 15 . 2
780
2 840

=
×
=
12 D
13 (HKCEE 2003 Paper II Q3)

Conventional (p. 37)
1 Total time left for the two players
= 4 × 60 + 9 + 5 × 60 + 16 = 565 s (1M)
Total time they have been playing
= 2 × 60 × 60 − 565
= 6635 s (= 110 min 35 s = 1 h 50 min 35 s)
(1A)
2 (a) 50 m (1A)
(b) Magnitude of average velocity of Kitty

15 60 1
50
+ ×
= (1M)

1
s m 667 . 0

= (1A)
(c) Average speed of the coach

15 60 1
5 50 5
+ ×
+ +
= (1M)

1
s m 8 . 0

= (1A)
3 (a) Since she measures the time interval
based on 1 cycle of the pendulum, the
error (0.3 s) in measuring the cycle of
the pendulum accumulates. (1A)
The range of the time interval (10 cycles)
is from 8 to 14 s. (1A)
(b) When finding the time for one pendulum
cycle, Jenny should time more pendulum
cycles (e.g. 20) with the stop-watch and
divide the time by the number of cycles.
(1A)
4 (a) Time required
=
6 . 20
1000 4 . 7 ×
(1M)
= 359 s (5 min 59 s) (1A)
(b) Displacement from Sheung Shui to Lok
Ma Chau
=
1
1000
× 6.3
= 6300 m (1A)
Magnitude of average velocity
=
359
6300
(1M)
= 17.5 m s
–1
(1A)
5 (a) Total distance
= 1500 + 40 × 1000 + 10 × 1000
= 51 500 m
Total time
= 2 × 3600 + 3 × 60 + 8
= 7388 s
Average speed
=
7388
500 51
(1M)
= 6.97 m s
–1
(1A)
(b) Swimming:
Average speed
=
28 60 21
1500
+ ×

= 1.16 m s
–1
Cycling:
Average speed
=
53 60 1 3600 1
000 40
+ × + ×

= 10.8 m s
–1

Running:
Average speed
=
47 60 39
000 10
+ ×

= 4.19 m s
–1

(1M)
His average speed was the highest in
cycling. (1A)
2 Force and Motion Chapter 1 Motion I

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30
(c) Yes. Since the time interval of this
competition is quite long, (1A)
using stop-watch will not result in large
percentage error as the reaction time for
an average person is only 0.2 s. (1A)
6 (a) v = u + at (1M)
= 0 + 6 × 4
= 24 m s
–1

= 86.4 km h
–1
(1A)
The maximum speed of the car is
86.4 km h
–1
.
(b) v = u + at (1M)
= 24 + (–4) × 2
= 16 m s
–1

= 57.6 km h
–1
(1A)
The final speed of the car is 57.6 km h
–1
.
(c) a =
t
u v −
(1M)
=
6
0 16 −

= 2.67 m s
–2
(1A)
The average acceleration of the car is
2.67 m s
–2
.
7 (a) Average speed
=
60 8
000 30
×
(1M)
= 62.5 m s
–1
(1A)
The average speed of the train is
62.5 m s
–1
.
(b) Maximum speed
=
6 . 3
430
= 119.4 m s
−1
> average speed
(1A)
The average speed must be smaller than
the maximum speed because the train
needs to speed up from start and slows
down to stop during the trip. (1A)
(c) Total time = 5 min 45 s − 1 min 58 s
= 3 min 47 s
= 3 × 60 + 47 = 227 s

t
u v
a

= (1M)
=
227
0
6 . 3
431

= 0.527 m s
–2
(1A)
The average acceleration of the train is
0.527 m s
–2
.
8 (a) Total distance
= 8000 + 4000 + 5000
= 17 000 m
Total time
= 1 × 3600 + 30 × 60 + 45 × 60
= 8100 s
Average speed
=
8100
000 17
(1M)
= 2.10 m s
–1
(1A)
(b)

Magnitude of displacement
= 5000 4000 3000
2 2
= + m
Magnitude of average velocity
= 617 . 0
8100
5000
= m s
–1
(1A)
tan θ =
3000
4000

θ = 53.1° (1A)
His average velocity is 0.617 m s
–1

(N ° 1 . 53 E).
2 Force and Motion Chapter 1 Motion I

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31
∆XYZ is a
right-angled
triangle.
N
9 (a) Distance travelled
= 10.5 × 3 × 60 (1M)
= 1890 m (1A)
(b) Circumference of the track
= r 2
= ) 400 ( 2
= 2513 m
The distance travelled by Marilyn is
1890 m which is about
4
3
of the
circumference. (1A)


Magnitude of displacement AB
=
2 2
400 400 +
= 566 m
Magnitude of average velocity
=
60 3
566
×

= 3.14 m s
–1
(1A)

400
400
tan = θ
° = 45 θ (1A)
Her average velocity is 3.14 m s
–1

(S ° 45 E).
10 (a) Total distance
= (120 + 50) × 1000 (1M)
= 170 000 m (1A)
(b)










Magnitude of displacement (from town
X to town Z)
=
2 2
000 50 000 120 +
= 130 000 m (1A)

50
120
tan = θ
° = 4 . 67 θ (1A)
° = ° − ° = 6 . 22 4 . 67 90 ψ ʳ
° = ° − ° = 4 . 37 6 . 22 60 α
The total displacement of the car is
130 000 m (N ° 4 . 37 E).
(c) Total time
= 200 10
6 . 3
60
000 170
= s (1A)
Magnitude of average velocity
=
200 10
000 130
(1M)
= 12.7 m s
–1
(1A)
Its average velocity is 12.7 m s
–1
(N ° 4 . 37 E).
X
Y
Z
60°
30°
120 km
50 km
θ
ψ
α
2 Force and Motion Chapter 1 Motion I

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32
11 (a)

(Correct label of velocity with correct
direction (towards the left).) (1A)
(Correct label of acceleration with
correct direction (towards the right).)
(1A)
(b)

Time / s 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
v / m s
–1
–6 –4 –2 0 +2 +4 +6
(0.5A × 6)
(c) The car will slow down and (1A)
its speed will drop to zero. (1A)
After that the car will move towards the
right with increasing speed (uniform
acceleration). (1A)
12 (a) Total distance travelled
= 60 + 80 + 80 + 60 (1M)
= 280 m (1A)
(b) Magnitude of total displacement
= 80 + 80 = 160 m (1M)
The total displacement of the athlete is
160 m (west). (1A)
(c) Total distance travelled
= 280 + 60 + 80 (1M)
= 420 m (1A)






AC =
2 2
80 60 + = 100 m
tan θ =
60
80
θ = 53.1°
The total displacement of the athlete is
100 m (S53.1°W). (1A)
13 (a) The coin moves in the following
sequence: BACCA
Therefore, it is at A finally. (1M)
Displacement of the coin
= 15 cm (1A)
(b) Distance travelled by the coin
= 15 + 30 + 30 (1M)
= 75 cm (1A)
(c) (i) Total time = 2 s × 4 = 8 s
Average velocity
=
8
10 15
2 −
×
(1M)
= 0.0188 m s
−1
(1A)
(ii) Average speed
=
8
10 75
2 −
×
(1M)
= 0.0938 m s
−1
(1A)
(d) (i) The coin moves in the following
sequence:
BACCABB
Therefore, it is at B finally. (1A)
(ii) The displacement of the coin is
zero. (1M)
Therefore the average velocity of
the coin is also zero. (1A)
14 (a) Total distance
= πr (1M)
= 5π
= 15.7 m (1A)
Total displacement
= 5 + 5 (1M)
= 10 m (1A)
A
C
60 m
80 m
θ
(1M)
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33
The total displacement travelled by her
is 10 m.
(b) Jane’s statement is incorrect. (1A)
Since both girls start at X and meet at Y,
they have the same displacement. (1A)
Betty’s statement is incorrect. (1A)
Since both girls return to their starting
point, their displacements are zero. (1A)

Physics in articles (p. 40)
(a) From 19 January 2006 to 28 February 2007,
(1A)
It takes New Horizons spacecraft a total of
406 days to travel from the Earth to Jupiter.
(1A)
(b) (i) Average speed
=
travel of time total
travelled distance total
(1M)
=
24 406
10 8
8
×
×

= 8.21 × 10
4
km h
−1
(1A)

(ii) Average acceleration
=
travel of time total
y in velocit change
(1M)
=
( )
24 406
10 79 . 5 23 . 8
4
×
× −

= 2.50 × 10
4
km h
−2
(1A)
(c) July 2015 (1A)
2 Force and Motion Chapter 2 Motion II

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1
2 Motion II

Practice 2.1 (p. 61)
1 D
2 B
3 D
4 D
5 B
10
2
10 30
=

= v m s
–1

The velocity of the car at t = 2 s is 10 m s
–1
.
6 C
7 (a) Total displacement
= 4 × 5 + (−5) × (7 − 5) = 10 m
The total displacement from the
staircase to her classroom is 10 m.
(b) Classroom C
8

9 (a) The object accelerates.
(b) The object first moves with a constant
velocity. Then it becomes stationary and
finally moves with a higher constant
velocity again.
(c) The object decelerates to rest, and then
accelerates in opposite direction to
return to its starting point.
(d) The object moves with uniform velocity
towards the origin (the zero
displacement position), passes the origin,
and continues to move away from the
origin with the same uniform velocity.
10 (a) The object moves with a constant
velocity.
(b) The object moves with a uniform
acceleration from rest.
(c) The object moves with a uniform
deceleration, starting with a certain
initial velocity. Its velocity becomes
zero finally.
(d) The object first moves with a uniform
acceleration from rest, then at a constant
velocity, and finally moves with a
smaller uniform acceleration again.
(e) The object moves at a constant velocity
and then suddenly moves at constant
velocity of same magnitude in the
opposite direction.
(f) The object moves with uniform
deceleration from an initial velocity to
rest, and continue to move with the
uniform acceleration of the same
magnitude in opposite direction.
11 (a) The object moves with zero acceleration
(with constant velocity of 50 m s
–1
).
(b) The object moves with a uniform
acceleration of 5 m s
–2
.
(c) The object moves with uniform
deceleration of 5 m s
–2
.
12 (a) It moves away from the sensor.
2 Force and Motion Chapter 2 Motion II

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2
(b)

13 (a)

(b) Total distance travelled
= area under the graph
=
2
3 6) (12 × +

= 27 m
(c) Average speed
=
taken time
travelled distance total

=
3
27

= 9 m s
–1

14 (a) She moves towards the motion sensor.
(b) The highest speed of the girl in the
journey is 3.5 m s
–1
.
(c) The greatest rate of change in speed

2
5 . 3 0 −
=
= –1.75 m s
–2

(d) Total distance travelled
= area under the graph
=
2
6 2
2
2 5 . 3 ×
+
×

= 9.5 m

Practice 2.2 (p. 71)
1 C
By v
2
= u
2
+ 2as,

2
3.6
290

= 0 + 2 × 1 × s
s = 3240 m = 3.24 km < 3.5 km
The minimum length of the runway is
3.5 km.
2 B
Cyclist X is moving at constant speed.
Time for cyclist X to reach finish line
= s 30
5
150
time
nt displaceme
= =
For cyclist Y: u = 5 m s
–1
, s = 250 m,
a = 2 m s
–2

By s = ut +
2
1
at
2
,
250 = 5 × t +
2
1
× 2 × t
2

t = 13.5 s or t = −18.5 s (rejected)
Y needs 13.5 s to reach finish line.
Therefore, cyclist Y will win the race.
3 B
Since the bullet start decelerates after fired
into the wall, we could just consider the
displacement of the bullet in the wall. To
prevent the bullet from penetrating the wall,
the bullet must stop in the wall.
2 Force and Motion Chapter 2 Motion II

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3
By v
2
= u
2
+ 2as,
0 = 500
2
+ 2 × (−800 000) × s
s = 0.156 m = 15.6 cm < 15.8 cm
The minimum thickness of the wall is
15.8 m.
4 C
When the dog catches the thief at t = 5 s, its
total displacement is 30 m. The dog is sitting
initially, so u = 0.
By s = ut +
2
1
at
2
,
30 = 0 +
2
1
a(5)
2

a = 2.4 m s
–2

Its acceleration is 2.4 m s
–2
.
5 D
6 a =
t
u v −
10
6 . 3
36
6 . 3
90

= = 1.5 m s
–2

By v
2
= u
2
+ 2as,
s =
a
u v
2
2 2

=
1.5 2
3.6
36
3.6
90
2 2
×

= 175 m
The distance travelled by the motorcycle is
175 m and its acceleration is 1.5 m s
–2
.
7 (a) Thinking distance
= speed × reaction time
=
6 . 3
108
× 0.8 = 24 m
(b) Since the car decelerates uniformly,
braking distance
=
2
u v +
× t
=
2
0
6 . 3
108
+
× (3 − 0.8)
= 33 m
(c) Stopping distance
= thinking distance + braking distance
= 24 + 33 = 57 m
8 By v = u + at,
14 = u + 2 × 5
u = 4 m s
–1

By v
2
= u
2
+ 2as,
14
2
= 4
2
+ 2 × 2 × s
s = 45 m
The displacement of the girl is 45 m.
9 (a) v = u + at = 0 + 20 × 0.3 = 6 m s
−1

The horizontal speed of the ball
travelling towards the goalkeeper is
6 m s
−1
.
(b) By v
2
= u
2
+ 2as,
a =
0.8 2
6 0
2 2
×

= –22.5 m s
−2
The deceleration of the football should
be 22.5 m s
−2
.
10 (a) The reaction time of the cyclist is
0.5 s.
(b) Braking distance
=
( )
25 . 11
2
15 5 . 0 0 . 2
=
× −
m
Thinking distance
= 15 × 0.5 = 7.5 m
Stopping distance
= 11.25 + 7.5 = 18.75 m ˏ 20 m
Therefore, the bicycle would not hit the
child.
11 By v
2
= u
2
+ 2as,
0 = 3
2
+ 2 × (–0.5) × s
s = 9 m ˑ 8 m
Therefore, the golf ball can reach the hole.
12 (a) (i) By v = u + at,
0 = u + (–4)(4.75)
u = 19 m s
–1

The initial velocity of the car is
19 m s
–1
.
2 Force and Motion Chapter 2 Motion II

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4
(ii) By v
2
= u
2
+ 2as,
0 = 19
2
+ 2 × (–4) × s
s = 45.1 m
The displacement of the car before
it stops in front of the traffic light
is 45.1 m.
(b) By v
2
= u
2
+ 2as,
17
2
= 0 + 2 × 3 × s
s = 48.2 m
The displacement of the car between
starting from rest and moving at 17 m s
–1

is 48.2 m.
13 (a) By v
2
= u
2
+ 2as,
v
2
= 0 + 2 × 0.1 × 500
v = 10 m s
–1

His speed is 10 m s
–1
.
(b) Consider the first section.
By v = u + at,
t =
a
u v −

=
1 . 0
0 10 −

= 100 s
Consider the second section.
By s = ut +
2
1
at
2
,
800 = 10t +
2
1
× 0.5t
2

t = 40 s or t = –80 s (rejected)
Total time taken
= 100 + 40
= 140 s
It takes 140 s for Jason to travel
downhill.

Practice 2.3 (p. 83)
1 D
2 D
3 C
For option A, apply equation v
2
= u
2
– 2gs
and take s = 0 (the ball returns to the second
floor),
v = –u = –10 m s
–1
(vertically downwards)
This is the same velocity as the initial velocity
of option B.
Therefore, in both ways the ball has the same
vertical speed when it reaches the ground.
4 B
Take the upward direction as positive.
By s = ut +
2
1
at
2
,
0 = u × 30 +
2
1
× (−10) × 30
2
u = 150 m s
–1
The speed of the bullet is 150 m s
–1
when it is
fired.
5

Speed of
stone
Distance
travelled by
the stone
Equation used at u v + =
2
2
1
at ut s + =
t = 1 s 10 m s
–1
5 m
t = 2 s 20 m s
–1
20 m
t = 3 s 30 m s
–1
45 m
t = 4 s 40 m s
–1
80 m
6 By s = ut +
2
1
at
2
,
10 = 0 +
2
1
(10) t
2

t = 1.41 s
v = u + at
= 0 + 10(1.41)
= 14.1 m s
–1

It takes 1.41 s for a diver to drop from a 10-m
platform. His speed is 14.1 m s
–1
when he
enters the water.
2 Force and Motion Chapter 2 Motion II

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5
7 Take the upward direction as positive.
By v
2
= u
2
+ 2as,
4
2
= 0 + (2)(–10)s
s = 0.8 m
The highest position reached by the puppy is
0.8 m above the ground.
8 (a) Consider the boy’s downward journey.
Take the downward direction as
positive.
By s = ut +
2
1
at
2
,
0.5 = 0 +
2
1
(10) t
2

t = 0.316 s
Hang-time of the boy
= 0.316 × 2 = 0.632 s
(b) Take the upward direction as positive.
By v
2
= u
2
+ 2as,
0 = u
2
+ 2 × (–10) × 0.5
u = 3.16 m s
–1

The jumping speed of the boy is
3.16 m s
–1
.
9 Take the upward direction as positive.
(a) By v
2
= u
2
+ 2as,
0 = u
2
+ 2(–10)(200)
u = 63.2 m s
–1

The velocity of the firework X is
63.2 m s
–1
when it is fired.
(b) By v = u + at,
0 = 63.2 + (–10)t
t = 6.32 s
It takes 6.32 s for the firework X to reach
that height.
(c) From (a) and (b), for firework Y to
explode at 130 m above the ground, the
speed of Y should be smaller than that of
X. Therefore, Y should be fired at a
lower speed.
Besides, since Y spends a shorter time to
reach its highest point, it should be fired
after X.
10 (a) By s = ut +
2
1
at
2
,
120 = 8t +
2
1
× 10 × t
2

t = 4.16 s or t = −5.76 s (rejected)
It takes 4.16 s to reach the ground.
(b) v = u + at = 8 + 10 × 4.16 = 49.6 m s
–1

Its speed on hitting the ground is
49.6 m s
–1
.
11 (a) Distance between the ceiling and her
hands
= 6 – 2 – 1.2 = 2.8 m
(b) Let s be her vertical displacement when
she jumps.
As the maximum jumping speed is
8 m s
–1
, i.e. u = 8 m s
–1
.
By v
2
= u
2
+ 2as,
s =
a
u v
2
2 2


=
10) ( 2
8 0
2 2
− ×

(upwards is positive)
s = 3.2 m > 2.8 m
Therefore, the indoor playground is not
safe for playing trampoline.
12 (a) By s = ut +
2
1
at
2
,
132 = 0 × t +
2
1
× 10 × t
2

t = 5.14 s
The vehicle can experience a free fall in
the Zero-G facility for 5.14 s.
(b) By v
2
= u
2
+ 2as,
v
2
= 0
2
+ 2 × 10 × 132
v = 51.4 m s
−1
The speed of the vehicle before it comes
to a stop is 51.4 m s
−1
.
2 Force and Motion Chapter 2 Motion II

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work © Oxford University Press 2009

6
(c)


Revision exercise 2
Multiple-choice (p. 87)
1 D
By v
2
= u
2
+ 2as,
0 = 10
2
+ 2a(25 – 10 × 0.2)
a = –2.17 m s
–2

His minimum deceleration is 2.17 m s
–2
.
2 D
3 B
Consider the rock released from the 2
nd
floor.
By v
2
= u
2
+ 2as,
v
2
= 2as (as u = 0)
Then consider the rock released from the 7
th

floor.
Note that s
2
= 3.5s.
(v
2
)
2
= 2as
2


= 3.5(2as)
= 3.5v
2

v
2
= 1.87v
4 A
5 C
The stone returns to the ground with the same
speed (but in opposite direction).
Take the upward direction as positive.
By v = u + at,
–v = v – gt
2v = gt
If the stone is projected with a speed of 2v, let
the new time of travel be t′.
(–2v) = (2v) – gt′
t′ = 4 ) (
g
v

= 2t
Its new time of travel is 2t.
6 B
Take the upward direction as positive.
s = ut +
2
1
at
2

= (10)(4) +
2
1
(–10)(4)
2

= –40 m
The distance between the sandbag and the
ground is 40 m when it leaves the balloon.
7 D
8 C
Take the downward direction as positive.
u = 200 m s
–1
, v = 5 m s
–1
, a = −20 m s
–2

By v = u + at,
5 = 200 + (−20)t
t = 9.75 s
The rockets should be fired for at least 9.75 s.
Both C and D satisfy this requirement. But for
D, after firing for 10.2 s,
v = u + at
= 200 + (–20)(10.2)
= –4 m s
–1

i.e. it flies away from the Moon with 4 m s
–1

upwards. It cannot land on the Moon.
Therefore, the correct answer is C.
9 D
10 D
2 Force and Motion Chapter 2 Motion II

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work © Oxford University Press 2009

7
11 (HKCEE 2006 Paper II Q1)
12 (HKCEE 2007 Paper II Q2)
13 (HKCEE 2007 Paper II Q33)

Conventional (p. 89)
1 (a) The reaction time of the driver is 0.6 s.
(1A)
(b)
t
v
a = (1M)
=
6 0 6 3
12 0
. . −


= –4 m s
–2
(1A)
The acceleration of the car is –4 m s
–2
.
(c) The stopping distance of the car is the
area under graph. (1M)
Stopping distance
=12 × 0.6 +
2
6 0 6 3 12 ) . . ( − ×

= 25.2 m (1A)
The stopping distance of the car is
shorter than 27 m. The driver will not be
charged with driving past a red light.
(1A)
2 (a) The object moves away from the motion
sensor with uniform velocity at
0.35 m s
–1
from t = 1.20 s to 1.25 s.(1A)
From t = 1.25 s to 1.45 s, the object
moves with negative acceleration. (1A)
Then, from t = 1.45 s to 1.50 s, the
object changes its moving direction and
moves towards the motion sensor again
with a uniform velocity of –0.35 m s
–1
.
(1A)
(b) (i)

(Correct axes with label) (1A)
(A straight line with slope = 0.35 m s
–1

from t = 1.20 s to 1.25 s) (1A)
(A straight line with slope = –0.35 m s
–1

from t = 1.45 s to 1.50 s) (1A)
(ii)

(Correct axes with labels) (1A)
(Correct graph with the acceleration of
about
30 . 1 40 . 1
35 . 0 35 . 0

− −

= –7 m s
–2
at t = 1.30 s to 1.40 s) (1A)
2 Force and Motion Chapter 2 Motion II

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work © Oxford University Press 2009

8
3 (a)

(Correct axes with labels) (1A)
(Correct shape of minibus’ graph) (1A)
(Correct shape of sports car’s graph) (1A)
(Correct values) (1A)
(b) From the graph in (a), the two vehicles have
the same velocity at t ≈ 2.3 s after passing the
traffic light. (1A)
(c) The area under graph is the displacement of
the cars. (1M)
Consider their displacements at t = 3 s,
For the sports car:
s =
2
1
× 15 × 3 = 22.5 m (1A)
For the minibus:
s =
2
1
× (7 + 13) × 3 = 30 m (1A)
The minibus will take the lead 3 s after
passing the traffic light. (1A)
4 (a) The car moves forward with uniform
acceleration at −1 m s
−2
from t = 0 s to
t = 5 s. (1A)
Its instantaneous velocity is 0 at t = 5 s.
(1A)
Then the car changes its moving
direction. From t = 5 s to t = 8 s, it
moves backwards with a uniform
acceleration of −6.67 m s
−2
. (1A)
(b) Total displacement of the car
= area bound by the v−t graph and the
time axis (1M)
= ( ) ( ) 3 20
2
1
5 5
2
1
× − ×
= −17.5 m (1A)
(c) Yes, the car moves 12.5 m forwards
from t = 0 to t = 5 s. Therefore, it hits
the roadblock. (1A)
5 Take the upward direction as positive.
(a) From point A to the highest point:
By v
2
= u
2
+ 2as,
0 = 4
2
+ 2 (–10) s
s = 0.8 m (1M)
By v = u + at,
0 = 4 + (–10)t
t = 0.4 s (1M)
From the highest point to the trampoline:
s = ut +
2
1
at
2
(1M)
= 0 +
2
1
(–10)(1.2 – 0.4)
2

= –3.2 m (1A)
The maximum height reached by him is
3.2 m above the trampoline.
(b) Height of point A above the trampoline
= 3.2 – 0.8 (1M)
= 2.4 m (1A)
6 (a) Initial velocity v
= 90 km h
–1

=
6 . 3
90
m s
–1

= 25 m s
–1

Thinking distance
= v × t (1M)
= 25 × 0.2
= 5 m (1A)
The thinking distance is 5 m.
2 Force and Motion Chapter 2 Motion II

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work © Oxford University Press 2009

9
(b) By v
2
= u
2
+ 2as, (1M)
a =
s
u v
2
2 2


=
5) (80 2
25 0
2 2
− ×


= −4.17 m s
–2
(1A)
Hence, the deceleration of the car is
4.17 m s
–2
.
(c) By v
2
= u
2
+ 2as, (1M)
s =
a
u v
2
2 2


=
2) 4.17 ( 2
25 0
2 2
× − ×


= 37.5 m (1M)
Braking distance = 37.5 m
Stopping distance
= 37.5 + 5 = 42.5 m (1A)
The driver could not stop before the
traffic light. Therefore, his claim is
incorrect. (1A)
7 (a) Take the downward direction as
positive.
By s = ut +
2
1
gt
2
, (1M)
3 = 0 × t +
2
1
× 10 × t
2

t =
10
2 3×
= 0.775 s (1A)
The apple travels in air for 0.775 s.
(b) By v
2
= u
2
+ 2as, (1M)
v = 3 10 2 × ×
= 7.75 m s
−1
(1A)
The speed of the apple is 7.75 m s
–1

when the apple just reaches the ground.
(c) The slope of the graph is the magnitude
of the acceleration of the apple. (1A)








(Correct labelled axes) (2A)
(Straight line with a slope of 10 m s
−2
)
(1A)
(d) The two graphs have no difference.
(1A)
8 (a) Take the downward direction as
positive.
By v
2
= u
2
+ 2gs, (1M)
v = gs u 2
2
+
= 3) (40 10 2 0
2
− × × +
= 27.2 m s
–1
(1A)
The speed of the residents landing on the
cushion is 27.2 m s
−1
.
(b) (i) By s = ut +
2
1
gt
2
, (1M)
40 – 3 = 0 +
2
1
× 10 × t
2

t = 2.72 s (1A)
The time of travel in air is 2.72 s.
(ii) By s =
2
v u +
t, (1M)
t =
v u
s
+
2

=
0 2 . 27
3 2
+
×
t
= 0.221 s (1A)
The time of contact is 0.221 s.
speed / m s
−1
time / s
0
0.775
7.75
2 Force and Motion Chapter 2 Motion II

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work © Oxford University Press 2009

10
(c)

(Correct labeled axes) (1A)
(Correct shape) (1A)
(Correct values) (1A)
9 (a) t = 2 s:
Displacement of the trolley
= 0.7 − 0.15 = 0.55 m (1A)
t = 3.4 s:
Displacement of the trolley
= 1.175 − 0.15 = 1.025 m (1A)
t = 4.9 s:
Displacement of the trolley
= 0.6 − 0.15 = 0.45 m (1A)
(b) It moves away from the motion sensor
with a changing speed from t = 2 s to
t = 3.4 s. (1A)
Then it rests momentarily at t = 3.4 s.
(1A)
After that, it moves towards the motion
sensor with a changing speed. (1A)
(c) By s = ut +
2
1
at
2
, (1M)
−0.1 = 0.7 × 2.9 +
2
1
× a × (2.9)
2

a = −0.507 m s
−2
(1A)
The acceleration of the trolley is
−0.507 m s
−2
.
10 (a) The motion sensor is protruded outside
the table to avoid the reflection of
ultrasonic signal from table. (1A)
(b) Slope of the graph from t = 0
to t = 0.28 s
=
0 28 0
0 3 2


.
.
(1M)
= 8.21 m s
–2
(1A)
The acceleration of the ball due to
gravity is 8.21 m s
–2
.
(c) (i)

(Correct sign) (1A)
(Correct shape) (1A)
(ii) The method does not work (1A)
since ultrasound will be reflected
by the transparent plastic plate.
(1A)
11 (a) (i) The ball is held 0.15 m from sensor
before being released. The ball hits
the ground which is 1.1 m from the
sensor. (1A)
Therefore, the ball drops a height
of 0.95 m. (1A)
(ii) The ball rebounds to the positions
which are 0.45 m, 0.65 m and
0.775 m from the sensor in its first
3 rebounds.
2 Force and Motion Chapter 2 Motion II

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work © Oxford University Press 2009

11
At the 1
st
rebound, the ball rises up
(1.1 − 0.45) = 0.65 m. (1A)
At the 2
nd
rebound, the ball rises up
(1.1 − 0.65) = 0.45 m. (1A)
At the 3
rd
rebound, the ball rises up
(1.1 − 0.775) = 0.325 m. (1A)
(b) (i) The ball hits the ground with
velocities of 3.9 m s
–1
, 3.25 m s
–1

and 2.75 m s
–1
in its first 3
rebounds. (3A)
(ii) Acceleration
= slope of graph =
0.55 0.95
3.9

(1M)
= 9.75 m s
–2
(1A)
12 Take the downward direction as positive.
(a) By s = ut +
2
1
gt
2
, (1M)
2 = 0 × t +
2
1
× 10 × t
2

t =
10
2 2 ×
= 0.632 s (1A)
It takes 0.632 s from t
1
to t
2
.
(b) At t
2
,
v = u + at
= 0 + 10 × 0.632
= 6.32 m s
–1
(1M)
Shirley’s speed is 6.32 m s
–1
when she
lands on the trampoline at t
2
.
At t
4
, she leaves the trampoline at the
same speed. Therefore, from t
3
to t
4
,
by v
2
= u
2
+ 2as, (1M)
a =
s
u v
2
2 2


=
3 . 0 2
0 ) 32 . 6 (
2 2
×
− −

= 66.6 m s
–2
(1A)
The average acceleration is 66.6 m s
–2
.
(c)









(3 straight lines) (1A)
(Correct slopes) (1A)
(Correct labels of time and velocity)(1A)
13 (a) Speed v = 70 km h
–1

=
6 . 3
70
m s
–1

= 19.4 m s
–1

Reaction time =
v
d
(1M)
=
4 . 19
6

= 0.309 s (1A)
The reaction time of the man was
0.309 s.
(b) By v
2
= u
2
+ 2as, (1M)
a =
s
u v
2
2 2


=
48 2
4 . 19 0
2 2
×


= –3.92 m s
–2
(1A)
The average deceleration of the car was
3.92 m s
–2
.
(c) Speed v
= 80 km h
–1

=
6 . 3
80
m s
–1

= 22.2 m s
–1

t
3

−6.32
v / m s
−1
t / s
6.32
t
1
t
2
t
4
t
5

2 Force and Motion Chapter 2 Motion II

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work © Oxford University Press 2009

12
Thinking distance
= vt
= 22.2 × 0.309
= 6.86 m (1A)
By v
2
= u
2
+ 2as,
braking distance s
=
a
u v
2
2 2


=
) 92 . 3 ( 2
2 . 22 0
2 2
− ×


= 62.9 m (1A)
Therefore, the stopping distance
= 6.86 + 62.9
= 69.8 m (1A)
This stopping distance is greater than the
initial distance between the car and the
boy. (1A)
Therefore, the car would have knocked
down the boy if the car had travelled at
80 km h
−1
or faster.
(d) A drunk has a longer reaction time.(1A)
This means that the thinking distance,
and thus the stopping distance (sum of
thinking distance and braking distance),
increases. (1A)
14 (a) Take the upward direction as positive.
By v = u + at, (1M)
u = 0 − (−10) × 0.7
= 7 m s
–1
(1A)
The speed of Belinda leaving the spring
board is 7 m s
–1
.
(b) Total time taken from the spring board
to the water
= 0.7 + 1.05 = 1.75 s
Take the upward direction as positive.
s = ut +
2
1
at
2
(1M)
= 7 × 1.75 +
2
1
× (–10) × 1.75
2

= –3.06 m (negative means the water
is below the spring board)
The spring board is 3.06 m above the
water. (1A)
Alternative method:
Consider the upward motion and
downward motion separately.
For the upward motion, she takes 0.7 s
to reach the highest point from the
spring board.
Take the upward direction as positive.
By s = ut +
2
1
at
2
, (1M)
s
1
= 7 × 0.7 +
2
1
× (–10) × 0.7
2

= 2.45 m
For the downward motion, she takes
1.05 s from the highest point to enter
water.
Take the downward direction as
positive.
By s = ut +
2
1
gt
2
,
s
2
= 0 +
2
1
× 10 × 1.05
2
= 5.51 m
Therefore the height of the spring board
above the water
= s
2
– s
1

= 5.51 – 2.45
= 3.06 m (1A)
(c) v = u + at (1M)
= 0 + (−10) × 1.05
= −10.5 m s
–1
(1A)
The speed of the diver entering the water
is 10.5 m s
–1
.
2 Force and Motion Chapter 2 Motion II

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work © Oxford University Press 2009

13
(d)

(Correct shape) (1A)
(Correct times) (1A)
(Correct velocities) (1A)
(e) (See the figure in (d).)
(Correct slope - parallel to that in (d).)
(1A)
(Correct position – above that in (d).)
(1A)
15 (a) Speed 70 km h
–1

=
6 . 3
70
m s
–1

= 19.4 m s
–1

Distance travelled by car Y in 2 s
= vt = 19.4 × 2 = 38.8 m < 50 m (1M)
Since the distance between the cars is
greater than the distance that car Y can
travel in 2 s, the driver of car Y obeys
the rule. (1A)
(b) Deceleration of a car is the slope of their
corresponding v–t graph. (1M)
Deceleration of car X
= slope of the graph during 0−5 s
=
0 5
4 19 0

− .

= –3.88 m s
–2

The deceleration of car X is 3.88 m s
–2
.
(1A)
Deceleration of car Y
= slope of the graph during 0.5 s−8.5 s
=
5 . 0 5 . 8
4 . 19 0


= –2.43 m s
–2

The deceleration of car Y is 2.43 m s
–2
.
(1A)
(c) Thinking distance
= area under the graph during 0−0.5 s
= 19.4 × 0.5
= 9.7 m (1A)
Braking distance
= area under the graph during 0.5 s−8.5 s
=
2
1
× 19.4 × (8.5 – 0.5)
= 77.6 m (1A)
The thinking distance and the braking
distance are 9.7 m and 77.6 m
respectively.
(d) The coloured area is equal to the
difference in the stopping distances
travelled by cars X and Y. (1A)
(e) Stopping distance of car X
= area under the graph during 0−5 s
=
2
1
× 19.4 × 5 = 48.5 m
Coloured area
= 9.7 + 77.6 – 48.5 (1M)
= 38.8 m < 50 m (1M)
Since the difference in stopping
distances of the cars is smaller than the
initial separation of the cars, the two cars
do not collide with each other before
they stop. (1A)
16 (a) From t = 0 s to t = 5 s, the car moves
with a uniform acceleration of
4 . 3
5
0 17
=

m s
–2
. (1A)
2 Force and Motion Chapter 2 Motion II

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work © Oxford University Press 2009

14
From t = 5 s to t = 20 s, the car moves
with a constant velocity of 17 m s
–1
.
(1A)
From t = 20 s to t = 28 s, the car moves
with a uniform acceleration of
20 28
17 0


= −2.125 m s
–2
. (1A)
From t = 28 s to t = 30 s, the car remains
at rest. (1A)
(b)

(Correct shape) (1A)
(Correct time instants) (1A)
(Correct accelerations) (1A)
(c) Yes. (1A)
The car changes direction at t = 30 s.
(1A)
Its velocity changes from positive to
negative, showing a change in its
travelling direction. (1A)
17 (HKCEE 2002 Paper I Q8)
18 (a) v = u + at (1M)
= 0 + 17.5 × 8 × 60
= 8400 m s
–1
(1A)
The speed of the Shuttle after the first 8
minutes is 8400 m s
–1
.
(b) s = ut +
2
1
at
2
(1M)
= 0 +
2
1
× 17.5 × (8 × 60)
2

= 2 016 000 m (2016 km) (1A)
The Shuttle travels 2 016 000 m
(2016 km) in the first 8 minutes.
19 (a) (i) The cyclist is using first gear when
the acceleration is greatest before
braking. (1A)
(ii) The cyclist uses second gear for the
shortest time. (1A)
(b) Distance travelled
= area under straight line PQ (1M)
=
2
2 ) 6 8 ( × +
(1M)
= 14 m (1A)
The cyclist travels 14 m in second gear.
(c) The acceleration during t = 18 s−20 s
=
18 20
9 0


(1M)
= −4.5 m s
–2
(1A)
The deceleration is 4.5 m s
–2
.
20 (HKCEE 2005 Paper I Q1)
21 (a) s = ut +
2
1
at
2
(1M)
= 0 +
2
1
× 10 × (500 × 10
−3
)
2

= 1.25 m (1A)
Therefore the minimum height the
laptop must fall for it to be ‘saved’ is
1.25 m.
(b) v = u + at (1M)
= 0 + 10 × (500 × 10
−3
)
= 5 m s
−1
(1A)
The speed of the computer when it hits
the ground is 5 m s
–1
.
2 Force and Motion Chapter 2 Motion II

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work © Oxford University Press 2009

15
(c) Most falls are likely to be from below
this height, (1A)
so the protection will not have taken
effect. (1A)
22 (a) Any one from: (1A)
Rate of change of displacement
Displacement per unit time
(b) The velocity of a braking car is
decreasing (with time) (1A)
so the car has negative acceleration.(1A)
Its displacement is (still) increasing with
time, (1A)
so its velocity is (still) positive (1A)
In this case, the acceleration and
velocity are in opposite directions. (1A)
(c) (i)

(Correct graph) (1A)
(ii) Vertical distance travelled
= area under the graph from 4.0 s
to 10.0 s (1M)
=
( )
2
6 130 70 × +

= 600 m (1A)
The vertical distance travelled by
the rocket between t = 4.0 s and t =
10.0 s is 600 m.
Physics in articles (p. 96)
(a) 2.45 m (1A)
(b) (i) Take the upward direction as positive.
By v
2
= u
2
+ 2as, (1M)
u
2
= v
2
− 2as
u
2
= 0 − 2(−10)(2.45 + 0.07 − 1.09)
u = 5.35 m s
−1
(1A)
The vertical speed of Javier Sotomayor
is 5.35 m s
−1
when he leaves the ground.
(ii) Take the upward direction as positive.
Consider the upward journey.
By v = u + at, (1M)
54 . 0
10
35 . 5 0
=


=

=
a
u v
t s
Consider the downward journey.
By s = ut +
2
1
at
2
, (1M)
( ) ( ) 10
2
1
0 71 . 0 07 . 0 45 . 2 − + = − + − t
2
t = 0.60 s
The time that he stays in the air
= (0.54 + 0.60) = 1.14 s (1A)
Alternative method:
Take the upward direction as positive.
By s = ut +
2
1
at
2
, (1M)
( ) ( )
2
10
2
1
35 . 5 09 . 1 71 . 0 t t − + = − (1M)
t = 1.14 s or t = −0.07 s (rejected)
(1A)
The time that he stays in the air is 1.14 s.
2 Force and Motion Chapter 3 Force and Motion

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work © Oxford University Press 2009

1
3 Force and Motion

Practice 3.1 (p. 104)
1 C
2 C
3 (b), (e), (f)
4

5 (a) Stretching a rubber band
(b) Standing on the floor
(c) Walking
(d) Exists in every object on the earth at any
time
(e) A compass
(f) A rubbed plastic ruler attracts small bits
of paper

Practice 3.2 (p. 111)
1 C
2 C
3 D
4 C
5 (a) No. Athletes would hit the wall of the
stadium if it is too close to the finishing
line.
(b) The mat is used to protect the athletes if
they hit the wall after passing the
finishing line.
6 (a) The MTR train is accelerating in the
forward direction. The man tends to
move at his original speed (smaller
speed), so he would move backwards
relative to the MTR train.
(b) The MTR train is slowing down. The
man tends to move at his original speed
(greater speed), so he would move
forwards relative to the MTR train.
(c) The MTR train is moving forwards at
constant velocity. The man moves
forwards with the same constant velocity,
so he would remain at rest relative to the
MTR train.
(d) The MTR train is turning a corner. The
man tends to move at his original
direction, so he would move outwards
relative to the MTR train.
7 In space, the gravitational force acts on the
spaceship is negligible. When the rockets are
shut down, they do not exert a force on the
spaceship. Therefore, no net force acts on the
spaceship. By Newton’s first law, the
spaceship is in uniform motion and can travel
far out in space.
8 Joan moves on the ice surface with a constant
velocity.

Practice 3.3 (p. 122)
1 D
2 A
3 B
4 A
5 D
2 Force and Motion Chapter 3 Force and Motion

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work © Oxford University Press 2009

2
6 (a)

Resultant’s magnitude is 67 N and the
angle between the resultant and the
horizontal is 13°.
(b)

Resultant’s magnitude is 65 N and the
angle between the resultant and the
horizontal is 19°.
(c)

Resultant’s magnitude is 60 N and the
angle between the resultant and the
horizontal is 25°.
(d)

Resultant’s magnitude is 50 N and the
angle between the resultant and the
horizontal is 37°.
7 (a) Horizontal component
= 40 + 30 cos 30° = 66.0 N
Vertical component
= 30 sin 30° = 15 N
Resultant =
2 2
5 1 6 6 + = 67.7 N
Let θ be the angle between the resultant
and the horizontal.

66
15
tan = θ = 12.8°
Resultant’s magnitude is 67.7 N and the
angle between the resultant and the
horizontal is 12.8°.
(b) Horizontal component
= 40 + 30 cos 45° = 61.2 N
Vertical component
= 30 sin 45° = 21.2 N
Resultant =
2 2
21.2 2 . 1 6 + = 64.8 N
Let θ be the angle between the resultant
and the horizontal.

61.2
21.2
tan = θ = 19.1°
Resultant’s magnitude is 64.8 N and the
angle between the resultant and the
horizontal is 19.1°.
(c) Horizontal component
= 40 + 30 cos 60° = 55 N
Vertical component
= 30 sin 60° = 26.0 N
Resultant =
2 2
26.0 55 + = 60.8 N
Let θ be the angle between the resultant
and the horizontal.

55
26.0
tan = θ = 25.3°
Resultant’s magnitude is 60.8 N and the
angle between the resultant and the
horizontal is 25.3°.
2 Force and Motion Chapter 3 Force and Motion

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3
(d) Resultant =
2 2
30 40 + = 50 N
Let θ be the angle between the resultant
and the horizontal.

40
30
tan = θ = 36.9°
Resultant’s magnitude is 50 N and the
angle between the resultant and the
horizontal is 36.9°.
8 (a)

(b)

(c) R = weight × cos θ = 20 cos 30°
= 17.3 N
9 Suppose the two forces act in the direction as
shown.

Vertical component F
x
= 5 sin θ
Horizontal component F
y

= 5 − 5 cos θ = 5 × (1 − cos θ)
(magnitude of the resultant)
2
= F
x
2
+ F
y
2

5
2
= (5 sin θ)
2
+ [5 × (1 − cos θ)]
2

1 = sin
2
θ + 1 − 2 cos θ + cos
2
θ
cos θ = 0.5
θ = 60°
Hence, the angle between the two 5-N forces
is 120°.
Alternative method:
By tip-to-tail method, the two 5-N forces and
the resultant 5-N force form an equilateral
triangle. It is known that each angle of an
equilateral triangle is 60°. Therefore, the
angle between the two 5-N forces is 120°.
10

Resultant force = 2 × 400 = 800 N
The resultant force provided by the cable is
800 N.
11 For the 2-kg mass:

T = 20 N
Therefore we have:

2T cos 45° = W
2 × 20 × cos 45° = W
W = 28.3 N
2 Force and Motion Chapter 3 Force and Motion

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4
12 (a) 2T sin 10° = 500
T = 1440 N
The tension of the string is 1440 N.
(b) Component of force
= T cos 10°
= 1440 × cos 10°
= 1420 N
The component of the force that pulls
the car is 1420 N.
13 (a)

(b) As the mass is stationary, the net force
acting on it is zero.
(c) (i) y-component of
1
F
= weight of mass
= 10 N
y-component of
1
F =
1
F ° 30 sin

1
F ° 30 sin = 10 N

1
F = 20 N
x-component of
1
F =
1
F ° 30 cos
= 20 ° 30 cos
= 17.3 N
(ii) y-component of
2
F = 0
x-component of
2
F
= x-component of
1
F = 17.3 N
(d) From (c)(i),
1
F = 20 N.

