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Classification of fungi and its physiology

Presenter Dr Pramod kumar Dept. of Rasashatra 1

What is the biggest organism ever?

Blue whale?


fungi classi & physio


None of the above ± it¶s a fungus
A single clone of the ³honey mushroom´ Armillaria can cover more than 2,200 acres (1,600 football fields)


fungi classi & physio


Six kingdoms 2/29/2012 fungi classi & physio 4 .

CONTENTS ‡Objective ‡History ‡Introduction ‡Fungal characters and anatomy ‡Classification ‡Physiology ‡Nutrition sources and process of getting nutrition ‡Helpful fungi ‡Harmful fungi ‡Research work ‡Summary ‡Conclusion 2/29/2012 fungi classi & physio 5 ‡References .

OBJECTIVE ‡To know about fungi classification and its physiology 2/29/2012 fungi classi & physio 6 .

2/29/2012 fungi classi & physio 7 .HISTORY ‡During Scientific study of fungi in 1836 by English naturalist Miles joseph berkeley have given explanation about fungi. ‡The 2007 classification of Kingdom Fungi is the result of a large-scale collaborative research effort involving dozens of mycologists and other scientists working on fungal taxonomy.

People that study fungi are called Mycologists. The degraded compounds can then be ingested. The fungi that most people are familiar are mushrooms. Fungi are not able to produce their own food as plants do. because they live on dead organic matter such as leaves and wood. 2/29/2012 fungi classi & physio 8 . However. tropical rainforest. It is thought that there are over one million species still to be found. fresh and salt water. myces = fungi Fungi can live in many habitats including the arctic. To date.000 species of fungi have been discovered. 100.INTRODUCTION Mycology ± Mycetes. To obtain nutrients fungi secrete special digestive enzymes which degrade organic material outside the mycelium. most fungi live in soil. Fungi are said to be SAPROTROPHS.

CHARACTERISTICS 1) Cell wall made of Chitin 2) Heterotrophs and major Decomposers 3) Body is made of Long filaments of hyphae which form a mycelium 4) Reproduce sexually and asexually Asexually by spores Sexually by mating of hyphae filaments 2/29/2012 fungi classi & physio 9 .

thread-like filaments Reproductive structure or fruiting body 2/29/2012 fungi interwoven mass hyphae Mycelium ± classi & physio of 10 .Fungal anatomy ‡ Hyphae and mycelium Hyphae.

2.Macrofungi 2. Basidiomycetes(basidospores) 4. Zygomycetes (zygospores) 2. 3. 4.Microfungi 2/29/2012 . chytridiomycota() On basis of morphology 1. Yeast Yeast like fungi Filamentous fungi Thermally dimorphic fungi fungi classi & physio 11 On basis of size 1. Ascomycetes (ascospores) 3.FUNGI CLASSIFICATION On basis of mode of reproduction 1.

Truffles Mushrooms. mildew Yeast. potato blight. puffballs Rusts 2/29/2012 fungi classi & physio 12 .1) Simple fungi Flagellated Spores Water mold. Morels.

Chytridiomycota ± ³chytrids´ ‡ Simple fungi ‡ Produce motile spores ± zoospores ‡ Have chitin in their cell walls ‡ Mostly saprobes and parasites in aquatic habitats Chytridium growing on spores 2/29/2012 Chytriomyces growing on pine pollen 13 .

Zygomycota ± ³zygote fungi´ ‡ Sexual Reproduction zygosporangia ‡ Asexual reprod. ‡ Ex ± Rhizopus 2/29/2012 fungi classi & physio Rhizopus on strawberries 14 . pathogens. potato blight ‡ Includes Decomposers. ± common (sporangia ± bags of asexual spores) ‡ Hyphae have no cross walls ‡ Grow rapidly ‡ Water mold.

Saccharomyces ‡ Decomposers.Ascomycota ± ³sac fungi´ ‡ Sexual Reproduction ± asci ‡ Asex. Reprod. truffles ‡ Important plant parasites & saprobes ‡ Yeast . and found in most lichens 2/29/2012 fungi classi & physio A cluster of asci with spores inside 15 . morels. pathogens. ± common ‡ Cup fungi.

leaves.Basidiomycota ± ³club fungi´ basidospores ‡ Sexual Reproduction ± basidia ‡ Asexual reprod ± not so common ‡ Rusts & smuts ±plant parasites ‡ Mushrooms ‡ Enzymes decompose wood. and other organic materials. 2/29/2012 fungi classi & physio Rust infecting a Leaf16 Smut digesting old wood .

ex.Yeast 2) ‡ Occur in the Ascomycetes.cryptococcus neoformans 2/29/2012 fungi classi & physio 17 . Basidiomycetes & Zygomycetes ‡ Unicellular fungi ‡ Reproduce by budding ‡ In culture it resembles spherical and colonies like bacteria .