2
F = x-component of
2
F = 17.3 N

Practice 3.4 (p. 140)
1 D
2 B
3 B
4 C
5 A
Net force = ma = 40 × 0.5 = 20 N
6 C
By v
2
– u
2
= 2as,
0 – u
2
= 2a(20)
−u
2
= 40a
a = −
40
2
u

Resistance = ma =

− ×
40
12
2
u
= –0.03u
2

7 ‘A bag of sugar weighs 10 N.’ or ‘A bag of
sugar has a mass of 1 kg.’
8 By F = ma,

5
10 4
000 800
×
= =
m
F
a = 2 m s
–2

When it flies horizontally, its acceleration is
2 m s
–2
.
9 (a) a =
t
u v −
=
6
0 )
6 . 3
100
( −
= 4.63 m s
–2

The acceleration of the car is
4.63 m s
–2
.
(b) F = ma = 1500×4.63 = 6945 N
The force provided by the car engine is
6945 N.
10 (a)

(b) (i) Downwards along the slide
(ii) No net force
(iii) No net force
2 Force and Motion Chapter 3 Force and Motion

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5
11 Take the upward direction as positive.
Weight = mg
= 3 × 10
5
× 10
= 3 × 10
6
N
Net force = ma
= 3 × 10
5
× 12
= 3.6 × 10
6
N
Net force = thrust – weight of the rocket
Thrust = net force + weight of the rocket
= 3.6 × 10
6
+ 3 × 10
6

= 6.6 × 10
6
N
The thrust of the rocket is 6.6×10
6
N.
12 (a)

(b) The friction acting on the box is 3 N.
(c) By F = ma,
1
2
3 5
=

= =
a
F
m kg
The mass of the box is 1 kg.
13 (a) (i) Weight, air resistance
(ii) Weight
(iii) Weight, air resistance
In the above 3 cases, the net force acts
downwards.
(b)

14 Take the downward direction as positive.
Let R be the reading of the balance.
(a) By F = ma,
R − mg = 0
R = 20 N
The reading of the balance is 20 N.
(b) By F = ma,
mg − R = ma
20 − R = 2 × 1.5
R = 17 N
The reading of the balance is 17 N.
(c) By F = ma,
R − mg = 0
R = 20 N
The reading of the balance is 20 N.
(d) By F = ma,
mg − R = ma
20 − R = 2 × (−0.5)
R = 21 N
The reading of the balance is 21 N.
15 (a) f = mg sin θ = (2)(10)sin 10° = 3.47 N
The frictional force acting on the trolley
is 3.47 N.
(b) By F = ma,
ma f mg = − θ sin
a 2 47 . 3 30 sin ) 10 )( 2 ( = − °
a = 3.27 m s
–2

When the trolley moves down the
runway, its acceleration is 3.27 m s
–2
.
16 (a) Take the direction of the car movement
as positive.
By F = ma,
a =
m
F
=
1500
6000 −
= –4 m s
–2

By v

= u + atΔ
t =
a
u v −
=
4
)
6 . 3
108
( 0 − −
= 7.5 s
2 Force and Motion Chapter 3 Force and Motion

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6
It takes 7.5 s to stop the car.
(b) By
2
2
1
at ut s + = ,
s = (30)(7.5) +
2
) 5 . 7 )( 4 (
2
1
− = 112.5 m
The braking distance is 112.5 m.
17 (a)
AB BC CD DE
Acceleration
a / m s
–2

1 2 0 –3
Net force
F / N
3 6 0 –9
(b) His comment is correct. From the graph,
the velocity of the object starts to
decrease from t = 30 s onwards and
becomes zero at t = 40 s. If the force
continues to act on the object, its
velocity will become negative. That
means it will change its moving
direction.
18 (a)
Time t / s 0–5 5–10 10–20 20–30
Acceleration
a / m s
–2

0 4 1 0
(b) During 0–5 s, the object is moving at a
constant velocity as no net force acts on
it. During 5–10 s, the object is moving
with an acceleration of 4 m s
–2
as a net
force of 20 N acts on it. During 10–20 s,
the object is moving with an acceleration
of 1 m s
–2
as a net force of 5 N acts on it.
During 20–30 s, the object is moving at
constant velocity as no net force acts on
it.

Practice 3.5 (p. 148)
1 D
2 C
3 D
4 A
5 C
6 (a)

(b)

(c) Force acting on A by B and force acting
on B by A.
7 (a) When the roller skater exerts a force on
the wall, the wall also exerts an equal
but opposite force on the skater.
Therefore the skater moves backwards.
(b) When the diver pushes the platform, the
platform also exerts an equal but
opposite force on the diver. Therefore
the diver gains speed and dives.
(c) When we push ourselves against the side
of the pool, the pool exerts an equal but
opposite force on us. Therefore we
accelerate forwards.
2 Force and Motion Chapter 3 Force and Motion

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7
(d) When the runner exerts a force on the
starting block, the block exerts an equal
but opposite force on the runner.
Therefore the runner moves forwards.
8 (a) (i) Trolley A’s weight component
down the plane
= θ sin mg
= ° 20 sin ) 10 )( 3 (
= 10.3 N
(ii) Net force acting on it
= 10.3 N – T (down the plane)
(b) (i) Trolley B’s weight component
down the plane
= θ sin mg
= ° 30 sin ) 10 )( 2 (
= 10 N
(ii) Net force acting on it
= T – 10 N (up the plane)
(c) Trolley A moves down the plane while
trolley B moves up the plane.
9 (a)

(b) Net force acting on A
= 20 N – force acting on A by B
Net force acting on B
= force acting on B by A
(c) (i) By F = ma,
a =
m
F
=
5 3
20
+
= 2.5 m s
–2

The accelerations of the blocks are
2.5 m s
–2
.
(ii) By F = ma,
20 – force acting on A by B
= m
A
a = 3 × 2.5 = 7.5 N
∴Force acting on A by B
= 12.5 N (towards the left)
By Newton’s third law,
force acting on B by A
= force acting on A by B (opposite
direction)
= 12.5 N (towards the right)
10 (a) F = ma = (1)(1) = 1 N
The net force acting on toy car B during
collision is 1 N towards the right.
(b) By Newton’s third law of motion, the
force acting on B by A has the same
magnitude as that acting on A by B, but
their directions are opposite.
Therefore, the net force acting on toy car
A is 1 N towards the left.
(c) Take the direction towards the right as
positive.
By F = ma,
a =
m
F

=
3
1 −

= −0.333 m s
−2

v = u + at
= 3 + (–0.333)(0.5)
= 2.83 m s
–1

The velocity of toy car A after the
collision is 2.83 m s
–1
towards the right.
2 Force and Motion Chapter 3 Force and Motion

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8
Practice 3.6 (p. 165)
1 A
Moment of force
= 30 sin 15° × 0.7 = 5.44 N m (clockwise)
2 B
Let W be the weight of the girl nearer to the
boy.
Take moment about the joint, in equilibrium,
clockwise moment = anticlockwise moment
600 × 3 = 400 × (2+1) + W × 2
W = 300 N
The weight of the girl nearer to the boy is
300 N.
3 D
f × 0.05 = 100 × 0.3
f = 600 N
4 (a) A door handle is placed well away from
the hinge to give a large moment for
turning the door.
(b) A mechanic uses a long spanner to give
a large moment for undoing the nut.
5 The centre of gravity of the bat is outside the
edge of the table. The weight of the bat seems
to act on the centre of gravity and produces a
torque which tips the bat over. The bat then
falls down.
6

(Accept other reasonable answers.)
7 (a)

(In opposite directions and acting at
different positions.)
(b)

(In the same direction, with equal
distance from O and on different sides of
O.)
(c)

(In opposite directions and acting at the
same position.)
8 (a) Let F be the force exerted by the biceps.
Take moment about the elbow contact
point.
Clockwise moment
= 5 × 10 × 0.3 + 1.5 × 10 × 0.15
= 17.25 N m
Anticlockwise moment
= F × 0.05
In equilibrium,
clockwise moment = anticlockwise
moment
17.25 = F × 0.05
F = 345 N
The force exerted by the biceps is
345 N.
(b) Take moment about the shoulder joint,
the clockwise moment (= weight of
dumb-bell × length of the whole arm) is
greatly increased. In order to balance the
dumb-bell, the shoulder muscle has to
exert a great force to provide a sufficient
anticlockwise moment. Therefore the
man feels more tired.
9 (a) Torque = 5 N × 0.5 m = 2.5 N m
2 Force and Motion Chapter 3 Force and Motion

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9
(b) Maximum force that can be applied
=
distance lar perpendicu
torque maximum
=
5 . 0
50
= 100 N
10 (a) Let m be the maximum mass that the
system can withstand.
Take moment about A.
m × 10 × 0.1 = 2.4 × 10 × 0.06
m = 1.44 kg
The maximum mass that the system can
withstand is 1.44 kg.
(b) Use a G-clamp to fix the stand on the
bench or add a heavy weight on the
platform of the stand.

Revision exercise 3
Multiple-choice (p. 170)
1 A
Moment of force about O
= F × d
= 8 sin 45° × 0.4
= 2.26 N m (clockwise)
2 A
By F = ma,
1000 – 500 = 1500a
a = 0.333 m s
–2


2 2
) 10 )( 333 . 0 (
2
1
0
2
1
+ = + = at ut s = 16.7 m
3 B
On the Earth:
By
2
2
1
at ut s + = ,

2
) 10 (
2
1
0 2
E
t + =
t
E
= 4 . 0
On the Moon:
By
2
2
1
at ut s + = ,

2
6
10
2
1
0 2 t

+ =
t = 4 . 2 = 6 t
E
= 2.45 t
E
4 C
5 D
6 B
7 A
8 B
9 D
10 D
11 B
12 A
13 D
14 (HKCEE 2006 Paper II Q31)
15 (HKCEE 2007 Paper II Q6)
16 (HKCEE 2007 Paper II Q30)
17 (HKCEE 2007 Paper II Q27)

Conventional (p. 173)
1 (a) Gravitational acceleration of Mars
= 10
3
1
×
= 3.33 m s
–2
(1A)
(b) The block dropped on Mars has a
smaller acceleration than that on Earth.

(1A)
Thus, it takes more time for the block on
Mars to reach the ground.

(1A)
2 (a) (i)

weight
tension
T
1
from
m
1

tension
T
2
from
m
2

normal
force
M
2 Force and Motion Chapter 3 Force and Motion

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work © Oxford University Press 2009

10
(2 tensions with T
1
> T
2
) (1A)
(Weight and normal force, both of
the same magnitude) (1A)
(ii)

(2 tensions with T
1
> T
2
) (1A)
(Weight and normal force, both of
the same magnitude) (1A)
(Friction) (1A)
(b) (i) Mass m
1
accelerates downwards,
m
2
accelerates upwards and M
accelerates to the left. (1A)
(ii) Let f be the friction acting on M.
If T
1
> T
2
+ f, the masses will move
in a way similar to that in (b)(i) but
the magnitude of the acceleration
of the system will be smaller. (1A)
If T
1
= T
2
+ f, the masses will
remain at rest. (1A)
3 (a) Moment about P
= Fd (0.5A)
= 10 × 3
= 30 N m (clockwise) (1A + 0.5A)
(b) Moment about Q
= 10 × 1
= 10 N m (clockwise) (1A + 0.5A)
(c) Moment about R = 10 × 0 = 0 (1A)
(d) Moment about S
= 10 × 1
= 10 N m (anticlockwise) (1A + 0.5A)
4 Take moment about the left trestle.
In equilibrium,
clockwise moment = anticlockwise moment
(1M)
500 × 3 = 700 × 1 + Y × 4 (1M)
Y = 200 N (1A)
Besides,
net force = 0 (1M)
X + Y = 700 + 500
X + 200 = 1200
X = 1000 N (1A)
5 (a) By F = ma, (1M)
a =
m
F
=
4
10 30 −
= 5 m s
–2
(1A)
The acceleration of the box is 5 m s
–2
.
(b) s =
2
2
1
at ut + (1M)
= 4 × 5 + ( )( )
2
5 5
2
1
= 82.5 m (1A)
The displacement of the box is
82.5 m.
(c) Any one of the following: (1A)
Add a layer of oil / polystyrene beads
along the path of the block.
Use air cushion.
6 (a)

(Weight of Joan) (1A)
(Reaction from the balance on Joan)
(1A)
weight
tension
T
1
from
m
1

tension
T
2
from
m
2

normal
force
M
friction
2 Force and Motion Chapter 3 Force and Motion

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work © Oxford University Press 2009

11
(b)

Reading of
the scale
(І ІІ І, = or
Ї ЇЇ Ї500 N* ** *
Weight that Joan
feels (heavier,
lighter or normal
weight)
Lift
accelerates
upwards
> 500 N
(1A)
heavier
(1A)
Lift moves
up at
constant
speed
= 500 N normal weight
Lift slows
down and
stops
< 500 N
(1A)
lighter
(1A)
(c) Let R be the normal reaction acting on
Joan by the balance (the reading of the
scale) and W be the weight of Joan.
Take the upward direction as positive.
(i) By F = ma (1M)
R − W = ma
R − 500 = 50 × 3
R = 650 N (1A)
The reading of the scale is 650 N.
(ii) Since acceleration is 0 and, by
F = ma, the reading of the scale
R = W = 500 N. (1A)
(iii) By F = ma, (1M)
R − W = ma
R − 500 = 50 × (−2)
R = 400 N (1A)
The reading of the scale is 400 N.
7 (a) A force of 50 N is used to pull blocks of
total mass 40 kg.
By F = ma, (1M)
50 = (10 + 30) × a
a = 1.25 m s
−2
(1A)
The acceleration of the boxes is
1.25 m s
−2
.
(b)

(Correct force) (1A)
(Correct label) (1A)


(Correct force) (1A)
(Correct label) (1A)
(c) Let T be the tension in the string.
For the 30-kg box,
By F = ma, (1M)
T = 30 × 1.25 = 37.5 N (1A)
The tension in the string is 37.5 N.
(d) Net force = 50 − T
= 50 − 37.5
= 12.5 N (1A)
The net force acting on the 10-kg box is
12.5 N.
(e) Her statement is not correct. (1A)
When the string breaks, the net force
acting on the 30-kg box is zero. (1A)
By Newton’s first law of motion, the
box will continue to move and its
velocity will be constant. (1A)
2 Force and Motion Chapter 3 Force and Motion

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12
8 (a)
t
u v
a

= (1M)
=
05 . 0
1 2 −
= 20 m s
–2

F = ma (1M)
= 0.5(20)
= 10 N (1A)
The force acting on the stone during the
collision is 10 N.
(b) Force acting on the can
= force acting on the stone
= 10 N (1A)
(c) By F = ma, (1M)
25
4 . 0
10
= = =
m
F
a m s
–2

v = u + at (1M)
= 0 + (25)(0.05)
= 1.25 m s
–1
(1A)
The velocity of the can after collision is
1.25 m s
–1
.
9 (a) When the box tends to move along the
plane, friction acts on it to oppose its
motion. (1A)
Unless the net force acting on the box
down the plane is greater than zero (i.e.
when the weight component of the box
along the plane is larger than the friction
acting on it), the box will not slide down
the plane. (1A)
(b) Samuel assumes that the plane is
friction-compensated, such that the
weight component of the box along the
plane balances the friction acting on the
box. (1A)
Therefore, the net force acting on the
box along the plane is zero and the box
will move along the plane with a
uniform speed after pushing the box
gently momentarily. (1A)
(c) The box will slide down the plane by
either reducing the friction acting on the
box or increasing the weight component
of the box down the plane.
Any two of the following: (2 × 1A)
Add rollers on the plane.
Add a layer of wax/oil on the plane.
Tilt the plane more such that the weight
component of the box along the plane is
greater than the friction acting on it.
(Or other reasonable answers)
10 (a)

(Correct forces) (1A)
(Correct labels) (1A)

(Correct forces) (1A)
(Correct labels) (1A)
The reaction of m
1
(R) and the force
acting on pan A by m
1
(R′) form an
action-and-reaction pair. (1A)
(b) The pans and masses would move
up/down at constant speed (1A)
or remain at rest. (1A)
2 Force and Motion Chapter 3 Force and Motion

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work © Oxford University Press 2009

13
11 (a)

(Correct forces) (1A)
(Correct labels) (1A)
(b) The weight of Jackie is constant. (1A)
The air resistance acting on her increases
gradually from zero as her velocity
increases. When the air resistance is
equal to her weight, the net force acting
on her becomes zero. (1A)
(c) Jackie will fall at a constant speed. (1A)
When the air resistance is equal to her
weight, the net force acting on her is
zero. (1A)
By Newton’s second law, she will fall at
a constant speed. (1A)
12 (a) I do not agree with Gloria. (1A)
The air resistance acting on the flower
pot increases from zero as the pot falls in
air. (1A)
Since the maximum magnitude of air
resistance acting on the pot is equal to
the weight of the flower pot, (1A)
the downward net force acting on the pot
is always greater than or equal to zero.
By F = ma, the pot will not slow down.
(1A)
(b) Take the downward direction as
positive.

(Axes with correct labels) (1A)
(The speed of the pot increases at a
decreasing rate.) (1A)
13 (a) (i)

(Weight) (1A)
(Normal reaction) (1A)
(Friction) (1A)
(ii) Take the direction down the plane
as positive.
By s = ut +
2
1
at
2
, (1M)
2 = 0 +
2
1
× a × 4
2

a = 0.25 m s
–2
(1A)
The acceleration of the trolley is
0.25 m s
–2
.
(iii) F = ma (1M)
= 1 × 0.25 = 0.25 N
The resultant force acting on the
trolley is 0.25 N (down the plane).
(1A)
normal
reaction
friction
weight
v / m s
−1

t / s
2 Force and Motion Chapter 3 Force and Motion

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work © Oxford University Press 2009

14
(b) In order to allow the trolley to move
down the runway at uniform velocity,
we should make the runway
friction-compensated, i.e. reduce the size
of the angle θ. (1A)
(c) The student is wrong. (1A)






When the trolley moves up along the
runway, friction on the trolley acts
downwards along the runway and the net
force acting on the trolley is not zero.
(1A)
Instead of moving at a uniform speed,
the trolley decelerates as it moves up
along the runway. (1A)
14 (a) When the food parcel is thrown from the
plane, it accelerates at first. As it gains
speed, the air resistance acting on it
increases. The net force acting on the
food parcel and thus the acceleration
decreases (from point A to point B).
(1A)
Eventually, the air resistance balances
the weight of the food parcel. The net
force acting on the food parcel and thus
the acceleration becomes zero (from
point B to point C). (1A)
As a result, the food parcel moves with a
constant speed called terminal speed
(50 m s
–1
). (1A)
(b)

(Axes with correct labels) (1A)
(The graph decreases linearly from A to
B.) (1A)
(The graph is horizontal between B and
C.) (1A)
(The graph is on the x-axis between B
and C.) (1A)
15 (a) a =
t
u v −
(1M)
=
40
0 80 −
= 2 m s
–2

By as u v 2
2 2
= − , (1M)
80
2
− 0
2
= 2 × 2 × s
s = 1600 m (1A)
The minimum length of the runway is
1600 m.
(b) Net force acting on the aeroplane
= ma (1M)
= 2.5 × 10
5
× 2
= 5 × 10
5
N (1A)
(c) I would adjust the thrust to balance the
air resistance and the weight of the
aeroplane. (1A)
16 (a) 0–4 s: The object moves with an
acceleration of 6 m s
–2
. (1A)
4–8 s: The object moves with zero
acceleration. (1A)
8–12 s: The object moves with an
acceleration of –6 m s
–2
. (1A)
friction
weight
normal reaction
2 Force and Motion Chapter 3 Force and Motion

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work © Oxford University Press 2009

15
(b) During 0–4 s:
F = ma = 2 × 6 = 12 N (1A)
The force acting on the object is 12 N.
During 4–8 s:
F = ma = 2 × 0 = 0 (1A)
The force acting on the object is 0.
During 8–12 s:
F = ma = 2 × (–6) = –12 N (1A)
The force acting on the object is –12 N.
17 (a)

(Axes with correct labels) (1A)
(Correct shape) (1A)
(Correct slopes : during 0−9 s,
slope = 3 m s
–2
; then slope = 0; final part
steeper than the first part with negative
slope) (3 × 1A)
(v = 0 at the starting point and the end
point) (1A)
(v = 27 m s
–1
at t = 9 s) (1A)
(b) The magnitude of the maximum
acceleration of the train is 4 m s
–2
. (1A)
18 (a) (i) Net force along vertical direction
= 3 N – 2 N
= 1 N (downwards) (1A)
(ii) Net force along horizontal
direction
= 10 N – 5 N
= 5 N (towards the right) (1A)
(b) Net force acting on the block
=
2 2
5 1 + (Pythagoras’ theorem)
= 5.10 N (1A)
tan θ =
1
5

θ = 78.7° (1A)
The net force is 5.10 N (S ° 7 . 78 E).
(c) By F = ma, (1M)
a =
5 . 2
10 . 5
= 2.04 m s
–2
(1A)
The acceleration of the block is
2.04 m s
–2
.
19 (a)






(Forces F normal to the wings) (1A)
(Weight) (1A)
(b)

Consider the forces in the vertical
direction.
2F × cos θ = mg (1A)
The aeroplane does not fly with uniform
velocity. (1A)
This is because a net force, 2F sin θ, acts
on the aeroplane towards the left. By
F = ma, the aeroplane has an
acceleration. (1A)
weight
θ
θ
F
F
θ
weight
F
F
2 Force and Motion Chapter 3 Force and Motion

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work © Oxford University Press 2009

16
20 (a)

(2 tensions) (1A)
(Weight) (1A)
(b) The net force acting on the picture is
zero.
Consider the vertical components.
2T cos θ = mg (1M)
2T × cos

°
2
80
= 1 × 10
T = 6.53 N (1A)
The tension in the string is 6.53 N.
(c)

If a longer string is used, θ will be
smaller. (1A)
Since T =
θ cos 2
mg
, T decreases with θ.
(1A)
Therefore, the tension in a longer string
is smaller and it is harder for the string
to break. (1A)
21 (a)

(Weight of passenger) (1A)
(Reaction from the platform to the
passenger) (1A)
(b) Take the upward direction as positive.
(i) Total distance during initial rise
= 50 – 2 = 48 m
Total time = 24 s
Average speed =
24
48
(1M)
= 2 m s
–1
(1A)
The average speed of the platform
when it rises from the ground to
the top of the tower is 2 m s
–1
.
(ii) Total distance during the first
downward thrust = 50 – 9 = 41 m
Total time = 43 – 39 = 4 s
Average speed =
4
41
(1M)
= 10.25 m s
–1
(1A)
The average speed of the platform
during the first downward thrust
is 10.25 m s
–1
.
(iii)

2 Force and Motion Chapter 3 Force and Motion

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work © Oxford University Press 2009

17
Let P be the pulling force.
By F = ma,
P + mg = ma (1M)
P = ma – mg
= m(1.5g) – mg
= 70 (–15) – 70(–10)
= –350 N (1A)
During the first downward thrust,
the pulling force acting on the
passenger by the chain is 350 N.
22 (a) By F = ma, (1M)
8000 – 5000 = 500a
a = 6 m s
–2
(1A)
The acceleration of the balloon is
6 m s
–2
.
By
t
u v
a

= , (1M)
=

=

=
6
0 20
a
u v
t 3.33 s (1A)
The balloon reaches a velocity of
20 m s
–1
in 3.33 s.
(b) He feels his weight heavier than
expected. (1A)
The upward net force acting on him is
R – W = ma > 0, where R is the normal
reaction and W is his weight. He feels
heavier because R is greater than W.(1A)
(c) By Newton’s first law, the sandbag
moves up at 20 m s
–1
when it leaves the
balloon. (1A)
Then it slows down due to gravity. (1A)
After reaching the maximum height, it
changes its moving direction and
accelerates downwards. (1A)
As its velocity increases, the air
resistance increases. As a result, the
acceleration of the sandbag decreases.
(1A)
23 (a) The net force acting on the case is 0.
(1A)
(b) Let T be the tension.
4T cos 20° = 225 × 10 (1M)
T = 599 N (1A)
The tension in each string is 599 N.
(c) It is safer to hang the case with a longer
string, (1A)
because the angle between the string and
the vertical will be smaller. (1A)
Therefore, the tension in the string is
smaller and it is harder for the strings to
break. (1A)
24 (a) Take moment about the left trestle.
In equilibrium,

moment
clockwise
=
moment
ise anticlockw
(1M)
600 × 1 + 200 × 2 = Y × 4 (1M)
Y = 250 N (1A)
Besides,
net force = 0 (1M)
X + Y = 600 + 200
X + 250 = 800
X = 550 N (1A)
(b) (i) When the plank begins to tip, the
reaction Y is zero. (1A)
(ii) Let d be the distance the painter is
away from the left trestle when
the plank begins to tip.
From (i), we have Y = 0.
When the plank just begins to tip,
the conditions of equilibrium still
apply.
Take moment about the left
trestle.

moment
clockwise
=
moment
ise anticlockw
(1M)
200 × 2 = 600 × d
d = 0.667 m (1A)
2 Force and Motion Chapter 3 Force and Motion

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work © Oxford University Press 2009

18
When the plank begins to tip, the
painter is 0.667 m away from the
left trestle.
25 Note that the centre of gravity of the can is
approximately at its centre. The can will
topple when its centre of gravity is outside the
edge of the runway.
Maximum distance travelled by the can
= 3 − 0.035 = 2.965 m (1M)
By F = ma, (1M)
−0.2 = 0.5 × a
a = −0.4 m s
−2
By v
2
− u
2
= 2as, (1M)
0
2
− u
2
= 2 × (−0.4) × 2.965
u = 1.54 m s
−1
(1A)
The maximum velocity of the can just after
the impact is 1.54 m s
−1
.
26 (a) The trolley remains at rest until
t = 0.8 s. (1A)
Then it moves with a uniform
acceleration. (1A)
(b) a =
t
u v −
(1M)
=
8 . 0 8 . 2
0 15 . 1


= 0.575 m s
–2
(1A)
The acceleration of the trolley is
0.575 m s
–2
.
(c) F = ma (1M)
= (1)(0.575) = 0.575 N (1A)
The net force acting on the trolley is
0.575 N.
(d) He is incorrect. (1A)
This is because he ignores the friction of
the runway. The spring balance reading
is equal to the pulling force only. The
net force is equal to the pulling force
minus the friction. (1A)
27 (a) The ball bearing accelerates at first. As it
gains speed, the fluid friction acting on it
increases. The net force acting on the
ball bearing and thus the acceleration
decreases. (1A)
Eventually, the fluid friction increases to
a value that balances the weight of the
ball bearing. The net force acting on the
ball bearing and thus the acceleration
becomes zero. (1A)
Then the ball-bearing moves with a
constant speed called terminal speed.
(1A)
(b)

(Axes with correct labels.) (1A)
(The velocity firstly increases with time
linearly.) (1A)
(Then the slope of the curve decreases
continuously.) (1A)
(Finally, the velocity becomes constant
and the slope of curve becomes zero.)
(1A)
(c) When an aeroplane travels at a high
speed in air, it experiences a great air
resistance which opposes its motion of it.
(1A)
2 Force and Motion Chapter 3 Force and Motion

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work © Oxford University Press 2009

19
Air resistance increases with the speed
of the moving object. Therefore, it is
difficult for an aeroplane to travel at the
speed of sound in air. (1A)
In order to improve the speed of an
aeroplane, the body of the aeroplane
should be streamlined so that air can
flow smoothly over its surface and air
resistance can be reduced. (1A)
28 (a) In Figure v, from t = 0.1 s to t = 0.4 s,
the average value of tension is 2.44 N.
Tension T equals to the weight of the
weights.
Let m be the mass of the weights.
T = mg (1M)
2.44 = m × 10
m = 0.244 kg (1A)
The mass of the weights is 0.244 kg.
(b) (i) By the data in Figure v, the tension
of the string is 1.93 N
(t = 1.1 s to 1.5 s). (1A)
(ii) The acceleration of the trolley is
equal to the slope of the graph in
Figure w.
The acceleration is 1.24 m s
−2
.(1A)
(c) According to Newton’s second law
(F = ma), (1A)
the tension pulling the force sensor and
the trolley T = ma.
T = (0.333 + 0.718) × 1.24 = 1.30 N(1A)
This theoretical result is not close to the
result in (b)(i). The results are not in
accordance with Newton’s second law.
(1A)
The discrepancy may be due to the
friction acting on the trolley; the friction
acting on the trolley may not be
negligible. (1A)
The student must use a
friction-compensated runway to carry
out this experiment. (1A)
29 (a) (i)

(Weight) (1A)
(Force on boat by air) (1A)
(ii) The boat moves with a constant
velocity (1A)
towards the direction it is pushed.
(1A)
(b) (i) As fans B and C blow air
backwards, an action force acts on
the air by the fans. (1A)
Thus, an equal and opposite
reaction force acts on the fans by
the air. (1A)
Therefore, the boat moves forwards.
(1A)
(ii) By F = ma,
0.2 + 0.2 = 1a
a = 0.4 m s
–2
(1M)
v = u + at (1M)
= 0 + (0.4)(5) = 2 m s
–1
(1A)
Its speed is 2 m s
–1
.
2 Force and Motion Chapter 3 Force and Motion

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work © Oxford University Press 2009

20
(iii) Any one of the following: (1A)
Switch off fan C.
Control fan B to blow air
backwards and control fan C to
blow air forwards.
(c) (i) The boat still moves forwards (1A)
with a constant velocity. (1A)
(ii) Any one of the following: (1A)
Switch off fan A, then the boat will
land on the ground and will be
stopped by the friction.
Control both fans B and C to blow
air forwards.
30 (a)

(Weight) (1A)
(Force on toy by air) (1A)
(b) The powerful fan of the toy blows air
downwards. Therefore, an action force
acts on the air by fan. (1A)
Then, an equal and opposite reaction
force acts on the fan of the toy by the air.
(1A)
Such upward reaction force is larger
than the weight of the toy. Therefore, the
toy can go up in mid-air. (1A)
(c) (i) Minimum upward force
= weight of the toy
= 10
1000
50
×
= 0.5 N (1A)
(ii) The reading on the balance is not
zero. (1A)
The fan blows the air downwards
and hits the balance. (1A)
The air therefore exerts a force on
the balance. (1A)
31 (a) Take the moving direction of the trucks
as positive.
By F = ma, (1M)
a =
m
F
=
3000 10 5 . 5
6000
3
+ ×

= −0.706 m s
–2

By v
2
– u
2
= 2as, (1M)
0 – u
2
= 2(–0.706)(30)
u = 6.51 m s
–1
(1A)
The speed of the trucks after the
collision is 6.51 m s
–1
.
(b) a =
t
u v −
(1M)
=
05 . 0
0 51 . 6 −
= 130.2 m s
–2

Net force = ma = (5.5× 10
3
)(130.2)
= 716 000 N (1M)
Force acting on truck P by truck Q
= net force − friction
= 716 000 − (−3000)
= 719 000 N (1A)
(c) Force acting on truck Q by truck P
= force acting on truck P by truck Q (but
in opposite direction)
= –719 000 N (1A)
(d) Net force acting on truck Q
= force acting on truck Q by truck P +
friction
= –719 000 + (−3000)
= –722 000 N (1M)
By F = ma, (1M)
–722 000 = 3000a
a = –240.7 m s
–2

2 Force and Motion Chapter 3 Force and Motion

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work © Oxford University Press 2009

21
By v = u + at,
u = v − at = 6.51 − (−240.7) × 0.05
= 18.5 m s
–1
(1A)
The speed of truck Q before the collision
is 18.5 m s
–1
.
32 (a) (i)

(Weight acting at A) (1A)
(Friction) (1A)
(Normal reaction) (1A)
(ii) The weight and the normal reaction
provide an anticlockwise moment
about X. (1A)
On the other hand, the clockwise
moment is zero. (1A)
The anticlockwise moment is
larger than the clockwise moment.
(1A)
Therefore, the box would topple
about X. (1A)
(b) In this case, the weight of the box acts at
B, (1A)
and provides a clockwise moment about
X, (1A)
which balances the anticlockwise
moment provided by the normal reaction
and keeps the box in equilibrium. (1A)
33 (a) He needs to make sure that x is the
horizontal distance between O and the
centre of gravity of the object, (1A)
because the weight acts at the centre of
gravity of the object. (1A)
(b) (i)

(Weight) (1A)
(Normal reaction) (1A)
(ii)

(Force by the square object and the
masses) (1A)
(Normal force and weight of the
plank) (1A)
(iii) The force acting on the plank by
the square object and the normal
force acting on the square object by
the plank. (1A)
(iv) (1) F should be the force acting on
the plank by the square object.
(1A)
From (iii), we know that the
force acting on the plank by
the square object and the
normal force acting on the
square object by the plank are
an action-and-reaction pair, so
they are equal in magnitude.
(1A)
Since the square object is in
equilibrium, by Newton’s first
law, the net force acting on it
is zero. Therefore, the normal
reaction acting on the square
object is equal to the weight of
the square object in magnitude.
(1A)
1 fon:e and Motio
Therefore. F is equal to the
"eight of the square object in
magnitude. which is 10 N.(IA)
(2) Torque
= Fxd
= 10 )( I
=\O\lm (lA)
(v) The result on the torque is not the
same. (lA)
The square object is accelerating.
so the nonnat reaction acting on
the square object is nOI equal to
the weight of the square object
(JO ~ ) in mOlgnitude. (I A)
Thereibre. F is dilTcrcnt and so i ~
the torque ( = F x d). (lA)
(I IKCEE 2006 Paper I Q-i)
(a) Cvlomem) F >< [)Cmcndicular di stance
from pivot
( b) (i) 1.501
(IA+IA)
(lA)
Assumption: unifonnlregular beam.
(H) (I)
A
(I A)
c B
to m
fzs
60N
(Pi\ot hct\\ccn the cube of
weight and the centre of the
beam) (I A)
(2) Lcl x be thc distance between
the new position of tile pivot
and the original position.
Take moment about the j oint.
In equilibrium. clockwise
momem i ~ equal to the
antic lock" i5e moment. (IM)
New Senior Secondary Physics at Work 70
36 (a )
ha ;) force and Motlo
40><x "" 60><(I - x) ( I M)
.Y -:; 0.6 m (I A)
(iii ) ( I ) The centre of gravity is the
point on which the (entire)
weight of the body seems to
act.
(2)
A
r '
60 N
(Correct arrow)
"
"
'"
3.0
=--
0.80
3.75 m s - ~
( lA)
8
(lA)
(IM)
( lA)
(b) (i) Air resistance increases with SI)C{.-d.
(I A)
so the net force (= forward thms! -
air resistance) decreases. and the
acceleration decreases. (lA)
(ii) When the air resistance is equal to
the forward thrust in magnitude.
(lA)
the net force and hence the
acceleration is lero. so the car
reaches a constant specd. ( lA)
(c) (i) The ,"clocity ofthc ear decreases al
a decreasing mtc. ( lA)
The car eventually travels at a
constant \elocity. (lA)
(ii ) When the parachute is opened. the
ai r resistance becol11es grC31cr than
the thrust in magnitude. As a rcsuil .
the velocity decreases. (lA)
Cl Oxford University Press 2009
37
Force and Mot
(" )
(b)
(0)
Air resistance dc:;;fe.h ... ..., "ith speed.
and is equal ILl the in
magnilUde. Th..:rc:: the <:J!
tralclsatconqam\dc>\"lf!o_ (l A)
No net force. (l A)
( i) 1\·\X\""l\X - ":.: (l A)
( ii) R= w -I\ - . 11.\)
(I)
O.Sm
I
, 1 15 m
R 'I
0H·
3m
! 0.5m
H:;:::J=b=======::j 'I.
pC] , Q
w
,
BO N 20 N
(Do\\ O\\ ard for":':.1
(Upward for.:e)
(l A)
(l A)
(Correcl dislance of all dOlI nIl ard
(l A)
( ii) Tal-.. e mome-m aboUllhe Pl\Ot.
In equil ibrium.
II' X 0.1 =l'iO
11 "'600'
.:!n ...
11 \I)
( L \ )
(COITCCI perpendicular distances of
the forces from the plI01.)
(Hi) R= 600 +80 -.:!O"" -OO ' (l A)
Physics in articles (p, 183)
(a) When the air bag inflat es. the air
acting on the air bag and the peThOn mcreases.
( l A)
When the ai r resistance is grealer than the
weight orthc person. the person \\ ill
down II/a). ( I .\)
1I is easier for a person 10 land \I jl h a 10\\ er
falling speed. (I \ )
New Senior Secondary Physics at Work 71
(b) (I)
ha t@f' 3 force and Motio
Bp
I .
III +- ar.
2
4 O+.!.(IO) r
2
1- 0.8945
(I M)
(lA)
The man takes 0.894 s 10 HIli from Ihe
first floor to the ground \\ ithout the air
bag.
(ii) 0.5 5+ 0.1 s = 0.6 s (I A)
The lime inle"31 bcl\\een the man
jumps lmd the bag is full y inflated is
0.6
(Hi) From (i) and (iil.the time for air
rc"i"t;mcc actin!! on the man is
shon and the Iclocity orthc man cannot
be r<.>duced to a small value. (lA)
In (hi:. case. the man is mainly proK'Cted
by the thick special cu"hi on or the air
bag when he reache:. the ground. (Ill)
, Oxford University Press 2009
2 Force and Motion Chapter 4 Work, Energy and Power

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work © Oxford University Press 2009

1
4 Work, Energy and Power

Practice 4.1 (p. 196)
1 D
2 B
3 B
4 C
5 (a) Work = Fs = 375 × 10 × 1 = 3750 J
The work done on the water skier by the
tension is 3750 J.
(b) Since the skier moves at uniform speed,
the energy gained by the skier is zero.
The work done on the skier by the
tension is used to overcome the gravity
and the friction/air resistance acting on
the skier.
6 The work done is 0.
7 Work = Fs
500 = 10 × 10 × s
s = 5 m
The depth of the well is 5 m.
8 (a) Work = Fs
30 = F × 1.5
F = 20 N
The size of the force is 20 N.
(b) F = ma
20 − 1 × 10 = 1(a)
a = 10 m s
–2

The acceleration of the box is 10 m s
–2
.
(c) By v
2
– u
2
= 2as,
v
2
– 0 = 2(10)(1.5)
v = 5.48 m s
–1

The velocity of the box is 5.48 m s
–1

when it reaches 1.5 m above the ground.
9 (a) Component of force in the direction of
motion = 25 cos 50° N
Work = (F cos θ)s
= 25 cos 50° × 10
= 161 J
The work done by John is 161 J.
(b) The chemical energy of John converts to
the kinetic energy of the sledge.
10 (a) Work = Fs = 10 × 3 = 30 J
The work done by F on the block is 30 J.
(b) Work = fs = –4 × 3 = –12 J
The work done by f on the block is
–12 J.
(c) The chemical energy of the source of the
force converts to the kinetic energy of
the block.
11 (a) Work = Fs = 10 × 10 × 0.8 = 80 J
The work done by the man is 80 J.
The chemical energy of the man
converts to the gravitational potential
energy of the box.
(b) No, he has not done work in this process.
Yes, the man feels tired.

Practice 4.2 (p. 202)
1 A
Let m
t
and v
t
be the mass and the speed of the
thief respectively, and
m
p
and v
p
be the mass and the speed of the
policeman respectively.

2

2
1
p p
v m =
2
2
1
t t
v m

t
p
v
v
=
p
t
m
m
=
2
1

2 Force and Motion Chapter 4 Work, Energy and Power

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work © Oxford University Press 2009

2
2 A
By KE =
2
2
1
mv ,
2.17 × 10
–18
=
2 31
10 1 9
2
1
v × × ×

.
v = 2.18 × 10
6
m s
–1

Its speed is 2.18× 10
6
m s
–1
.
3 B
Her gain in gravitational PE
= mgh = 50 × 10 × 30 = 15 000 J
4 KE of the ball =
2
2
1
mv
=
2
6 3
2 246
1000
57
2
1
|
.
|

\
|
× ×
.
.

= 133 J
5 By KE =
2
2
1
mv ,
521 =
2
1000
9 14
2
1
v × ×
.

v = 264 m s
–1

The speed of the bullet fired is 264 m s
–1
.
6 Gain in KE
= ( )
2 2
2
1
u v m − = ( )( )
2 2
5 30 2 . 0
2
1
− = 87.5 J
7 Her gain in gravitational PE
= mgh = 50 × 10 × 72 = 36 000 J
8 Speed of the passenger
=
60 12
1400
×
= 1.94 m s
–1

KE of the passenger
=
2
2
1
mv =
2
94 . 1 75
2
1
× × = 141 J
9 (a) (i) Work done
= Fs = 176 × 10 × 1.8 = 3168 J
(ii) Minimum force that each of his
arms acted on the barbell
=
2
10 176 ×
= 880 N
(b) Work done
= Fs = 176 × 10 × 2 = 3520 J
(c) A short weightlifter has an advantage in
this sport. This is because a short
weightlifter needs to move the barbell
for a shorter displacement in the
direction of the force applied. Therefore,
less work done is required.
10 (a) Change in the gravitational potential
energy of each worker
= loss in the gravitational potential
energy of each worker
= mgh = 75 × 10 × (–3.5) = –2625 J
(b) The gain in KE of each worker = 0
(c) Loss in the gravitational potential energy
of each worker
= gain in the kinetic energy of each
worker + work done against tension
Since the platform is lowered in a
uniform speed, there is no gain in KE of
each worker. Then, the loss in
gravitational potential energy of each
worker is equal to the work done against
tension.

Practice 4.3 (p. 212)
1 C
2 C
3 B
4 B
Work done against friction = loss in KE
Fs = ( )
2 2
2
1
u v m −
9000s =
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
− |
.
|

\
|
× ×
2 2
6 . 3
36
6 . 3
72
1500
2
1

s = 25 m
The distance travelled by the car when it
slows down is 25 m.
2 Force and Motion Chapter 4 Work, Energy and Power

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work © Oxford University Press 2009

3
5 (a) The chemical energy of the weightlifter
is converted to the gravitational potential
energy of the barbell.
(b) The electrical energy is converted to the
gravitational potential energy of the
passengers and the lift.
6 (a) PE = mgh = 80 × 10 × 6.14 = 4912 J
The gain in his gravitational potential
energy at the highest point is 4912 J.
(b) By conservation of energy,
kinetic energy when he left the ground
= gain in his gravitational potential
energy at the highest point
= 4912 J
7 (a) PE = mgh = 0.4 × 10 × 5 = 20 J
The potential energy before it falls is
20 J.
(b) By the law of conservation of energy,
the potential energy of the ball is
converted to its kinetic energy when it
falls. Therefore, its KE on hitting the
ground is 20 J.
(c) KE =
2
1
mv
2

20 =
2
1
× 0.4 × v
2

v =
0.4
20 2×
= 10 m s
–1
Its velocity on hitting the ground is
10 m s
−1
.
8 (a) KE =
2
1
mv
2
=
2
1
× 0.01 × 10
2
= 0.5 J
The kinetic energy of the stone is 0.5 J
when it is thrown from the ground.
(b) By the law of conservation of energy, all
kinetic energy of the stone is converted
to its potential energy when it reaches
the highest point. Therefore, the
potential energy gain is 0.5 J when it is
at the highest point.
(c) Take the potential energy of the bob at
ground level be 0.
PE = mgh
0.5 = 0.01 × 10 × h
h = 5 m
The maximum height the stone reaches
is 5 m.
(d) By the law of conservation of energy, all
potential energy of the stone at its
highest point is converted back to kinetic
energy when it falls. Its kinetic energy is
0.5 J on hitting the ground again.
9 (a) Take the potential energy of the bob at
the lowest level be 0.
PE = mgh = 0.01 × 10 × 0.1 = 0.01 J
Its potential energy gain after being
raised is 0.01 J.
(b) By conservation of energy, the potential
energy of the bob in (a) is converted to
its kinetic energy at its lowest position.
Therefore, its kinetic energy is 0.01 J as
it passes its lowest position.
By KE =
2
1
mv
2
,
0.01 =
2
1
× 0.01 × v
2

v = 1.41 m s
−1

The speed is 1.41 m s
−1
as it passes its
lowest position.
2 Force and Motion Chapter 4 Work, Energy and Power

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work © Oxford University Press 2009

4
(c) New total energy
=
2
1
mv
1
2
+ original PE
=
2
1
× 0.01 × 1
2
+ 0.01
= 0.015 J
The potential energy of the bob at the
other end = mgh = 0.015 J
0.01 × 10 × h = 0.015
h = 0.15 m
The height of the bob above its lowest
point at the other end is 0.15 m.
10 (a) Gravitational PE of the carts and the
passengers at A
= mgh = 5000 × 10 × 85 = 4.25 × 10
6
J
(b) By the law of conservation of energy,
loss in gravitational PE = gain in KE
mg(h
A
– h
B
) =
2
1
mv
2

v = ) ( 53 85 10 2 − × ×
= 25.3 m s
−1

(c) At B, the actual kinetic energy of the
carts and the passengers
=
2
1
mv
2
=
2
1
× 5000 × 20
2
= 10
6
J
By the law of conservation of energy,
loss in gravitational PE
= gain in KE + work done against
friction
work done against friction
= 5000 × 10 × (85 – 53) − 10
6

= 6 × 10
5
J

Practice 4.4 (p. 219)
1 D
2 B
P =
×
= =
60 2
000 60
t
E
500 W
3 D
4 Usual output power
=
t
E
=
t
mgh
=
( ) ( )
20
20 3 10 10 60 × × × ×
= 18 kW
5 By P
t
E
= ,
=
× ×
= =
20
2000 10 45
P
E
t 45 000 s = 12.5 hr
The climbing time of Jack is 12.5 hours.
6 Let v be Alex’s maximum speed.
By P = Fv,
P = mgv
30 = 65 × 10 × v
v = 0.0462 m s
−1

His maximum speed is 0.0462 m s
−1
.
7 Let F be the force against friction.
P = Fv
10 × 10
3
= F ×
6 3
30
.

Force against friction = 1200 N
Since the block moves at a constant velocity,
the net force acting on the block is zero and
the friction = F = 1200 N.
8 Let n be the maximum number of people that
the lift can raise at 2 m s
−1
.
P =
t
mgh

15 × 10
3
= (120 + 70n) × 10 × 2
n = 9
The maximum number of people who can be
raised at 2 m s
−1
is 9.
9 Work done by the engines
= gain in kinetic energy of the cars
For car A:
Work done by car A’s engine
=
2
1
mv
2
=
2
1
× m ×
2
6 3
100
|
.
|

\
|
.
= 386m J
Power of car A’s engine
=
time
done work
=
6
386m
= 64.3m W
2 Force and Motion Chapter 4 Work, Energy and Power

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work © Oxford University Press 2009

5
For car B:
Work done by car B’s engine
=
2
1
mv
2
=
2
1
× m ×
2
6 3
100
|
.
|

\
|
.
= 386m J
Power of car B’s engine
=
time
done work
=
4
386m
= 96.5m W
Therefore, car B’s engine can output more
power.
10 (a) Loss in PE of water per second
= mgh = 4000 × 10 × 500 = 2 × 10
7
J
In each second, water of 4000 kg loses
potential energy of 2 × 10
7
J.
(b) Since all the potential energy is assumed
to be converted into electrical energy,
the power output of the generator is
2 × 10
7
W.
(c) Not all potential energy of the water is
converted into electrical energy because
energy is lost in heating up the wire,
moving the movable parts of the
generator, driving the turbine, etc.

Revision exercise 4
Multiple-choice (p. 222)
1 B
PE gained by the load
= mgh = 50 × 10 ×
1000
5
= 2.5 J
2 D
Work done by the force
= Fs = 20 × 2π ×
100
30
= 37.7 J
3 C
By the law of conservation of energy, the
potential energy at A is converted to kinetic
energy at B. i.e. mgh =
2
1
mv
2

v = gh 2
Therefore, if the block moves at 2v at B, the
height of the block should be 4h.
4 C
A: Work done by Stephen
= kinetic energy of the ball bearing at A
=
2
1
mv
2
=
2
1
× 0.1 × 5
2
= 1.25 J
B: By the law of conservation of energy,
the kinetic energy at A is converted to
potential energy at B. i.e.

2
1
mv
2
= mgh
v = gh 2
C: It is not true when the ball bearing rolls
down from B to A.
D: It is true by the law of conservation of
energy.
5 A
(1) By the law of conservation of energy,
total energy of the bob is equal to its
potential energy at the highest point, i.e.
total energy
= mgh = M × 10 × 0.1 = M J
(2) By the law of conservation of energy,
the potential energy of the bob is
converted to kinetic energy at its lowest
position. i.e.

2
1
mv
2
= mgh
v = gh 2
which is independent of the mass of the
bob.
(3) By conservation of energy, the bob will
move up to a point at the same level as A,
whether there is a pin at C or not.
2 Force and Motion Chapter 4 Work, Energy and Power

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work © Oxford University Press 2009

6
6 A
(1) By the law of conservation of energy,
the gravitational potential energy of the
ball at A is equal to the kinetic energy of
the ball at B.
mgh =
2
1
mv
2

0.1 × 10 × h =
2
1
× 0.1 × 4
2

h = 0.8 m
(2) By the law of conservation of energy,
kinetic energy of the ball at B
= gravitational potential energy of the
ball at C + kinetic energy of the ball at C

2
1
mv
B
2
= mgh
C
+
2
1
mv
C
2


2
1
× 4
2
= 10 × 0.5 +
2
1
× v
C
2
v
C
= 6 m s
−1

(3) When the ball arrives at B and D, it has
the same gravitational potential energy
which is zero because B and D are at the
same level. Therefore, the ball at B and
D has the same kinetic energy, hence the
same velocity.
7 A
8 A
Work done by the braking force
= change in KE of the car
Fd
1
= 0 –
2
1
mv
2

Fd
1
= 0 –
2
1
m
2
3.6
40
|
.
|

\
|

d
1
=
F
m 7 61. −

Work done by the braking force
= change in KE of the car
Fd
2
= 0 –
2
1
mv
2

Fd
2
= 0 –
2
1
m
2
3.6
80
|
.
|

\
|

d
2
=
F
m 247 −

d
1
: d
2
=
F
m 7 61. −
:
F
m 247 −
= 1 : 4
The ratio of the braking distance of d
1
to d
2
is
1 : 4.
9 D
10 (HKCEE 2006 Paper II Q5)
11 (HKCEE 2007 Paper II Q4)
12 (HKCEE 2007 Paper II Q31)
13 (HKCEE 2007 Paper II Q32)

Conventional (p. 224)
1 (a) His chemical energy converts to (1A)
kinetic energy. (1A)
Then his kinetic energy converts to his
gravitational potential energy. (1A)
(b) His change in gravitational potential
energy
= mgh (1M)
= 50 × 10 × 1860
= 9.3 × 10
5
J (1A)
2 (a) Speed of Dora =
time
distance

=
40
50

= 1.25 m s
–1

KE =
2
1
mv
2
(1M)
=
2
1
× 60 × 1.25
2

= 46.9 J (1A)
The kinetic energy of Dora is 46.9 J.
2 Force and Motion Chapter 4 Work, Energy and Power

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work © Oxford University Press 2009

7
(b) Dora loses all her kinetic energy over
the last 1 m from side B. The loss of her
kinetic energy is due to the work done
against the decelerating force.
Let F be the decelerating force and s be
the distance of travel.
Fs = –46.9 (1M)
F × 1 = –46.9
F = –46.9 N (1A)
Therefore, the decelerating force is
46.9 N.
Alternative method:
By v
2
= u
2
+ 2as,
a =
s
u v
2
2 2

=
1 2
25 1 0
2
×
− .
= −0.781 m s
–2

(1M)
The average deceleration is 0.781 m s
–2
.
F = ma = 60 × 0.781 = 46.9 N (1A)
The average decelerating force is
46.9 N.
(c) In order to swim at uniform speed, Dora
should exert a force of the same size as
the decelerating force but in opposite
direction, so that net force acting on her
is zero.
Power of Dora = Fv (1M)
= 46.9 × 1.25
= 58.6 W (1A)
3 Let T be the temperature of water at the
bottom of the waterfall and m be the mass of
water reaching the bottom.
By the law of conservation of energy,
loss in gravitational potential energy
= gain in internal energy (1M)
mgh = mc∆T (2M)
10 × 100 = 4200 × (T – 12)
T = 12.2 °C (1A)
The temperature of water at the bottom of the
waterfall is 12.2 °C.
4 (a) As the man moves at a constant speed,
the tension acting on the man is equal to
the weight of the man. Hence, the
tension acting on the man is 700 N.(1A)
(b) Work done by the tension
= Fs (1M)
= 700 × 15
= 10 500 J (1A)
(c)

(Correct labelled axes) (1A)
(Correct graph) (1A)
(Correct values) (1A)
5 (a) Work done on the load by the lift
= Fs (1M)
= 16 000 × 508
= 8.128 × 10
6
J (1A)
(b) Time required to transport the load from
the ground to the top floor
=

508
60
1010
= 30.2 s
P =
t
E
(1M)
=
2 . 30
10 128 . 8
6
×

= 269 kW (1A)
The power of the light in (a) is 269 kW.
2 Force and Motion Chapter 4 Work, Energy and Power

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work © Oxford University Press 2009

8
(c) The actual power of the lift is larger than
that in (b). (1A)
When calculating the actual power of the
lift, besides the maximum capacity of
the lift, the weight of the lift needs to be
taken into account as well. (1A)
6 (a) KE =
2
1
mv
2
(1M)
=
2
1
× 1500 ×
2
6 3
72
|
.
|

\
|
.

= 3 × 10
5
J (1A)
The kinetic energy of the car is
3 × 10
5
J.
(b) Distance travelled in 60 s
= vt = |
.
|

\
|
6 3
72
.
× 60 = 1200 m (1M)
Work done against friction
= Fs = 500 × 1200 = 6 × 10
5
J (1A)
(c) Power of the car engine
= fv (1M)
= 500 × |
.
|

\
|
6 3
72
.

= 10 kW (1A)
(d) Acceleration when braking
=
1500
6000 −
=
m
F
= −4 m s
−2
(1M)
By v
2
− u
2
= 2as,
0
2

2
6 . 3
72
|
.
|

\
|
= 2 × (−4) × s
s = 50 m (1A)
7 (a) (i) Initial KE of the metal cylinder
=
2
1
mv
2
(1M)
=
2
1
× 1 × 4
2

= 8 J (1A)
(ii) By the law of conservation of
energy,
loss in KE of the cylinder
= gain in PE of the cylinder + work
done against friction (1M)
Loss in KE = mgh + fs
8 = 1 × 10 × h + 5h
h = 0.533 m (1A)
The maximum height reached by
the cylinder is 0.533 m.
(b) Let v be the minimum initial speed of
the metal cylinder to win the game.
Loss in KE of the cylinder
= gain PE of the cylinder
+ work done against friction (1M)

2
1
× 1 × v
2
= 1 × 10 × 3 + 5 × 3
v = 9.49 m s
−1
(1A)
The minimum initial speed of the metal
cylinder is 9.49 m s
−1
.
(c) Any two of the following and other
reasonable methods: (2 × 1A)
Put the bell higher.
Use a heavier metal cylinder.
Increase the friction between the
cylinder and the support.
Move the pivot of the plank closer to A.
8 (a) The ball should be released at a position
1 m above the ground. (1A)
(b) Let H be the height that the ball should
be released.
By conservation of energy,
mgH = mgh + 10% × mgH (1M)
H = 1 + 0.1H
= 1.11 m (1A)
The ball should be released at a height of
1.11 m above the ground.
2 Force and Motion Chapter 4 Work, Energy and Power

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work © Oxford University Press 2009

9
The energy loss of the ball due to the
work done against friction is converted
into the internal energy of the rail and
the ball. (1A)
(c) She will not win. (1A)
The calculation in (b) takes the initial
kinetic energy of the ball as zero.
If she pushes the ball at the beginning,
the kinetic energy of ball at A will not be
zero. Therefore, the ball will not stop at
A and she will not win. (1A)
9 (a) After the car starts its engine, it
accelerates. (1A)
It continues to accelerate because the
output power is greater than the power
against the frictional force (= fv). (1A)
Once the velocity increases to a value
such that the power against the frictional
force is equal to the output power, (1A)
the car moves with constant velocity.
(1A)
(b) For maximum speed v,
output power = power against friction
(1M)
80 × 1000 = 1600 × v
v = 50 m s
−1
(1A)
The maximum speed of the car is
50 m s
−1
.
10 (a) Work done by Alan
= 30 × 10 × 2 × 10 = 6000 J (1A)
Work done by Billy
= 80 × 10 × 25 = 20 000 J (1A)
Work done by Chris
= 400 × 2.5 × 50 = 50 000 J (1A)
Chris is the winner.
(b) (i) Power (1A)
(ii) Power of Alan
=
10
6000
= 600 W (1A)
Power of Billy
=
20
000 20
= 1000 W (1A)
Power of Chris
=
60
000 50
= 833 W (1A)
The real winner is Billy.
11 (a)

(Labelled 4 forces: weight, tension,
friction, normal reaction) (4 × 1A)
(b) By F = ma, (1M)
80 – 10 – 10 × 10 × sin 30° = 10a
a = 2 m s
–2
(1M)
By s =
2
2
1
at ut + , (1M)
10 = 0 +
2
) 2 (
2
1
t
t = 3.16 s (1A)
The man takes 3.16 s to pull the block to
the top.
2 Force and Motion Chapter 4 Work, Energy and Power

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work © Oxford University Press 2009

10
(c) Power of the man =
t
Fs
(1M)
=
16 . 3
10 80×

= 253 W (1A)
(d) By v
2
– u
2
= 2as, (1M)
v
2
– 0 = 2(2)(10)
v = 6.32 m s
–1
(1M)
Gain in KE
=
2
1
m(v
1
2
– v
0
2
) (1M)
=
2
1
× 10 × (6.32
2
– 0)
= 200 J (1A)
(e) Let v be the required speed.
output power = power against friction
(1M)
253 = 10 × v
v = 25.3 m s
−1
(1A)
12 (a) Loss in PE
= mgh (1M)
= 50 × 10 × 12
= 6000 J (1A)
(b) KE =
2
1
mv
2
(1M)
=
2
1
× 50 × 14.5
2

= 5260 J (1A)
At point A, Fanny’s kinetic energy was
5260 J.
(c) Fanny’s mechanical energy is not
conserved. (1A)
This is because her potential energy loss
at A is greater than her gain in kinetic
energy. (1A)
Fanny’s mechanical energy is not
conserved because she has to do work
against the air resistance acting on her.
(1A)
(d) The work done against the force acting
on Fanny (between A and her lowest
position) is equal to her kinetic energy at
A.
Let F be the minimum average force
acting on her after passing A.
KE = Fs (1M)
5260 = F × 8
F = 658 N (1A)
The minimum average decelerating
force acting on her was 658 N.
13 (HKCEE 2004 Paper I Q7)
14 (HKCEE 2005 Paper I Q2)
15 In this question, g is taken to be 9.8 m s
−2
.
(a) (i) ∆E = mg∆h (1M)
= (16.8 + 1.2) × 9.8 × 0.5 (1M)
= 88 J (1A)
(ii) 88 + 20 = 108 J (1A)
(iii) Work done = Fs (1M)
108 = F × 0.4
F = 270 N (1A)
(b) Gain in KE
= loss in PE − work done (1M)
= 88 − 20
= 68 (1M)
KE =
2
2
1
mv (1M)
68 =
2
18
2
1
v × ×
v = 2.75 m s
−1
(1A)
(c)

2 Force and Motion Chapter 4 Work, Energy and Power

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work © Oxford University Press 2009

11
(Graph starts at origin and forms a full
rounded peak.) (1A)
(Exactly two cycles, i.e. 4 peaks, shown
but not arches.) (1A)
(Height of peaks decreases and peaks
approximately equally spaced.) (1A)
16 (HKCEE 2006 Paper I Q3)
17 (a) PE required
= mgh = 75 × 10 × 1.6 = 1200 J (1M)
KE required
=
2
2
1
mv =
2
80 . 0 75
2
1
× × = 24 J (1M)
Total energy required
= 1200 + 24 = 1224 J (1A)
(b) Let v be the minimum speed.

2
2
1
mv = 1224 (1M)

2
75
2
1
v × × = 1224
v = 5.71 m s
−1
(1A)
The minimum speed is 5.71 m s
−1
.

Physics in articles (p. 228)
(a) A manhole gained the maximum potential
energy when it reached its maximum height,
which is 10 m as stated in the passage.
Maximum potential energy gained by a
manhole cover in the explosion
= mgh (1M)
= 20 × 10 × 10
= 2000 J (1A)
(b) By v
2
– u
2
= 2as, (1M)
v
2
– 0 = 2(10)(10)
v = 14.1 m s
–1
(1A)
The speed of a manhole cover when it fell
back to ground was 14.1 m s
–1
.
(c) The air resistance is assumed to be negligible.
(1A)
2 Force and Motion Chapter 5 Momentum

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work © Oxford University Press 2009

1
5 Momentum

Practice 5.1 (p. 238)
1 D
Take the upward direction as positive.
Change in momentum of the ball
= mv − mu
= 0.5 × 6 – 0.5 × (−8)
= 7 kg m s
–1

2 C
Momentum of the tennis ball
= m
t
v
t
=
1000
57
× 60 = 3.42 kg m s
–1

Momentum of the football
= momentum of the tennis ball
= 3.42 kg m s
–1

m
f
v
f
= 3.42

1000
400
×
f
v = 3.42
v
f
= 8.55 m s
–1

The velocity of the football is 8.55 m s
–1
.
3 B
4 B
5 Magnitude of momentum of the boy
= mv = 60 × 4 = 240 kg m s
–1

Magnitude of momentum of the girl
= mv = 40 × 6 = 240 kg m s
–1

The magnitudes of momenta of the boy and
the girl are the same.
KE of the boy
=
2
2
1
mv =
2
1
× 60 × 4
2
= 480 J
KE of the girl
=
2
2
1
mv =
2
1
× 40 × 6
2
= 720 J
The girl has larger kinetic energy.
6 Let the mass of runner A be m
A
and the
velocity of runner A be v
A
.
Momentum of runner A = m
A
v
A
= p
KE of runner A =
2
2
1
A A
v m = E
Momentum of runner B = 2m
A
v
A
= 2p
KE of runner B =
2
) 2 (
2
1
A A
v m = 2E
The momentum and kinetic energy of runner
B are 2p and 2E respectively.
7 (a) Momentum of the object before the
force acts
= mu = 2 × 5 = 10 kg m s
–1

(b) Momentum of the object after the force
has acted
= mv = 2 × 10 = 20 kg m s
–1

(c) Gain in momentum
= mv − mu = 20 − 10 = 10 kg m s
–1

(d) Force acting on the object
=
impact of time
momentum in change
=
5
10
= 2 N
8 (a) The cushion in the glass column can
reduce the force of impact acting on the
peanut by lengthening the time of impact.
Therefore, the peanut does not break.
(b) The cushion in an envelope can reduce
the force of impact acting on the fragile
items by lengthening the time of impact.
9 (a) Take the travelling direction of the car
as positive.
F =
t
mu mv −

=
1
20 80 0 80 × − ×

= −1600 N
The force acting on the driver is 1600 N
opposite to the travelling direction of the
car.
2 Force and Motion Chapter 5 Momentum

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work © Oxford University Press 2009

2
(b) Since the force acting on the driver is
huge (1600 N), the driver will be
seriously hurt or even dead if he/she
does not wear a seat-belt.
10 (a) By v
2
= u
2
+ 2as,
v = gs 2 = 10 10 2 × × = 14.1 m s
–1

When the dry cell hits the ground, its
speed is 14.1 m s
–1
.
(b) F =
t
mu mv −
=
3
10 4
0 1 . 14 02 . 0

×
− ×
= 70.5 N
The net force acting on the cell is
70.5 N.
11 (a) Take the initial travelling direction of
water as positive.
F =
t
mu mv −
=
1
25 15 0 × −
= −375 N
The water experiences a force of 375 N,
in a direction opposite to its initial
travelling direction, by the wall.
(b) By Newton’s third law, the force exerted
by the water on the wall is equal to the
force exerted by the wall on water.
Therefore, the force exerted by the water
on the wall is 375 N, in the initial
travelling direction of the water.
12 For football P:
Take the initial travelling direction as
positive.
Net force =
t
mu mv −

=
( )
5 . 0
20 15 × − − × m m

= −70m N
Force from the wall = net force on P
Football P experiences a force of −70m N
from the wall.
For football Q:
Take the initial travelling direction as
positive.
Net force =
t
mu mv −

=
5 . 0
20 ) 15 ( × − − × m m

= −70m N
Force from the ground + weight = net force
Force from the ground = −70m − 10m
= −80m N
Football Q experiences a force of −80m N.
Therefore, football Q experiences a larger
force.
13 (a) The shaded area represents the impulse
of the force acting on the trolley and
impulse = Ft, where F is the force on
trolley and t is the time of impact.
The area is also equal to the change of
momentum of the trolley,
i.e. impulse = Ft = mv – mu
where m is the mass of the trolley, and u
and v are the velocities of trolley before
and after impact respectively.
(b) Time of impact = 0.3 s
(accept 0.3−0.4 s)
Area under curve = Ft = 0.47 N s
F =
3 0
47 0
.
.
= 1.57 N
(accept 1.175−1.57 N)
The force acting on the force sensor is
1.57 N.
(c) From the v–t graph, the velocities of the
trolley before and after impact are
0.36 m s
−1
and −0.35 m s
−1
respectively.
Note that the direction of the initial
velocity of the trolley is positive.
2 Force and Motion Chapter 5 Momentum

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work © Oxford University Press 2009

3
By Ft = m × (v − u),
m =
u v
Ft

=
36 . 0 35 . 0
47 . 0
− −

= 0.662 kg
The mass of the trolley is 0.662 kg.

Practice 5.2 (p. 257)
1 B
2 C
3 A
4 (a) This is an inelastic collision. Some of
the kinetic energy of the bullet is
converted into internal energy of the
apple.
(b) This is an inelastic collision. The kinetic
energy of the car is converted to sound
energy and internal energy of the wall
and the car.
(c) This is an elastic collision. The kinetic
energy of the puck does not change.
5 Take the moving direction of the shell as
positive.
By conservation of momentum,
total momentum before firing the shell
= total momentum after firing the shell
0 = m
shell
v
shell
+ m
cannon
v
cannon

0 = 5 × v
shell
+ 8000 × (–0.08)
v
shell
= 128 m s
–1

The velocity of the shell is 128 m s
−1
.
6 (a) It does not contradict the law of
conservation of momentum. We
consider the system which includes the
ball only. There is force acting on the
ball by the ground during the impact and
also there is weight acting on the ball,
providing external net forces on the
system. Therefore, the total momentum
of the system is not conserved.
(b) This is because the mass of the earth is
huge and the motion of the earth is not
noticeable.
7 Let v be the common velocity of the bullet
and trolley.
By conservation of momentum,
total momentum before impact
= total momentum after impact
m
bullet
u
bullet
+ m
trolley
u
trolley
= (m
bullet
+ m
trolley
) × v
0.006 × u
bullet
+ 0.8 × 5 = (0.006 + 0.8) × 8.5
u
bullet
= 475 m s
–1

The velocity of the bullet before the impact is
475 m s
−1
.
8 (a) Take backwards as positive.
By conservation of momentum,
total momentum before hitting the ball
= total momentum after hitting the ball
0 = m
Kathy
v
Kathy
+ m
ball
v
ball

0 = 3 + 0.3 × v
ball

v
ball
= –10 m s
–1

The velocity of the volleyball after
impact is –10 m s
−1
.
(b) F =
t
mu mv −
=
25 0
3
.
= 12 N
The average force acting on Kathy is
12 N.
9 (a) By conservation of momentum,
total momentum before collision
= total momentum after collision
m
white
u
white
+ m
blue
u
blue

= m
white
v
white
+ m
blue
v
blue

0.135 × u
white
+ 0
= 0.135 × 0.2 + 0.135 × 0.5
u
white
= 0.7 m s
–1

The speed of the white ball when it hits
the blue ball is 0.7 m s
−1
.
2 Force and Motion Chapter 5 Momentum

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work © Oxford University Press 2009

4
(b) Total KE before the collision
=
2
1
m
white
(u
white
)
2
+
2
1
m
blue
(u
blue
)
2

=
2
1
× 0.135 × 0.7
2
+ 0
= 0.0331 J
Total KE after the collision
=
2
1
m
white
(v
white
)
2
+
2
1
m
blue
(v
blue
)
2

=
2
1
× 0.135 × 0.2
2
+
2
1
× 0.135 × 0.5
2

= 0.0196 J
Since there is loss of total kinetic energy,
the collision is inelastic.
10 (a) Let v be the velocity of the boat after
dropping water.
By conservation of momentum,
total momentum before dropping water
= total momentum after dropping water
m
boat
v
boat
= (m
boat
+ m
water
) × v
0.45 × 1 = (0.45 + 0.01) × v
v = 0.978 m s
−1

The velocity of the boat after dropping
water in it is 0.978 m s
−1
.
(b) Total KE before dropping the water
=
2
1
mu
2
=
2
1
× 0.45 × 1
2
= 0.225 J
Total KE after dropping the water
=
2
1
mv
2

=
2
1
× (0.45 + 0.01) × 0.978
2

= 0.220 J
(c) Since the total kinetic energy of the boat
and water before ‘collision’ is not equal
to that after ‘collision’; and the boat and
water ‘stick’ together after the collision,
the ‘collision’ is inelastic.
11 (a) It is a completely inelastic collision.
(b) Before collision:
Velocity of trolley A, u
A

= slope of the graph
=
0.6 2.6
0.2 0.9



= 0.35 m s
–1
(accept 0.34−0.39 m s
−1
)
Velocity of trolley B, u
B
= 0
After collision:
Velocity of trolleys A and B
= slope of the graph
=
6 2 6
0.9 1.5
. −


= 0.176 m s
–1
(accept 0.16−0.19 m s
−1
)
(c) Total momentum before collision
= m
A
u
A
+ m
B
u
B

= 0.5 × 0.35 + 0
= 0.175 kg m s
–1

Total momentum after collision
= (m
A
+ m
B
)v
= (0.5 + 0.5) × 0.176
= 0.176 kg m s
–1

Momentum is conserved within limits of
experimental error.
12 Let u and v be the speeds of the white ball and
the red ball after the collision respectively.
Along the direction in which the white ball
travels before collision:
By conservation of momentum,
0.135 × 1.8 = 0.135 × u cos 30° +
0.135 × v cos 60°
1.8 = v u
2
1
2
3
+
v = 3.6 − u 3 …………(1)
Along the direction perpendicular to which
the white ball travels before collision:
2 Force and Motion Chapter 5 Momentum

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work © Oxford University Press 2009

5
By conservation of momentum,
0 = 0.135 × u sin 30° − 0.135 × v sin 60°
0 = v u
2
3
2
1

u = v 3 …………(2)
Substitute (2) into (1):
v = v 3 3 6 . 3 × −
v = 0.9 m s
−1

Substitute v = 0.9 m s
−1
into (2):
u = v 3 = 1.56 m s
−1

The speeds of the white ball and the red ball
after the collision are 1.56 m s
−1
and 0.9 m s
−1

respectively.

Revision exercise 5
Multiple-choice (p. 261)
1 C
2 B
By Ft = mv – mu,
1.5 = ) 15 ( 024 . 0 024 . 0 − × − ×v
v = 47.5 m s
–1

The speed of the ball is 47.5 m s
–1
when it
leaves the racket.
3 D
By F =
t
mu mv −
, the largest net force acting
on the object is represented by the steepest
slope of the graph.
4 D
A: F = 0013 . 0
6 . 3
96
6 . 3
110
÷
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
− − = 44000 N
B: F = 0018 . 0
6 . 3
98
6 . 3
120
÷
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
− − = 33600 N
C: F = 0021 . 0
6 . 3
112
6 . 3
130
÷
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
− − = 32000 N
D: F = 0015 . 0
6 . 3
109
6 . 3
140
÷
(
¸
(

¸

|
.
|

\
|
− − = 46100 N
5 D
All choices (A−D) follow the conservation of
momentum.
D violates the law of conservation of energy
and the total KE of the balls after collision is
greater than that before collision.
6 C
Along the direction in which fragment P
travels:
Take the direction in which fragment P
travels be positive.
By conservation of momentum,
v
P
+ v
R
cos 45° = 0
3 + v
R
cos 45° = 0
v
R
= −4.24 m s
−1
The speed of fragment R is 4.24 m s
−1
.
7 A
8 A
9 (HKCEE 2007 Paper II Q29)
10 (HKCEE 2005 Paper II Q45)

Conventional (p. 262)
1 (a) Change in momentum
= area under F–t graph (1M)
=
2
1
× 0.15 × 18 000
= 1350 N s (1A)
The change in momentum of the ball is
1350 N s.
(b) Average force on the ball
=
impact of time
impulse
(1M)
=
15 0
1350
.

= 9000 N (1A)
The average force experienced by the
ball is 9000 N.
2 Force and Motion Chapter 5 Momentum

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work © Oxford University Press 2009

6
2 (a) Take the initial direction of the bullet be
positive.
F =
t
mu mv −
(1M)
=
01 . 0
) 500 500 ( 10 3
3
− − × ×


= −300 N (1A)
The force on each bullet is 300 N, in the
same direction as the final travelling
direction of the bullet.
(b) By Newton’s third law of motion,
average force on Superman
= −(average force acting on the
bullets)
=
time total
bullets of momentum in change total

(1M)
= −
60
) 500 500 ( 10 3 50
3
− − × × ×


= 2.5 N (1A)
The average force acting on Superman is
2.5 N, in the initial direction of the
bullets.
3 (a) By v
2
= u
2
+ 2as, (1M)
v = as u 2
2
+
= 4 2 2 0 × × +
= 4 m s
–1
(1A)
The velocity of trolley A was 4 m s
−1

before collision.
(b) Take the travelling direction of trolley A
before collision as positive.
By conservation of momentum,
total momentum before collision
= total momentum after collision (1M)
m
A
u
A
+ m
B
u
B
= m
A
v
A
+ m
B
v
B

1 × 4 + 2 × 0 = 1 × (−1) + 2 × v
B

v
B
= 2.5 m s
–1
(1A)
The velocity of trolley B was 2.5 m s
−1

after collision. Its direction was the same
as the travelling direction of trolley A
before collision.
4 (a) Initial momentum of the jet fighter
= m
fighter
u
fighter
(1M)
= 8000 × 100
= 800 000 kg m s
–1
(1A)
(b) Momentum of each missile when fired
= m
missile
v
missile
(1M)
= 20 × 500
= 10 000 kg m s
–1
(1M)
By conservation of momentum,
total momentum before firing
= total momentum after firing (1M)
m
fighter
u
fighter
+ m
missile
u
missile

= m
fighter
v
fighter
+ (m
missile
v
missile
) × 5
800 000 + 0
= 7900 × v
fighter
+ 10 000 × 5
v
fighter
= 94.9 m s
–1
(1A)
The velocity of the jet fighter after firing
five missiles is 94.9 m s
–1
.
(c) By conservation of momentum,
total momentum before firing
= total momentum after firing (1M)
m
fighter
u
fighter
+ m
missile
u
missile

= m
fighter
v
fighter
+ (m
missile
v
missile
) × 5
7900 × 94.9 + 0
= 7800 × v
fighter
− 10 000 × 5
v
fighter
= 103 m s
–1
(1A)
The velocity of the jet fighter after firing
another five missiles is 103 m s
–1
.
5 (a) Magnitude of impulse
= Ft (1M)
= 80 × 0.10
= 8 N s (1A)
2 Force and Motlo
6
( b) Assume the direction ofthc forcc
applied is as shown in the figure below.
o
F
Along the direction in \\ hich the puck
travcls before impact:
1ll0111enlJlll before impact + impulse
= momentum alter impact
0.25 x 15 + (- 8)cos 0'" 0
0= 62.00
(IM)
( lA)
(c) Along the direction perpendicular to
which the puck travels before impact:
velocity of the puck alter impact
C' )
= velocity bctore impact + impulse( I M)
0 + 8 sin 62.0°
= 7.07 n: s' ( lA)
The speed of the puck after impact is
7.07015 ' .
1" 1I + 1fI
= 22 + (2»(2
== 18ms '
(IM)
The velocity of the mi ni bus is 18 m Si
towards lhe Ilortheasljust before
collision. (I A)
(b) Along Ihe direction lowards the cast:
Take the direction towards the cast as
positivc.
By conservation of momentum.
lotal momentum before collision
= lotalmomenlutn after collision ( I M)
3000 )( 18 cos 45° - 2500 x II..,., COS 45°
o
lI,ot= 21.6ms ·
1
The vclocilY oflhe car is 21.6 In s i
10\\ ards the nortlmcst jusl before
collision. (lA)
New Senior Secondilry PhYSiCS at Work
7
89
ha ter 5 Momentu
(c) Let v be the velocity of the vehicles just
after :he collision.
Along the direction towards the north:
Take the direction 10\\ ards thc nonh as
posit ive.
B} conscr"\ ation of lllomentmn.
IOtal momentum before collision
,., tol almomcnlum aflercollisi on (lM)
3000 x 18 sin 45" + 2500 )( 21.6 sin 45"
= (3000 + 2500) )( v
v =
The velocity of the vehicles is 13.9111 S- l
IOwanls the north just after the
(a) Let I' be the \ elocity of can Yafter
col[ision.
"
1.2 m 5-
1
/
,
,
2m5-
1
(45
0-=-"--- - 0:10
m
--
,
,
,
v "
"-
(I A)
Along the original moving direction of
cart X:
By conservation ofmomemurn.
75 )( 2 = 75 x 1.2 cos 45° + 150)( vcos 0
l'COS 0 = 0.576 ......... (1)
Along the direction perpendicular to the
original moving direction of cart X:
By conservmion of momentum.
o 75)( 1.2 sin 45" - 150)( I' sin 0
\' sin 0= 0.424 ........ (2)
(2) + (1)'
O
0.424
tan ""--
0.576
o 36.4"
rrorn ( 1):
I' cos 36.4° "., 0.576
1': 0.7[6111 5 I
( lA)
(lA)
Oxford University Press 2009
1: force and Motio
After the coll ision, cart )'moves at a
velocity of 0.716 m s I at an angle of
36.4
0
to thc originAl moving direction of
cart X.
(b) Bcfore the collision. total KE of carts X
and Y
I ,I ,
=- - - 111111) ·
2 . 2
=..!..x 75 x 21 +..!.. x 150 x 0
2
2 2
= 150 J (lA)
After the col lision, total KE of cam.\'
and }'
I ,I ,
= -II/\I'r- + -III}l'r-
2 2
I _ , I ,
= - x 7";) x (Ut +- x 150 x 0.716-
2 2
92.4 J (lA)
Since the carts lose kinet ic energy in the
collision. the collision is (I A)
change in momentum
By/' = (IM)
2 =
lime of impact
0.Sx(0.5 - u)
I
1I =-2ms ·
1
The speed of 1\ ater is 2111 S-I before il
hits Victor.
(h) I don'! agrce with him.
(I A)
( lA)
This is because friction and nomlal
reaction acts on thc fcet of Victor when
he takes shower. The friction and nonna[
reaction balances the force acting on him
by the water (zero net force). ( lA)
When external nct force acts on objects.
conservation of momentum is not valid.
However. it is correct in the absence of
external net force. (lA)
New Senior Secondary Physics at Work 90
9
ha ter 5 Momentu
(a) When the plunger is released. clastic
potential energy ofthc spring (lA)
is convertcd into sound energy :md (I A)
kinetic energy of trolleys.
(b) By conservat ion of energy,
(I A)
( I A)
elaSlic potential energy oflhe spring
= sound energy + K E of trolleys
I , ,
5 x 0.7 = - (11/ ,1'1- + 1118 " 8· ) . ....... ( I)
2
(I A)
By conservation of momentum, (I A)
III 11'1 = 11/ 81'8 • ....... (2) (I A)
(c) From (2).
0.5 x = - 1.5 Xl' S
Substitute 1'1 = into (I),
5 x 0.7 =..!.. [0.5 X + [.5 X I' s 2]
2
I"H ""' 1.08 ms I
1'1 ""-3 x 1.08 =-3.24 111 Si
The veloc ity of trolley A is 3.24 m 5 I
(Iowards the left). ( I i\)
The velocity of trolley /J is I.OS III 5 I
(Iowards the right). (lA)
10 (:I) Take the travelling direction or lhe bullet
after collision as positive.
Let A denote the bullet and /J denote the
block.
By conservalion of momentum.
lolal momentum before collision
::0: lotal momentum after coll isi on (IM)
11/ ,Ill +- IJIsll8 = (11/ , + II/R) x I'
0.0511 , + 0 = (0.05 + I) x 5
11
1
= 105 I11S-' (lA)
The speed oflhe hullet is 105 III 5 I just
before the collision.
" Oxford University Press 2009
2 Force .nd Hatlo
(b)
11 (a)
(b)
(c)
12
(" )
Average force
change in momentum
(lM)
time of impact
Ix(5 - 0) = 25 N
( lA)
0.2
The average force acting on the block by
the bullet is 25 N. in the travelling
direction of the bullet.
, ,
By t '- = 11- + 2(/:;.
(IM)
1/
2
== 0 + 2( IOX30 - 2.75)
1'= 23.3 m S i
( lA)
The velocity of the person when he just
arrives at the sur/acc of the cushion is
23.3 m S·I .
Impulse = 1111' - /J/l1
(IVI)
= 50x (23.3 - 0)
= 1165Ns ( lA)
The impulse acting on the is
1165 N s.
Average forcc acting on the person
=
impulse
( lA)
timc of impact
Since the cushion can lengthen Ihe lime
of impact.
( lA)
the average force acting on the person
falling on the cushion is reduced so the
cushion reduces the chance of injury;
therefore it saves peoplc. ( lA)
According to Newton's third law of
motion.
( ")
whcn the men paddle. an action force
\\ hich is in backwards di rCClion acts on
the water by the paddles. (I A)
A reaction forcc which is in forwards
direction then acts on the paddles by the
water.
(I AI
Therefore, the boat can movc forwards
by paddling.
New Senio- Secondary Physics at Work
91
ha ter 5 Homentu
(b) 1' = /I "' ul=0 + 2x3 = 6ms 1
After aecclerating for 3 s.thc boat and
thc men travel at 6 m 5.
1
.
Change in KE of the team
I ,
= -(600 + 70 x22)x6-
2
= 38520J
A, er.lge POI' er
increase in KE
lime taken
" =52:::0
3
= 12840W
(I M)
(I M)
( lA)
The average power of the team in the
first 3 seconds is 12840 W.
(c) The tOlal momentum of the boat and the
athletes \\as zero when the boat was
parkcd at the pier
(I A)
By thc conscnatiOI1 of momentum.
when athletes mOlled forwards and
stepped on the pier. the boat would
moved hackwards \\ ith mOlllentum of
the same magnitude.
(lA)
Therefore. they need a rope to lix the
position of the boat before landing.
13 (3) Take the direl:tion lowards the right as
positive.
(i) Nct force on the waler ejected
1111
'
- 111//
(I M)
=
0.5 x (1O- 0)
= 5N
By Newton's 3rd law. the net force
(thrust) acting on thc rocket is 5 N
(towards the left). (I A)
Cl Oxford university Press 2009
(ii ) By conservation of momentum. (0) Air cushions lengthen the time of im[h1ct
momentum before launching for people falling from a height. (I A)
'" momentum after launching so il can reduce the force acting on the
o II/, V, + 111" 1',, (1:-'-1) people when they fall on the cushion and
0 = (2 - 0.5) x I'r + 5 reduce Ihe chance of injury.
1',=-3.33ms ·
1
(lA) (lA)
The rodet mme!> aI3.33 m s' 15 (a) The inilial vc1ocityof B is - 10 III 5-
1
towards the lefl. (I A)
(b) Since the thrust is less than the weight of and its final velocity is -3.5 m s r. (I A)
Ihe rocket. the rocket cannot ny up in air. (b) By conservation of momentum.
(I. \) total mOlllent um before collision
Any onc of the following modifications: = 10lal momenlum after collision (I M)
(I A)
1111111 + 11/8118 = 11/ rl' l 1118 " 1/
More water can be ejectcd. 0.2 x 20.,. 0.8 x (- 10)
Water can be ejected al a higher speed. ,--, 0.21' 1 + 0.8 x (- 3.5)
I.
(" )
The harder the plate. the shon("r the lime
" I'""-6ms
l
( lA)
ofimpacl. ( lA) The \ clocity of block A after collision is
(h) ( i) Yes. the momentum change of the
- 6 illS I,
ba1! in both arc the sa111e.( I A) (0) Change in momentum of block A
This is because Ihe \("Iocit) oflhe
11/ x ( 1'.1 - Ill)
ball just bclore colliding \\ ilh Ihe · 0.2< (-6 -20)
platc depends on the height of = -5.2 kg m S-1
(lA)
release. h. \\ hich i!> the in From Figure h. the lime of impact is
both cases. And the \ eIOCII) j U!>1 0.5 s.
after collision is the same in both
change in momenlum
(lM) orce ""
cases. (I AI
lime of imp..1cl
(ii ) Force acting on an object F
- 5.2
._-
= change in momentum
0.5
time of impJcl
(lA)
- 10.4 N (lA)
Since the change in momentum of
A force of -\ 0.4 N acts on block A
the ball after b the same
during collision.
for both plates.
16 (,) ( ;) Take the direction oflhe final

I
and
\ elocity of the trolley as positive.
time of impact Change in momentum
I I '= 1111' - (- 1111') (IM)
FIwIl :F""r.""-'-
0.1 0.1
"" 21111' (I A)
"" 1 : I
(lA)
New Senior Secondary PhySiCS at Work 92 , Oxford University Press 2009
2 Force and Motio
Change in KE
I 2 I
=' -1/11'
2 2

(ii) Average force
= change in momentum
time of impact
21111'
(b) (i) Change in momentum

Change in KE
1 , I
= 0 - -1111'- =
2 2
(ii) Average force
= change in momcntum
time of impact
11/1'

2,
(IM)
(lA)
(IM)
(lA)
(I A)
(lA)
(I A)
(c) Momentum of the system is
not conserved in both (a)
:md (b).
(I A)
(I A)
Since the wall is fixed on the ground. the
ground exens a force on the wall in the
collisions and the momentum of the
trolley-\\all system is not cOlbervcd.
(lA)
The momentum ofa mechanical system
is conserved only ifno external force
exerts on the system.
(d) The collision in (a) is clastic and
the collision in (b) is inelastic.
( lA)
(I A)
Thi s is because the trolley in (a) does not
lose kinetic energy in collision while the
trolley in (b) loses kinet ic energy in the
collision. (lA)
New Senior Secondary Physics at Work 93
ha ter 5 Momentu
17 Take the downward direction as posi tive.
(a) By \ ,2 - Il = 20s. (IM)
- 0 = 2(10)5
.\.= 1.25 m (lA)
Gilbert jumps from a height of U5 lTl.
(b) Change in momentum
'" m(l · - /I)
= 70 x (0-5)
= -350 l\' s
(I M)
( lA)
(c) A\erage net force
= change in momentum
time of impact
- 350
N
1.2
(I M)
(I A)
The:1\ erage net force acting on him
\\ hen he reaches the ground i s - 292 N.
(d) net force = force by the ground \\eight
(IM)
- 292 = F..,.. 700
r '"'--992N (I A)
The average force acting on him by the
ground is -992 N.
(c) l Ie bends his knecs to increasc the lime
of impact and hence reduce the loree
acti ng on him \\ hen he reaches the
ground. (I A)
18 (a) Before Ihe impact. the velocity orthe
(b)
(I A)
After the impact. the \'c locity of the ball
0.36ms 1.
Impulse = IJIV-1/I1/
= 0.2 x (- 0.36 0.42)
(lA)
(IM)
= -O.156Ns (lA)
impulse
(c) Avemge force = (IM)
time of impact
-0. 156
1.75 1.6
=-I.04N (lA)
() Oxford Uni versity Press 2009
2 Force and Motio
I. (a)
(b)
20 (u)
(b)
(,)
,,,
"
tI ' "J
By conservation ofmomcntulTI.
momcntum before the actor reaches the
m
= momentum after the actor reaches the
car
(I")
1000 x 20 = (1000 + 75) I '
1' = IS.6ms I (I A)
The speed of the car is [8.6 m S-I when
the actor reaches the car.
Increase in KE
I , , 4
(lM) =-x 75 x(,,--18.6-)= 10
2
,, =:: 24.8 ms- I
( lA)
Impulse = Ill\> - 11111
( I")
= 75 x (24.8 - 18.6)
= 465Ns ( lA)
The impulse on the actor is 465 N s.
Area under the graph
I
=- x 0.15 x 25 000
,
=1875Ns (I A)
The area under graph in (a) is the
impulse experienced by the driH'r. (l A)
(Or it is the change in momentum oflhe
dri,'er.)
(The largest force experienced b ~ the
driver becomes 8 3 3 0 ~ . onc-third of the
original force.)
" A)
New Senior Secondary Physics at Work 94
ha er 5 Momentu
(The impact timc of the driver and the
windscreen becomes OA5 s. three times
the original impact time.) (1 A)
21 (a) Assume their velocity after the collision
is as shown belo\\.
y
;
,
A Sms " (}
"---'-"'-'--- --1' - - - - - - - - .... x
60 kg
8 70 kg
Along .\"-a.\is:
By consenation of momentum. (I M)
60 x 5 = (60 + 70) x I'COS 0
30
I'COS 0 =- .. ..(1)
13
Alon£y-axis:
By conservation of momentum.
70 x 6 = (60 + 70) x "sin 0
I ' sin 0=_ 42 ......... (2)
13
(2) + (1),
42
tan 0 =-
30
0 = 54.5
0
From (I):
1" cos 54.5°
30
13
(I A)
I ' 3.97 m S-I (lA)
Their velocity is 3.97 m S·l, at an angle
of 54. 5° to thc original direction orA.
(b) Total loss in kineti c energy
=c x60x5
2
+ ~ X70
X
6
2
)
-G x 130 X3. 97
1
)
(I M)
= 986 J (lA)
10 Oxford University Press 2009
2 Force and Motio
22 (:1) (i) The shaded area is the impulse
acting on the force sensor. (lA)
(ii) Let F be the average force acting
on the force sensor.
From the graph.
t ime of impact
= 3.021 - 3.012
"'- 9x10
1
s (lM)
Impulse = arl!a under F- I graph
Impulse = FI
0.24457 = F x 9 x 10 .1
F = 27.2N (I A)
An average force 01'27.2 N
(towards the right) acts on the force
sensor by the trolley during the
impact.
(iii) The average force acting on the
force sensor by the trolley and the
average lorce acting on thc trolley
by the force sensor lonn an
action-and-reaction pair. ( lA)
By Newton's third law.lhese
forces have the same magnitude
but in opposi te direction. i.e. the
average force acting on the trolley
by the force sensor is also 27.2 N
(towards the Jell). (lA)
(h) Figures nand 0 show that soil/elastic
materials tend to have a longer time of
imp..1ct and a smaller maximum force of
impact. (lA)
For mbbcr plungcr.
avcmge force acting on the iorce sensor
change in momentum
I ime of impact
• ,,"",0'0-2:c
7
-, 4c-
6S
,=
2.570 - 2.550
= 13.7 N
New Senior Secondary Physics at Work
(I A)
95
ha ter 5 Momentu
It is smaller than that by the steel plunger
in (a)( ii).
I f a man is knocked down by a car. with
the same change in momentum of the
man. the average force acting on the
man \,ould be smaller if the bumper is
softer. (lA)
A::. a result. the injury caused to the Illan
can be reduced and a softer bumper is
safer to the public. (1 A)
23 (a) (i ) Before the impact (i.e. whell
1 < 2.50 s). trolley IJ moves towards
the len \\ ith an average speed of
about0,42ms-
l
. (lA)
During the impact (i.e. from
r = 2.50 s to f '" 2.75 s). trolley B
decelerates. It becomes
momentarily at rest at f ~ 2.66 s
(I A)
and then ren'rses its travelling
direction. (I A)
Afterthe impact (i.e. when
f > 2.75 s). trolley B trtl\ els at
about -0.15 m s l. (lA)
(The acceptable range of time of
impact is from 1 = 2.50- 2.52 s to
1 = 2.75- 2.8 s)
(ii) From Figure r. the time ofill1pact
of trolley is (2.75 s- 2.5 s) = 0.25 s.
( IM)
A \ crage force
change in momentum
time of impact
I .38x (- 0.15 - 0.42)
0.25
=-3.15 N
Cl Oxford University Press 2009
2 Force and Motio
The average force acting on trolley
B is 3.15 N (towards the right).
(lA)
(b) In Figure q, the velocity of trolley A
changes from 0.55 m S ·1 to - 0.55 ms-
I
.
A "crage forcc acting 011 A by B
= changc in momentum
timeofimpact
O.69x(- 0.55 - 0.55)
0.25
=-3.04 N
The avcragc force acting on trolley A is
3.04 N (towards the left). (lA)
Within c.\.pcrimental error. the a\ ('rage
force acting 011 A by 13 has the same
magnitude but in the opposite direction
as the average force acting on B
(lA)
Therefore. the experimental i!> in
accordance with Newton· s third la\\.
(I A )
24 (:1) (i) The trollcy accel erates from rest
down the runwa). I1 hits the force
sensor at 0.50 m S- I and
The collision bet\\ een the
and the force sensor is ineLhllc.
, lA)
(i i) The shaded area rcpresenb the
impulse of the force. '1.-\ )
(iii) From the F-I graph. time ofimpacl
= 1.544 - 1.531
= 0.013 s
A verage force
area under the cun e
time of impact
0.31
0.013
= 23.8 N
New Senior Secondary Physics at Work
, I \1)
( 1.\)
96
ha ter 5 Momentum
(b) (i) The trolley accelerates from rest
down the runway. It collides with
the force sensor with a velocity of
0.43 m S-I and rebounds with
- 0.36 ms-I . (lA)
The collision is inelast ic because
the trolley rebounds at a smaller
velocity.
(ii) Time of impact
..,. 1.65 - 1.60 = 0.05 s
Average force
area undcr the curve
time of impact
0.44

0.05
- 8.8 N
(lA)
( lA)
(ii i) As compared with the collision
wit h plasticinc. the collision with <l
spring has a longer time of impact
and a smaller average force. It is
closer to an clastic collision. (2A)
25 (3) Perpendicular to the initial travelling
direction of the ball:
By conservation of momentum. (I M)
0 = M/lV
lI
sin 12.0" + MI'VI' sin 36.0"
0 = 5.90 x VB sin 12.0"-
JIf" x 3.30 si n 36.0"
V
lI
= 1.58MI' ...... . . ( I)
Along the initialtr:lvelling direction of
the ball:
By consen'ation ofll1omentum.
Jl-f/jV = MRV
B
cos 12.0" + MpVpcos 36.0°
5.90 x 3.00 = 5.90 X V/I cos t 2.0
0
+
'\(" x 3.30 cos 36.0"
17.7 = 5.77V8 + 2.67MI' ... (2)
Substitute (I) into (2):
17.7 = 5.77(I.S8M,,) - 2.67M,.
Mp = 1.S0kg (lA)
Cl Oxford University Press 2009
2 Force and Motio ha ter 5 Momentum
(b) Substitute Mp = 1.50 kg into (I): (Hi) Mean resistance force
VB = 1.58M" (IM)
_ change in momentum
( IM)
= 1.58 x 1.50
time
= 2.37ms I
(lA)
60,(0-3.67)
4.0
(0) Total kinetic energy before collision
= -55. 1 N (lA)
I 1
= - M !lV- =- x 5.90x 3.00- = 26.)5 J
The mean resistive force acting on
2 2
Total kinetic energy aftcr collision
them is 55.1 N towards the left .
I ,I ,
(i\') It is invalid because the external
= 2MBVs- +
2
MI'VI'-
force is not negligible. (lA)
_ I ? I _ .2
--x5.90 x_.37 + - xl. )0x3.30
2 2
27 (a) By conservation of momentum. (lA)
11/ X 10 = 1//1'/ ... 11/1'8
= 24.7 J
( l A)
1'/ + I 'B= 10
(Correct calculations) (IM)
(b)
0)
If Ihey stick together on coHision,
Since the total kinetic cnergy ofthc ball
v/ = 1'8.
and pin before collision is not cqualto
Then.
that after collision, the collision is
1'.0/-0. VB = 10
inelastic. (lA)
. .,
:::> 1'..1 = I 'B = ) m s (lA)
26 (a) The IOtal momentum of the system is
(ii) Original KE
conserved. (lA)

provided that there is no external nct
1
force acting on the system. (lA)
Final KE
(b) (I) Total momentum before collision I
, ,
= -1111' ... -mvIJ
= IOtal momentum after collision
2 A
1
(IM)
1 . ' 1 .'
=- IIIX)- +- IIIX)-
2 2
20 x 8 + 40 x 1.5 =601' (IM)
1' = 3.67 III S-l
= 25111
"" 3.7 m S- l (I A)
(Correct calculations for both KE)
( ii) Mean force
(1 M)
change in momentum
Fraction of original KE lost
timeo!" impact
(IM)
50111- 25111 I
(lA)

50111 2
0.50
(0)
0)
1'1 = 0, VB= 10 m S-l (lA)
= - 173 N (lA)
(ii) The total KE is the same before
The mean force acting on the left
and aftcr collision. (lA)
hand trolley is 173 N towards the
lcft.
New Senior Secondary Physics at Wo rk 97 © Oxford University Press 2009
2 force and Motlo
(i ii) Steel is 'hard" so collisions arc
elastic. ( lA)
A passes on momentum to B. then
B to C. Cto D. 1) toE. In each
si ngle collisi on. all the momentum
is transferred. (lA)
Therefore. A. B. C and D are left
stat ionary. and E gets the
momentum and s\\ ings. ( lA)
28 (11) (i) Impulse or change inmornentum.
( l A)
(ii) Change in momentum
= shaded area
(i i i)
= 1.6x 1.7 = 1.361\' s
,
(1:0.1)
Since the kinetic encrg) of the ball
after the collision is the !)arlle as it
was before collision. the
magniludes of momentum before
and after collision arc the same.
(] \1)
Initial momentum orl he ball
=..!.-xI.36 = 0.68," s !lA)
,
momentum
ot-------
0.5 1.0 t 5 2.0
""
(Not linear) (I A.J
(From negati\ e to posili\e. \\ ilh
same magnitude bd'ore and after
collision)
1I AI
(b) Television set in ) is more l i " e l ~ to
survive without damage. f 1. \ )
New Senior Secondary Physics at Work 98
ha teT 5 Momentu
Package Yhas a longer time of impact.
( I A)
With the same change in momentum in
each case. (lA)
the force experienced by the television
set in Y is smaller.
(For efTecli\ e communication)
( lA)
(IC)
29 (IIKCEE 2007 Paper I Q9)
30 (:I) (i) Total momentum before collision =
total momentum after collision
0.60 x 40 = 0.60 x 35 + 0.045v
(b )
(1 M)
)' = 66.7 III Si (lA)
The veloci ty oflhe ball after the
coll ision is 66.7 m s I towards the
right.
(i i) The Principle of Conservation of
Momentum is nOI applicable if
there is an external net force acting
on the system (the ball and
cl ub-head). (lA)
During the collision. the golfcr
applies force on his club. \\ hich is
an external force to the system.
Total KE before collision
I ,
=-- xO. 60 x40-
2
= 480 J
Total KE after collision
I ,I ,
=- xO.60x35- +-xO.045x 66.7·
2 2
= 468 J
( l A)
( lA)
(lA)
The total KE aftcr collision is smaller
than that before collis ion. Therefore.
kinetic energy is lost in the collision.
(I A)
o Oxford University Press 2009
2 Force and Motio
(c) By Newton's second 1,1\\. (lA)
" chan\!em momentum (IM)
mean lorce = - ,
lime laken

1.5x 10-.
1
= 2001 "'"
Physics in articles (p. 272)
(a) li lengthens the time of impact during
collision.
This reduces the force acting on the
passcngcr.
(b) The mass of the object and
the time of impact.
( lA)
(lA)
(lA)
(lA)
(For estimation. the final velocity of the
object is usually taken to be 7ero. Ifmore
precise result is needed. the final velocity
should also be known.)
(c) (i) 11 = 331 km h-
t
= 92.2 III s I (I M)
F= m(v - II) (IM)
I
0.l x (O _331)
3.6
0.1
= - 92.1 N (I A)
The average force acting on the object is
92.2 N.
(H) The air bag bursts at a very high speed.
When it hits the baby. the force on the
baby is so large tha! may severely injure
it. (lA)
New Senior Secondary PhySiCS at Work
ha ter 5 Momentu
99 e Oxford University Press 2009
2 Force and Motion Chapter 6 Projectile Motion

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work © Oxford University Press 2009

1
6 Projectile Motion

Practice 6.1 (p. 286)
1 D
In the horizontal direction:
t =
u
s
x
=
5
10
=2 s
In the vertical direction:
v
y
= gt = 10 × 2 = 20 m s
−1

Its vertical speed is 20 m s
−1
.
2 C
3 C
4 In the horizontal direction:

x x
u v = = 20 m s
−1

In the vertical direction:
v
y
= gt = 10 × 4 = 40 m s
−1

Speed of the object after 4 s
=
2 2
y x
v v + =
2 2
40 20 + = 44.7 m s
−1

5 (a) The aeroplane and the bomb travel in the
same horizontal velocity. Therefore, at
the moment when the first bomb hits the
ground, the aeroplane is right above the
impact point.
In vertical direction:
s
y
=
2
2
1
gt =
2
15 10
2
1
× × =1125 m
Therefore, at that moment, the aeroplane
is 1125 m right above the impact point.
(b) Distance between the successive impact
points of the bombs on the ground
= 1
6 . 3
720
× = 200 m
6 (a) In the horizontal direction:
t =
u
s
x
=
60
30
= 0.5 s
In the vertical direction:
s
y
=
2
2
1
gt =
2
5 . 0 10
2
1
× × = 1.25 m
The arrow drops 1.25 m over this range.
(b) The archer should aim above the target.
(c) s
y
=
2
2
1
gt =
2
2
1

u
s
g
x
=
2
2
1
2
1

u
gs
x

The vertical distance fell is inversely
proportional to the square of the release
speed. When the release speed is
reduced by half (from 60 m s
−1
to
30 m s
−1
), the distance fell is four times
as calculated in (a), i.e. 1.25 × 4 = 5 m.

Practice 6.2 (p. 295)
1 D
2 A
3 (a) Greatest height
=
g
u
2
sin
2 2
θ
=
10 2
30 sin 25
2 2
×
° ×
= 7.81 m
(b) By s
y
= ( )
2
2
1
sin gt t u − θ ,
0 =( )
2
10
2
1
30 sin 25 t t × × − °
t t 5 . 12 5
2
− = 0
t = 0 (rejected) or 2.5 s
The time of flight of the object is 2.5 s.
(c) The time need for the object to reach its
highest point = 25 . 1 5 . 2
2
1
= × s
4 (a) Best possible distance
=
g
u
2
=
10
25
2
= 62.5 m
2 Force and Motion Chapter 6 Projectile Motion

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work © Oxford University Press 2009

2
(b) s
x
= 5 . 62
2
1
× = 31.25 m
By s
x
=
g
u θ 2 sin
2
,
31.25 =
10
2 sin 25
2
θ ×

sin 2θ = 0.5
2θ = 30° or 150°
θ = 15° or 75°
The angle of elevation is 15° or 75°.
5 Along the horizontal direction:
u
x
=
t
s
x
=
5
45
= 9 m s
−1

Along the vertical direction:
By s
y
= u
y
t −
2
2
1
gt ,
0 = u
y
× 5 −
2
5 10
2
1
× ×
u
y
= 25 m s
−1

u =
2 2
y x
u u + =
2 2
25 9 + = 26.6 m s
−1

tan θ =
x
y
u
u
=
9
25
= 70.2°
His initial velocity is 26.6 m s
–1
at an angle of
70.2° to the ground.
6 (a) Maximum height = 8 . 1
2
sin
2 2
+
g
u θ

= 8 . 1
10 2
30 sin 20
2 2
+
×
° ×

= 6.8 m
The maximum height that the volleyball
can reach is 6.8 m.
(b) By s
y
= ( )
2
2 2
cos 2
tan
x x
s
u
g
s
θ
θ − ,
−1.8 =( )
° × ×
− °
30 cos 20 2
10
30 tan
2 2
2
x
x
s
s
0.016 67s
x
2
− 0.5774 s
x
− 1.8 = 0
Solving the quadratic equation, we have
s
x
= 37.5 m or −2.88 m (rejected)
The horizontal distance AB is 37.5 m.
Revision exercise 6
Multiple-choice (p. 298)
1 A
Along the vertical direction:
By s
y
=
2
2
1
gt t u
y
− ,
−10 = 0 −
2
10
2
1
t × ×
t = 1.414 s
Minimum speed
= minimum u
x
=
414 . 1
20
= 14.1 m s
−1
The minimum speed of the car to reach the
lower bridge is 14.1 m s
−1
.
2 A
3 (HKALE 2004 Paper II Q3)
4 (HKALE 2006 Paper II Q3)

Conventional (p. 299)
1 (a) Range =
g
u θ 2 sin
2
(1M)
70 =
10
2 sin 80
2
θ ×

θ = 3.14° or 86.9° (rejected) (1A)
The angle of projection θ should be
3.14°.
(b) From R =
g
u θ 2 sin
2
, when u increases
and R needs to be kept constant, (1A)
θ should be decreased. (1A)
(c)

Player B releases the arrow at a higher
position than player A. (1A)
2 Force and Motion Chapter 6 Projectile Motion

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work © Oxford University Press 2009

3
With all conditions being the same,
player B’s arrow would travel a longer
horizontal distance (s
x
) when reaching
the same level of the target as shown
above. (1A)
To reduce s
x
, the angle of projection θ
should be smaller, i.e. he should aim at a
lower position above the target. (1A)
2 (a) Along the vertical direction:
By s
y
=
2
2
1
gt t u
y
− , (1M)
−30 = 10 sin 30° × t −
2
10
2
1
t × ×
5t
2
− 5t − 30 = 0
t = 3 s or −2 s (rejected) (1A)
(b) Along the horizontal direction:
R = u
x
t (1M)
= 10 cos 30° × 3
= 26.0 m (1A)
The distance R of point P from the foot
of the cliff is 26.0 m.
(c) Horizontal component of v
P

= u
x
= 10 cos 30° = 8.66 m s
−1
(1M)
Vertical component of v
P

= u
y
− gt
= 10 sin 30° − 10 × 3
= −25 m s
−1
(1M)
Velocity v
P

= ( )
2 2
25 66 . 8 − + = 26.5 m s
−1
(1A)
tan θ =
66 . 8
25

θ = 70.9° (1A)
The velocity v
P
of the stone is 26.5 m s
−1

at 70.9° to the horizontal.
(d) Greatest height H
=
g
u
2
sin
2 2
θ
+ 30 (1M)
=
10 2
30 sin 10
2 2
×
° ×
+ 30
= 31.25 m (1A)
The greatest height H above the ground
reached by the stone is 31.25 m.
3 Let v be the speed when the boy is projected.
By the law of conservation of energy,
loss in PE = gain in KE (1M)
mgh =
2
2
1
mv
v = ( ) 1 5 10 2 2 − × × = gh = 8.94 m s
−1
(1M)
Consider the projectile motion afterwards.
By s
y
= ( )
2
2 2
cos 2
tan
x x
s
u
g
s
θ
θ − , (1M)
−1 =( )
2
2 2
0 cos 94 . 8 2
10
0 tan d d
× ×

d = 4.00 m (1A)
4 (a) By s
y
= ( )
2
2 2
cos 2
tan
x x
s
u
g
s
θ
θ − ,(1M)
2.43 − 2 = (tan 30°)(12)
°
×

30 cos 2
12 10
2 2
2
u

u = 12.2 m s
−1
(1A)
(b) Take the direction to the right as
positive.
Along the horizontal direction:
v
x
= u
x

= 12.2 cos 30° (1M)
= 10.6 m s
−1
(1A)
Take the upward direction as positive.
Along the vertical direction:
v
y
2
− u
y
2
= 2as
y
(1M)
v
y
2
− (12.2 sin 30°)
2
= 2 × (−10) × (−2)
v
y
= −8.79 m s
−1
(1A)
2 Force and Motion Chapter 6 Projectile Motion

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4
The vertical velocity is 8.79 m s
−1

(downwards) and the horizontal velocity
is 10.6 m s
−1
(towards right).
(c) Along the vertical direction:
By v
y
= u
y
− gt,
t =
g
u v
y y




10
30 sin 2 . 12 79 . 8

° − −
=
= 1.49 s (1A)
Horizontal distance travelled
= u
x
t = 10.6 × 1.49 = 15.8 m (1A)
Since the horizontal distance travelled
by the volleyball (15.8 m) is shorter than
the distance AD (21 m), (1A)
the ball falls within the court on the
opposite side. (1A)
5 (a) Speed of the ball when it is released
= speed of the car
= 70 km h
–1

=
6 . 3
70
= 19.44 m s
−1
= 19.4 m s
−1
(1A)
(b) Height of the ball
= vertical distance travelled by the car
= 19.44 × sin 30° × 10 (1M)
= 97.2 m (1A)
The height of the ball above the ground
when it is released is 97.2 m.
(c) Horizontal distance travelled before
released
= 19.44 × cos 30° × 10 = 168 m (1M)
Consider the motion after the ball is
released.
Along the vertical direction:
By s
y
=( )
2
2 2
cos 2
tan
x x
s
u
g
s
θ
θ − ,
−97.2 =( )
x
s 30 tan °

2
2 2
30 cos 44 . 19 2
10
x
s
° × ×

0.0176 s
x
2
− 0.577 s
x
− 97.2 = 0
Solving the quadratic equation, we have
s
x
= 92.5 m or −59.7 m (rejected) (1M)
Distance XY = 168 + 92.5
= 260.5 m (1A)
(d) Take the direction to the left as positive.
Along the horizontal direction:
v
x
= u
x

= 19.44 × cos 30° (1M)
= 16.8 m s
−1
(1A)
Take the downward direction as
positive.
Along the vertical direction:
v
y
2
− u
y
2
= 2as
y
(1M)
v
y
2
− (19.44 sin 30°)
2
= 2(−10)(−97.2)
v
y
= 45.1 m s
−1
(1A)
The horizontal velocity is 16.8 m s
−1

(towards left) and the vertical velocity is
45.1 m s
−1
(downwards).
6 (HKALE 2000 Paper I Q1)
7 (HKALE 2003 Paper I Q7)
2 Force and Motion Chapter 7 Uniform Circular Motion

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work © Oxford University Press 2009

1
7 Uniform Circular Motion

Practice 7.1 (p. 308)
1 D
2 A
3 Angular speed
=
t
θ
=
20
5 . 1
= 0.2356 = 0.236 rad s
−1

Linear speed
= rω = 28 × 0.2356 = 6.60 m s
−1
4 (a) The angular speeds of Peter, Paul and
Mary are the same.
Angular speed
=
60 60 24
2
× ×
= 7.27 × 10
−5
rad s
−1

(b) Linear speed of Peter
= rω
= (6400 × 10
3
) × (7.27 × 10
−5
)
= 465 m s
−1

Linear speed of Paul
= rω
= (6400 × 10
3
×cos 60°) × (7.27 × 10
−5
)
= 233 m s
−1

Linear speed of Mary
= rω
= 0 × (7.27 × 10
−5
)
= 0
5 (a) Angular velocity ω
=
60 127
2
×
= 8.25 × 10
−4
rad s
−1

(b) Linear velocity v
= rω
= [(1740 + 200) × 10
3
] × (8.25 × 10
−4
)
= 1600 m s
−1
(c) Centripetal acceleration required
=
r
v
2
=
( )
3
2
10 200 1740
1600
× +
= 1.32 m s
−2

Practice 7.2 (p. 324)
1 D
2 B
Centripetal force =
r
mv
2

Weight of the aircraft = mg

weight
force l centripeta
=
mg r
mv 1
2
×
=
gr
v
2

=
) 10 10 ( 10
200
3
2
× ×

= 0.4
3 A
tan θ =
gr
v
2
= 0.4
θ = 21.8°
4 D
Corresponding to the dry road, we have:
f
max
=
r
mv
2
max

The maximum frictional force is
2
max
f
on wet
road.

2
max
f
=
2
1
2
max
×
r
mv
=
r
v
m
2
max
2

Therefore, the maximum safe speed when the
road is wet
=
2
30
= 21.2 m s
−1

5 (a) Vertical component of tension
= weight of the mass
T cos θ = mg
T cos 20° = 0.8 × 10
T = 8.51 N
2 Force and Motion Chapter 7 Uniform Circular Motion

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work © Oxford University Press 2009

2
The tension of the string is 8.51 N.
(b) Centripetal force on the mass
= T sin 20° = 8.51 sin 20° = 2.91 N
(c) Centripetal force =
r
mv
2
= 2.91

°
×
20 sin 5 . 1
8 . 0
2
v
= 2.91
v = 1.37 m s
−1
The speed of the mass is 1.37 m s
−1
.
6 Horizontal component which provides the
centripetal force:
R sin α =
r
mv
2
………(1)
Vertical component which balances the
weight:
R cos α = mg ………(2)
(1) ÷ (2):
tan α =
rg
v
2

tan 30° =
10 20
2
×
v

v = 10.7 m s
−1

The maximum speed is 10.7 m s
−1
.
7 Angular speed of the pendulum
= 2π × 0.5 = π rad s
−1

Horizontal component which provides the
centripetal force:
T sin α = mrω
2

T sin α = 0.4 × (2 sin α) × π
2
T = 7.90 N
Vertical component which balances the
weight:
T cos α = mg
7.90 cos α = 0.4 × 10
α = 59.6°
8 (a) Normal reaction
= weight of the rider and the motorcycle
= mg = 500 × 10 = 5000 N
(b) Frictional force
= centripetal force
=
r
mv
2
=
20
15 500
2
×
= 5625 N
(c) tan θ =
N
f

tan θ =
5000
5625

θ = 48.4°
The angle that the motorcycle makes
with the vertical is 48.4°.

Revision exercise 7
Multiple-choice (p. 327)
1 B
2 D
3 D
Centripetal force = mrω
2

For A and B, the values of m and ω are both
the same, and r
B
= 2r
A
.
Therefore, centripetal force for B is twice that
for A.
Centripetal for A = T
1
− T
2

Centripetal for B = T
2

Then we have:
T
2
= 2 × (T
1
− T
2
)
3T
2
= 2T
1


2
1
T
T
=
2
3

4 (HKALE 2000 Paper II Q11)
5 (HKALE 2006 Paper II Q4)
6 (HKALE 2007 Paper II Q4)

Conventional (p. 328)
1 (a) Angular speed of the Earth
=
60 60 24 26 . 365
2
× × ×
(1M)
= 1.99 × 10
−7
rad s
−1
(1A)
2 Force and Motion Chapter 7 Uniform Circular Motion

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work © Oxford University Press 2009

3
(b) Linear speed of the Earth
= rω (1M)
= (1.50 × 10
11
) × (1.99 × 10
−7
)
= 2.99 × 10
4
m s
−1
(1A)
(c) Centripetal force required
= mrω
2
(1M)
= (5.98 × 10
24
)(1.5 × 10
11
) (1.99 × 10
−7
)
2
= 3.55 × 10
22
N (1A)
2 (a) The tension in the string provides the
centripetal acceleration of mass m. (1A)
(b) Centripetal force =
r
mv
2
= T

r
mv
2
= Mg (1A)
v =
m
Mgr
(1A)
(c) No (1A)
3 Angular speed
=
60 60 5 . 0
2
× ×
= 3.49 × 10
−3
rad s
−1
(1M)
Centripetal force required
= mrω
2

= 400 × 50 × (3.49 × 10
−3
)
2

= 0.244 N (1M)
For the cart at the lowest point of the circle:
F − mg = 0.244
F − 400 × 10 = 0.244
F = 4000.244 N (1A)
The force supporting the cart at the lowest
point of the circle is 4000.244 N (upwards).
For the cart at the highest point of the circle:
mg − F = 0.244
400 × 10 − F = 0.244
F = 3999.756 N (1A)
The force supporting the cart at the highest
point of the circle is 3999.756 N (upwards).
4 (a) Let r be the minimum radius of the path.

r
v
2
= 6g (1M)

( )
r
2
340 2×
= 6 × 10
r = 7710 m (1A)
The minimum radius is 7710 m.
(b) Let θ be the angle of banking.
tan θ =
gr
v
2
(1M)
tan θ = 6
θ = 80.5° (1A)
The angle of banking is 80.5°.
(c) The apparent weight of the pilot is the
normal reaction R acting on him by the
seat.
R cos θ = mg (1M)
R cos 80.5° = 65 × 10
R = 3940 N (1A)
The apparent weight of the pilot in the
turn is 3940 N.
5 Centripetal force = m
1

2

For maximum value of r (= r
max
):
m
2
g + µ
s
m
1
g = m
1
r
max
ω
2
(1M)
m × 10 + 0.5 × m × 10 = m × r
max
× 6
2
10 + 5 = 36r
max

r
max
= 0.417 m (1A)
For minimum value of r (= r
min
):
m
2
g − µ
s
m
1
g = m
1
r
min
ω
2
(1M)
m × 10 − 0.5 × m × 10 = m × r
min
× 6
2
10 − 5 = 36r
min

r
min
= 0.139 m (1A)
6 (a) When there is no friction,
tan θ =
gr
v
2
(1M)
tan 30° =
100 10
2
×
v

v = 24.0 m s
−1
(1A)
2 Force and Motion Chapter 7 Uniform Circular Motion

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work © Oxford University Press 2009

4
(b) (i)

(Weight) (1A)
(Normal reaction) (1A)
(Friction) (1A)
(ii) Along vertical direction:
N cos 30° − f sin 30° − mg = 0
N = f tan 30° +
° 30 cos
mg
………(1)
(1M)
Along radial direction:
N sin 30° + f cos 30° =
r
mv
2
…(2)
(1M)
Substitute (1) into (2):
(f tan 30° +
° 30 cos
mg
)sin 30°
+ f cos 30° =
r
mv
2

f × (tan 30° sin 30° + cos 30°) =

100
0 . 48 700
2
×
− 700 × 10 × tan 30°
f = 10 500 N (1A)
The value of the frictional force f is
10 500 N.
7 When a motorcyclist is turning around a
corner, frictional force acting on the wheels
provides the centripetal force and also gives a
turning moment on the motorcycle. (1A)
To avoid overturning, the motorcyclist has to
lean inwards as shown in the free-body
diagram below. (1A)

(Correct diagram) (1A)
In equilibrium,
tan θ =
gr
v
2
(1A)
According to the equation above, the higher
the speed v, the larger the angle θ, i.e. the
motorcyclist leans closer to the ground. (1A)
8 (a) Consider v = rω. Since B and C have the
same v and r
B
< r
C
, ω
B
> ω
C
. (1A)
Meanwhile, the angular speed of A and
B are the same. Therefore, the angular
speed of C is slower than that of A. This
means that A will overtake C. (1A)
(b) Consider a = rω
2
. Since r
A
> r
B
and ω
A
=
ω
B
, A has a higher centripetal
acceleration than B. (1A)
On the other hand, consider a =
r
v
2
.
Since r
B
< r
C
and v
B
= v
C
, B has a higher
centripetal acceleration than C. (1A)
Therefore, A has the highest acceleration
(1A)
and C has the lowest. (1A)
2 Force and Motion Chapter 7 Uniform Circular Motion

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work © Oxford University Press 2009

5
(c) Linear speed of B = 5 m s
−1
(1A)
Angular speed of B
=
B
B
r
v
=
25
5
= 0.2 rad s
−1
(1A)
Acceleration of B
=
B
B
r
v
2
=
25
5
2
= 1 m s
−2
(1A)
Angular speed of A
= angular speed of B = 0.2 rad s
−1
(1A)
Linear speed of A
= r
A
ω
A

= (25 + 11) × 0.2
= 7.2 m s
−1
(1A)
Acceleration of A
= r
A
ω
A
2

= (25 + 11) × 0.2
2

= 1.44 m s
−2
(1A)
Linear speed of C
= linear speed of B = 5 m s
−1
(1A)
Angular speed of C
=
c
c
r
v
=
11 25
5
+
= 0.139 rad s
−1
(1A)
Acceleration of C
=
c
c
r
v
2
=
11 25
5
2
+
= 0.694 m s
−2
(1A)
(d) Centripetal force
= mass × centripetal acceleration
From (b), we have centripetal
acceleration of A > B > C. (1A)
Since the athletes have the same mass,
centripetal force of A > B > C. (1A)
(e) The centripetal forces are provided by
the frictional force between the feet of
the athletes and the ground. (1A)
9 (a)

(Upthrust) (1A)
(Air resistance) (1A)
(Weight) (1A)
(Pushing force) (1A)
upthrust = weight (1A)
air resistance = pushing force (1A)
(b) (i) The horizontal component of
upthrust provides the centripetal
acceleration of the aircraft. (1A)
(ii) Along vertical direction:
U cos θ = mg ………(1)
Along radial direction:
U sin θ =
r
mv
2
………(2)
(2) ÷ (1):
tan θ =
gr
v
2
=
) 10 15 ( 10
200
3
2
× ×
(1M)
θ = 14.9° (1A)
The angle of banking is 14.9°.
2 Force and Motion Chapter 7 Uniform Circular Motion

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work © Oxford University Press 2009

6
10 (a)

(Correct direction of v

∆ ) (1A)
(Correctly using tip-to-tail method)(1A)
The direction of acceleration of the steel
ball is the same as the direction of v

∆ in
the figure above, pointing towards the
centre. (1A)
(b)

(Tension) (1A)
(Weight) (1A)
(c) (i) Along vertical direction:
T cos θ = mg (1M)
T cos 60° = 7 × 10
T = 140 N (1A)
(ii) Centripetal force
= radial component of tension
= T sin θ (1M)
= 140 × sin 60°
= 121 N (1A)
The centripetal force acting on the
steel ball is 121 N.
(iii) Centripetal force = mrω
2
= 121
(1M)
7 × (1.2 sin 60°) × ω
2
= 121
ω = 4.08 rad s
−1
(1A)
The angular speed of the steel ball
is 4.08 rad s
−1
.
(iv) We have:
T cos θ = mg………(1)
T sin θ = mrω
2

= m(L sin θ)ω
2

T = mLω
2
………(2)
Substitute (2) into (1):
(mLω
2
)cos θ = mg (1M)
cos θ =
L
g
2
ω
(1M)
θ increases as the metal ball rotates
faster and faster, i.e. ω increases, θ
increases. (1A)
11 (a) For the same angular distance on the
curved tracks, the outer tracks are longer
than the inner ones since their radii of
curvature are larger. (1A)
If the starting lines are all aligned,
athletes will need to run different lengths
of track. This makes the race unfair.(1A)
(b) Let r
1
and r
2
be the radius of curvature
from the midde of tracks 1 and 2 to the
centre of the circular path, respectively.
πr
1
= 100
r
1
=

100
(1M)
r
2
= r
1
+ 1 =

100
+ 1 (1M)
θr
2
= 100 (1M)
θ =
1

100
100
+
= 3.05 rad = 175° (1A)
2 Force and Motion Chapter 7 Uniform Circular Motion

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work © Oxford University Press 2009

7
(c) For the athlete running on track 1:
ω
1
=
1
1
r
v
(1M)

100
10
=
= 0.314 rad s
−1
(1A)
For the athlete running on track 2:
ω
2
=
2
2
r
v
(1M)

1

100
10
+
=
= 0.305 rad s
−1
(1A)
12 While stopping along the straight line, the
motion of the car can be described by
v
2
− u
2
= 2as
where v = 0, u = v
0
and s = r
a =
r
v
2
2
0


Therefore, the frictional force between the
road and the car is
r
mv
2
2
0
. (1A)
While turning at the corner along a circular
path, the centripetal force is provided by the
frictional force. (1A)
Centripetal force required by the car
r
mv
2
0
= >
r
mv
2
2
0
(1A)
The centripetal required is larger than the
frictional force between the road and the car.
The car will skid and be in danger. Therefore,
the man should not attempt to take the turn.
(1A)
13 (a) Angular velocity
=
10
2
(1M)
= 0.6283 rad s
−1
= 0.628 rad s
−1
(1A)
The angular velocity of the player is
0.628 rad s
−1
.
(b)

(Force exerted by the chain) (1A)
(Weight) (1A)
(c) The centripetal force is provided by the
horizontal component of the force
exerted by the chain. (1A)
(d) (i) Vertical component which balances
the weight:
T cos θ = mg………(1) (1M)
Horizontal component which
provides the centripetal force:
T sin θ = mrω
2
(1M)
T sin θ = m(l sin θ)ω
2

T = mlω
2
………(2) (1M)
Substitute (2) into (1):
mlω
2
cos θ = mg
cos θ =
l
g
2
ω
=
28 6283 . 0
10
2
×

θ = 25.2° (1A)
(ii) Tangential speed
= rω (1M)
= (28 sin 25.2°)(0.6283)
= 7.49 m s
−1
(1A)
2 Force and Motion Chapter 7 Uniform Circular Motion

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work © Oxford University Press 2009

8
The tangential speed of the player
is 7.49 m s
−1
.
(iii) Centripetal force required
= mrω
2
(1M)
= (70)(28 sin 25.2°)(0.6283)
2

= 329 N (1A)
The centripetal force required to
keep the player in circular motion
is 329 N.
(e) No, the student is wrong. (1A)
From (d)(i), we have derived that:
cos θ =
l
g
2
ω
(1A)
The angle θ is independent of the mass
of the seat-player system. (1A)
Since the angular velocity ω and the
length l are the same for all seats, all
seats including the empty one will make
the same angle θ with the post.
(f) Recall the equation (2) in (d)(i):
T = mlω
2
(1M)
When the tension is 1400 N,
1400 = (60 + 10) × 28 × ω
2
(1M)
ω = 0.845 rad s
−1
(1A)
The maximum angular speed that can be
used is 0.845 rad s
−1
.
(g) At frequency 0.11 cycles per second,
angular speed
= 0.11 × 2π
= 0.691 rad s
−1
(1M)
Therefore, the angular speed should not
be higher than 0.691 rad s
−1
.
From (d)(i), we have
cos θ =
l
g
2
ω
(1M)
When angle θ is 30°,
cos 30° =
28
10
2
× ω

ω = 0.642 rad s
−1
(1M)
Therefore, the angular speed should not
be higher than 0.642 rad s
−1
.
From the two constraints, we can
conclude that the maximum angular
speed that can be used is 0.642 rad s
−1
.
(1A)
14 (a)

Along vertical direction:
(N
1
+ N
2
)cos 35° − mg −
(f
1
+ f
2
)sin 35° = 0 (1M)
(N
1
+ N
2
)cos 35° − mg −
(µN
1
+ µN
2
)sin 35° = 0
N
1
+ N
2
=
° − ° 35 sin 35 cos µ
mg
………(1)
Along horizontal direction:
(N
1
+ N
2
)sin 35° +
(f
1
+ f
2
)cos 35° =
r
mv
2
(1M)
(N
1
+ N
2
)sin 35° +
(µN
1
+ µN
2
)cos 35° =
r
mv
2

N
1
+ N
2
=
( ) ° + ° 35 cos 35 sin
2
µ r
mv
…(2)
2 Force and Motion Chapter 7 Uniform Circular Motion

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work © Oxford University Press 2009

9
Substitute (2) into (1):

( ) ° + ° 35 cos 35 sin
2
µ r
mv

=
° − ° 35 sin 35 cos µ
mg
(1M)
v =
( )
° − °
° + °
35 sin 35 cos
35 cos 35 sin
µ
µ gr

=
( )( )( )
° − °
° + °
35 sin 8 . 0 35 cos
35 cos 8 . 0 35 sin 18 10

= 24.8 m s
−1
(1A)
The car would start to skid outwards at
24.8 m s
−1
.
(b)

Just before overturning occurs, N
2
= 0.
Along the vertical direction:
N
1
cos 35° − f
1
sin 35° − mg = 0 ……(1)
(1M)
Along the horizontal direction:
N
1
sin 35° − f
1
cos 35° =
r
mv
2
……(2)
(1M)
Take moment about c.g.
clockwise resultant torque =
anticlockwise resultant torque
N
1
×
2
5 . 2
= f
1
× 2
N
1
= 1.6f
1
………(3) (1M)
Substitute (3) into (1):
1.6f
1
cos 35° − f
1
sin 35° − mg = 0

m
f
1
=
° − ° 35 sin 35 cos 6 . 1
g
= 13.6
Substitute (3) into (2):
1.6f
1
sin 35° − f
1
cos 35° =
r
mv
2

v = ( ) ° − ° 35 cos 35 sin 6 . 1
1
m
f

= ( ) ° − ° 35 cos 35 sin 6 . 1 6 . 13
= 1.16 m s
−1
(1A)
The car would start to overturn inwards
at 1.16 m s
−1
.
(c) The range of speed for turning this
corner safely is from 1.16 m s
−1
to
24.8 m s
−1
.
15 (HKALE 2001 Paper I Q1)
16 (HKALE 2003 Paper I Q1)
17 (HKALE 2004 Paper II Q1)
2 Force and Motion Chapter 8 Gravitation

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work © Oxford University Press 2009

1
8 Gravitation

Practice 8.1 (p. 339)
1 A
Gravitation force
=
2
2 1
r
m Gm

=
( )( )( )
( )
2
3 6
24 11
10 3600 10 37 . 6
250 10 98 . 5 10 67 . 6
× + ×
× ×


= 1000 N
2 A
a
M
=
2
M
M
r
GM

a
E
=
2
E
E
r
GM

With the information given, we have:
a
M
=
E
a
6
1


2
M
M
r
GM
=
2
6
1
E
E
r
GM
×

4
1
272 . 0
81
1
6 6 ≈ = × = × =
E
M
E
M
M
M
r
r

The ratio of the radius of the Moon to that of
the Earth is about 1 : 4.
3 Gravitational force
=
2
2 1
r
m Gm

=
( )( )( )
2
11
5 . 0
60 60 10 67 . 6

×

= 9.60 × 10
−7
N
The magnitude of the gravitational force they
act on each other is 9.60 × 10
−7
N.
4 Gravitational force =
2
2 1
r
m Gm

1800 =
( )( )( )
( )
2
3 6
2
24 11
10 2000 10 37 . 6
10 98 . 5 10 67 . 6
× + ×
× ×

m

m
2
= 316 kg
The mass of the rocket is 316 kg.
5

F
AC
=
2
CA
C A
r
m Gm

=
( )( )( )
2
11
10
1 2 10 67 . 6

×

= 1.33 × 10
−12
N
F
BC
=
2
CB
C B
r
m Gm

=
( )( )( )
2
11
8
1 3 10 67 . 6

×

= 3.13 × 10
−12
N
To find resultant force F, resolve F
AC
into
F
AC
cos θ and F
AC
sin θ.
F
AC
cos θ = 1.33 × 10
−12
×
10
8
= 1.06 × 10
−12
N
F
AC
sin θ = 1.33 × 10
−12
×
10
6
= 7.98 × 10
−13
N
Magnitude of F
= ( ) ( )
2 2
sin cos θ θ
AC AC BC
F F F + +
= ( ) ( )
2
13
2
12 12
10 98 . 7 10 06 . 1 10 13 . 3
− − −
× + × + ×
= 4.27 × 10
−12
N
tan φ =
θ
θ
cos
sin
AC BC
AC
F F
F
+

=
12 12
13
10 06 . 1 10 13 . 3
10 98 . 7
− −

× + ×
×

φ = 10.8°
2 Force and Motion Chapter 8 Gravitation

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work © Oxford University Press 2009

2
The resultant gravitational force acting on C
by A and B is 4.27 × 10
−12
N at an angle of
10.8° to BC.

Practice 8.2 (p. 353)
1 C
2 B
3 D
4 Gravitational field strength
=
2
N
N
R
GM

=
( )( )
( )
2
3
30 11
10 20
10 99 . 1 100 10 67 . 6
×
× × ×


= 3.32 × 10
13
N kg
−1
The gravitational field strength at the surface
of the neutron star is 3.32 × 10
13
N kg
−1
.
5
final
initial
g
g
=
( )
2
2
3
R
GM
R
GM
M
M
=
9
1

The ratio is 1 : 9.
6 ω =
T
2

=
60 60 24 365 9 . 11
2
× × × ×

= 1.674 × 10
−8
rad s
−1

Gravitational force = centripetal force

2
r
M GM
J S
=
2
ω r M
J

r =
3
2
ω
S
GM

=
( )( )
( )
3
2
8
30 11
10 674 . 1
10 99 . 1 10 67 . 6


×
× ×

= 7.80 × 10
11
m
The distance of Jupiter from the Sun is
7.80 × 10
11
m.
7 Gravitational force = centripetal force

2
r
m GM
E
=
r
mv
2

v =
r
GM
E

=
( )( )
( )
3
24 11
10 1600 6370
10 98 . 5 10 67 . 6
× +
× ×


= 7070 m s
−1

Its linear speed is 7070 m s
−1
.
8 When the satellite is close to the Earth’s
surface, we can take the following
approximation:
Gravitational force = mg
Then we have:
Gravitational force = centripetal force
mg = mrω
2

ω =
r
g

=
3
10 6370
10
×

= 1.253 × 10
−3
rad s
−1
T =
ω
2

=
3
10 253 . 1
2

×

= 5015 s (= 1 hr 23 min 35 s)
Its period is 1 hr 23 min 35 s.
9 (a) Gravitational force = centripetal force

2
r
M GM
M S
=
r
v M
M
2

v =
r
GM
S

=
( )( )
( )
11
30 11
10 50 . 1 5 . 1
10 99 . 1 10 67 . 6
× ×
× ×


= 2.43 × 10
4
m s
−1

The speed of Mars is 2.43 × 10
4
m s
−1
.
2 Force and Motion Chapter 8 Gravitation

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work © Oxford University Press 2009

3
(b) T =
ω
2

=
v
r 2

=
( )
4
11
10 43 . 2
10 1.50 1.5 2
×
× × ×

= 5.82 × 10
7
s
= 674 days
The Mars orbits around the Sun once in
674 days.

Revision exercise 8
Multiple-choice (p. 356)
1 C
Weight on the planet
=
2
P
P
R
m GM

Weight on the Earth
=
2
E
E
R
m GM

ҳeight on the planet =
2
Earth on the weight


2
P
P
R
m GM
=
2
2
1
E
E
R
m GM
×
R
P
=
E
E
P
R
M
M
× × 2
=
E
R × ×2 2
= 2R
E

2 D
3 A
4 A
Gravitational force = centripetal force

2
r
GMm
=
r
mv
2

v =
r
GM
………(1)
T =
ω
2

T =
v
r 2
………(2)
Substitute (1) into (2):
T =
r
GM
r 2
= 2π
GM
r
3

5 (HKALE 2003 Paper II Q11)
6 (HKALE 2004 Paper II Q7)
7 (HKALE 2005 Paper II Q28)

Conventional (p. 356)
1 Gravitational force = centripetal force

r
mv
r
m GM
E
2
2
=
v =
r
GM
E
(1M)
=
( )( )
( )
3
24 11
10 7000 6370
10 98 . 5 10 67 . 6
× +
× ×


= 5460 m s
−1
(1A)
The linear speed of the satellite is 5460 m s
−1
.
2 (a) g
M
=
2
M
M
r
GM

=
2
2
1
10
1

×
E
E
r
M G
(1M)
=
2
5
2
E
E
r
GM
×
= g
5
2
(1A)
2 Force and Motion Chapter 8 Gravitation

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work © Oxford University Press 2009

4
(b) Weight on Mars
= mg
M
(1M)
=

× g m
5
2

= ( ) mg
5
2

=
5
2
× weight on Earth
=
5
2
× 700
= 280 N (1A)
(c) The force acting on the astronaut by the
chair will be decreasing as the spacecraft
is leaving Mars. (1A)
As the astronaut is further away from
Mars, his weight (the gravitational force)
becomes lighter. (1A)
Therefore, the force supporting the
astronaut by the chair, which balances
the astronaut’s weight to maintain
constant speed, becomes smaller. (1A)
3 The value 10 m s
−2
is the accepted value of
the acceleration due to gravity of the Earth
(1A)
at positions very close to the surface of the
Earth. (1A)
When involving celestial body in the space,
the distances used in calculations are different
from the radius of the Earth and gravities due
to different bodies have to be considered.(1A)
Therefore, this value is invalid for those
calculations.
4 (a) The radius/diameter of the planet. (1A)
The mass/density of the planet. (1A)
(b) (i) Volume of granite
=
3

3
4
r (1M)
= ( )
3
3
10 2 . 0
3
4
×
= 3.35 × 10
7
m
3
(1M)
Difference in mass
= difference in density × volume
(1M)
= (3700 − 2200) × 3.35 × 10
7

= 5.0 × 10
10
kg (1A)
(ii) Since point A is long way from the
granite rock, we assume the granite
rock does not affect the
gravitational field strength at A.
(1M)
Difference between gravitational
field strength
=
2
r
M G∆
(1M)
=
( ) ( )
( )
2
3
10 11
10 40 . 0
10 0 . 5 10 7 . 6
×
× × ×

(1M)
= 2.09 × 10
−5
N kg
−1
(1A)
(iii)

(Correct shape always below
original curve) (1A)
5 (a) Gravitation field strength =
2
r
GM
(1M)
Gravitation field strength due to the
Earth
=
( )
2
8
10 6 . 3 ×
E
GM
(1M)
2 Force and Motion Chapter 8 Gravitation

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work © Oxford University Press 2009

5
Gravitation field strength due to the
Moon
=
( )
2
8 8
10 6 . 3 10 0 . 4 × − ×
M
GM
(1M)
=
( )
2
8 8
10 6 . 3 10 0 . 4
81
× − ×

E
M
G

=
( )
2
8
10 6 . 3 ×
E
GM

= gravitation field strength due to the
Earth (1A)
The gravitational fields due to the Moon
and the Earth are equal in magnitude at
point P.
(b)

(Correct direction) (1A)
(c) After P, the rocket will encounter a net
attraction to the Moon. (1A)
6 (a) Speed is a scalar (is described by
magnitude only) (1A)
while velocity is a vector (is described
by both magnitude and direction). (1A)
(b) (i) By s =
2
1
(u + v)t, (1M)
3.6 =

+
2
26 . 4
) 0 (
2
1
u (1M)
u = 3.4 m s
−1
(1A)
The initial vertical velocity of the
projectile is 3.4 m s
−1
.
(ii) a =
t
u v −
(1M)
=
13 . 2
4 . 3 0 −
(1M)
= −1.60 m s
−2
(1A)
The acceleration due to gravity on
the Moon is 1.60 m s
−2
.
(iii) The other time
= 4.26 − 0.90 (1M)
= 3.36 s (1A)
(iv)

(Correct diagram) (3 × 1A)
(v) This method is not valid on the
Earth (1A)
because there is atmosphere on the
Earth which gives air resistance to
affect the motion of the projectile.
(1A)
(c) (i) Resultant initial velocity
=
2 2
4 . 3 0 . 2 +
= 3.94 m s
−1
(1A)
tan θ =
0 . 2
4 . 3

θ = 59.5° (1A)
The resultant initial velocity of the
projectile is 3.94 m s
−1
and the
angle between the resultant and the
horizontal is 59.5°.
(Correct calculating method for
both values) (1M)
(ii) The projectile will land on the
moving Moon vehicle. (1A)
2 Force and Motion Chapter 8 Gravitation

New Senior Secondary Physics at Work © Oxford University Press 2009

6
Throughout the motion of the
projectile, the only force acting on
it is the gravitational force along
the vertical direction. Therefore,
the net force in horizontal direction
is zero, and it moves with constant
speed of 2.0 m s
−1
, which is the
same as that of the Moon vehicle.
(1A)

Physics in articles (p. 359)
(a) The space debris orbits the Earth in circular
motion (or elliptical motion). (1A)
The gravitational forces acting on them
provide the centripetal forces (1A)
instead of pulling them down to the Earth.
(1A)
(b) Gravitational force
=
2
r
m GM
E
(1M)
=
( )( )( )
( )
2
3 3
24 11
10 1000 10 6370
260 10 98 . 5 10 67 . 6
× + ×
× ×

(1M)
= 1910 N (1A)
The gravitational force acting on the satellite
by the Earth is 1910 N.
(c) Collision with satellites or spacecrafts. (1A)
Return to the Earth and cause damage. (1A)

8

(a) The distance travelled by the ball will be
longer if it takes a curved path.

7

(a) Length of the path
= 0.8 × 120 = 96 m

(b) No matter which path the ball takes, its
displacement remains the same.

(b) Length of AB along the dotted line 96 = 30.6 m = (c)
Magnitude of Jack’s average velocity 30.6 × 2 = = 0.51 m s–1 120

Practice 1.3 (p. 23)
1
B Total time 5000 5000 = + = 9821 s 1.4 0.8 5000 + 5000 = 1.02 m s–1 Average speed = 9821

Practice 1.4 (p. 31)
1 2
C B Final speed = 1.5 × 1 – 0.2 × 1 = 1.3 m s–1

2

C Total time = 9821 + 10 × 60 =10 421 s 5000 + 5000 Average speed = = 0.96 m s–1 10 421

3

A By a =

3

D When the spacecraft had just finished 1 revolution, the spacecraft returned to its starting point. Therefore, its displacement was zero and its average velocity was also zero.

v −u , t

v = u + at 36 = + ( −1.5) × 2 3.6
= 7 m s–1 = 7 × 3.6 km h–1 = 25.2 km h–1 Its speed after 2 s is 25.2 km h–1.

4 5

D

(a) Average speed 100 = = 10.3 m s–1 9.69 (b) Yes. This is because the magnitude of
the displacement is equal to the distance in this case.

4

B Take the direction of the original path as positive. Average acceleration of the ball −10 − 17 = 0.8 = –33.8 m s–2 The magnitude of the average acceleration of the ball is 33.8 m s–2. v −u By a = , t 100 −0 v − u 3.6 t= = = 4.27 s a 6.5

6

(a) Two cars move with the same speed, e.g.
50 km h–1, but in opposite directions.

(b) A man runs around a 400-m playground.
When we calculate his average speed, we can take 400 m as the distance and his average speed is non-zero. But since his displacement is zero (he returns to his starting point), his average velocity is zero.

5

The shortest time it takes is 4.27 s.

©

6
Time / s
–1

4
0 2 4 6 17 8 22

D Average speed 80 + 60 = 5
= 28 km h–1 Average velocity =

Speed / m s 2 7 12 v − u 22 − 2 a= = 2.5 m s–2 = t 8

The acceleration of the car is 2.5 m s–2.

7

(a) I will choose ‘towards the left’ as the
positive direction.

80 2 + 60 2 5

(b) 5

= 20 km h–1 C Total time 10 10 = + 2 3 = 8.33 s
v −u , t u = v − at = 9 − (−2) × 3 = 15 m s–1
–1

(c)

By a =

Average speed 20 = 8.33

= 2.4 m s–1
Her average speed for the whole trip is 2.4 m s–1.

The initial velocity of the skater is 15 m s .

8

(a) The object initially moves towards the
left and accelerates towards the left. It will speed up.

6 7 8 9 10

C C C B A Magnitude of displacement = 2000 2 + 6000 2 = 6324.6 m Magnitude of average velocity 6324.6 = 4 × 3600 = 0.439 m s–1 6000 tan θ = 2000 θ = 71.6°
His average velocity is 0.439 m s–1 (S 71.6° E).

(b) The object initially moves towards the
right and accelerates towards the left. It will slow down. Its velocity will be zero and then increases in the negative direction (moves towards the left).

Revision exercise 1
Multiple-choice (p. 35)
1 2 3
C D B

©

3 1 = 6300 m Magnitude of average velocity 6300 = 359 = 17. is from 8 to 14 s.3 s) in measuring the cycle of the pendulum accumulates. (1A) (1A) The range of the time interval (10 cycles) (b) When finding the time for one pendulum cycle. (1A) 3 (a) Since she measures the time interval based on 1 cycle of the pendulum. the error (0.15 m s −1 Average speed = 780 (b) Displacement from Sheung Shui to Lok Ma Chau 1000 = × 6.5 m s–1 (1M) (1A) (1M) (1A) 12 13 D (HKCEE 2003 Paper II Q3) Conventional (p.97 m s–1 (1M) (1A) 2 (a) 50 m (1A) (b) Magnitude of average velocity of Kitty 50 = (1M) 1× 60 + 15 = 0.667 m s −1 (1A) (1M) (1A) (c) Average speed of the coach 5 + 50 + 5 = 1× 60 + 15 = 0.16 m s–1 Cycling: Average speed 40 000 = 1 × 3600 + 1 × 60 + 53 = 10.8 m s–1 Running: Average speed 10 000 = 39 × 60 + 47 = 4. (1A) 4 (a) Time required 7.8 m s −1 (b) Swimming: Average speed 1500 = 21 × 60 + 28 = 1.4 × 1000 = 20. 37) 1 Total time left for the two players = 4 × 60 + 9 + 5 × 60 + 16 = 565 s Total time they have been playing = 2 × 60 × 60 − 565 = 6635 s (= 110 min 35 s = 1 h 50 min 35 s) (1A) 5 (a) Total distance = 1500 + 40 × 1000 + 10 × 1000 = 51 500 m Total time = 2 × 3600 + 3 × 60 + 8 = 7388 s Average speed 51 500 = 7388 = 6. 20) with the stop-watch and divide the time by the number of cycles. Jenny should time more pendulum cycles (e.11 C Total time = 13 min = 780 s 840 × 2 = 2.6 = 359 s (5 min 59 s) (1M) (1A) © .19 m s–1 (1M) His average speed was the highest in cycling.g.

5 m s–1. 6 (a) v = u + at =0+6×4 = 24 m s–1 = 86. © –1 (1A) .1° E).6 km h (1A) –1 = 8100 s Average speed 17 000 = 8100 = 2.527 m s–2.6 (1A) The average speed must be smaller than the maximum speed because the train needs to speed up from start and slows down to stop during the trip.617 m s–1 8100 4000 tan θ = 3000 (1A) θ = 53. Since the time interval of this competition is quite long.10 m s–1 (1M) (1A) (c) The final speed of the car is 57.4 m s−1 > average speed 3.4 km h 86. (1M) (1A) (b) Maximum speed 430 = = 119. (1A) Magnitude of displacement = 3000 2 + 4000 2 = 5000 m Magnitude of average velocity 5000 = = 0.527 m s–2 (1A) 227 The average acceleration of the train is 0.(c) Yes. (1A) using stop-watch will not result in large percentage error as the reaction time for an average person is only 0.67 m s–2. –1 –1 (1A) The maximum speed of the car is 8 (1M) (a) Total distance = 8000 + 4000 + 5000 = 17 000 m Total time = 1 × 3600 + 30 × 60 + 45 × 60 (b) v = u + at = 24 + (–4) × 2 = 16 m s –1 –1 = 57. (1A) The average acceleration of the car is (b) 7 (a) Average speed 30 000 = 8 × 60 = 62. v−u a= (1M) t 16 − 0 = 6 = 2.1° His average velocity is 0.5 m s–1 The average speed of the train is 62.4 km h .6 = 0.2 s. (1A) (1M) (c) Total time = 5 min 45 s − 1 min 58 s = 3 min 47 s = 3 × 60 + 47 = 227 s v−u a= (1M) t 431 −0 = 3.6 km h .617 m s (N 53.67 m s–2 2.

–1 (1A) (1A) (1M) (1A) Her average velocity is 3.6 Magnitude of average velocity 130 000 = 10 200 = 12. (1A) (b) N ∆XYZ is a right-angled triangle.14 m s 400 tan θ = 400 θ = 45° (S 45° E).9 (a) Distance travelled = 10.4° E).7 m s–1 Its average velocity is 12.4° E). = 566 m Magnitude of average velocity 566 = 3 × 60 = 3.5 × 3 × 60 = 1890 m (1M) (1A) 10 (a) Total distance = (120 + 50) × 1000 = 170 000 m (1M) (1A) (b) Circumference of the track =2 r = 2 (400) = 2513 m The distance travelled by Marilyn is 3 1890 m which is about of the 4 circumference.6° = 37.4° The total displacement of the car is 130 000 m (N 37.7 m s (N 37. Z θ 50 km 30° Y 60° X α ψ 120 km Magnitude of displacement (from town X to town Z) = 120 000 2 + 50 000 2 = 130 000 m 120 tan θ = 50 θ = 67.6° α = 60° − 22. –1 (c) (1A) Total time 170 000 = = 10 200 s 60 3.14 m s–1 © .4° = 22.4° Magnitude of displacement AB = 400 2 + 400 2 (1A) (1A) ψ = 90° − 67.

the coin is also zero. it is at B finally.11 (a) AC = 60 2 + 80 2 = 100 m 80 tan θ = θ = 53. The total displacement of the athlete is Therefore. After that the car will move towards the right with increasing speed (uniform acceleration).) (Correct label of acceleration with correct direction (towards the right). (1A) (1M) (1A) (1M) (1A) (1M) (1A) A (ii) Average speed 75 × 10 −2 = 8 = 0.1° 60 (1M) The total displacement of the athlete is 100 m (S53.7 m Total displacement =5+5 = 10 m 80 m © . Displacement of the coin = 15 cm (1A) (1M) (1A) (1M) (b) Distance travelled by the coin = 15 + 30 + 30 = 75 cm (b) Time / s v / m s–1 0 –6 1 –4 2 –2 3 0 4 +2 5 +4 6 +6 (1A) (1A) (c) (i) Total time = 2 s × 4 = 8 s Average velocity 15 × 10 −2 = 8 = 0. (1A) 13 (Correct label of velocity with correct direction (towards the left).0938 m s−1 (1M) (1A) 12 (a) Total distance travelled = 60 + 80 + 80 + 60 = 280 m (d) (i) The coin moves in the following sequence: B A C C A B B (b) Magnitude of total displacement = 80 + 80 = 160 m 160 m (west).0188 m s−1 (0. it is at A finally. (1A) (1M) (1A) (1M) (1A) (1M) (1A) (ii) The displacement of the coin is Therefore the average velocity of (c) Total distance travelled = 280 + 60 + 80 = 420 m 14 (a) Total distance = πr = 5π θ 60 m C = 15. zero.5A × 6) (1M) (1A) (c) The car will slow down and its speed will drop to zero.) (1A) (1A) (a) The coin moves in the following sequence: B A C C A Therefore.1°W).

The total displacement travelled by her is 10 m.

(b) Jane’s statement is incorrect.

(1A)

Since both girls start at X and meet at Y, they have the same displacement. (1A) Betty’s statement is incorrect. (1A) Since both girls return to their starting point, their displacements are zero. (1A)

Physics in articles (p. 40)
(a) From 19 January 2006 to 28 February 2007,
(1A) It takes New Horizons spacecraft a total of 406 days to travel from the Earth to Jupiter. (1A)

(b) (i)

Average speed total distance travelled = total time of travel

(1M)

=

8 × 108 406 × 24 (1A) (1M)

= 8.21 × 104 km h−1

(ii) Average acceleration change in velocity = total time of travel
=

(8.23 − 5.79)×10 4
406 × 24

= 2.50 × 104 km h−2

(1A) (1A)

(c)

July 2015

©

2
1 2 3 4 5

Motion II
10 (a) The object moves with a constant
velocity.

Practice 2.1 (p. 61)
D B D D B
30 − 10 = 10 m s–1 v= 2

(b) The object moves with a uniform
acceleration from rest.

(c)

The object moves with a uniform deceleration, starting with a certain initial velocity. Its velocity becomes zero finally.

The velocity of the car at t = 2 s is 10 m s–1.

6 7

C

(d) The object first moves with a uniform
acceleration from rest, then at a constant velocity, and finally moves with a smaller uniform acceleration again.

(a) Total displacement
= 4 × 5 + (−5) × (7 − 5) = 10 m The total displacement from the staircase to her classroom is 10 m.

(e)

The object moves at a constant velocity and then suddenly moves at constant velocity of same magnitude in the opposite direction.

(b) Classroom C 8 (f)

The object moves with uniform deceleration from an initial velocity to rest, and continue to move with the uniform acceleration of the same magnitude in opposite direction.

9

(a) The object accelerates. (b) The object first moves with a constant
velocity. Then it becomes stationary and finally moves with a higher constant velocity again.

11

(a) The object moves with zero acceleration
(with constant velocity of 50 m s–1).

(b) The object moves with a uniform
acceleration of 5 m s–2.

(c) 12

The object moves with uniform deceleration of 5 m s–2.

(c)

The object decelerates to rest, and then accelerates in opposite direction to return to its starting point.

(a) It moves away from the sensor.

(d) The object moves with uniform velocity
towards the origin (the zero displacement position), passes the origin, and continues to move away from the origin with the same uniform velocity.

©

(b)

(c)

The greatest rate of change in speed 0 − 3.5 = 2 = –1.75 m s–2

(d) Total distance travelled
= area under the graph 3.5 × 2 2 × 6 = + 2 2 = 9.5 m

Practice 2.2 (p. 71)
1
C By v2 = u2 + 2as,
290 3.6
2

13

(a)

=0+2×1×s

s = 3240 m = 3.24 km < 3.5 km
The minimum length of the runway is 3.5 km.

2

B Cyclist X is moving at constant speed. Time for cyclist X to reach finish line displacement 150 = = = 30 s time 5
For cyclist Y: u = 5 m s–1, s = 250 m,

(b) Total distance travelled
= area under the graph (12 + 6) × 3 = 2 = 27 m

a = 2 m s–2

By s = ut +

1 2 at , 2 1 250 = 5 × t + × 2 × t2 2

(c)

Average speed total distance travelled = time taken 27 = 3

t = 13.5 s or t = −18.5 s (rejected) Y needs 13.5 s to reach finish line.
Therefore, cyclist Y will win the race.

3

B Since the bullet start decelerates after fired into the wall, we could just consider the displacement of the bullet in the wall. To prevent the bullet from penetrating the wall, the bullet must stop in the wall.

= 9 m s–1

14

(a) She moves towards the motion sensor. (b) The highest speed of the girl in the
journey is 3.5 m s–1.

©

5 − 2 2 = 175 m (b) Braking distance (2.6 36 3. The dog is sitting initially.4 m s–2. s= v −u = 2a 2 2 90 3. the bicycle would not hit the (b) Since the car decelerates uniformly. the golf ball can reach the hole.5 s. By v2 = u2 + 2as.5 = 18.4 m s–2 Its acceleration is 2.5 m s–2 a= t 10 By v = u + 2as. 9 (a) v = u + at = 0 + 20 × 0.3 = 6 m s−1 The horizontal speed of the ball travelling towards the goalkeeper is 6 m s−1.25 m = 2 Thinking distance = 15 × 0.5 m s−2.75) u = 19 m s–1 The initial velocity of the car is 19 m s–1. 2 12 (a) (i) By v = u + at. braking distance v+u = ×t 2 108 +0 = 3.5)×15 = 11.6 2 × 1.8 The deceleration of the football should be 22. 142 = 42 + 2 × 2 × s s = 45 m 4 C When the dog catches the thief at t = 5 s. 2 1 30 = 0 + a(5)2 2 The displacement of the girl is 45 m.5 m Stopping distance = 11.8 cm The minimum thickness of the wall is 15. 20 m The distance travelled by the motorcycle is 175 m and its acceleration is 1.6 Therefore.0 − 0. 0 = 500 + 2 × (−800 000) × s 2 8 By v = u + at.5) × s s=9m 8m Therefore. (c) Stopping distance = thinking distance + braking distance = 24 + 33 = 57 m © .5 m s .6 = 1. 0 = 32 + 2 × (–0. (b) By v2 = u2 + 2as.5 m s−2 2 × 0. a = 2. 2 2 10 (a) The reaction time of the cyclist is 0.By v2 = u2 + 2as. 1 By s = ut + at2. –2 7 (a) Thinking distance = speed × reaction time 108 = × 0.25 + 7.6 3.8) 2 = 33 m 11 By v = u2 + 2as.75 m child.156 m = 15. its total displacement is 30 m.8 = 24 m 3.5 = 7. 02 − 62 a= = –22. 14 = u + 2 × 5 u = 4 m s–1 s = 0.6 × (3 − 0.6 cm < 15. so u = 0.8 m. 0 = u + (–4)(4. 5 6 D 90 36 − v−u = 3.

1 = 100 s Consider the second section. –1 (b) Consider the first section.1 m 2 3 C For option A.3 (p. 5 Speed of stone Equation used t=1s t=2s t=3s t=4s v = u + at Distance travelled by the stone 1 s = ut + at 2 2 5m 20 m 45 m 80 m 10 m s–1 20 m s 30 m s –1 –1 40 m s–1 Total time taken = 100 + 40 = 140 s It takes 140 s for Jason to travel downhill. apply equation v2 = u2 – 2gs and take s = 0 (the ball returns to the second floor).2 m. 2 1 0 = u × 30 + × (−10) × 302 2 u = 150 m s–1 13 (a) By v2 = u2 + 2as.1 m s–1 when he enters the water. 1 By s = ut + at2.1 m s–1 It takes 1. His speed is 14. 17 = 0 + 2 × 3 × s s = 48.1 × 500 v = 10 m s–1 His speed is 10 m s . in both ways the ball has the same vertical speed when it reaches the ground.41 s for a diver to drop from a 10-m platform. v = –u = –10 m s–1 (vertically downwards) The displacement of the car before it stops in front of the traffic light is 45.(ii) By v2 = u2 + 2as. v2 = 0 + 2 × 0. (b) By v = u + 2as. © .1 m. 2 1 800 = 10t + × 0. 6 1 By s = ut + at2. By v = u + at. Therefore. v−u t= a 10 − 0 = 0. 83) 1 2 D D = 0 + 10(1.5t2 2 t = 40 s or t = –80 s (rejected) The speed of the bullet is 150 m s–1 when it is fired.41 s v = u + at Practice 2. 0 = 19 + 2 × (–4) × s s = 45. –1 4 B Take the upward direction as positive. This is the same velocity as the initial velocity of option B. 2 1 10 = 0 + (10) t2 2 t = 1. 1 By s = ut + at2.41) = 14.2 m 2 2 2 The displacement of the car between starting from rest and moving at 17 m s is 48.

Y should be fired at a (b) By v2 = u2 + 2as. the speed of Y should be smaller than that of X.8 m 2 2 2 Besides.2 + (–10)t t = 6.16 m s–1. the indoor playground is not safe for playing trampoline.14 s The vehicle can experience a free fall in the Zero-G facility for 5. since Y spends a shorter time to reach its highest point. 2 1 132 = 0 × t + × 10 × t2 2 t = 5.2 m s–1 The velocity of the firework X is 63. . By v = u + 2as. it should be fired after X. 10 (a) By s = ut + The highest position reached by the puppy is 0.6 m s–1 Its speed on hitting the ground is 49. (a) By v2 = u2 + 2as. 11 (a) Distance between the ceiling and her hands = 6 – 2 – 1.5 u = 3. 4 = 0 + (2)(–10)s s = 0.632 s (b) Let s be her vertical displacement when she jumps. Therefore. 9 Take the upward direction as positive.e. 2 1 120 = 8t + × 10 × t2 2 t = 4. Take the downward direction as positive.8 m above the ground. 0 = u + 2 × (–10) × 0.14 s. (b) v = u + at = 8 + 10 × 4.5 = 0 + (10) t2 2 t = 0. (b) Take the upward direction as positive.32 s for the firework X to reach that height. u = 8 m s–1.8 m Hang-time of the boy = 0. (c) From (a) and (b).8 m Therefore. 12 (b) By v = u + at.32 s It takes 6.4 m s−1 The speed of the vehicle before it comes to a stop is 51. As the maximum jumping speed is 8 m s–1.316 × 2 = 0. 1 (a) By s = ut + at2.2 = 2.2 m > 2. v2 = 02 + 2 × 10 × 132 v = 51. By v2 = u2 + 2as.316 s 1 2 at . i. 0 = 63.16 = 49.6 m s–1. for firework Y to explode at 130 m above the ground. 1 By s = ut + at2.7 Take the upward direction as positive. © lower speed. 2 1 0.16 m s–1 2 2 2 The jumping speed of the boy is 3.76 s (rejected) It takes 4.2 m s–1 when it is fired. By v = u + 2as.4 m s−1.16 s to reach the ground.16 s or t = −5. 0 = u2 + 2(–10)(200) u = 63. v2 − u2 s= 2a 2 0 − 82 = (upwards is positive) 2 × (−10) s = 3. 8 (a) Consider the boy’s downward journey.

75 s.5s. 2 3 D B Consider the rock released from the 2nd floor.2 s. (–2v) = (2v) – gt′ v t′ = 4 ( ) g = 2t Its new time of travel is 2t.5v2 v2 = 1. 9 10 D D © . Therefore. It cannot land on the Moon. let the new time of travel be t′. Note that s2 = 3. But for D. it flies away from the Moon with 4 m s–1 upwards. after firing for 10. 87) 1 D By v2 = u2 + 2as.17 m s–2 His minimum deceleration is 2. –v = v – gt 2v = gt If the stone is projected with a speed of 2v. Both C and D satisfy this requirement. v2 = 2as floor. (v2)2 = 2as2 = 3. v = u + at = 200 + (–20)(10.(c) Take the upward direction as positive. v = 5 m s–1. 4 5 A C The stone returns to the ground with the same speed (but in opposite direction).5(2as) = 3. By v = u + at.2) = –4 m s–1 i. 5 = 200 + (−20)t t = 9.87v (as u = 0) Then consider the rock released from the 7th 7 8 D C Take the downward direction as positive. u = 200 m s–1.e. 6 B Take the upward direction as positive. 1 s = ut + at2 2 1 = (10)(4) + (–10)(4)2 2 = –40 m The distance between the sandbag and the ground is 40 m when it leaves the balloon. a = −20 m s–2 By v = u + at. the correct answer is C. 0 = 102 + 2a(25 – 10 × 0. By v2 = u2 + 2as. Revision exercise 2 Multiple-choice (p.75 s The rockets should be fired for at least 9.17 m s–2.2) a = –2.

25 s.30 s to 1.20 s to 1. the object moves with negative acceleration.35 m s–1 from t = 1.20 s to 1. Stopping distance 12 × (3.35 m s–1.6 − 0.45 s to 1.35 m s–1 (A straight line with slope = –0.2 m The stopping distance of the car is shorter than 27 m.6 + 2 = 25. from t = 1.11 12 13 (HKCEE 2006 Paper II Q1) (HKCEE 2007 Paper II Q2) (HKCEE 2007 Paper II Q33) (b) (i) Conventional (p.35 m s–1 (1A) (1M) = –4 m s–2 The acceleration of the car is –4 m s–2.40 s) (1A) ! © .30 = –7 m s–2 at t = 1. The driver will not be charged with driving past a red light.50 s) (1A) (1A) (1A) (A straight line with slope = 0. (c) The stopping distance of the car is the area under graph. (b) v a= t = 0 − 12 3.35 − 0. the object changes its moving direction and moves towards the motion sensor again with a uniform velocity of –0.25 s to 1.(1A) From t = 1.25 s) from t = 1.6 − 0.6 s.6) =12 × 0. (1A) Then.45 s to 1.35 about 1.6 (1A) (Correct axes with label) from t = 1.45 s. 89) 1 (a) The reaction time of the driver is 0. (1A) (Correct axes with labels) (1A) (Correct graph with the acceleration of −0.40 − 1.50 s. (1A) (1A) (1M) (ii) 2 (a) The object moves away from the motion sensor with uniform velocity at 0.

67 m s .2 =5m The thinking distance is 5 m. (1A) " © .2 – 0. (1A) 5 Take the upward direction as positive.5 m (1M) (1A) (c) Yes. Consider their displacements at t = 3 s. it hits the roadblock. Therefore. (a) From point A to the highest point: (Correct axes with labels) (Correct shape of minibus’ graph) (Correct shape of sports car’s graph) (Correct values) (1A) (1A) (1A) (1A) By v2 = u2 + 2as.2 – 0. the two vehicles have the same velocity at t ≈ 2.3 (a) (b) Total displacement of the car = area bound by the v−t graph and the time axis 1 1 = (5 × 5) − (20 × 3) 2 2 = −17. the car moves 12. (1A) (1A) Then the car changes its moving direction.4 m (1M) (1A) 6 (a) Initial velocity v = 90 km h–1 90 = m s–1 3. it moves backwards with a uniform acceleration of −6. From t = 5 s to t = 8 s.3 s after passing the traffic light. (1A) The maximum height reached by him is (1M) (b) From the graph in (a).5 m 2 For the minibus: 1 s = × (7 + 13) × 3 = 30 m 2 The minibus will take the lead 3 s after passing the traffic light. (1A) (1M) 4 (a) The car moves forward with uniform acceleration at −1 m s−2 from t = 0 s to t = 5 s.2 m above the trampoline.4 s (1M) From the highest point to the trampoline: 1 s = ut + at2 (1M) 2 1 = 0 + (–10)(1.5 m forwards from t = 0 to t = 5 s.4)2 2 = –3. 0 = 42 + 2 (–10) s s = 0.2 m (1A) 3. For the sports car: 1 s = × 15 × 3 = 22. −2 Its instantaneous velocity is 0 at t = 5 s. (1A) (1M) (c) The area under graph is the displacement of the cars.6 = 25 m s–1 Thinking distance =v×t = 25 × 0.8 m By v = u + at. 0 = 4 + (–10)t t = 0. (1A) (b) Height of point A above the trampoline (1A) = 3.8 = 2.

s= v −u 2a 0 2 − 25 2 = 2 × ( − 4.75 (1A) (1A) Hence.5 m (1M) (d) The two graphs have no difference.2 m s–1 cushion is 27. u+v (ii) By s = t. © . speed / m s−1 7. (1A) (1A) 8 (a) Take the downward direction as positive. (1A) (1M) 7 (a) Take the downward direction as positive.75 m s when the apple just reaches the ground. Therefore. 2 1 40 – 3 = 0 + × 10 × t2 2 t = 2. v2 − u2 a= 2s 2 0 − 25 2 = 2 × (80 − 5) = −4. (1A) (b) By v2 = u2 + 2as.5 m Stopping distance = 37. 1 (b) (i) By s = ut + gt2.5 m Braking distance = 37.17 m s–2. v = u + 2 gs 2 The driver could not stop before the traffic light.72 s (1A) The speed of the residents landing on the (1M) (1A) The apple travels in air for 0.775 s.17 m s–2 4.75 m s−1 The speed of the apple is 7. his claim is incorrect. the deceleration of the car is (c) By v2 = u2 + 2as.221 s (1A) The time of contact is 0.17 × 2) 2 2 (1M) 0 0. (1M) 2 2s t= u+v 2×3 = t 27.72 s. 1 By s = ut + gt2. The time of travel in air is 2. v = 2 × 10 × 3 (1M) (1A) –1 = 7.5 + 5 = 42.221 s.775 s 10 (1M) = 0 2 + 2 × 10 × (40 − 3) = 27. (1M) (c) The slope of the graph is the magnitude of the acceleration of the apple. By v2 = u2 + 2gs. 2 1 3 = 0 × t + × 10 × t2 2 3× 2 t= = 0.(b) By v2 = u2 + 2as.775 time / s (Correct labelled axes) (2A) (1A) (Straight line with a slope of 10 m s−2) = 37.2 m s−1.2 + 0 = 0.

(1M) (1A) (c) (Correct labeled axes) (Correct shape) (Correct values) (1A) (1A) (1A) (i) 9 (a) t = 2 s: Displacement of the trolley = 0.65 m and 0. (Correct sign) (Correct shape) (1A) (1A) (1A) (1A) (1A) (ii) The method does not work Then it rests momentarily at t = 3.9 s: (1A) Displacement of the trolley = 0.15 m from sensor before being released.7 − 0.55 m t = 3.28 s 2. After that.6 − 0. 0. The ball hits the ground which is 1. (1A) © .9)2 2 a = −0.15 = 0. it moves towards the motion since ultrasound will be reflected by the transparent plastic plate. (1A) The acceleration of the trolley is −0. 1 By s = ut + at2.21 m s–2 The acceleration of the ball due to gravity is 8. 2 1 −0. which are 0. (1A) (1A) Therefore.9 + × a × (2.507 m s−2 (1A) (1M) 11 (a) (i) The ball is held 0.175 − 0.4 s.775 m from the sensor in its first 3 rebounds.21 m s–2.45 m (1A) (b) It moves away from the motion sensor with a changing speed from t = 2 s to t = 3. (ii) The ball rebounds to the positions 10 (a) The motion sensor is protruded outside the table to avoid the reflection of ultrasonic signal from table.(c) (b) Slope of the graph from t = 0 to t = 0.1 m from the sensor. (1A) (c) sensor with a changing speed.45 m.28 − 0 = 8.3 − 0 = 0.95 m.1 = 0.4 s: (1A) Displacement of the trolley = 1.15 = 0.507 m s−2.4 s.025 m t = 4. the ball drops a height of 0.15 = 1.7 × 2.

3.45) = 0. (Correct labels of time and velocity)(1A) 13 (a) Speed v = 70 km h–1 70 = m s–1 3. the ball rises up (1. by v2 = u2 + 2as. (1A) (1A) (1A) (c) v / m s−1 6. v = u + at (1A) = 0 + 10 × 0.1 − 0.4 2 = 2 × 48 = –3.9 m s .632 s from t1 to t2.92 m s–2. Therefore.2 m s–1 = 66.32 At the 2 rebound.45 m.309 s The reaction time of the man was 0.32 m s –1 –1 (1M) Shirley’s speed is 6. (1M) (1M) (1A) The average deceleration of the car was (c) (1A) Speed v = 80 km h–1 80 = m s–1 3. nd The average acceleration is 66. from t3 to t4. At t4.92 m s–2 3.6 = 19.65) = 0.32) 2 − 0 2 = 2 × 0. a= v2 − u2 2s (−6.6 = 22. (b) (i) The ball hits the ground with velocities of 3. (1M) (b) At t2.1 − 0. the ball rises up (1. 1 (a) By s = ut + gt2.9 (1M) 0.325 m.32 m s when she lands on the trampoline at t2.6 m s–2.At the 1st rebound.632 s (1A) 10 It takes 0.65 m.309 s. she leaves the trampoline at the same speed.632 = 6. the ball rises up (1.6 m s–2 © .1 − 0.75 m s–2 −6.4 = 0.32 (3 straight lines) (Correct slopes) (1A) (1A) 12 Take the downward direction as positive. (1M) 2 1 2 = 0 × t + × 10 × t2 2 2×2 t= = 0. v2 − u2 a= 2s 2 0 − 19.75 m s–1 in its first 3 rebounds. (3A) 3.4 m s–1 d Reaction time = v 6 = 19.775) = 0.55 (1A) –1 –1 t3 t1 t2 t4 t5 t/s (ii) Acceleration = slope of graph = = 9.95 − 0. rd At the 3 rebound.3 (b) By v2 = u2 + 2as.25 m s and 2.

45 = 3. By s = ut + 1 2 gt .752 2 = –3.052 = 5.06 m (negative means the water is below the spring board) The spring board is 3. the car would have knocked down the boy if the car had travelled at 80 km h−1 or faster. Take the downward direction as positive. (1A) Therefore.7 s to reach the highest point from the spring board. 2 1 s2 = 0 + × 10 × 1.9 = 69. and thus the stopping distance (sum of thinking distance and braking distance). © The speed of the diver entering the water .8 m (1A) Consider the upward motion and downward motion separately.Thinking distance = vt = 22.06 m (1A) (1M) (1A) The speed of Belinda leaving the spring (b) Total time taken from the spring board to the water = 0.5 m s–1 is 10. –1 Therefore the height of the spring board above the water = s2 – s1 = 5. Take the upward direction as positive.86 + 62.86 m By v = u + 2as.75 + × (–10) × 1.45 m For the downward motion. increases.06 m above the water. For the upward motion.51 – 2.05 s from the highest point to enter water.51 m 2 (1A) This stopping distance is greater than the initial distance between the car and the boy. u = 0 − (−10) × 0.72 2 = 2.2 × 0. By v = u + at. braking distance s v2 − u2 = 2a 2 0 − 22. (d) A drunk has a longer reaction time.7 = 7 m s–1 board is 7 m s .7 + × (–10) × 0.7 + 1.5 m s–1. (1A) (1M) (1A) 14 (a) Take the upward direction as positive. she takes 0. (1M) 2 1 s1 = 7 × 0. Alternative method: (1A) = 62.9 m Therefore. 1 s = ut + at2 (1M) 2 1 = 7 × 1.75 s (c) v = u + at = 0 + (−10) × 1. the stopping distance = 6.(1A) This means that the thinking distance.05 = −10.2 2 = 2 × (−3.05 = 1. she takes 1. 1 By s = ut + at2.309 = 6.92) 2 2 (1A) Take the upward direction as positive.

5 = 9.43 m s–2 8.) (1A) 15 (a) Speed 70 km h–1 70 = m s–1 3. the car moves with a uniform acceleration of 17 − 0 = 3. (c) Thinking distance = area under the graph during 0−0.5 s−8.6 – 48.5 s = 19.5 − 0.6 m distance are 9.) (1A) (Correct position – above that in (d).) (Correct slope .(d) Deceleration of car Y = slope of the graph during 0. (1A) (e) (1M) Stopping distance of car X = area under the graph during 0−5 s 1 = × 19.8 m < 50 m Since the distance between the cars is greater than the distance that car Y can travel in 2 s.7 + 77.8 m < 50 m Since the difference in stopping distances of the cars is smaller than the initial separation of the cars. Deceleration of car X = slope of the graph during 0−5 s (1A) (1M) (b) Deceleration of a car is the slope of their 0 − 19.4 × (8. the driver of car Y obeys the rule.5 s−8. (1A) (1M) (1M) Distance travelled by car Y in 2 s = vt = 19.4 × 5 = 48.5 (1A) The deceleration of car Y is 2.88 m s–2 The deceleration of car X is 3. (1A) 16 (a) From t = 0 s to t = 5 s. the two cars do not collide with each other before they stop.5 s = 0 − 19.4 = –2.4 m s–2.4 × 2 = 38.5 = 38.5 – 0. 5 (1A) © .5) 2 = 77.parallel to that in (d).7 m (1A) (Correct shape) (Correct times) (Correct velocities) (1A) (1A) (1A) Braking distance = area under the graph during 0.4 × 0.88 m s–2.5 s 1 = × 19.43 m s–2.6 m respectively.6 = 19. (1A) The thinking distance and the braking (e) (See the figure in (d).4 = 5−0 = –3.7 m and 77.5 m 2 Coloured area = 9.4 m s –1 (d) The coloured area is equal to the difference in the stopping distances travelled by cars X and Y. corresponding v–t graph.

5 m s–2 The deceleration is 4. (1A) (b) s = ut + 1 2 at 2 1 = 0 + × 17. 28 − 20 at rest. the car moves with a uniform acceleration of 0 − 17 = −2. Its velocity changes from positive to negative. the car moves with a constant velocity of 17 m s–1. showing a change in its travelling direction. From t = 28 s to t = 30 s. (c) The acceleration during t = 18 s−20 s 0−9 = (1M) 20 − 18 = −4. shortest time. −3 (1M) (1A) 17 18 (HKCEE 2002 Paper I Q8) (a) v = u + at = 0 + 17. –2 (1A) (Correct shape) (Correct time instants) (Correct accelerations) (1A) (1A) (1A) (1A) (1A) 20 21 (c) Yes.125 m s–2.5 × 8 × 60 = 8400 m s–1 minutes is 8400 m s–1. (1A) From t = 20 s to t = 28 s. (b) v = u + at = 0 + 10 × (500 × 10 ) = 5 m s−1 the ground is 5 m s–1.5 × (8 × 60)2 2 = 2 016 000 m (2016 km) (1M) (1A) The Shuttle travels 2 016 000 m (2016 km) in the first 8 minutes. the car remains (1A) 19 (a) (i) The cyclist is using first gear when the acceleration is greatest before braking.5 m s . The speed of the computer when it hits The speed of the Shuttle after the first 8 © . (HKCEE 2005 Paper I Q1) 1 (a) s = ut + at2 2 1 = 0 + × 10 × (500 × 10−3)2 2 = 1.25 m Therefore the minimum height the (1M) The car changes direction at t = 30 s.25 m.From t = 5 s to t = 20 s. (1A) (1M) (1A) (1A) laptop must fall for it to be ‘saved’ is 1. (1A) (1A) (1M) (1M) (1A) (b) (ii) The cyclist uses second gear for the (b) Distance travelled = area under straight line PQ (8 + 6) × 2 = 2 = 14 m The cyclist travels 14 m in second gear.

35 t= = = 0.07 − 0.(1A) Its displacement is (still) increasing with time. Consider the upward journey.14 s or t = −0.54 s a − 10 (1M) (c) (i) Consider the downward journey. (1M) 2 1 − (2. effect.09) u = 5.0 s and t = 10.(c) Most falls are likely to be from below this height.07 − 1.0 s (70 + 130)× 6 = 2 (1M) (1A) The time that he stays in the air is 1. so its velocity is (still) positive In this case. 1 By s = ut + at2. 1 By s = ut + at2. 22 (a) Any one from: Rate of change of displacement Displacement per unit time (1A) (b) The velocity of a braking car is decreasing (with time) (1A) so the car has negative acceleration. (ii) Take the upward direction as positive. 96) (a) 2.35 m s−1 2 2 (1A) (1M) Take the upward direction as positive.35 m s−1 when he leaves the ground.60 s The time that he stays in the air = (0. © . (1M) 2 (0. (1A) (1A) (1A) The vertical speed of Javier Sotomayor is 5.60) = 1.14 s.35t + 1 (− 10)t 2 (1M) 2 t = 1. u = v − 2as u2 = 0 − 2(−10)(2.45 + 0.09) = 5.45 m (b) (i) By v2 = u2 + 2as.0 s is 600 m. the acceleration and velocity are in opposite directions. By v = u + at.45 + 0.54 + 0. = 600 m (1A) The vertical distance travelled by the rocket between t = 4.0 s to 10.71) = 0 + (− 10) t2 2 t = 0.14 s Alternative method: (1A) (Correct graph) (1A) Take the upward direction as positive. v − u 0 − 5. (1A) (1A) (1A) so the protection will not have taken Physics in articles (p.71 − 1.07 s (rejected) (ii) Vertical distance travelled = area under the graph from 4.

When the rockets are shut down. 122) 1 2 3 4 5 D A B A D © .1 (p. so he would move forwards relative to the MTR train. Athletes would hit the wall of the stadium if it is too close to the finishing line. so he would move backwards relative to the MTR train. (b) The MTR train is slowing down. 8 Joan moves on the ice surface with a constant velocity. (f) 5 (a) Stretching a rubber band (b) Standing on the floor (c) Walking time (e) (f) A compass A rubbed plastic ruler attracts small bits of paper (d) Exists in every object on the earth at any 7 man tends to move at his original direction. (c) The MTR train is moving forwards at constant velocity. Practice 3. so he would remain at rest relative to the MTR train. 104) (b). (b) The mat is used to protect the athletes if they hit the wall after passing the finishing line. The Practice 3.2 (p. In space. By Newton’s first law. Therefore. Practice 3. (d) The MTR train is turning a corner. the spaceship is in uniform motion and can travel far out in space. The man tends to move at his original speed (greater speed). 111) 1 2 3 4 5 C C D C (a) No. no net force acts on the spaceship.3 1 2 3 4 C C Force and Motion 6 (a) The MTR train is accelerating in the forward direction. The man tends to move at his original speed (smaller speed). The man moves forwards with the same constant velocity. (e).3 (p. so he would move outwards relative to the MTR train. the gravitational force acts on the spaceship is negligible. they do not exert a force on the spaceship.

(b) Horizontal component = 40 + 30 cos 45° = 61. (b) and the horizontal.2 tan = θ = 19.8 N Let θ be the angle between the resultant and the horizontal.2 N Vertical component = 30 sin 45° = 21.0 θ = 25.7 N Let θ be the angle between the resultant Resultant’s magnitude is 67 N and the angle between the resultant and the horizontal is 13°.3° tan = 55 Resultant’s magnitude is 60.0 N Resultant = 55 2 + 26.2 2 + 21.7 N and the angle between the resultant and the horizontal is 12.0 N Vertical component = 30 sin 30° = 15 N Resultant = 66 2 + 15 2 = 67. © .8 N Let θ be the angle between the resultant and the horizontal.1° 61. (d) Horizontal component = 40 + 30 cos 60° = 55 N Vertical component = 30 sin 60° = 26.2 2 = 64.2 N Resultant’s magnitude is 65 N and the angle between the resultant and the horizontal is 19°. (c) Resultant’s magnitude is 60 N and the angle between the resultant and the horizontal is 25°.8°.1°.6 (a) 7 (a) Horizontal component = 40 + 30 cos 30° = 66.2 Resultant’s magnitude is 64. 21.8 N and the angle between the resultant and the horizontal is 19.8 N and the angle between the resultant and the Resultant’s magnitude is 50 N and the angle between the resultant and the horizontal is 37°.8° 66 Resultant’s magnitude is 67. 26. (c) Resultant = 61. horizontal is 25.0 2 = 60. 15 tan = θ = 12.3°.

9° 40 Resultant’s magnitude is 50 N and the angle between the resultant and the horizontal is 36.3 N Suppose the two forces act in the direction as shown.3 N θ = 60° © .9°. Hence. T = 20 N Therefore we have: Vertical component Fx = 5 sin θ Horizontal component Fy = 5 − 5 cos θ = 5 × (1 − cos θ) (magnitude of the resultant)2 = Fx2 + Fy 2 52 = (5 sin θ)2 + [5 × (1 − cos θ)]2 1 = sin θ + 1 − 2 cos θ + cos θ 2 2 2T cos 45° = W 2 × 20 × cos 45° = W cos θ = 0. It is known that each angle of an equilateral triangle is 60°. 8 (a) 10 (b) Resultant force = 2 × 400 = 800 N The resultant force provided by the cable is 800 N. 30 tan = θ = 36.(d) Resultant = 40 2 + 30 2 = 50 N Let θ be the angle between the resultant and the horizontal. the two 5-N forces and the resultant 5-N force form an equilateral triangle. the angle between the two 5-N forces is 120°. Alternative method: By tip-to-tail method. Therefore. the angle between the two 5-N forces is 120°.5 W = 28. 11 For the 2-kg mass: (c) 9 R = weight × cos θ = 20 cos 30° = 17.

’ or ‘A bag of sugar has a mass of 1 kg. 0 – u2 = 2a(20) −u2 = 40a u2 a=− 40 Resistance = ma = 12 × − u2 = –0.3 N (d) From (c)(i).3 N (b) F = ma = 1500 × 4. F2 = x-component of F2 = 17.4 (p. F 800 000 a= = = 2 m s–2 m 4 × 10 5 (b) As the mass is stationary.63 = 6945 N The force provided by the car engine is 6945 N.12 (a) 2T sin 10° = 500 T = 1440 N The tension of the string is 1440 N.63 m s–2 t 6 The acceleration of the car is 4. 140) 1 2 D B (b) (i) Downwards along the slide (ii) No net force (iii) No net force © .6 = 4.3 N Practice 3.’ By F = ma.63 m s–2. When it flies horizontally. F1 = 20 N. its acceleration is 2 m s–2. 3 4 5 6 B C A Net force = ma = 40 × 0. the net force acting on it is zero. 10 (a) (ii) y-component of F2 = 0 x-component of F2 = x-component of F1 = 17. 100 ( )−0 v−u (a) a = = 3.03u2 40 (b) Component of force = T cos 10° = 1440 × cos 10° = 1420 N The component of the force that pulls the car is 1420 N.5 = 20 N C By v2 – u2 = 2as. (c) (i) y-component of F1 = weight of mass = 10 N 9 y-component of F1 = F1 sin 30° F1 sin 30° = 10 N F1 = 20 N x-component of F1 = F1 cos 30° = 20 cos 30° = 17. 13 (a) 7 8 ‘A bag of sugar weighs 10 N.

Weight = mg = 3 × 10 × 10 = 3 × 10 N Net force = ma = 3 × 10 × 12 = 3.47 N The frictional force acting on the trolley is 3. By F = ma. mg − R = ma 20 − R = 2 × (−0.47 = 2a a = 3.47 N. (b) By F = ma.11 Take the upward direction as positive. 15 (a) f = mg sin θ = (2)(10)sin 10° = 3.27 m s–2.27 m s–2 (ii) Weight (iii) Weight.5 s t= = a 4 © .5) R = 21 N (b) The friction acting on the box is 3 N. (b) 16 (a) Take the direction of the car movement as positive. (a) By F = ma. (d) By F = ma. air resistance The reading of the balance is 21 N. Weight. When the trolley moves down the runway. air resistance In the above 3 cases. F −6000 a= = = –4 m s–2 m 1500 By v = u + at 108 0 − (− ) v−u 3.6 = 7. mg − R = ma 20 − R = 2 × 1.6 × 10 N.6 × 10 + 3 × 10 = 6.5 R = 17 N The reading of the balance is 17 N. R − mg = 0 R = 20 N 12 (a) The reading of the balance is 20 N. F 5−3 m= = = 1 kg a 2 The mass of the box is 1 kg. (c) By F = ma. 13 (a) (i) (b) By F = ma. mg sin θ − f = ma (2)(10) sin 30° − 3. (c) By F = ma. 6 6 6 6 6 5 6 5 14 Take the downward direction as positive. Let R be the reading of the balance. R − mg = 0 R = 20 N The reading of the balance is 20 N. its acceleration is 3.6 × 10 N Net force = thrust – weight of the rocket Thrust = net force + weight of the rocket = 3. the net force acts downwards.6 × 10 N The thrust of the rocket is 6.

(a) When the roller skater exerts a force on the wall.It takes 7. From the graph. the object is moving with an acceleration of 1 m s–2 as a net force of 5 N acts on it. the object is moving at a constant velocity as no net force acts on it. During 10–20 s. 148) 1 2 D C . Therefore the skater moves backwards. 1 (b) By s = ut + at 2 . (c) 7 Force acting on A by B and force acting on B by A. © Practice 3. During 20–30 s. During 5–10 s.5 m.5 (p. its velocity will become negative. (c) When we push ourselves against the side of the pool. Therefore we accelerate forwards. the object is moving at constant velocity as no net force acts on it. (b) 18 (a) 0–5 0 5–10 4 10–20 1 20–30 0 Time t / s Acceleration a / m s–2 (b) During 0–5 s. 2 1 s = (30)(7. the object is moving with an acceleration of 4 m s–2 as a net force of 20 N acts on it. Therefore the diver gains speed and dives.5) + (−4)(7. the pool exerts an equal but opposite force on us. the platform also exerts an equal but opposite force on the diver. the velocity of the object starts to decrease from t = 30 s onwards and becomes zero at t = 40 s.5 s to stop the car. 17 (a) AB BC 2 6 CD 0 0 DE –3 –9 Acceleration a / m s–2 Net force F/N 1 3 (b) His comment is correct. If the force continues to act on the object. (b) When the diver pushes the platform.5) 2 = 112. the wall also exerts an equal but opposite force on the skater. That means it will change its moving direction.5 m 2 3 4 5 6 D A C (a) The braking distance is 112.

F a= m −1 = 3 = −0.333 m s−2 v = u + at = 3 + (–0. By F = ma. 20 – force acting on A by B = mAa = 3 × 2. the force acting on B by A has the same magnitude as that acting on A by B. but their directions are opposite. (ii) Net force acting on it = T – 10 N (up the plane) (c) 9 (a) Trolley A moves down the plane while trolley B moves up the plane.5 N (towards the right) (ii) Net force acting on it = 10. 8 (a) (i) Trolley A’s weight component down the plane = mg sin θ = (3)(10) sin 20° = 10. the net force acting on toy car A is 1 N towards the left. the block exerts an equal but opposite force on the runner.5 N (towards the left) By Newton’s third law. force acting on B by A = force acting on A by B (opposite direction) = 12.5 = 7.83 m s–1 towards the right.3 N (ii) By F = ma. (c) (i) By F = ma.333)(0. Therefore. (b) By Newton’s third law of motion.5 m s–2.5 N ∴Force acting on A by B = 12.(d) When the runner exerts a force on the starting block. © .5) (b) Net force acting on A = 20 N – force acting on A by B Net force acting on B = force acting on B by A ! = 2. 20 F a= = = 2. (c) Take the direction towards the right as positive.5 m s–2 m 3+5 The accelerations of the blocks are 2.83 m s–1 The velocity of toy car A after the collision is 2. Therefore the runner moves forwards.3 N – T (down the plane) (b) (i) Trolley B’s weight component down the plane = mg sin θ = (2)(10) sin 30° = 10 N 10 (a) F = ma = (1)(1) = 1 N The net force acting on toy car B during collision is 1 N towards the right.

with equal distance from O and on different sides of O.44 N m (clockwise) (b) 2 B Let W be the weight of the girl nearer to the boy.5 × 10 × 0.25 N m Anticlockwise moment = F × 0.) 8 (a) Let F be the force exerted by the biceps. Take moment about the joint.Practice 3.25 = F × 0. Therefore the man feels more tired.) " © 7 (a) 9 (a) Torque = 5 N × 0. 6 (b) Take moment about the shoulder joint. (In the same direction. 165) 1 A Moment of force = 30 sin 15° × 0. Take moment about the elbow contact point. 5 The centre of gravity of the bat is outside the edge of the table.7 = 5.3 + 1. clockwise moment = anticlockwise moment 17. The weight of the bat seems to act on the centre of gravity and produces a torque which tips the bat over. In order to balance the (Accept other reasonable answers.6 (p.5 m = 2. the clockwise moment (= weight of dumb-bell × length of the whole arm) is greatly increased.3 f = 600 N 4 (a) A door handle is placed well away from the hinge to give a large moment for turning the door. the shoulder muscle has to exert a great force to provide a sufficient anticlockwise moment. The bat then falls down.05 In equilibrium.) dumb-bell. (In opposite directions and acting at different positions. 3 D f × 0. in equilibrium.15 = 17.05 = 100 × 0. Clockwise moment = 5 × 10 × 0. (b) A mechanic uses a long spanner to give a large moment for undoing the nut.5 N m . clockwise moment = anticlockwise moment 600 × 3 = 400 × (2+1) + W × 2 W = 300 N The weight of the girl nearer to the boy is 300 N.05 F = 345 N The force exerted by the biceps is 345 N.) (c) (In opposite directions and acting at the same position.

45 tE 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 C D B A B D D B A D (HKCEE 2006 Paper II Q31) (HKCEE 2007 Paper II Q6) (HKCEE 2007 Paper II Q30) (HKCEE 2007 Paper II Q27) (b) Use a G-clamp to fix the stand on the bench or add a heavy weight on the platform of the stand. 173) 1 (a) Gravitational acceleration of Mars 1 = × 10 3 = 3. (1A) 3 B On the Earth: 1 By s = ut + at 2 .06 m = 1. (1A) Thus.4 × 10 × 0.44 kg. it takes more time for the block on Mars to reach the ground.(b) Maximum force that can be applied maximum torque 50 = = = 100 N perpendicular distance 0. m × 10 × 0.7 m 2 2 Conventional (p. 1000 – 500 = 1500a a = 0.333)(10) 2 = 16. Revision exercise 3 Multiple-choice (p. 2 1 10 2 2 = 0+ t 2 6 t = 2.33 m s–2 (1A) (b) The block dropped on Mars has a smaller acceleration than that on Earth.4 = 6 tE = 2. On the Moon: 1 By s = ut + at 2 . Take moment about A.4 = 2.4 tension T1 from m1 2 (a) (i) normal force M tension T2 from m2 weight © .333 m s–2 1 1 s = ut + at 2 = 0 + (0.44 kg The maximum mass that the system can withstand is 1. 170) 1 A Moment of force about O =F×d = 8 sin 45° × 0.1 = 2.5 10 (a) Let m be the maximum mass that the system can withstand. 2 1 2 = 0 + (10)t E 2 2 tE = 0.26 N m (clockwise) 2 A By F = ma.

1 (1M) (b) s = ut + at 2 2 1 = 4 × 5 + (5)(5)2 = 82. Use air cushion.5A) (1A) (Weight of Joan) (1A) (1A) © (c) Moment about R = 10 × 0 = 0 = 10 × 1 (d) Moment about S = 10 N m (anticlockwise) (1A + 0. (c) Any one of the following: along the path of the block. the masses will remain at rest.5 m. (1A) Add a layer of oil / polystyrene beads 6 (a) 3 (a) Moment about P = Fd = 10 × 3 = 30 N m (clockwise) (b) Moment about Q = 10 × 1 = 10 N m (clockwise) (1A + 0. both of (ii) normal force tension T2 from m2 tension T1 from m1 M Besides.5 m (1A) 2 The displacement of the box is 82. clockwise moment = anticlockwise moment (1M) 500 × 3 = 700 × 1 + Y × 4 Y = 200 N (1M) (1A) (1M) (Weight and normal force. In equilibrium. net force = 0 X + Y = 700 + 500 X + 200 = 1200 X = 1000 N (1A) (1M) (1A) friction weight (2 tensions with T1 > T2) the same magnitude) (Friction) (1A) (1A) (1A) 5 (Weight and normal force.5A) (Reaction from the balance on Joan) . both of (a) By F = ma. (1A) If T1 = T2 + f. the masses will move in a way similar to that in (b)(i) but the magnitude of the acceleration of the system will be smaller. If T1 > T2 + f. m2 accelerates upwards and M accelerates to the left.5A) The acceleration of the box is 5 m s–2. F 30 − 10 a= = = 5 m s–2 m 4 (b) (i) Mass m1 accelerates downwards.(2 tensions with T1 > T2) the same magnitude) (1A) (1A) 4 Take moment about the left trestle. (1A) (ii) Let f be the friction acting on M.5A) (1A + 0. (1A) (0.

Take the upward direction as positive. (1A) The net force acting on the 10-kg box is (iii) By F = ma.25 m s−2 The acceleration of the boxes is 1. (b) (Correct force) (Correct label) (1A) (1A) (c) Let R be the normal reaction acting on Joan by the balance (the reading of the scale) and W be the weight of Joan. lighter or normal weight) (a) A force of 50 N is used to pull blocks of total mass 40 kg. the reading of the scale R = W = 500 N.25 m s−2. the net force By Newton’s first law of motion. 50 = (10 + 30) × a (1M) (1A) a = 1.25 = 37.5 N. = or 500 N* Lift accelerates upwards Lift moves up at constant speed Lift slows down and stops < 500 N (1A) lighter (1A) = 500 N normal weight > 500 N (1A) heavier (1A) 7 Weight that Joan feels (heavier. For the 30-kg box. by F = ma.5 N 12. By F = ma. acting on the 30-kg box is zero. (1A) (1M) (d) Net force = 50 − T = 50 − 37. box will continue to move and its velocity will be constant.(b) Reading of the scale ( .5 = 12. T = 30 × 1. © . (1A) (1A) When the string breaks. R − W = ma R − 500 = 50 × (−2) R = 400 N (e) (1A) Her statement is not correct.5 N. (1M) (1A) R − W = ma R − 500 = 50 × 3 R = 650 N (1A) The reading of the scale is 650 N. (ii) Since acceleration is 0 and. (Correct force) (Correct label) (1A) (1A) (i) By F = ma (1M) (c) Let T be the tension in the string. By F = ma.5 N The tension in the string is 37. the (1A) The reading of the scale is 400 N.

Add a layer of wax/oil on the plane. (1M) (1A) The velocity of the can after collision is 9 (a) When the box tends to move along the plane.05 (1M) gently momentarily.25 m s–1. friction acts on it to oppose its motion. the box will not slide down the plane. (1A) (1A) (b) Samuel assumes that the plane is friction-compensated. such that the weight component of the box along the plane balances the friction acting on the box. (1A) Therefore. (Or other reasonable answers) (2 × 1A) F = ma = 0.5(20) = 10 N collision is 10 N. (1A) Unless the net force acting on the box down the plane is greater than zero (i. (1A) (Correct forces) (Correct labels) (1A) (1A) (Correct forces) (Correct labels) acting on pan A by m1 (R′) form an action-and-reaction pair. © .4 10 (a) v = u + at = 0 + (25)(0.25 m s–1 1. the net force acting on the box along the plane is zero and the box will move along the plane with a uniform speed after pushing the box The reaction of m1 (R) and the force (1A) (1A) (1A) (b) The pans and masses would move up/down at constant speed or remain at rest.e. (1A) (c) The box will slide down the plane by either reducing the friction acting on the box or increasing the weight component of the box down the plane.8 (a) a= v−u t 2 −1 = = 20 m s–2 0. (1M) (1A) The force acting on the stone during the (b) Force acting on the can = force acting on the stone = 10 N (1A) (1M) (c) By F = ma. Any two of the following: Add rollers on the plane. Tilt the plane more such that the weight component of the box along the plane is greater than the friction acting on it. F 10 a= = = 25 m s–2 m 0.05) = 1. when the weight component of the box along the plane is larger than the friction acting on it).

a constant speed. (ii) Take the direction down the plane The air resistance acting on the flower pot increases from zero as the pot falls in air. (1A) © . (1A) The air resistance acting on her increases gradually from zero as her velocity increases. (1A) When the air resistance is equal to her weight.25 m s–2.25 m s–2 12 (a) I do not agree with Gloria. When the air resistance is equal to her weight.25 N (down the plane). The resultant force acting on the trolley is 0. 2 1 2 = 0 + × a × 42 2 a = 0. (1A) Since the maximum magnitude of air resistance acting on the pot is equal to the weight of the flower pot. (1A) the downward net force acting on the pot is always greater than or equal to zero. (1A) (1A) (1A) By Newton’s second law. the pot will not slow down. By F = ma. the net force acting on her is zero. she will fall at (Weight) weight (1A) (1A) (1A) (Normal reaction) (Friction) as positive.25 N (1M) (b) Take the downward direction as positive.25 = 0. the net force acting on her becomes zero. (1A) (1M) (1A) The acceleration of the trolley is 0. (iii) F = ma = 1 × 0. (1A) 13 (a) (i) normal reaction friction (c) Jackie will fall at a constant speed.11 (a) v / m s−1 t/s (Correct forces) (Correct labels) (1A) (1A) (Axes with correct labels) (The speed of the pot increases at a decreasing rate.) (1A) (1A) (b) The weight of Jackie is constant. By s = ut + 1 2 at .

it accelerates at first.) and C. © (1A) . (1A) (1A) (b) (c) The student is wrong. (1A) Instead of moving at a uniform speed. The net force acting on the food parcel and thus the acceleration becomes zero (from point B to point C).) C. (1A) Eventually.5 × 10 × 2 = 5 × 105 N (1A) 5 (1M) (c) I would adjust the thrust to balance the air resistance and the weight of the aeroplane. 4–8 s: The object moves with zero acceleration. i. we should make the runway friction-compensated. As it gains speed. normal reaction (Axes with correct labels) friction (1A) (1A) (1A) (1A) (1M) (The graph decreases linearly from A to weight B. reduce the size of the angle θ.) v−u (a) a = t 80 − 0 = = 2 m s–2 40 By v 2 − u 2 = 2as . The net force acting on the food parcel and thus the acceleration decreases (from point A to point B). (1A) (The graph is horizontal between B and (The graph is on the x-axis between B 15 (1M) (1A) 14 (a) When the food parcel is thrown from the plane. friction on the trolley acts downwards along the runway and the net force acting on the trolley is not zero. 8–12 s: The object moves with an acceleration of –6 m s–2. the food parcel moves with a constant speed called terminal speed (50 m s ).(b) In order to allow the trolley to move down the runway at uniform velocity. the air resistance balances the weight of the food parcel. (1A) As a result. The minimum length of the runway is (b) Net force acting on the aeroplane = ma = 2. 80 − 0 = 2 × 2 × s 2 2 When the trolley moves up along the runway. the air resistance acting on it increases. (1A) (1A) (1A) (1A) 16 (a) 0–4 s: The object moves with an acceleration of 6 m s–2.e. the trolley decelerates as it moves up along the runway. –1 s = 1600 m 1600 m.

10 N (S 78.10 N 5 tan θ = 1 (1A) F = ma = 2 × 0 = 0 The force acting on the object is 0.04 m s–2. then slope = 0. 2F × cos θ = mg velocity. (b) Net force acting on the block = 12 + 5 2 (Pythagoras’ theorem) = 5. (1A) (1A) (Forces F normal to the wings) (Weight) (1A) (1A) (b) F θ F θ slope = 3 m s–2. (1A) 18 (a) (i) Net force along vertical direction =3N–2N = 1 N (downwards) (1A) (ii) Net force along horizontal direction = 10 N – 5 N = 5 N (towards the right) (1A) F = ma.10 a= = 2.04 m s–2 2.5 The acceleration of the block is 2.7° E). 2F sin θ. (1A) © .7° The net force is 5. 17 (a) By F = ma.(b) During 0–4 s: F = ma = 2 × 6 = 12 N During 4–8 s: (1A) The force acting on the object is 12 N. During 8–12 s: (1A) θ = 78. By (b) The magnitude of the maximum acceleration of the train is 4 m s–2. acts on the aeroplane towards the left. the aeroplane has an acceleration. final part steeper than the first part with negative slope) point) (v = 27 m s at t = 9 s) –1 (3 × 1A) (1A) (1A) θ (v = 0 at the starting point and the end weight Consider the forces in the vertical direction. 19 (a) F F weight (Axes with correct labels) (Correct shape) (Correct slopes : during 0−9 s. (1A) (1A) (1M) (1A) F = ma = 2 × (–6) = –12 N (c) The force acting on the object is –12 N. (1A) (1A) The aeroplane does not fly with uniform This is because a net force. 5.

(i) Total distance during initial rise = 50 – 2 = 48 m Total time = 24 s Average speed = 48 24 (1M) (1A) = 2 m s–1 (1A) T = 6. If a longer string is used.20 (a) 21 (a) (Weight of passenger) (2 tensions) (Weight) zero. Consider the vertical components. θ will be smaller. (c) (ii) Total distance during the first downward thrust = 50 – 9 = 41 m Total time = 43 – 39 = 4 s 41 Average speed = (1M) 4 = 10.53 N The tension in the string is 6. Since T = (1A) (iii) mg . T decreases with θ. 2T cos θ = mg 80° 2T × cos = 1 × 10 2 (1M) (1A) (1A) (Reaction from the platform to the passenger) (1A) (1A) (b) The net force acting on the picture is (b) Take the upward direction as positive.25 m s–1(1A) The average speed of the platform during the first downward thrust is 10.53 N. (1A) © . 2 cos θ (1A) Therefore. The average speed of the platform when it rises from the ground to the top of the tower is 2 m s–1. the tension in a longer string is smaller and it is harder for the string to break.25 m s–1.

5g) – mg (b) Let T be the tension. the pulling force acting on the passenger by the chain is 350 N. clockwise = anticlockwise (1M) moment moment 200 × 2 = 600 × d (c) By Newton’s first law. the vertical will be smaller. –2 –2 (1A) The acceleration of the balloon is 24 (1M) (1A) (a) Take moment about the left trestle. 23 (1M) (a) The net force acting on the case is 0. clockwise = anticlockwise (1M) moment moment 600 × 1 + 200 × 2 = Y × 4 (1M) (1A) (1M) v −u By a = . 8000 – 5000 = 500a (1M) a=6ms 6ms . As a result. 22 (a) By F = ma. From (i). we have Y = 0. (1A) P + mg = ma P = ma – mg = m(1. He feels heavier because R is greater than W. (1A) After reaching the maximum height. By F = ma. In equilibrium. the sandbag moves up at 20 m s when it leaves the balloon. it changes its moving direction and accelerates downwards. (1A) Then it slows down due to gravity. the tension in the string is smaller and it is harder for the strings to break. where R is the normal reaction and W is his weight. the acceleration of the sandbag decreases. (1A) The upward net force acting on him is X + Y = 600 + 200 X + 250 = 800 X = 550 N (1A) (1A) R – W = ma > 0.(1A) (b) (i) (ii) When the plank begins to tip. Take moment about the left trestle. the conditions of equilibrium still apply. Let d be the distance the painter is away from the left trestle when the plank begins to tip. (1A) During the first downward thrust. (c) It is safer to hang the case with a longer string. (1A) (1A) because the angle between the string and Therefore. (1A) ! –1 (1A) d = 0. the air resistance increases.Let P be the pulling force. the reaction Y is zero.33 s.667 m © (1A) . As its velocity increases. –1 Y = 250 N Besides. t v − u 20 − 0 t= = = 3. net force = 0 (b) He feels his weight heavier than expected. 4T cos 20° = 225 × 10 (1M) (1A) T = 599 N (1A) = 70 (–15) – 70(–10) = –350 N The tension in each string is 599 N. When the plank just begins to tip.33 s a 6 The balloon reaches a velocity of 20 m s in 3.

When the plank begins to tip, the painter is 0.667 m away from the left trestle.

27

(a) The ball bearing accelerates at first. As it
gains speed, the fluid friction acting on it increases. The net force acting on the ball bearing and thus the acceleration decreases. (1A) Eventually, the fluid friction increases to a value that balances the weight of the ball bearing. The net force acting on the

25

Note that the centre of gravity of the can is approximately at its centre. The can will topple when its centre of gravity is outside the edge of the runway. Maximum distance travelled by the can = 3 − 0.035 = 2.965 m By F = ma, (1M) (1M)
−2

ball bearing and thus the acceleration becomes zero. (1A) Then the ball-bearing moves with a constant speed called terminal speed.

−0.2 = 0.5 × a

a = −0.4 m s
2 2 2 2

By v − u = 2as, 0 − u = 2 × (−0.4) × 2.965

(1M)

(1A)

(b)
(1A)

u = 1.54 m s

−1

The maximum velocity of the can just after the impact is 1.54 m s−1.

26

(a) The trolley remains at rest until
t = 0.8 s.
Then it moves with a uniform acceleration. v−u (b) a = t 1.15 − 0 = = 0.575 m s–2 2.8 − 0.8 The acceleration of the trolley is 0.575 m s–2. (1A) (1M) (1A) (Axes with correct labels.) linearly.) (1M) (1A) continuously.) (1A) (1A) (1A) (1A)

(The velocity firstly increases with time (Then the slope of the curve decreases (Finally, the velocity becomes constant and the slope of curve becomes zero.) (1A)

(c)

F = ma
= (1)(0.575) = 0.575 N 0.575 N.

The net force acting on the trolley is

(d) He is incorrect.

(1A)

This is because he ignores the friction of the runway. The spring balance reading is equal to the pulling force only. The net force is equal to the pulling force minus the friction. (1A)

(c)

When an aeroplane travels at a high speed in air, it experiences a great air resistance which opposes its motion of it. (1A)

"

©

Air resistance increases with the speed of the moving object. Therefore, it is difficult for an aeroplane to travel at the speed of sound in air. In order to improve the speed of an aeroplane, the body of the aeroplane should be streamlined so that air can flow smoothly over its surface and air resistance can be reduced. (1A) (1A)

The discrepancy may be due to the friction acting on the trolley; the friction acting on the trolley may not be negligible. The student must use a friction-compensated runway to carry out this experiment. (1A) (1A)

29

(a) (i)

28

(a) In Figure v, from t = 0.1 s to t = 0.4 s,
the average value of tension is 2.44 N. Tension T equals to the weight of the weights. Let m be the mass of the weights.

T = mg
2.44 = m × 10

(1M) (1A)

(Weight) (Force on boat by air) velocity

(1A) (1A) (1A) (1A)

m = 0.244 kg

The mass of the weights is 0.244 kg.

(ii) The boat moves with a constant
towards the direction it is pushed.

(b) (i)

By the data in Figure v, the tension of the string is 1.93 N (t = 1.1 s to 1.5 s). (1A)

(ii) The acceleration of the trolley is
equal to the slope of the graph in Figure w. The acceleration is 1.24 m s−2.(1A)

(b) (i)

As fans B and C blow air backwards, an action force acts on the air by the fans. Thus, an equal and opposite reaction force acts on the fans by the air. (1A) (1A) Therefore, the boat moves forwards. (1A)

(c)

According to Newton’s second law (F = ma), the trolley T = ma. (1A) the tension pulling the force sensor and

T = (0.333 + 0.718) × 1.24 = 1.30 N(1A)
This theoretical result is not close to the result in (b)(i). The results are not in accordance with Newton’s second law. (1A)

(ii) By F = ma,
0.2 + 0.2 = 1a

a = 0.4 m s–2 v = u + at
= 0 + (0.4)(5) = 2 m s Its speed is 2 m s .
–1 –1

(1M) (1M) (1A)

©

(iii) Any one of the following:
Switch off fan C. Control fan B to blow air

(1A)

(ii) The reading on the balance is not
zero. and hits the balance. the balance. (1A) (1A) (1A) The fan blows the air downwards The air therefore exerts a force on

backwards and control fan C to blow air forwards.

(c)

(i)

The boat still moves forwards (1A) with a constant velocity. (1A) (1A)

31

(a) Take the moving direction of the trucks
as positive. By F = ma, (1M) F −6000 a= = = −0.706 m s–2 m 5.5 × 103 + 3000 By v2 – u2 = 2as, 0 – u = 2(–0.706)(30)
2

(ii) Any one of the following:

Switch off fan A, then the boat will land on the ground and will be stopped by the friction. Control both fans B and C to blow air forwards.

(1M) (1A)

30

(a)

u = 6.51 m s–1
The speed of the trucks after the collision is 6.51 m s–1. v−u (b) a = t 6.51 − 0 = = 130.2 m s–2 0.05 = 716 000 N Force acting on truck P by truck Q

(1M)

Net force = ma = (5.5 × 103)(130.2) (1M)

(Weight) (Force on toy by air)

(1A) (1A)

= net force − friction = 716 000 − (−3000) = 719 000 N (1A)

(b) The powerful fan of the toy blows air
downwards. Therefore, an action force acts on the air by fan. (1A) Then, an equal and opposite reaction force acts on the fan of the toy by the air. (1A) Such upward reaction force is larger than the weight of the toy. Therefore, the toy can go up in mid-air. (1A)

(c)

Force acting on truck Q by truck P = force acting on truck P by truck Q (but in opposite direction) = –719 000 N (1A)

(d) Net force acting on truck Q
= force acting on truck Q by truck P + friction = –719 000 + (−3000) = –722 000 N By F = ma, –722 000 = 3000a (1M) (1M)

(c)

(i)

Minimum upward force = weight of the toy 50 = × 10 1000 = 0.5 N (1A)

a = –240.7 m s–2
©

05 = 18. Therefore.5 m s–1 is 18.7) × 0. the net force acting on it is zero. (b) (i) (1A) (Weight) (Normal reaction) (1A) (1A) u = v − at = 6. the box would topple about X. gravity of the object. we know that the force acting on the plank by the square object and the normal force acting on the square object by the plank are an action-and-reaction pair. so they are equal in magnitude. the clockwise (iv) (1) F should be the force acting on the plank by the square object.By v = u + at. (1A) Therefore. the normal reaction acting on the square object is equal to the weight of the square object in magnitude. which balances the anticlockwise moment provided by the normal reaction and keeps the box in equilibrium. (1A) and provides a clockwise moment about 33 (a) He needs to make sure that x is the horizontal distance between O and the centre of gravity of the object.51 − (−240. (1A) © (b) In this case. (1A) (1A) because the weight acts at the centre of . (1A) (1A) (1A) (1A) (1A) On the other hand. the weight of the box acts at B. X. (1A) From (iii). The anticlockwise moment is larger than the clockwise moment. moment is zero. (1A) (ii) The weight and the normal reaction provide an anticlockwise moment about X.5 m s–1. (1A) Since the square object is in equilibrium. by Newton’s first law. The speed of truck Q before the collision 32 (a) (i) (ii) (Force by the square object and the masses) (Weight acting at A) (Friction) (Normal reaction) (1A) (1A) (1A) plank) (1A) (1A) (Normal force and weight of the (iii) The force acting on the plank by the square object and the normal force acting on the square object by the plank.

(lA) " " '" 3.80 3.Y -:. and the acceleration decreases. so the car reaches a constant specd. (ii) (I A) (H) (I) A (lA) When the air resistance is equal to the forward thrust in magnitude.x) . In equilibrium.1 fon:e and Motio Therefore. (ii) When the parachute is opened.-d. (I A) ( b) (i) 1. (IM) New Senior Secondary Physics at Work 70 Cl Oxford University Press 2009 . (c) (i) (Pi\ot hct\\ccn the cube of weight and the centre of the beam) (2) ( lA) ( lA) (lA) The . ( I M) 0. F is dilTcrcnt and so the torque ( = F x d). Take moment about the joint. the ai r resistance becol11es grC31cr than the thrust in magnitude."clocity ofthc ear decreases al a decreasing mtc. so the net force (= forward thms! air resistance) decreases.0 (i) =-0.75 m s-~ (I IKCEE 2006 Paper I Q-i) (a) Cvlomem) F from pivot >< [)Cmcndicular di stance (IA+IA) ( lA) (b) Air resistance increases with SI)C{. which is 10 N. so the nonnat reaction acting on the square object is nOI equal to the weight of the square object (JO ~) in mOlgnitude. The car eventually travels at a constant \elocity. (lA) (lA) A (2) ( lA) =\O\lm (v) The result on the torque is not the same. F is equal to the "eight of the square object in magnitude. (I A) i~ r ' 60 N 8 (Correct arrow) 36 (a ) (lA) (IM) Thereibre. to m c B (lA) fzs 60N the net force and hence the acceleration is lero. the velocity decreases.6 m (I A) (iii) ( I ) The centre of gravity is the point on which the (entire) weight of the body seems to = Fxd = 10 )( I act. (I A) Lcl x be thc distance between the new position of tile pivot and the original position. clockwise momem i~ equal to the (lA) antic lock" i5e moment. As a rcsuil .) force and Motlo 40><x "" 60><(I .501 (lA) Assumption: unifonnlregular beam.(IA) (2) Torque ha . The square object is accelerating.

) (Hi) R = 600 +80 -.\) jl h 1I is easier for a person 10 land falling speed. 20 N (l A) (l A) (Correcl dislance of all dOlI nIl ard (l A) ( ii) Tal-. (Ill) Q w BO N (Do\\ O\\ ard for":':..:e) rorce ~ ) .mcc actin!! on the man is ~ shon and the Iclocity orthc man cannot be r<.:::J=b=======::j'I pC] .ar..fe.: The man takes 0.>duced to a small value.6 ~.Force and Mot ha t@f' 3 force and Motio Air resistance dc:. Th. "ith speed. a 10\\ er (I \ ) New Senior Secondary Physics at Work 71 . 1 O. case. (I M) the <:J! (l A ) (l A ) 4 O+. 11 \I) (L\ ) 11 "'600' the force s from the plI01. I.. 2 I . and is fin all~ equal ILl the thru~ t in magnilUde.h.. .the time for air rc"i"t.:!n .1 =l'iO . ( i) ( ii) 1\·\X\""l\X . (ii) (l A ) R = w -I\ . \I ( I . In equil ibrium.5m (Hi) From (i) and (iil.Sm jumps lmd the bag is fully inflated is 0.:!O"" -OO ' (COITCCI perpendicular distances of (1 ~1) (l A) Physics in articles (p.0.. the person \\ ill down (F ~ ~Io\\ II/a).. 183) (a) When the air bag inflates.. the ground.\) (0) (I) 0.. the man is mainly proK'Cted by the thick special cu"hion or the air bag when he reache:.894 s 10 HIli from Ihe first floor to the ground \\ ithout the air bag.1 (Upward for. Oxford University Press 2009 . II' X 0.5 5+ 0. 11.!. ( l A) When the air resistance is grealer than the weight orthc person. e mome-m aboUllhe Pl\Ot.8945 (lA) 37 (" ) (b) No net force . the air re-~lstance acting on the air bag and the peThOn mcreases.. (lA) In (hi:.6 s The lime inle"31 bcl\\een the man (I A) ! H:..1 s = 0. 0 H· 3m R 15 m 'I 0.(IO) r 2 tralclsatconqam\dc>\"lf!o_ 1.":..:rc:: ~e (b) (I) Bp III +.

1 1 m p v p 2 = mt vt 2 2 2 vp mt 1 = = vt mp 2 The acceleration of the box is 10 m s .5 F = 20 N The size of the force is 20 N.5) v = 5. (b) Work = fs = –4 × 3 = –12 J The work done by f on the block is –12 J. The work done on the skier by the tension is used to overcome the gravity and the friction/air resistance acting on the skier.48 m s when it reaches 1. The velocity of the box is 5. (b) The chemical energy of John converts to the kinetic energy of the sledge. v – 0 = 2(10)(1. 196) 6 7 The work done is 0.4 1 2 3 4 5 Work.8 = 80 J The work done by the man is 80 J. 8 (a) Work = Fs 30 = F × 1. the man feels tired. (c) The chemical energy of the source of the force converts to the kinetic energy of the block.1 (p. The chemical energy of the man converts to the gravitational potential energy of the box. the energy gained by the skier is zero. (b) No. D B B C (a) Work = Fs = 375 × 10 × 1 = 3750 J Practice 4. he has not done work in this process.5 m above the ground. (b) F = ma 20 − 1 × 10 = 1(a) a = 10 m s (c) By v – u = 2as.48 m s –1 –1 2 2 2 –2 –2 Practice 4. Yes. Work = Fs 500 = 10 × 10 × s s=5m The depth of the well is 5 m. and mp and vp be the mass and the speed of the policeman respectively. (b) Since the skier moves at uniform speed. 10 (a) Work = Fs = 10 × 3 = 30 J The work done by F on the block is 30 J. © . The work done on the water skier by the tension is 3750 J. 202) 1 A Let mt and vt be the mass and the speed of the thief respectively. 11 (a) Work = Fs = 10 × 10 × 0.2 (p. Energy and Power 9 (a) Component of force in the direction of motion = 25 cos 50° N Work = (F cos θ)s = 25 cos 50° × 10 = 161 J The work done by John is 161 J.

212) 1 2 3 4 C C B B Work done against friction = loss in KE 1 Fs = m v 2 − u 2 2 9 (a) (i) Work done = Fs = 176 × 10 × 1.5) = –2625 J 4 (b) The gain in KE of each worker = 0 (c) Loss in the gravitational potential energy of each worker = gain in the kinetic energy of each worker + work done against tension Since the platform is lowered in a uniform speed.17 × 10–18 = × 9. Then.2 A 1 By KE = mv 2 . This is because a short weightlifter needs to move the barbell for a shorter displacement in the direction of the force applied.94 2 = 141 J 2 2 Practice 4.2 × × 2 1000 3.18 × 106 m s–1. 3 B Her gain in gravitational PE = mgh = 50 × 10 × 30 = 15 000 J 1 KE of the ball = mv 2 2 = 1 57 246.2 ) 30 2 − 5 2 = 87.18 × 106 m s–1 Its speed is 2.94 m s–1 12 × 60 KE of the passenger 1 1 = mv 2 = × 75 × 1. less work done is required. 6 Gain in KE 1 1 = m v2 − u2 = (0. Therefore. 2 1 2.6 2 − 36 3. = 133 J 5 By KE = 1 mv 2 . the loss in gravitational potential energy of each worker is equal to the work done against tension.6 2 10 (a) Change in the gravitational potential energy of each worker = loss in the gravitational potential energy of each worker = mgh = 75 × 10 × (–3.1 × 10 −31 × v 2 2 (c) A short weightlifter has an advantage in this sport.3 (p. v = 2.6 2 The distance travelled by the car when it slows down is 25 m.8 = 3168 J ( ) (ii) Minimum force that each of his arms acted on the barbell 176 × 10 = = 880 N 2 1 9000s = × 1500 × 2 s = 25 m 72 3. there is no gain in KE of each worker. (b) Work done = Fs = 176 × 10 × 2 = 3520 J © .5 J 2 2 ( ) ( ) 7 8 Her gain in gravitational PE = mgh = 50 × 10 × 72 = 36 000 J Speed of the passenger 1400 = = 1.9 521 = × × v2 2 1000 v = 264 m s–1 The speed of the bullet fired is 264 m s–1. 2 1 14.

1 = 0. 1 1 (a) KE = mv2 = × 0. The speed is 1. 1 By KE = mv2.5 = 0. the potential energy gain is 0. 6 (a) PE = mgh = 80 × 10 × 6.01 × 10 × 0. (c) (b) By conservation of energy.01 × v2 2 v = 1.01 = × 0.01 J. the potential energy of the ball is converted to its kinetic energy when it falls.14 = 4912 J The gain in his gravitational potential energy at the highest point is 4912 J. its KE on hitting the ground is 20 J. Therefore. Therefore.4 × v2 2 2 × 20 v= = 10 m s–1 0. PE = mgh = 0. PE = mgh 0. (b) By the law of conservation of energy. © .5 J when it is at the highest point. 7 (a) PE = mgh = 0. (b) The electrical energy is converted to the gravitational potential energy of the passengers and the lift.41 m s−1 as it passes its lowest position. Therefore. the potential energy of the bob in (a) is converted to its kinetic energy at its lowest position.01 J as it passes its lowest position. Its kinetic energy is 0. 2 1 0. (d) By the law of conservation of energy.5 J when it is thrown from the ground.01 J Its potential energy gain after being raised is 0.5 J 2 2 The kinetic energy of the stone is 0. kinetic energy when he left the ground = gain in his gravitational potential energy at the highest point = 4912 J The maximum height the stone reaches is 5 m. all potential energy of the stone at its highest point is converted back to kinetic energy when it falls. (c) Take the potential energy of the bob at ground level be 0. all kinetic energy of the stone is converted to its potential energy when it reaches the highest point.5 J on hitting the ground again.01 × 10 × h h=5m (b) By conservation of energy.4 × 10 × 5 = 20 J The potential energy before it falls is 20 J.5 (a) The chemical energy of the weightlifter is converted to the gravitational potential energy of the barbell. its kinetic energy is 0.41 m s−1 8 10 m s−1. (b) By the law of conservation of energy. 1 KE = mv2 2 1 20 = × 0.4 Its velocity on hitting the ground is 9 (a) Take the potential energy of the bob at the lowest level be 0.01 × 102 = 0.

6 (b) By the law of conservation of energy. P = Fv 10 × 103 = F × 30 3.(c) New total energy 1 = mv12 + original PE 2 1 = × 0.015 J The potential energy of the bob at the other end = mgh = 0.3 m s−1 (c) At B.015 h = 0.4 (p. By P = Fv. t E 45 × 10 × 2000 t= = = 45 000 s = 12. The height of the bob above its lowest point at the other end is 0.5 hr P 20 The climbing time of Jack is 12.0462 m s−1 His maximum speed is 0. loss in gravitational PE = gain in KE + work done against friction work done against friction = 5000 × 10 × (85 – 53) − 106 = 6 × 105 J 8 Let n be the maximum number of people that the lift can raise at 2 m s−1. P = mgv 30 = 65 × 10 × v v = 0.01 × 12 + 0.15 m. 10 (a) Gravitational PE of the carts and the passengers at A = mgh = 5000 × 10 × 85 = 4. 6 Let v be Alex’s maximum speed. 9 Work done by the engines = gain in kinetic energy of the cars For car A: Work done by car A’s engine = 100 1 1 mv2 = × m × 2 2 3. loss in gravitational PE = gain in KE 1 mg(hA – hB) = mv2 2 v = 2 × 10 × (85 − 53) Force against friction = 1200 N Since the block moves at a constant velocity.0462 m s−1.01 × 10 × h = 0. the net force acting on the block is zero and the friction = F = 1200 N.6 2 Practice 4. = 25.3m W time 6 © .25 × 106 J 7 Let F be the force against friction. the actual kinetic energy of the carts and the passengers 1 1 = mv2 = × 5000 × 202 = 106 J 2 2 By the law of conservation of energy. 219) 1 2 D B P= E 60 000 = = 500 W t 2 × 60 = 386m J 3 D Power of car A’s engine work done 386m = = = 64.01 2 = 0.5 hours.15 m 4 5 Usual output power E mgh (60 × 10)× 10 × (3 × 20) = = = = 18 kW t t 20 E By P = . mgh P= t 15 × 103 = (120 + 70n) × 10 × 2 n=9 The maximum number of people who can be raised at 2 m s−1 is 9.015 J 0.

total energy of the bob is equal to its potential energy at the highest point. 1 mv2 = mgh 2 v = 2 gh which is independent of the mass of the bob. the potential energy of the bob is converted to kinetic energy at its lowest position. It is true by the law of conservation of energy. 7 (c) Not all potential energy of the water is converted into electrical energy because energy is lost in heating up the wire. (b) Since all the potential energy is assumed to be converted into electrical energy. the bob will move up to a point at the same level as A. mgh = mv2 2 © .1 × 52 = 1.e.6 2 v = 2 gh Therefore.e. 1 mv2 = mgh 2 v = 2 gh C: D: It is not true when the ball bearing rolls down from B to A. the height of the block should be 4h. the kinetic energy at A is converted to potential energy at B.25 J 2 2 B: By the law of conservation of energy.e. whether there is a pin at C or not. 222) 1 B PE gained by the load 5 = mgh = 50 × 10 × = 2. if the block moves at 2v at B. etc. i.5m W = time 4 Therefore. driving the turbine. the power output of the generator is 2 × 10 W. the potential energy at A is converted to kinetic 1 energy at B. car B’s engine can output more power. (3) By conservation of energy. = 386m J 4 C A: Work done by Stephen = kinetic energy of the ball bearing at A 1 1 = mv2 = × 0. moving the movable parts of the generator. water of 4000 kg loses potential energy of 2 × 107 J.e. i.1 = M J (2) By the law of conservation of energy. total energy = mgh = M × 10 × 0.5 J 1000 2 D Work done by the force 30 = Fs = 20 × 2π × = 37.7 J 100 3 C By the law of conservation of energy. 5 A (1) By the law of conservation of energy. Revision exercise 4 Multiple-choice (p. i. Power of car B’s engine work done 386m = = 96. 10 (a) Loss in PE of water per second = mgh = 4000 × 10 × 500 = 2 × 107 J In each second.For car B: Work done by car B’s engine 100 1 1 = mv2 = × m × 2 2 3. i.

1 × 10 × h = × 0. energy = mgh = 50 × 10 × 1860 = 9.6 −61.1 × 42 2 mgh = h = 0.8 m (2) By the law of conservation of energy. © . the gravitational potential energy of the ball at A is equal to the kinetic energy of the ball at B. the ball at B and Work done by the braking force = change in KE of the car 1 Fd2 = 0 – mv2 2 Fd2 = 0 – d2 = 80 1 m 2 3. hence the same velocity.7 m d1 = F 2 2 distance (a) Speed of Dora = time 50 = 40 = 1.252 2 (1M) = 46.6 2 −247m F −61.9 J. it has the same gravitational potential energy which is zero because B and D are at the same level. 9 10 11 12 13 D (HKCEE 2006 Paper II Q5) (HKCEE 2007 Paper II Q4) (HKCEE 2007 Paper II Q31) (HKCEE 2007 Paper II Q32) Conventional (p. 1 mv2 2 1 0.9 J (1A) The kinetic energy of Dora is 46.25 m s–1 KE = 1 2 mv 2 1 = × 60 × 1.3 × 105 J (1A) (1M) (1A) (1A) (1A) Then his kinetic energy converts to his D has the same kinetic energy. Therefore. gravitational potential energy.5 + × vC2 2 2 vC = 6 m s−1 (3) When the ball arrives at B and D.7 m −247m d1 : d2 = : =1:4 F F The ratio of the braking distance of d1 to d2 is 1 : 4. kinetic energy of the ball at B = gravitational potential energy of the ball at C + kinetic energy of the ball at C 1 1 mvB2 = mghC + mvC2 2 2 1 1 × 42 = 10 × 0. 224) 1 (a) His chemical energy converts to kinetic energy. (b) His change in gravitational potential 7 8 A A Work done by the braking force = change in KE of the car 1 Fd1 = 0 – mv2 2 Fd1 = 0 – 40 1 m 2 3.6 A (1) By the law of conservation of energy.

9 × 1. Dora should exert a force of the same size as the decelerating force but in opposite direction.(1A) Fs = –46.2 °C.6 W (1A) (1M) (Correct labelled axes) (Correct graph) (Correct values) (1A) (1A) (1A) (1M) (1A) 5 (a) Work done on the load by the lift = Fs = 16 000 × 508 = 8.781 m s–2 2s 2 ×1 (1M) The average deceleration is 0. ! © . the decelerating force is 46. the tension acting on the man is equal to the weight of the man. F = ma = 60 × 0. Let F be the decelerating force and s be the distance of travel.25 2 = = −0. so that net force acting on her is zero. the tension acting on the man is 700 N. 2 2 (c) a= v 2 − u 2 0 − 1.781 = 46.2 (1A) = 269 kW The power of the light in (a) is 269 kW.2 s 1010 60 3 Let T be the temperature of water at the bottom of the waterfall and m be the mass of water reaching the bottom.9 F = –46. By the law of conservation of energy.128 × 10 6 30.781 m s–2.9 N.25 = 58. T = 12.9 N The average decelerating force is 46.128 × 106 J the ground to the top floor 508 = = 30.2 °C waterfall is 12. Hence. loss in gravitational potential energy = gain in internal energy mgh = mc∆T 10 × 100 = 4200 × (T – 12) (1M) (2M) (b) Time required to transport the load from P= E t (1M) = 8.9 N (1M) (1A) (b) Work done by the tension = Fs = 700 × 15 = 10 500 J (1A) (1M) Therefore.9 N. (1A) (c) In order to swim at uniform speed.9 F × 1 = –46. The loss of her kinetic energy is due to the work done against the decelerating force.(b) Dora loses all her kinetic energy over the last 1 m from side B. (1A) The temperature of water at the bottom of the 4 (a) As the man moves at a constant speed. Power of Dora = Fv = 46. Alternative method: By v = u + 2as.

(1M) (1A) (1M) (1A) (c) Power of the car engine = fv = 500 × The minimum initial speed of the metal 72 3. 1 (a) KE = mv2 2 1 72 = × 1500 × 2 3.49 m s−1 cylinder is 9.6 (1A) (1M) (c) Any two of the following and other reasonable methods: Put the bell higher. Increase the friction between the cylinder and the support. (1A) The ball should be released at a height of (1M) (1A) 7 (a) (i) Initial KE of the metal cylinder 1 = mv2 (1M) 2 1 = × 1 × 42 2 =8J (1A) (b) Let H be the height that the ball should " © .6 = 3 × 105 J The kinetic energy of the car is 3 × 105 J.6 Work done against friction = Fs = 500 × 1200 = 6 × 105 J (1M) + work done against friction 1 × 1 × v2 = 1 × 10 × 3 + 5 × 3 2 v = 9.533 m.49 m s−1.6 2 2 = 2 × (−4) × s s = 50 m (1A) 8 (a) The ball should be released at a position 1 m above the ground. (1A) When calculating the actual power of the lift.1H = 1.533 m the cylinder is 0. mgH = mgh + 10% × mgH H = 1 + 0. Loss in KE of the cylinder = gain PE of the cylinder (b) Distance travelled in 60 s 72 = vt = × 60 = 1200 m 3. 2 (1A) (1M) (1A) (b) Let v be the minimum initial speed of the metal cylinder to win the game.11 m 1. besides the maximum capacity of the lift.(c) The actual power of the lift is larger than that in (b). loss in KE of the cylinder = gain in PE of the cylinder + work done against friction Loss in KE = mgh + fs 8 = 1 × 10 × h + 5h h = 0. be released. 72 0 − 3.11 m above the ground. Use a heavier metal cylinder. (1A) The maximum height reached by (1M) 6 taken into account as well. (2 × 1A) = 10 kW (d) Acceleration when braking F −6000 = = = −4 m s−2 m 1500 By v2 − u2 = 2as. the weight of the lift needs to be (ii) By the law of conservation of energy. Move the pivot of the plank closer to A. By conservation of energy.

tension.5 × 50 = 50 000 J Chris is the winner. (1A) (1A) Work done by Chris = 400 × 2. the kinetic energy of ball at A will not be zero. the ball will not stop at A and she will not win.16 s to pull the block to . friction. (1A) (b) For maximum speed v. 11 (a) It continues to accelerate because the output power is greater than the power against the frictional force (= fv). kinetic energy of the ball as zero. (1A) the car moves with constant velocity. (1A) (1A) (ii) Power of Alan 6000 = = 600 W 10 Power of Billy 20 000 = = 1000 W 20 Power of Chris 50 000 = = 833 W 60 The real winner is Billy. Therefore. (1A) (1A) (1A) (b) (i) Power (c) She will not win. © (1A) (b) By F = ma.The energy loss of the ball due to the work done against friction is converted into the internal energy of the rail and the ball. −1 (Labelled 4 forces: weight. output power = power against friction (1M) 80 × 1000 = 1600 × v v = 50 m s−1 The maximum speed of the car is 50 m s . 80 – 10 – 10 × 10 × sin 30° = 10a 10 (a) Work done by Alan = 30 × 10 × 2 × 10 = 6000 J Work done by Billy = 80 × 10 × 25 = 20 000 J (1A) (1A) (1M) (1A) The man takes 3. it accelerates. normal reaction) (4 × 1A) (1M) a = 2 m s–2 (1M) 1 By s = ut + at 2 . The calculation in (b) takes the initial If she pushes the ball at the beginning. 2 1 10 = 0 + (2)t 2 2 t = 3. (1A) (1A) 9 (a) After the car starts its engine.16 s the top. (1A) Once the velocity increases to a value such that the power against the frictional force is equal to the output power.

Fanny’s kinetic energy was 1 KE = mv 2 2 1 68 = × 18 × v 2 2 v = 2.322 – 0) 2 = 200 J 13 (1A) (HKCEE 2004 Paper I Q7) (HKCEE 2005 Paper I Q2) In this question. v2 – 0 = 2(2)(10) v = 6.32 m s–1 Gain in KE 1 = m(v12 – v02) 2 1 = × 10 × (6. Fanny’s mechanical energy is not conserved because she has to do work against the air resistance acting on her. (b) Gain in KE = loss in PE − work done = 88 − 20 = 68 (1A) At point A. KE = Fs 5260 = F × 8 F = 658 N force acting on her was 658 N.8 m s−2. output power = power against friction (1M) 253 = 10 × v v = 25. (1A) © (1A) .16 (1M) (d) The work done against the force acting on Fanny (between A and her lowest position) is equal to her kinetic energy at A.2) × 9.8 × 0.8 + 1.52 2 = 5260 J 5260 J. g is taken to be 9.5 (1M) = 88 J (1A) (1M) (1A) (1M) (ii) 88 + 20 = 108 J (iii) Work done = Fs 108 = F × 0.4 F = 270 N 12 (a) Loss in PE = mgh = 50 × 10 × 12 = 6000 J 1 (b) KE = mv2 2 1 = × 50 × 14. Let F be the minimum average force acting on her after passing A.75 m s−1 (c) Fanny’s mechanical energy is not conserved. (1A) (1A) (c) This is because her potential energy loss at A is greater than her gain in kinetic energy.3 m s −1 (a) (i) ∆E = mg∆h (1M) (1A) (1A) (1M) (1A) (1M) (1M) (1M) = (16. 14 15 (e) Let v be the required speed. (1A) The minimum average decelerating (1M) = 253 W (1A) (1M) (1M) (1M) (d) By v2 – u2 = 2as.(c) Power of the man = Fs t 80 × 10 = 3.

Maximum potential energy gained by a manhole cover in the explosion = mgh = 20 × 10 × 10 = 2000 J (1A) 2 (1M) (b) By v – u = 2as. shown (Height of peaks decreases and peaks 16 17 (HKCEE 2006 Paper I Q3) (a) PE required = mgh = 75 × 10 × 1. 1 mv 2 = 1224 2 1 × 75 × v 2 = 1224 2 v = 5. 4 peaks.6 = 1200 J KE required 1 1 = mv 2 = × 75 × 0. i.1 m s–1 back to ground was 14.71 m s .80 2 = 24 J 2 2 Total energy required = 1200 + 24 = 1224 J (1A) (1M) (1M) (1M) (b) Let v be the minimum speed. which is 10 m as stated in the passage.) approximately equally spaced.71 m s−1 The minimum speed is 5.(Graph starts at origin and forms a full rounded peak. 2 2 (1M) (1A) The speed of a manhole cover when it fell (c) The air resistance is assumed to be negligible.e. −1 (1A) Physics in articles (p.) but not arches. 228) (a) A manhole gained the maximum potential energy when it reached its maximum height.1 m s–1. v – 0 = 2(10)(10) v = 14. (1A) © .) (1A) (1A) (1A) (Exactly two cycles.

42 400 × v f = 3.5 × (−8) = 7 kg m s–1 Momentum of runner A = mA vA = p 1 2 KE of runner A = m A v A = E 2 Momentum of runner B = 2mA vA = 2p 1 KE of runner B = (2m A )v A 2 = 2E 2 The momentum and kinetic energy of runner B are 2p and 2E respectively.5 × 6 – 0.42 1000 (c) Gain in momentum = mv − mu = 20 − 10 = 10 kg m s–1 vf = 8.55 m s –1 The velocity of the football is 8. (b) The cushion in an envelope can reduce the force of impact acting on the fragile items by lengthening the time of impact. 9 (a) Take the travelling direction of the car as positive. KE of the boy 1 1 = mv 2 = × 60 × 42 = 480 J 2 2 KE of the girl 1 1 = mv 2 = × 40 × 62 = 720 J 2 2 The girl has larger kinetic energy. © 6 Let the mass of runner A be mA and the velocity of runner A be vA.55 m s–1.1 (p. 238) 2 C Momentum of the tennis ball 57 = mtvt = × 60 = 3.5 1 Momentum D Take the upward direction as positive. . mv − mu F= t 80 × 0 − 80 × 20 = 1 = −1600 N The force acting on the driver is 1600 N opposite to the travelling direction of the car. the peanut does not break.42 kg m s–1 7 (a) Momentum of the object before the force acts = mu = 2 × 5 = 10 kg m s–1 (b) Momentum of the object after the force has acted = mv = 2 × 10 = 20 kg m s–1 mfvf = 3. Therefore. (d) Force acting on the object change in momentum 10 = = =2N 5 time of impact 8 (a) The cushion in the glass column can reduce the force of impact acting on the peanut by lengthening the time of impact.42 kg m s–1 1000 Momentum of the football = momentum of the tennis ball = 3. Practice 5. 3 4 5 B B Magnitude of momentum of the boy = mv = 60 × 4 = 240 kg m s–1 Magnitude of momentum of the girl = mv = 40 × 6 = 240 kg m s–1 The magnitudes of momenta of the boy and the girl are the same. Change in momentum of the ball = mv − mu = 0.

Therefore. 11 (a) Take the initial travelling direction of water as positive. 12 For football P: Take the initial travelling direction as positive. Net force = mv − mu t m × (− 15) − m × 20 = 0.1 m s–1 When the dry cell hits the ground. The area is also equal to the change of momentum of the trolley. by the wall.3 s (accept 0.5 = −70m N Force from the wall = net force on P Football P experiences a force of −70m N from the wall. the force exerted by the water on the wall is equal to the force exerted by the wall on water. Net force = mv − mu t m × (−15) − m × 20 = 0.5 N (b) F = = t 4 × 10 −3 The net force acting on the cell is 70. and u and v are the velocities of trolley before and after impact respectively.4 s) Area under curve = Ft = 0. in the initial travelling direction of the water. football Q experiences a larger force.57 N 0.57 N) The force acting on the force sensor is 1.36 m s−1 and −0.3−0.5 N.47 F= = 1. = −70m N Force from the ground + weight = net force Force from the ground = −70m − 10m = −80m N Football Q experiences a force of −80m N. mv − mu 0. the force exerted by the water on the wall is 375 N. 13 (a) The shaded area represents the impulse of the force acting on the trolley and impulse = Ft. the velocities of the trolley before and after impact are 0. © . where F is the force on trolley and t is the time of impact.e.(b) Since the force acting on the driver is huge (1600 N).02 × 14. impulse = Ft = mv – mu where m is the mass of the trolley. (c) From the v–t graph.35 m s−1 respectively. Therefore. For football Q: Take the initial travelling direction as positive. Note that the direction of the initial velocity of the trolley is positive.175−1. i.47 N s 0. its speed is 14.57 N. v = 2 gs = 2 × 10 × 10 = 14.1 − 0 = 70.3 (accept 1. (b) Time of impact = 0. the driver will be seriously hurt or even dead if he/she does not wear a seat-belt.1 m s–1. mv − mu 0 − 15 × 25 = = −375 N F= t 1 The water experiences a force of 375 N.5 10 (a) By v2 = u2 + 2as. in a direction opposite to its initial travelling direction. (b) By Newton’s third law.

8 (a) Take backwards as positive. −0.8) × 8.36 The mass of the trolley is 0. total momentum before collision = total momentum after collision mwhiteuwhite + mblueublue = mwhitevwhite + mbluevblue 0.47 Ft m= = = 0.006 + 0. Some of the kinetic energy of the bullet is converted into internal energy of the apple. The velocity of the shell is 128 m s .8 × 5 = (0.3 × vball vball = –10 m s–1 The velocity of the volleyball after impact is –10 m s−1.662 kg.By Ft = m × (v − u). By conservation of momentum.7 m s−1. 6 (a) It does not contradict the law of conservation of momentum. providing external net forces on the system. 7 Let v be the common velocity of the bullet and trolley. (b) This is because the mass of the earth is huge and the motion of the earth is not noticeable. Therefore. The kinetic energy of the puck does not change.35 − 0. (b) This is an inelastic collision. (c) 5 This is an elastic collision. total momentum before firing the shell = total momentum after firing the shell 0 = mshellvshell + mcannonvcannon 0 = 5 × vshell + 8000 × (–0.08) vshell = 128 m s –1 −1 9 (a) By conservation of momentum.135 × 0.006 × ubullet + 0. There is force acting on the ball by the ground during the impact and also there is weight acting on the ball.25 The average force acting on Kathy is 12 N.5 ubullet = 475 m s–1 The velocity of the bullet before the impact is 475 m s−1. total momentum before hitting the ball = total momentum after hitting the ball 0 = mKathyvKathy + mballvball 0 = 3 + 0. Take the moving direction of the shell as positive. © . the total momentum of the system is not conserved. 257) 1 2 3 4 B C A (a) This is an inelastic collision. The kinetic energy of the car is converted to sound energy and internal energy of the wall and the car.7 m s–1 The speed of the white ball when it hits the blue ball is 0. total momentum before impact = total momentum after impact mbulletubullet + mtrolleyutrolley = (mbullet+ mtrolley) × v 0.2 + 0.662 kg v − u − 0.135 × uwhite + 0 = 0. We consider the system which includes the ball only. By conservation of momentum.135 × 0. Practice 5.5 uwhite = 0. 3 mv − mu (b) F = = = 12 N t 0.2 (p. By conservation of momentum.

8 = u+ v 2 2 (c) Since the total kinetic energy of the boat and water before ‘collision’ is not equal to that after ‘collision’.5 − 0.135 × u cos 30° + 0. (c) Total momentum before collision = m Au A + m Bu B = 0.176 kg m s–1 Momentum is conserved within limits of experimental error. 0. By conservation of momentum. uB = 0 After collision: Velocity of trolleys A and B = slope of the graph 1.6 = 0.45 + 0.9 = 6 − 2.45 × 12 = 0. (b) Total KE before dropping the water 1 1 = mu2 = × 0. the collision is inelastic.978 m s −1.39 m s−1) Velocity of trolley B.9782 2 = 0.135 × 0.135 × v cos 60° 3 1 1.5) × 0.0196 J Since there is loss of total kinetic energy.9 − 0. © . total momentum before dropping water = total momentum after dropping water mboatvboat = (mboat + mwater) × v 0.176 = 0.0331 J Total KE after the collision 1 1 = mwhite(vwhite)2 + mblue(vblue)2 2 2 1 1 = × 0.72 + 0 2 = 0.220 J 12 Let u and v be the speeds of the white ball and the red ball after the collision respectively. (b) Before collision: Velocity of trolley A.135 × 1.35 m s–1 (accept 0.8 = 0.(b) Total KE before the collision 1 1 = mwhite(uwhite)2 + mblue(ublue)2 2 2 1 = × 0.34−0.2 = 2.175 kg m s–1 Total momentum after collision = (mA + mB)v = (0.22 + × 0.6 − 0. v = 3. uA = slope of the graph 0.52 2 2 = 0.5 + 0.19 m s−1) 10 (a) Let v be the velocity of the boat after dropping water.176 m s–1 (accept 0.6 = 0.01) × 0. Along the direction in which the white ball travels before collision: By conservation of momentum.35 + 0 = 0.135 × 0.45 + 0.135 × 0. the ‘collision’ is inelastic. and the boat and water ‘stick’ together after the collision.16−0.978 m s−1 The velocity of the boat after dropping water in it is 0.225 J 2 2 Total KE after dropping the water 1 = mv2 2 1 = × (0.5 × 0.6 − 3u …………(1) Along the direction perpendicular to which the white ball travels before collision: 11 (a) It is a completely inelastic collision.45 × 1 = (0.01) × v v = 0.

6 130 112 − − 3.56 m s −1 The speeds of the white ball and the red ball after the collision are 1.024 × (−15) v = 47.6 3.9 m s −1 −1 6 C Along the direction in which fragment P travels: Take the direction in which fragment P travels be positive. (1A) The change in momentum of the ball is ÷ 0.6 (b) Average force on the ball impulse = time of impact = 1350 0.0015 = 46100 N 4 D A: F = B: F = C: F = 110 96 − − 3. 261) 1 2 C B By Ft = mv – mu.135 × u sin 30° − 0.135 × v sin 60° 1 3 0= u− v 2 2 u = 3v …………(2) 5 D All choices (A−D) follow the conservation of momentum. 262) 1 (a) Change in momentum = area under F–t graph 1 = × 0. Substitute (2) into (1): v = 3.9 m s into (2): u = 3v = 1.0018 = 33600 N ÷ 0.24 m s−1 The speed of fragment R is 4.56 m s and 0.6 3. 0 = 0.6 The average force experienced by the © . Conventional (p.0021 = 32000 N ÷ 0.6 − 3 × 3v v = 0.24 m s−1.5 m s –1 3 + vR cos 45° = 0 vR = −4.5 = 0. 1.0013 = 44000 N ÷ 0.6 120 98 − − 3.9 m s respectively.15 × 18 000 2 = 1350 N s 1350 N s. 7 8 9 10 A A (HKCEE 2007 Paper II Q29) (HKCEE 2005 Paper II Q45) The speed of the ball is 47.6 3. By conservation of momentum. vP + vR cos 45° = 0 Substitute v = 0. −1 −1 Revision exercise 5 Multiple-choice (p. the largest net force acting t on the object is represented by the steepest slope of the graph.6 3. (1M) 3 D mv − mu By F = .024 × v − 0. D violates the law of conservation of energy and the total KE of the balls after collision is greater than that before collision. (1A) 140 109 D: F = − − 3.5 m s–1 when it leaves the racket.By conservation of momentum.15 (1M) = 9000 N ball is 9000 N.

5 m s−1 after collision.5 m s –1 © . 5 (1A) (a) Magnitude of impulse = Ft = 80 × 0.5 N 2. total momentum before collision = total momentum after collision (1M) mAuA + mBuB = mAvA + mBvB (1A) The velocity of the jet fighter after firing another five missiles is 103 m s–1. Its direction was the same as the travelling direction of trolley A before collision. in the same direction as the final travelling direction of the bullet.2 (a) Take the initial direction of the bullet be positive. average force on Superman = −(average force acting on the bullets) = − total change in momentum of bullets (1M) total time =− 50 × 3 × 10 −3 (1M) × (−500 − 500) 60 (1A) = mfightervfighter + (mmissilevmissile) × 5 800 000 + 0 = 7900 × vfighter + 10 000 × 5 vfighter = 94. total momentum before firing = total momentum after firing mfighterufighter + mmissileumissile (1M) (1A) (1M) (1M) The force on each bullet is 300 N.9 m s–1 = 2.9 m s–1.9 + 0 = 7800 × vfighter − 10 000 × 5 vfighter = 103 m s–1 (b) Take the travelling direction of trolley A before collision as positive. 4 (1A) (a) Initial momentum of the jet fighter = mfighterufighter = 8000 × 100 = 800 000 kg m s–1 = mmissilevmissile = 20 × 500 = 10 000 kg m s–1 By conservation of momentum.10 =8Ns (1A) (1M) 1 × 4 + 2 × 0 = 1 × (−1) + 2 × vB vB = 2. mv − mu F= t 3 × 10 −3 × (−500 − 500) = 0. 3 (a) By v2 = u2 + 2as. The average force acting on Superman is (1A) The velocity of the jet fighter after firing (1M) five missiles is 94. v = u 2 + 2as (c) (1A) −1 By conservation of momentum. in the initial direction of the bullets. (b) Momentum of each missile when fired (b) By Newton’s third law of motion.01 = −300 N (1M) The velocity of trolley B was 2. = mfightervfighter + (mmissilevmissile) × 5 7900 × 94. total momentum before firing = total momentum after firing mfighterufighter + mmissileumissile = 0 + 2× 2× 4 =4ms –1 (1M) The velocity of trolley A was 4 m s before collision.5 N. By conservation of momentum.

1 . (2) (2) + (1)' 0.4° ". lotal momentum before collision = lotalmomenlutn after collision Along the direction perpendicular to the original moving direction of cart X: By conservmion of momentum.8)cos 0 '" 0 v = 13.07015 ' .1 / The speed of the puck after impact is 7. o ( I M) 75)( 1.2 cos 45 ° + 150)( vcos 0 (I A) l'COS 0 = 0. 6 0-=-"---0:10 .. Along the direction towards the north: Take the direction 10\\ ards thc nonh as o F Along the direction in \\ hich the puck travcls before impact: 1ll0111enlJlll before impact + impulse = momentum alter impact positive. (c) Let v be the velocity of the vehicles just after :he collision..25 x 15 + (.576 ...9111 IOwanls the north just after the S.6ms ·1 o In 36..ot= 21.. 2m5. New Senior Secondilry PhYSiCS at Work (lA) 89 (lA) Oxford University Press 2009 ...2 sin 45" .2 m 5-.l Along the direction perpendicular to which the puck travels before impact: velocity of the puck alter impact = velocity bctore impact colli~ion..424 tan O" " .6 sin 45" = (3000 (IM) + 2500) )( v 0..2500 x II.. (I A) 7 (a) Let I' be the \ elocity of can Yafter + impulse( I M) ( lA) col[ision....576 1 : 0. tolalmomcnlum aflercollision (lM) 3000 x 18 sin 45" + 2500 )( 21. COS 45° o lI..4" ( lA) The vclocilY oflhe car is 21. 75 )( 2 = 75 x 1..2 Force and Motlo ha ter 5 Momentu ( b) Assume the direction ofthc forc c applied is as shown in the figure below.. (1) Along Ihe direction lowards the cast: Take the direction towards the cast as positivc..150)( I' sin 0 \' sin 0= 0. By conservation of momentum..00 (c) ( lA) The velocity of the vehicles is 13.576 3000 )( 18 cos 45° . 0 + 8 sin 62. " -- (45 m .9m ~-' 0 = 62... B} conscr"\ ation of lllomentmn..6 10\\ ards s i rrorn ( 1): I' the nortlmcst jusl before cos 36.. C') 1" 1I + 1fI (IM) v " = 22 + (2»(2 == 18ms ' The velocity of the mi ni bus is 18 m towards lhe Ilortheasljust before collision. (b) Si "- Along the original moving direction of cart X: By conservation ofmomemurn.7[6111 5 ' I collision.0.07 n: s' 1. IOtal momentum before collision .0° = 7.424 . 0..

conservation of momentum is not valid.5 X I's 2] 1.08 =-3.) x (Ut +.24 111 Si I The veloc ity of trolley A is 3. 2 2 (b) By conservat ion of energy.. total KE of cam. 92.. ( I) 2 = (I A) = 150 J (lA ) By conservation of momentum.Sx(0.5 Xl' S I _ . 5 x 0.x 75 x 21 +. 0... (2) (I A) (I A) After the col lision. (lA) 0. clastic potential energy ofthc spring kinetic energy of trolleys..x 150 x 0.\' and }' I .. 111111)· =. the collision is incla~tic. ( lA) lotal momentum after coll ision (IM) +..u) I ( I i\) III 5 I 1I =-2ms ·1 The speed of 1\ ater is 2111 hits Victor. I ..08 ms 1'1 ""-3 x 1. 2= 0. Let A denote the bullet and /J denote the block. [0.. S-I (lA) before il 10 (:I) Take the travelling direction o r lhe bullet after collision as positive.OS (Iowards the right).4 J (lA) Since the carts lose kinet ic energy in the collision.24 m 5 (Iowards the left).5 x v~ = = -II/\I'r.. The velocity of trolley /J is I. cart )'moves at a velocity of 0.. + 0 = (0.5 .m lll\~ . . (I A) ~ change in momentum By/' = (IM) lime of impact 5 x 0. By conservalion of momentum.7 =. x 150 x 0 2 2 sound energy + K E of trolleys I .. New Senior Secondary Physics at Work 90 " Oxford University Press 2009 . However.1: force and Motio ha ter 5 Momentu After the coll ision.2 .0511 .716 m s I at an angle of 9 (a) When the plunger is released.I =. III 11'1 = 11/81'8 • . it is correct in the absence of external net force. (b) is convertcd into sound energy :md (I A) (I A) Bcfore the collision. lolal momentum before collision ::0: (I A) ( lA) This is because friction and nomlal reaction acts on thc fcet of Victor when he takes shower.7162 2 ~ Substitute 1'1 = ~31 '1I X into (I). (lA) 36.(11/ . + II/R) x I' 11/ ..x 7". . (c) From (2). total KE of carts X and Y I . The friction and nonna[ reaction balances the force acting on him by the water (zero net force)..1.+ 1118 " 8· ) .. ( I A) elaSlic potential energy oflhe spring .!.7 = .5 2 I"H ""' (~31'8 )~ + I [.I .!. = . (h) I don '! agrce with him..IJIsll8 = (11/ .Ill When external nct force acts on objects.+ -III}l'r- 2 2 .05 + I) x 5 11 1 = 105 I11S-' (lA) The speed oflhe hullet is 105 III 5 I just before the collision.40 to thc originAl moving direction of cart X.!..1'1.

they need a rope to lix the 13 (3) the average force acting on the person falling on the cushion is reduced so the cushion reduces the chance of injury. S i 2 == 0 + 2( IOX30 . (I AI Therefore. (I A) = 0.3 ..111// According to Newton's third law of motion. (c) is (I A ) Average forcc acting on the person impulse = ( lA) timc of impact Since the cushion can lengthen Ihe lime of impact. 11 (a) ( lA) The average force acting on the block by 2 = 38520J (IM) ( lA) A./J/l1 50x (23. when athletes mOlled forwards and stepped on the pier. After aecclerating for 3 s. (c) ( lA) The velocity of the person when he just arrives at the sur/acc of the cushion is 23.thc boat and Change in KE of the team I .5 x (1O . (lA) = 1165Ns The impulse acting on the 1165 N s.3 m S·I . + 2(/:.lge POI' er increase in KE (I M) By t'.-=52:::0 g 3 = 12840W first 3 seconds is 12840 W. in the travelling direction of the bullet. = -(600 + 70 x22)x6- time of impact Ix(5 . position of the boat before landing. (i) Nct force on the waler ejected 1111 ' .75) lime taken (I M ) 1'= 23.2 Force . (b) The average power of the team in the (IVI) Impulse = = 1111' .0) ( lA) per~on The tOlal momentum of the boat and the athletes \\as zero when the boat was parkcd at the pier By thc conscnatiOI1 of momentum. ( lA) Therefore. (I A) A reaction forcc which is in forwards direction then acts on the paddles by the water. the boat can movc forwards by paddling.3 m " ~3.= 111/ .0) = 5N By Newton's 3rd law. ( ") (I M ) whcn the men paddle. .0) = 25 N 0.nd Hatlo ha ter 5 Homentu 1 (b) Average force change in momentum (b) (lM) 1' = /I "' ul=0 + 2x3 = 6ms thc men travel at 6 m 5.2. 12 (" ) ( lA) Take the direl:tion lowards the right as positive. an action force \\ hich is in backwards di rCClion acts on the water by the paddles. therefore it saves peoplc. the boat would moved hackwards \\ ith mOlllentum of the same magnitude. New Senio. the net force (thrust) acting on thc rocket is 5 N (towards the left). 1..2 the bullet is 25 N.Secondary Physics at Work 91 Cl Oxford university Press 2009 . er.

(I A) so il can reduce the fo rce acting on the (1:-'-1) o~ II/. Change in momentum of block A 11/ This is because Ihe \("Iocit) oflhe ball just bc lore colliding \\ ilh Ihe platc depends on the height of release.8 x (.10) .1 ' Ill) · 0.21' 1+ 0.(ii) By conservation of momentum. (I AI orce "" change in momenlum lime of imp.. the momentum change of the ba1! in both arc the sa111e.--.5) " I'""-6ms l (" ) (h) The harder the plate. (b) (a ) The inilial vc1ocityof B is .4 N acts on block A during collision.2< (-6 -20) = -5. the shon("r the lime ofimpacl. V.5. h. (I A) (b) By conservation of momentum. ~ both cases.=-3..4 N A fo rce of -\ 0.5 m s r. (I.33ms · I'r 1 people when they fall on the cushion and reduce Ihe chance of injury. momentum be fore launching '" momentum after launch ing (0) Air cushions lengthen the time of im[h1ct for people falling from a height. Change in momentum '= FIwIl :F""r.) (lA) (lA) Since the change in momentum of the ball after colli~ion b the same for both plates. I. 0. 0 = (2 .5) x 1'.2 (lM) (ii) Force acting on an object F = change in momentum time of impJcl .""-'0. + 111" 1'. total mOlllentum before collision =1 0lal momenlum after collision (I M ) 1111111 Any onc of the following modifications: (I A) More water can be ejectcd...3. the rocket cannot ny up in air. \) and its final velocity is -3. the lime of impact is 0.( I A) (0) . + 11/8118 = 11/ rl' l ~ 1118 " 1/ 0.1 I I 1111' .(.1 0. Oxford University Press 2009 . 0.2 kg m S-1 (lA) in From Figure h.6 illS I. ( i) case~ ( lA) ( lA) The \ clocity of block A after collision is Yes.) ( . 16 (. \\ hich i!> the ~am e x ( 1.1cl .1111') (IM) (I A) "" 21111' "" 1 : I (lA) New Senior Secondary PhySiCS at Work 92 .10._0.5 . I F~ and time of impact Take the d irection oflhe final \ elocity of the trolley as positive. +5 (lA) 15 (lA) The rodet mme!> aI3.10 III 5- 1 (I A) Since the thrust is less than the weight of Ihe rocket.33 m s' towards the lefl.0. And the \ eIOCII) j U!>1 after collision is the same in both cases.8 x (. Water can be ejected al a higher speed.5 s.2 x 20.

IIII' ~ I ~ 2 By \ . the ground exens a force on the wall in the collisions and the momentum of the trolley-\\all system is not cOlbervcd. the velocity orthe (I A) After the impact.2 x (. (c) (I A) The average force acting on him by the Since the wall is fixed on the ground.\./I) (I M) (lA) = 70 x (0-5) = -350 l\' s ( lA) (b) (i) Change in momentum ~ 0 . 156 1. (lA) (c) = -O.75 1. time of impact 11/1' ~ - 2.04N (lA) New Senior Secondary Physics at Work 93 () Oxford University Press 2009 .IIII'~ 2 2 (lA) ~--=-292 .292 = F. the \'c locity of the ball l~ 0. 700 (I A) not conserved in both (a) :md (b).(-1/I1') = 1II1' (I A) (c) = Change in KE 1 . (d) The collision in (a) is clastic and the collision in (b) is inelastic. A\erage net force = change in momentum time of impact (I M) (I A) 0- I ~ -1111'. (ii) Average force = change in momentum time of impact 21111' Gilbert jumps from a height of U5 (IM) (b) Change in momentum '" m(l· . (a) I 2 2-. (lA) The momentum ofa mechanical system is conserved only ifno external force exerts on the system.. (lA) (I A) (b) Impulse = IJIV-1/I1/ = 0.= (IM) 5 ~ .2 ..0. .2 N (ii) Average force = change in momcntum The:1\ erage net force acting on him \\ hen he reaches the ground is .Il = 20s.42) (lA) (IM) Thi s is because the trolley in (a) does not lose kinetic energy in collision while the trolley in (b) loses kinet ic energy in the collision. (I A) trol1cy~wall (d) net force = force by the ground \\eight (IM) (c) Momentum of the system is (I A) . (I A) Before Ihe impact. r '"'--992N ground is -992 N. ( lA) 18 (a) l Ie bends his knecs to increasc the lime of impact and hence reduce the loree acti ng on him \\ hen he reaches the ground..36ms 1..25 m (lA) lTl.= -.0 = 2(10)5 ~ O 1.6 =-I.156Ns Avemge force = impulse time of impact -0.292 N.36 (IM) 0.2 Force and Motio ha ter 5 Momentu Change in KE =' -1/11' 17 (IM) (lA) Take the downward direction as positive.350 1.

(a) By conservation ofmomcntulTI...97 ) (I M) (lA) 10 Oxford University Press 2009 New Senior Secondary Physics at Work .8 ms..15 x 25 000 (I A) Alon£y-axis: By conservation of momentum.. .. momcntum before the actor reaches the (The impact timc of the driver and the windscreen becomes OA5 s.97 m S·l.\is: ( lA) = 465Ns Area under the graph =- By consenation of momentum.(} .. 20 (u) . (b) Total loss in kineti c energy =c x60x5 + 2 (The largest force experienced b~ the driver becomes original force... 60 x 5 = (60 + 70) x I'COS 0 I'COS (I M) The impulse on the actor is 465 N s. 70 x 6 = (60 + 70) x "sin 0 I' =1875Ns (b) The area under graph in (a) is the impulse experienced by the driH'r.6-)= 10 2 .2 Force and Motio ha er 5 Momentu I.) sin 0 =_ . (2) 42 13 (2) + (1). three times the original impact time..6) Along .. I 30 0 =.--1' . 13 . ... 4 =-x 75 x(. 5° to thc original direction orA. =:: 24...11111 60 kg (lM) ( lA) ( I") 8 70 kg = 75 x (24.'er.. A Sms " "---'-"'-'--..6ms I (I A) .5 ° I' 30 13 3.. ~ X70 X 6 2 ) 1 onc-third of the " A) = -G 986 J 94 x 130 X3.\"-a... x - The speed of the car is [8...8 . at an angle tI ' "J of 54..) 8330~.18. (.. y 1000 x 20 = (1000 + 75) 1' = IS.) tan 0 =- 42 30 " 0 = 54.. (b) Increase in KE I .5 0 From (I): 1" (I A) cos 54.I Impulse = Ill\> .6 m S-I when the actor reaches the car.) (1 A) m = momentum after the actor reaches the car (I") I' 21 (a) Assume their velocity after the collision is as shown belo\\.(1) x 0.--18.. (l A) (Or it is the change in momentum oflhe dri.97 m S-I (lA) Their velocity is 3.

3. the average force acting on the trolley by the force sensor is also 27.e."".lhese forces have the same magnitude but in opposite direction.570 . trolley B decelerates.e. (lM) 3. whell 1< F = 27. t ime of impact = man.42ms. trolley IJ moves towards (lA) the len \\ ith an average speed of about0.2 Force and Motio ha ter 5 Momentu 22 (:1) (i) The shaded area is the impulse acting on the force sensor.5 s) = 0. By Newton's third law.50..9x10 1 s A::.012 (lA) "'.15 .52 s to 1= (lA) (ii) 2.50 s to f '" 2.7 N (I A) 95 New Senior Secondary Physics at Work Cl Oxford University Press 2009 .42) 0.25 =-3.2.2N An average force 01'27. i. with (ii) Let F be the average force acting on the force sensor.0. During the impact (i.e.75 s.38x (.550 = 13.66 s (I A) and then ren'rses its travelling ( lA) direction. (1 A) Impulse = arl!a under F. Afterthe impact (i. (lA) It is smaller than that by the steel plunger in (a)( ii).I graph Impulse = FI 0.1 23 (I A) (a) (i ) Before the impact (i.24457 = F x 9 x 10 .2. materials tend to have a longer time of imp. It becomes momentarily at rest at f ~ force sensor by the trolley and the average lorce acting on thc trolley by the force sensor lonn an action-and-reaction pair.2 N 2.75 s).e. a result. I f a man is knocked down by a car.0.0'0-2:c-. trolley B trtl\ els at l.1ct and a smaller maximum force of impact. when f (I A) > 2. the average force acting on the man \.50 s). the time ofill1pact of trolley is (2.l .021 .2.ould be smaller if the bumper is softer.15 m s (lA ) (The acceptable range o f time of impact is from 1 = 2.= • .2. (h) 2. For mbbcr plungcr. the injury caused to the Illan can be reduced and a softer bumper is safer to the public. 6S 2.75. avcmge force acting on the iorce sensor change in momentum I ime of ( IM) A \ crage force change in momentum (lA) time of impact I . (iii) The average force acting on the r= 2.8 s) Figures nand 0 show that soil/elastic From Figure r.15 N impact 74c-. about -0. from (towards the right) acts on the force sensor by the trolley during the impact..25 s. the same change in momentum of the From the graph.75 s).2 N (towards the Jell).

S0kg 96 (lA) New Senior Secondary Physics at Work Cl Oxford University Press 2009 .50 m S.. I \1) J l-f/jV = MRVB cos 12.2 Force and Motio ha ter 5 Momentum The average force acting on trolley (b) (i) The trolley accelerates from rest down the run way. the velocity of trolley A I 0.7 = 5.44 0.1..0" and the force sensor is ineLhllc.67MI' Substitute (I) into (2): .2.7 = 5.0. (iii) From the F-I graph.. (lA) "crage forcc acting 011 A by B = changc in momentum timeofimpact O.8.0" 17.8 '\(" x 3.30 si n 36.30 cos 36.0. It is closer to an clastic collision. .15 N (towards the right).-\ ) The collision bet\\ een the lrol1e~ 25 (3) Perpendicular to the initial travelling direction of the ball: By conservation of momentum. (2) N 17.31 0.( I) Along the initialtr:lvelling direc tion of the ball: By consen'ation ofll1omentum... 1.05 s Average force area undcr the curve time of impact ~-- 3.58MI' . changes from 0.43 m S-I and rebounds with ..0 0 + area under the cun e time of impac t 0..) .04 N (towards the left).90 x 3.0.pcrimental error.55 .67M.04 N The avcragc fo rce acting on trolley A is The collision is inelast ic because the trolley rebounds at a smaller velocity. (lA) (b) In Figure q. '1.1.36 ms-I . time ofimpacl = 1.\.531 = 0..0. (2A) accordance with Newton· s third la\\.55) 0 .{]. It collides with the force sensor with a velocity of B is 3. lA) 0 = 5. the experimental re~ult i!> in spring has a longer time of impact and a smaller average force.0" + MpVp cos 36..S8M. .60 = 0.05 A by 13 has the same b~"!.55 m A S ·1 to ..0" + MI'VI' sin 36.90 X V/I cos t 2..0° A verage force 5. the collision with <l (lA) Therefore.0"JIf" x 3. the a\ ('rage 011 0. magnitude but in the opposite direction as the average force acting on B .0" (ii) The shaded area rcpresenb the impulse of the force .25 =-3.65 . (I M) 0 = M/lVlI sin 12. I1 hits the force sensor at 0.-\ ) VlI = 1.77V8 + 2.00 = 5.. ( 1. force acting (lA) Within c. (I A ) 24 (:1) (i) The trollcy accelerates from rest down the runwa).013 s .013 = 23.90 x VB sin 12. (lA) (ii) Time of impact ..8 N ( lA) (ii i) As compared with the collision with plasticinc.I and SIOp~.\) Mp = 1.77(I.69x(.55 ms- .544 .

l (I A) ( ii) (Correct calculations for both KE) Fraction of original KE lost Mean force change in momentum timeo!" impact (IM) 50111.2 Force and Motio ha ter 5 Momentum (b) Substitute Mp = 1. (lA) The mean force acting on the left hand trolley is 173 N towards the lcft.90 x_ .+ .7 m S. = 2MBVs..50 I = 2.50 kg into (I): VB = 1. (lA) 0) If Ihey stick together on coHision.x 5.90x 3. (i\') It is invalid because the external force is not negligible .' 1 2 25111 (1 M) "" 3.5 = 601' 1' = 3. = 10 (Correct calculations) Since the total kinetic cnergy ofthc ball and pin before collision is not cqualto that after collision.00.67) 4. m s.1 = I 'B = ) .IIIX)- 20 x 8 + 40 x 1.)5 J 2 2 Total kinetic energy aftcr collision I . v/ = Then. New S enior Secondary Physics at Wo rk 97 © Oxford University Press 2009 . (lA) (a) The IOtal momentum of the system is conserved. 27 (a) (lA) (lA) ( l A) By conservation of momentum.37ms (0) Total kinetic energy before collision I ~ 1 ~ _ = .xl.67 1 2 . force acting on the system .50 = .37 + .= 26.1 N towards the left . -mvIJ ..(0-3.+ M I'VI'2 _ I ? ~ I _ .2 --x 5.' 1 = ..0/-0..0 ( IM) 1.25111 50111 (0) I ~20'(367-8) 0. (lA) (ii) Original KE provided that there is no external nct (lA) (b) (I) =~lIn(IO"=50111 1 I Final KE = -1111' Total momentum before collision = .= .30 2 2 = = -55. the collision is inelastic.. VB= The total KE is the same before and aftcr collision. 11/ X 24.. .58 x 1.7 J (IM) (b) 10 = 1//1'/ I 'B= .IIIX).I . 1'. 11/1'8 1'/ + 10 1'8. 1 N (lA) The mean resistive force acting on them is 55.M !lV.173 N (lA) 2 10 m S-l (lA) (lA) 0) (ii) 1'1 = 0. )0x3. VB 26 :::> 1'. IOtal momentum after collision (IM) (IM) = III S-l 2 A .58M" = (Hi) Mean resistance force (IM) (lA) _ change in momentum time ~ 60.

1) The velocity oflhe ball after the coll ision is 66.7· 2 2 A. set in Y is smaller.." s (ii i) momentum (b ) . (I A) 1I AI li"el~ to f 1.361\' 66. \\ ilh same magnitude bd'ore and after collision) (b) Television set in ) is more survive without damage. !lA) applies force on his club.5 1.045v (1 M) )' = Impulse or change inmornentum. stat ionary..7 = 1..36 = 0. (i i) I towards the Since the kinetic encrg) of the ball after the collision is the !)arlle as it was before collision. Cto D. (For efTecli\ e communication) 29 (IIKCEE 2007 Paper I Q9) (:I) B to C. 28 (11) (i) the force experienced by the television ( lA) (IC) (lA) Therefore. all the momentum is transferred. and E gets the momentum and s\\ ings.-xI. ( I A) elastic.I .0 "" (Not linear) (I =.7 m s right. s (1:0.60 x 35 + 0.6x 1. In each (lA) si ngle collision .60 x 40 = 0.!. kinetic energy is lost in the collision .0 t 5 = 480 J Total KE after collision I .. ( lA) 2.x O. the golfcr Initial momentum o rlhe ball = . the magniludes of momentum before and after collision arc the same. Therefore.60 x35..0. ( lA) A passes on momentum to B. C and D are left 30 ( lA ) (i) Total momentum before collision = total momentum after collision 0.xO. ( lA) Tota l KE before collision =-.+-x O. A. ot . (] \1 ) The Principle of Conservation of Momentum is nOI applicable if there is an external net force acting on the system (the ball and cl ub-head).2 force and Motlo (iii) Steel is 'hard" so collisions arc ha teT 5 Momentu Package Yhas a longer time of impact.60 x402 I .. (lA) During the collision.J = 468 J (lA) (From negati\ e to posili\e. B. New Senior Secondary Physics at Work The total KE aftcr collision is smaller than that before collis ion. 1) toE. ( lA ) (ii) Change in momentum = = shaded area 1.68.7 III Si (lA) .045 x 66. then With the same change in momentum in each case.\ ) 98 o Oxford University Press 2009 . \\ hich is an external force to the system.

2 Force and Motio ha ter 5 Momentu (c) By Newton's second 1. This reduces the force acting on the passcngcr.1 = 2001 "'" ( lA) Physics in articles (p.0) 1.1 N (I A) The average force acting on the object is 92. (lA) mean " lorce = chan\!em momentum (IM) . the final velocity of the (lA) (lA) object is usually taken to be 7ero. lime laken ~ O.92.II) 0.) (c) (i) 11 = 331 km h. (For estimation.5x 10-.1 = . (H) The air bag bursts at a very high speed. When it hits the baby. 272) (a) li lengthens the time of impact during collision. the final velocity should also be known. Ifmore precise result is needed.1\\. (b) (lA) The mass of the object and the time of impact. (lA) New Senior Secondary PhySiCS at Work 99 e Oxford University Press 2009 .045 x(66.6 0.l x (O _331) 3. the force on the baby is so large tha! may severely injure it.t = 92.2 III s I I (I M) (IM) F = m(v .2 N. -.

25 × 4 = 5 m.5 s. In the vertical direction: 1 1 sy = gt 2 = × 10 × 0. i. When the release speed is reduced by half (from 60 m s−1 to 30 m s−1). the distance fell is four times as calculated in (a).81 m 2 × 10 2g (b) By sy = (u sin θ ) t − 1 2 gt . 295) 1 2 3 D A 5 (a) The aeroplane and the bomb travel in the same horizontal velocity.1 (p.5 s The time of flight of the object is 2. (b) Distance between the successive impact points of the bombs on the ground 720 = × 1 = 200 m 3.5 2 = 1. 2 3 4 C C In the horizontal direction: v x = u x = 20 m s−1 In the vertical direction: vy = gt = 10 × 4 = 40 m s 2 2 −1 Speed of the object after 4 s = v x + v y = 20 2 + 40 2 = 44. 2 1 0 = (25 sin 30°) t − × 10 × t 2 2 5t 2 − 12.5 m 10 g © .5 s u 60 4 (a) Best possible distance u 2 25 2 = = = 62. at that moment. 1. (c) 1 1 s sy = gt 2 = g x 2 2 u 2 = 1 1 gs x 2 2 u 2 The vertical distance fell is inversely proportional to the square of the release speed.25 m over this range. 286) (b) The archer should aim above the target.5 = 1. the aeroplane is right above the impact point. (a) Greatest height u 2 sin 2 θ 25 2 × sin 2 30° = = = 7. Therefore.25 s 2 6 (a) In the horizontal direction: s 30 t= x = = 0. at the moment when the first bomb hits the ground. Practice 6. In vertical direction: 1 1 sy = gt 2 = × 10 × 15 2 =1125 m 2 2 Therefore.2 (p.5t = 0 t = 0 (rejected) or 2.6 1 Projectile Motion D In the horizontal direction: s 10 t = x = =2 s u 5 In the vertical direction: vy = gt = 10 × 2 = 20 m s−1 Its vertical speed is 20 m s−1.6 (c) The time need for the object to reach its 1 highest point = × 2.7 m s−1 Practice 6. the aeroplane is 1125 m right above the impact point.25 m 2 2 The arrow drops 1.e.

5 2θ = 30° or 150° Revision exercise 6 Multiple-choice (p. Minimum speed = minimum ux = 5 Along the horizontal direction: s 45 ux = x = = 9 m s−1 t 5 Along the vertical direction: 1 By sy = uyt − gt 2 .016 67sx2 − 0. g 252 × sin 2θ 31.25 m 2 u 2 sin 2θ By sx = .414 s θ = 15° or 75° The angle of elevation is 15° or 75°.1 m s−1. 2 3 4 A (HKALE 2004 Paper II Q3) (HKALE 2006 Paper II Q3) uy = 25 m s−1 u = u x 2 + u y 2 = 9 2 + 25 2 = 26. 2 1 −10 = 0 − × 10 × t 2 2 t = 1. (b) From R = u 2 sin 2θ .1 m s−1 1. we have sx = 37. (c) (b) By sy = (tan θ )s x − g 2u 2 cos 2 θ sx2 . (1A) .2° to the ground.1 (b) sx = × 62.5 m or −2. (1M) 80 2 × sin 2θ 10 (1A) θ = 3.5 m. when u increases g = 6. −1.8 = (tan 30°)s x − 10s x 2 2 × 20 2 × cos 2 30° 0.14°. 2 1 0 = uy × 5 − × 10 × 5 2 2 20 = 14.14° or 86. (1A) (1A) θ should be decreased. and R needs to be kept constant.25 = 10 sin 2θ = 0.5774 sx − 1.8 m.9° (rejected) u sin θ + 1.414 The minimum speed of the car to reach the lower bridge is 14.6 m s–1 at an angle of 70.6 m s−1 uy Conventional (p. © The horizontal distance AB is 37.2° ux 9 His initial velocity is 26.5 = 31.8 = 0 Solving the quadratic equation. 299) 1 (a) Range = 70 = u 2 sin 2θ g 25 tan θ = = = 70.88 m (rejected) Player B releases the arrow at a higher position than player A.8 m The maximum height that the volleyball can reach is 6.8 2g 20 × sin 30° + 1.8 2 × 10 2 2 2 2 6 (a) Maximum height = = The angle of projection θ should be 3. 298) 1 A Along the vertical direction: 1 By sy = u y t − gt 2 .

the angle of projection θ should be smaller.66 2 + (− 25)2 = 26. he should aim at a lower position above the target.9° at 70.25 m reached by the stone is 31.5 m s−1 vy2 − uy2 = 2asy 2 2 (1M) vy − (12.25 m. 2 1 −30 = 10 sin 30° × t − × 10 × t 2 2 5t2 − 5t − 30 = 0 t = 3 s or −2 s (rejected) 3 (1M) Let v be the speed when the boy is projected.0 m of the cliff is 26. (1A) Take the upward direction as positive. loss in PE = gain in KE 1 mgh = mv 2 2 (1M) v = 2 gh = 2 × 10 × (5 − 1) = 8.66 m s−1 Vertical component of vP = uy − gt = 10 sin 30° − 10 × 3 = −25 m s−1 Velocity vP = 8.9° to the horizontal.(1M) (c) Horizontal component of vP = ux = 10 cos 30° = 8. The distance R of point P from the foot Consider the projectile motion afterwards.2 m s−1 (b) Take the direction to the right as positive.00 m (1A) 4 (1M) (a) By sy = (tan θ )s x − g 2u 2 cos 2 θ s x 2 .6 m s −1 (1M) (1A) θ = 70.94 2 × cos 2 0 d = 4.94 m s−1 (1M) (1A) (1M) (1A) (b) Along the horizontal direction: R = u xt = 10 cos 30° × 3 = 26.0 m. By the law of conservation of energy. player B’s arrow would travel a longer horizontal distance (sx) when reaching the same level of the target as shown above. g By sy = (tan θ ) s x − 2 sx 2 .2 cos 30° = 10.43 − 2 = (tan 30°)(12) − 10 × 12 2 2u 2 cos 2 30° (1A) u = 12.e.With all conditions being the same.66 (1A) (1M) 2.5 m s−1 25 tan θ = 8. Along the horizontal direction: vx = u x = 12. i.79 m s−1 (1A) © .2 sin 30°) = 2 × (−10) × (−2) vy = −8. (1M) 2 2u cos θ 10 d2 −1 = (tan 0 ) d − 2 × 8. (1A) (d) Greatest height H u 2 sin 2 θ = + 30 2g = 10 2 × sin 2 30° + 30 2 × 10 (1M) = 31. (1A) To reduce sx. Along the vertical direction: The velocity vP of the stone is 26. (1A) The greatest height H above the ground 2 (a) Along the vertical direction: 1 By sy = u y t − gt 2 .

6 × 1.8 m s−1 (towards left) and the vertical velocity is 45.8 m) is shorter than the distance AD (21 m). (b) Height of the ball = vertical distance travelled by the car = 19.2 sin 30° = − 10 = 1.5 = 260.The vertical velocity is 8.2 = 0 Solving the quadratic equation.44 × cos 30° = 16.44 2 × cos 2 30° 0.2 m when it is released is 97.6 m s−1 (towards right).1 m s−1 (1A) The horizontal velocity is 16.44 × cos 30° × 10 = 168 m released. (c) Along the vertical direction: By vy = uy − gt. we have sx = 92.2 = (tan 30°) s x − g 2u cos 2 θ 2 sx2 .1 m s−1 (downwards). By sy = (tan θ ) s x − −97.0176 sx2 − 0.49 = 15.2 m.5 m or −59.6 –1 vy2 − uy2 = 2asy 2 2 (1M) vy − (19.79 m s−1 (downwards) and the horizontal velocity is 10.44 × sin 30° × 10 (1M) (1A) = 97.7 m (rejected) (1M) Distance XY = 168 + 92. Along the vertical direction: (1M) Consider the motion after the ball is © .8 m (1A) Since the horizontal distance travelled by the volleyball (15.44 m s−1 = 19. 6 7 (HKALE 2000 Paper I Q1) (HKALE 2003 Paper I Q7) The height of the ball above the ground (c) Horizontal distance travelled before released = 19.4 m s−1 3.5 m Along the horizontal direction: (1A) (d) Take the direction to the left as positive. (1A) (1A) the ball falls within the court on the (1A) 10 sx 2 2 × 19. vx = u x = 19. vy − u y t= −g −8.577 sx − 97.79 − 12.2) (1A) vy = 45. Along the vertical direction: −1 (1M) (1A) Take the downward direction as 5 (a) Speed of the ball when it is released = speed of the car = 70 km h 70 = = 19.44 sin 30°) = 2(−10)(−97.8 m s positive.49 s Horizontal distance travelled = uxt = 10. opposite side.

32 m s−2 r (1740 + 200)× 10 3 .27 × 10−5) = 233 m s = rω = 0 × (7.8° 4 D Corresponding to the dry road. 308) D A Angular speed θ 1. 324) 1 2 D B Centripetal force = mv 2 r Practice 7.1 (p.27 × 10 ) = 465 m s−1 Linear speed of Paul = rω = (6400 × 103 ×cos 60°) × (7.27 × 10−5) =0 −1 3 −5 Weight of the aircraft = mg centripetal force mv 2 1 = × weight r mg = = v2 gr 200 2 10 × (10 × 10 3 ) = 0.5 = = = 0. the maximum safe speed when the road is wet 30 = 21.236 rad s−1 t 20 Linear speed = rω = 28 × 0. 2 5 (a) Angular velocity ω 2 = = 8.8 × 10 T = 8.25 × 10−4) = 1600 m s−1 f max mvmax 2 1 = × = 2 r 2 m vmax 2 r Therefore.7 1 2 3 Uniform Circular Motion Practice 7.60 m s−1 4 (a) The angular speeds of Peter.51 N © (c) Centripetal acceleration required 1600 2 v2 = = = 1.2 (p. Angular speed 2 = = 7.2 m s−1 = 2 5 (a) Vertical component of tension = weight of the mass T cos θ = mg T cos 20° = 0.4 3 A tan θ = v2 = 0. Paul and Mary are the same.2356 = 0.4 gr θ = 21.2356 = 6.25 × 10−4 rad s−1 127 × 60 (b) Linear velocity v = rω = [(1740 + 200) × 103] × (8. we have: fmax = Linear speed of Mary mv max 2 r f max on wet 2 The maximum frictional force is road.27 × 10−5 rad s−1 24 × 60 × 60 (b) Linear speed of Peter = rω = (6400 × 10 ) × (7.

(c) θ = 48. centripetal force for B is twice that for A. the values of m and ω are both 2 2 the same.4°.4 × 10 4 5 6 (HKALE 2000 Paper II Q11) (HKALE 2006 Paper II Q4) (HKALE 2007 Paper II Q4) Conventional (p.26 × 24 × 60 × 60 = 1.7 m s The maximum speed is 10. 6 Horizontal component which provides the centripetal force: mv 2 R sin α = ………(1) r Vertical component which balances the weight: R cos α = mg ………(2) (1) ÷ (2): tan α = tan 30° = v rg v 20 × 10 −1 −1 Revision exercise 7 Multiple-choice (p.37 m s−1 The speed of the mass is 1.90 cos α = 0. (b) Frictional force = centripetal force mv 2 500 × 15 2 = = = 5625 N r 20 f tan θ = N 5625 tan θ = 5000 (b) Centripetal force on the mass (c) = T sin 20° = 8. 327) 1 2 3 B D D Centripetal force = mrω2 For A and B.The tension of the string is 8. Therefore.91 r 0.8 × v 2 = 2.91 N mv 2 Centripetal force = = 2.99 × 10−7 rad s−1 © α = 59.7 m s .37 m s−1.91 1.90 N Vertical component which balances the weight: T cos α = mg 7. 328) 1 (a) Angular speed of the Earth 2 = 365. and rB = 2rA.5 sin 20° v = 1.4 × (2 sin α) × π2 T = 7.51 sin 20° = 2.5 = π rad s centripetal force: T sin α = mrω 2 −1 Horizontal component which provides the T sin α = 0.6° 8 (a) Normal reaction = weight of the rider and the motorcycle = mg = 500 × 10 = 5000 N (1M) (1A) . 7 Angular speed of the pendulum = 2π × 0.51 N. Centripetal for A = T1 − T2 Centripetal for B = T2 Then we have: T2 = 2 × (T1 − T2) 3T2 = 2T1 T1 3 = T2 2 v = 10.4° The angle that the motorcycle makes with the vertical is 48.

For the cart at the highest point of the circle: mg − F = 0.244 F = 4000.244 F − 400 × 10 = 0.756 N (1A) The force supporting the cart at the highest point of the circle is 3999.49 × 10 ) = 0.55 × 1022 N = (5. 5 (1M) Centripetal force = m1rω2 For maximum value of r (= rmax): m2g + µsm1g = m1rmaxω2 m × 10 + 0.99 × 10 ) = 2.49 × 10−3 rad s−1 0.99 × 104 m s−1 (1A) (1M) (1A) 11 −7 4 (1M) (c) Centripetal force required = mrω2 = 3. (1A) (b) Let θ be the angle of banking.5° = 65 × 10 R = 3940 N (c) 3 No (1A) (1M) (1M) (1A) Angular speed 2 = = 3.50 × 10 ) × (1.98 × 1024)(1.99 × 10−7)2 (a) Let r be the minimum radius of the path. R cos θ = mg R cos 80.139 m (1A) 6 (a) When there is no friction.(b) Linear speed of the Earth = rω = (1.756 N (upwards).244 N F − mg = 0. v2 tan θ = gr tan 30° = v2 10 × 100 (1M) v = 24. For minimum value of r (= rmin): m2g − µsm1g = m1rminω2 m × 10 − 0.417 m (1A) (1M) 2 The force supporting the cart at the lowest point of the circle is 4000.244 400 × 10 − F = 0.0 m s−1 © (1A) .5° The angle of banking is 80.244 F = 3999. tan θ = v2 gr 2 (a) The tension in the string provides the centripetal acceleration of mass m. v2 = 6g (1M) r (2 × 340)2 = 6 × 10 r r = 7710 m The minimum radius is 7710 m.5 × 1011) (1.5 × 60 × 60 Centripetal force required = mrω2 = 400 × 50 × (3.244 N −3 2 The apparent weight of the pilot in the turn is 3940 N. (1A) mv 2 (b) Centripetal force = =T r mv 2 = Mg (1A) r Mgr v= (1A) m (1M) tan θ = 6 θ = 80.244 N (upwards).5 × m × 10 = m × rmin × 6 10 − 5 = 36rmin rmin = 0.5°.5 × m × 10 = m × rmax × 6 2 For the cart at the lowest point of the circle: (1M) 10 + 5 = 36rmax (1A) rmax = 0. (1A) (c) The apparent weight of the pilot is the normal reaction R acting on him by the seat.

the larger the angle θ. B has a higher centripetal acceleration than C. the higher the speed v. ωB > ωC. the angular speed of A and B are the same. v2 tan θ = gr (1A) (1A) (1M) Substitute (1) into (2): mg )sin 30° (f tan 30° + cos 30° mv 2 + f cos 30° = r f × (tan 30° sin 30° + cos 30°) = 700 × 48. consider a = 2 7 When a motorcyclist is turning around a corner. Therefore.e. the motorcyclist leans closer to the ground. Since B and C have the same v and rB < rC. On the other hand. r (1A) (1A) Since rB < rC and vB = vC.0 2 − 700 × 10 × tan 30° 100 According to the equation above. This means that A will overtake C. the motorcyclist has to lean inwards as shown in the free-body diagram below. (1A) 8 (a) Consider v = rω. frictional force acting on the wheels provides the centripetal force and also gives a turning moment on the motorcycle. the angular speed of C is slower than that of A. A has the highest acceleration and C has the lowest. (1A) (1A) v . (1A) © . Since rA > rB and ωA = ωB. A has a higher centripetal acceleration than B.(b) (i) To avoid overturning. 2 f = 10 500 N 10 500 N. (1A) Meanwhile. Therefore. (1A) (1A) The value of the frictional force f is (b) Consider a = rω . i. (1A) (Weight) (Normal reaction) (Friction) (1A) (1A) (1A) (ii) Along vertical direction: N cos 30° − f sin 30° − mg = 0 mg ………(1) N = f tan 30° + cos 30° (1M) Along radial direction: N sin 30° + f cos 30° = mv …(2) r 2 (Correct diagram) In equilibrium.

centripetal force of A > B > C. (1A) (1A) Since the athletes have the same mass.2 = 1.694 m s−2 25 + 11 rc (1A) (d) Centripetal force = mass × centripetal acceleration From (b).139 rad s−1 rc 25 + 11 Acceleration of C = (ii) Along vertical direction: U cos θ = mg ………(1) Along radial direction: mv 2 U sin θ = ………(2) r (2) ÷ (1): 200 2 v2 tan θ = = gr 10 × (15 ×103 ) vc 2 52 = = 0.2 m s = rAωA 2 2 −1 (Upthrust) (Air resistance) (1A) (1A) (1A) (1A) (1A) (1A) (1A) (Weight) (Pushing force) upthrust = weight air resistance = pushing force Acceleration of A = (25 + 11) × 0. (1A) Linear speed of C = linear speed of B = 5 m s (1A) (1A) Angular speed of C v 5 = c = = 0. (1A) © .44 m s −2 (1A) −1 (b) (i) The horizontal component of upthrust provides the centripetal acceleration of the aircraft.9° The angle of banking is 14.2 = 7. (1M) (1A) θ = 14. (e) The centripetal forces are provided by the frictional force between the feet of the athletes and the ground.(c) Linear speed of B = 5 m s−1 Angular speed of B v 5 = B = = 0.2 rad s−1 (1A) Linear speed of A = rAωA = (25 + 11) × 0.9°.2 rad s−1 rB 25 Acceleration of B = (1A) (1A) 9 (a) vB 2 52 = = 1 m s−2 25 rB (1A) Angular speed of A = angular speed of B = 0. we have centripetal acceleration of A > B > C.

(1A) (b) 11 (a) For the same angular distance on the curved tracks. (1A) The centripetal force acting on the (1M) θr2 = 100 θ= 100 = 3. respectively.(1A) (b) Let r1 and r2 be the radius of curvature from the midde of tracks 1 and 2 to the centre of the circular path. If the starting lines are all aligned.08 rad s−1. i.10 (a) (iii) Centripetal force = mrω2 = 121 (1M) 7 × (1. the outer tracks are longer than the inner ones since their radii of curvature are larger.05 rad = 175° 100 +1 (1A) © . athletes will need to run different lengths (1A) (Tension) (Weight) (1A) (1A) (1M) (1A) of track. This makes the race unfair. ω increases. θ increases. pointing towards the centre.2 sin 60°) × ω = 121 2 ω = 4. (1A) The angular speed of the steel ball (iv) We have: T cos θ = mg………(1) T sin θ = mrω2 = m(L sin θ)ω2 (Correct direction of ∆v ) (1A) T = mLω2………(2) Substitute (2) into (1): (mLω2)cos θ = mg g cos θ = 2 ω L (1M) (1M) (Correctly using tip-to-tail method)(1A) The direction of acceleration of the steel ball is the same as the direction of ∆v in the figure above. (c) (i) Along vertical direction: T cos θ = mg T cos 60° = 7 × 10 T = 140 N πr1 = 100 100 r1 = r2 = r1 + 1 = 100 +1 (1M) (1M) (1M) (ii) Centripetal force = radial component of tension = T sin θ = 140 × sin 60° = 121 N steel ball is 121 N.e. (1A) θ increases as the metal ball rotates faster and faster.08 rad s−1 is 4.

(1M) (1A) The angular velocity of the player is = 0. Centripetal force required by the car mv0 2 mv0 2 = > r 2r (1A) (Force exerted by the chain) (Weight) (1A) (1A) (c) The centripetal force is provided by the horizontal component of the force exerted by the chain.2° (ii) Tangential speed = rω = (28 sin 25. the centripetal force is provided by the frictional force. The car will skid and be in danger. 2r While turning at the corner along a circular path.628 rad s−1 0. (1A) (d) (i) Vertical component which balances the weight: T cos θ = mg………(1) Horizontal component which (1M) provides the centripetal force: T sin θ = mrω2 (1A) (1M) 2 T sin θ = m(l sin θ)ω T = mlω2………(2) Substitute (2) into (1): (1M) The centripetal required is larger than the frictional force between the road and the car. the motion of the car can be described by v2 − u2 = 2as where v = 0.6283 rad s−1 = 0.314 rad s−1 (b) For the athlete running on track 2: v ω2 = 2 (1M) r2 = 10 100 +1 (1A) = 0. (1A) mlω2 cos θ = mg g 10 cos θ = 2 = ω l 0.2°)(0. Therefore. the man should not attempt to take the turn. the frictional force between the mv 2 (1A) road and the car is 0 .628 rad s−1.6283) = 7.49 m s−1 (1A) (1M) (1A) ! © . u = v0 and s = r −v 2 a= 0 2r Therefore.305 rad s−1 12 While stopping along the straight line.62832 × 28 θ = 25.(c) For the athlete running on track 1: v ω1 = 1 (1M) r1 = 10 100 (1A) 13 (a) Angular velocity 2 = 10 = 0.

691 rad s−1. we can (1M) Therefore.The tangential speed of the player is 7. the angular speed should not conclude that the maximum angular speed that can be used is 0.642 rad s−1 be higher than 0. 1400 = (60 + 10) × 28 × ω2 (1M) (1M) (1A) Along vertical direction: (N1 + N2)cos 35° − mg − (f1 + f2)sin 35° = 0 (N1 + N2)cos 35° − mg − (µN1 + µN2)sin 35° = 0 mg N1 + N2 = ………(1) cos 35° − µ sin 35° Along horizontal direction: (N1 + N2)sin 35° + (1M) ω = 0. (1A) From (d)(i).845 rad s−1.11 × 2π = 0. From the two constraints. −1 (iii) Centripetal force required = mrω2 = (70)(28 sin 25. we have g cos θ = 2 ω l (1M) (1M) Therefore. angular speed = 0. 14 (a) (f) Recall the equation (2) in (d)(i): T = mlω2 When the tension is 1400 N.2°)(0.642 rad s−1. (1A) (e) No.49 m s .642 rad s−1.6283)2 = 329 N (1A) The centripetal force required to keep the player in circular motion is 329 N.845 rad s−1 used is 0. From (d)(i). (1M) When angle θ is 30°. the angular speed should not (f1 + f2)cos 35° = (N1 + N2)sin 35° + (µN1 + µN2)cos 35° = mv 2 r mv 2 r (1M) N1 + N2 = mv 2 …(2) r (sin 35° + µ cos 35°) " © . (1A) Since the angular velocity ω and the length l are the same for all seats. 10 cos 30° = 2 ω × 28 ω = 0. The maximum angular speed that can be (g) At frequency 0. all seats including the empty one will make the same angle θ with the post. we have derived that: g cos θ = 2 (1A) ω l The angle θ is independent of the mass of the seat-player system.11 cycles per second.691 rad s−1 be higher than 0. the student is wrong.

16 m s−1 to 24. Along the vertical direction: N1 cos 35° − f1 sin 35° − mg = 0 ……(1) (1M) Along the horizontal direction: mv 2 N1 sin 35° − f1 cos 35° = ……(2) r (1M) Take moment about c.6(1.Substitute (2) into (1): mv 2 r (sin 35° + µ cos 35°) mg = cos 35° − µ sin 35° Substitute (3) into (1): 1. The car would start to overturn inwards The car would start to skid outwards at (b) (c) The range of speed for turning this corner safely is from 1.8 sin 35° (1A) mv 2 r v= f1 (1.6f1 cos 35° − f1 sin 35° − mg = 0 f1 g = = 13. 15 16 17 (HKALE 2001 Paper I Q1) (HKALE 2003 Paper I Q1) (HKALE 2004 Paper II Q1) Just before overturning occurs.6 sin 35° − cos 35°) = 1.g. −1 = 13.6 cos 35° − sin 35° Substitute (3) into (2): 1.6 sin 35° − cos 35°) m (1A) = 24.5 N1 × = f1 × 2 2 N1 = 1.8 m s−1 24. N2 = 0. clockwise resultant torque = anticlockwise resultant torque 2.8 m s−1.6f1 sin 35° − f1 cos 35° = (1M) v= = gr (sin 35° + µ cos 35°) cos 35° − µ sin 35° (10)(18)(sin 35° + 0.8 cos 35°) cos 35° − 0.16 m s−1.6 m 1.8 m s .16 m s−1 at 1.6f1 ………(3) (1M) © .

13 × 10 −12 + 1.06 × 10 −12 m2 = 316 kg φ = 10.98 × 10 24 (m 2 ) 1800 = 2 6.67 ×10 )(2)(1) −11 rCA 2 10 2 = 1.272 ≈ rE ME 81 4 The ratio of the radius of the Moon to that of the Earth is about 1 : 4.06 × 10 −12 ) + (7.98 × 10−13 N 10 Magnitude of F = 9.5 2 −7 8 = 1. we have: 1 aM = a E 6 GM M 1 GM E = × 6 rE 2 rM 2 (6. resolve FAC into FAC cos θ and FAC sin θ. (6.67 ×10 )(3)(1) 82 = 3. Practice 8.67 ×10 )(5.8 1 Gravitation The mass of the rocket is 316 kg.33 × 10−12 × = 7.33 × 10−12 N Gm B mC FBC = rCB 2 = −11 rM M 1 1 = 6× M = 6× = 0.60 × 10 N.60 × 10 N The magnitude of the gravitational force they act on each other is 9. FAC cos θ = 1.27 × 10−12 N F AC sin θ tan φ = FBC + F AC cos θ = 7.98 × 10 ) 2 −13 2 4 ( ( )( ) ) = 4.37 ×10 + 3600 ×10 ) 24 3 2 = 1000 N 2 A aM = aE = GM M rM 2 GM E rE 2 FAC = = Gm A mC With the information given.06 × 10−12 N 10 6 FAC sin θ = 1.1 (p.13 × 10−12 N To find resultant force F.33 × 10−12 × 3 Gravitational force Gm1 m 2 = r2 = −11 (6.13 × 10 −12 + 1.67 × 10 −11 5.67 ×10 )(60)(60) 0.37 × 10 6 + 2000 × 10 3 −7 = = (FBC + F AC cos θ )2 + (F AC sin θ )2 (3. Gm1 m 2 Gravitational force = r2 6.98 × 10 −13 3.98 ×10 )(250) (6. 339) A Gravitation force Gm1 m 2 = r2 = −11 6 5 (6.8° © .

8 30 When the satellite is close to the Earth’s surface.99 ×10 ) = (20 ×10 ) 13 −1 = 3. GM M 13 −1 5 g initial (3R )2 1 = = GM M 9 g final R2 mg = mrω2 g ω= r = 10 6370 × 10 3 6 The ratio is 1 : 9. = 2.32 × 10 N kg The gravitational field strength at the surface of the neutron star is 3.67 ×10 )(1.43 × 104 m s−1 The speed of Mars is 2.67 ×10 )(1.8° to BC.253 × 10 −3 = 5015 s (= 1 hr 23 min 35 s) Its period is 1 hr 23 min 35 s.253 × 10−3 rad s−1 T= = 2 ω 2 1.98 ×10 ) −11 24 (6370 + 1600)×10 3 = 7070 m s−1 Its linear speed is 7070 m s−1.80 × 1011 m The distance of Jupiter from the Sun is 7. Gravitational force = centripetal force GM S M J = M J rω 2 r2 3 9 r= 3 GM S (a) Gravitational force = centripetal force GM S M M M M v 2 = r r2 v= ω2 = (6.674 × 10 rad s −8 −1 = 1.2 (p.The resultant gravitational force acting on C by A and B is 4. −12 7 N at an angle of Gravitational force = centripetal force GM E m mv 2 = r r2 v= Practice 8.80 × 1011 m.43 × 104 m s−1. 2 ω= T 2 = 11.67 ×10 )(5.9 × 365 × 24 × 60 × 60 = 1.67 ×10 )(100 ×1.27 × 10 10. 353) 1 2 3 4 C B D Gravitational field strength GM N = RN 2 −11 3 2 GM E r = (6. we can take the following approximation: Gravitational force = mg Then we have: Gravitational force = centripetal force (6.50 × 10 ) −11 30 11 = 7.674 ×10 ) −11 30 −8 2 GM S r = (6.99 ×10 ) 1.32 × 10 N kg .5 × (1.99 ×10 ) (1. © .

(b) T = = = 2 2 r v 2 × 1.67 ×10 )(5. 2 ω 2 r ………(2) v 2 r GM r r3 GM Revision exercise 8 Multiple-choice (p.5 × 1.50 × 1011 ω 4 A Gravitational force = centripetal force GMm mv 2 = r r2 v= T= T= GM ………(1) r ( 2.43 × 10 4 ) = 5. 356) 1 Gravitational force = centripetal force GM E m mv 2 = r r2 v= = GM E r (1M) −11 24 (6. GM M (a) gM = rM 2 G× = 1 ME 10 1 rE 2 2 (1M) 2 GM E = × 5 rE 2 = 2 g 5 (1A) © .98 ×10 ) (6370 + 7000)× 103 (1A) = 2 × 2 × RE = 2 RE = 5460 m s−1 2 3 D A 2 The linear speed of the satellite is 5460 m s−1. 356) 1 C Weight on the planet GM P m = RP 2 Weight on the Earth GM E m = RE 2 weight on the Earth eight on the planet = 2 GM P m 1 GM E m = × 2 RP 2 RE 2 RP = 2 × MP × RE ME Substitute (1) into (2): T= = 2π 5 6 7 (HKALE 2003 Paper II Q11) (HKALE 2004 Paper II Q7) (HKALE 2005 Paper II Q28) Conventional (p.82 × 107 s = 674 days The Mars orbits around the Sun once in 674 days.

−2 (6.(1A) Therefore. we assume the granite rock does not affect the gravitational field strength at A.35 × 107 m3 Difference in mass (1M) = difference in density × volume (1M) = (3700 − 2200) × 3. (1A) 5 (a) Gravitation field strength = GM r2 (1M) Gravitation field strength due to the Earth GM E = 3.(b) Weight on Mars = mgM 2 = m× g 5 2 = (mg ) 5 2 = × weight on Earth 5 2 = × 700 5 = 280 N (1A) (1M) (b) (i) Volume of granite 4 3 = r 3 3 4 = 0. the force supporting the astronaut by the chair. which balances the astronaut’s weight to maintain constant speed. (1A) (1A) (1A) (ii) Since point A is long way from the granite rock.0 × 1010 kg 7 (c) The force acting on the astronaut by the chair will be decreasing as the spacecraft is leaving Mars.40 ×10 ) 3 2 (1M) (1A) = 2.09 × 10−5 N kg−1 (iii) (Correct shape always below original curve) (1A) 4 (a) The radius/diameter of the planet. this value is invalid for those calculations.0 ×10 ) (0.7 ×10 )× (5. becomes smaller. Therefore. (1A) When involving celestial body in the space. his weight (the gravitational force) becomes lighter. (1M) Difference between gravitational field strength G∆M = 2 r = −11 (1M) 10 3 The value 10 m s is the accepted value of the acceleration due to gravity of the Earth (1A) at positions very close to the surface of the Earth.35 × 10 = 5.2 × 103 3 (1M) ( ) = 3. (1A) The mass/density of the planet. (1A) As the astronaut is further away from Mars. the distances used in calculations are different from the radius of the Earth and gravities due to different bodies have to be considered.6 × 108 (1M) ( ) 2 © .

26 − 0.4 2 = 3.60 m s−2.4 tan θ = 2.94 m s−1 3. (Correct calculating method for both values) moving Moon vehicle.13 (1M) (1M) (1A) = −1. (iv) (b) (Correct diagram) Earth (3 × 1A) (1A) (v) This method is not valid on the because there is atmosphere on the Earth which gives air resistance to affect the motion of the projectile. (1A) (Correct direction) (1A) (1A) (1A) (c) 6 After P. G = = 8 The acceleration due to gravity on 8 2 − 3.94 m s−1 and the angle between the resultant and the horizontal is 59. (1A) 1 (b) (i) By s = (u + v)t.36 s (1M) (1A) (3. (ii) The projectile will land on the © .90 = 3.4 m s .0 2 + 3.6 × 10 ME 81 8 2 ) ) (1M) v−u t 0 − 3. (1M) 2 1 4.0 ×10 (4.6 × 10 (iii) The other time = 4. (a) Speed is a scalar (is described by magnitude only) while velocity is a vector (is described by both magnitude and direction).60 m s−2 the Moon is 1.4 = 2.0 (1A) θ = 59.6 = (u + 0) (1M) 2 2 (c) (i) Resultant initial velocity = 2.26 3.5° (1A) The resultant initial velocity of the projectile is 3.Gravitation field strength due to the Moon = (ii) a = (4.4 m s −1 (1A) −1 The initial vertical velocity of the projectile is 3.6 ×10 ) Earth 8 2 = gravitation field strength due to the (1A) The gravitational fields due to the Moon and the Earth are equal in magnitude at point P.5°.0 ×10 GM E GM M 8 − 3. (1M) (1A) u = 3. the rocket will encounter a net attraction to the Moon.

The gravitational force acting on the satellite (c) Collision with satellites or spacecrafts.Throughout the motion of the projectile. (b) Gravitational force GM E m = r2 = −11 3 (1M) 24 (6. the only force acting on it is the gravitational force along the vertical direction. and it moves with constant speed of 2. provide the centripetal forces (1A) (1A) (1A) The gravitational forces acting on them instead of pulling them down to the Earth. (1A) Return to the Earth and cause damage. 359) (a) The space debris orbits the Earth in circular motion (or elliptical motion).67 ×10 )(5.98 ×10 )(260) (6370 ×10 + 1000 ×10 ) 3 2 (1M) (1A) = 1910 N by the Earth is 1910 N. the net force in horizontal direction is zero. Therefore. which is the same as that of the Moon vehicle. (1A) © .0 m s−1. (1A) Physics in articles (p.

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