Yeast like fungi ‡ Unicellular fungi ‡ Reproduce by budding and fission ‡ In culture sometimes resembles spherical or oval with sometimes filamentous ex.candida albicans 2/29/2012 fungi classi & physio 18 .

thread like filamentous hyphae which may septate/aseptate septate ±ex-Aspergillus fumigatus Aseptate-ex-zygomycetes 2/29/2012 fungi classi & physio 19 .Filamentous fungi ‡ Composed of hyphae which may be multicelled or septate ‡ Reproduction both through sexually and asexually ‡ In culture looks like granular.

Thermally dimorphic fungi ‡ In culture appears spherical like yeast at 37rc ex-coccidioides immitis and Filamentous at 22-25rc 2/29/2012 fungi classi & physio 20 .

3) Classification On the basis of size *MACROFUNGI/ MACROMYCETES .mould Zygomycete Fungi produces the fruiting bodies on surface of bred 21 .yeast .mushroom *MICROFUNGI/ MICROMYCETES .

2/29/2012 fungi classi & physio 22 . for example. ‡ The filamentous fungus paecilomyces uses a similar structure to penetrate the eggs of nematodes. the plant pathogen magnaporthe forms structure called an appressorium grisea which generates pressure which is a physiological process that increase intracellular turgon by producing osmolyte such as glycerol on plant epidermis for feeding. ‡ They can exert large penetrative mechanical forces.PHYSIOLOGY OF FUNGI ‡ The growth of fungi as hyphae on solid substrates for efficient extraction of nutrients.

2/29/2012 fungi classi & physio 23 .proteins ‡ fungi grow in a polar fashion²i. by extension into one direction or by volume expansion. ‡ fungi are considered heterotrophs organisms..e. ‡ fruiting bodies for disposal of sexual spores.Contd« ‡ Morphological adaptations ±hydrolytic enzymessecreted to digest large organic molecules like lipids .

ammonia. including simple compounds such as nitrate.ethanol etc 2/29/2012 fungi classi & physio 24 .acetate.‡ Fungi have a high degree of metabolic versatility that allows them to use a diverse range of organic substrates for growth.

Organic (pepton) .Grow well ‡ Grow in medium with intense sugar or salt 2/29/2012 fungi classi & physio 25 . K.Inorganic (ammonium & nitrate) ‡ Mineral (P. Mn micro element from substrate ‡ Vitamin synthesis on their bioactivities / not from substrate ex/ thiamine & biotin ‡ Water. Mg) macro element Fe. Cu. Zn.Nutrition Sources of fungus: ‡ Carbon from organic materials ‡ Nitrogen .

Aflatoxin plant cell wall plant cell 2/29/2012 fungi classi & physio 26 .How do Fungi get their fungal cells Nutrition? Heterotrophs secrete digestive exoenzymes absorb digested material from cell predators paralyzing prey plant cell parasites membrane feeding on living creatures decomposer breakdown dead remains -Some fungi secrete toxins that make foods poisonous -Fusarium ± Vomitoxin -Aspergillus flavus .

and whiskey (Yeast) Used to make bread rise Used to make soy sauce from soy beans Used to break down materials and recycle wastes and dead organisms ‡ Used to make certain drugs (ex. beer.‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Food ± mushrooms Used to make cheese ± Blue Cheese Used to make wine. Penicillin) Helpful Fungi Staphylococcus Penicillium Zone of inhibite growth 2/29/2012 fungi classi & physio 27 .

etc. Athlete¶s Foot. plastics. and mildew ‡ Cause Human diseases such as Ring Worm. fabrics. Dutch Elm Disease. lung Infections.Harmful Fungus ‡ Cause food spoilage ‡ Cause plant disease such as rusts. and Yeast Infections ‡ Destroy leather. 2/29/2012 fungi classi & physio 28 . Thrush.

Harrissharri.Research works ‡ Special issue: Physiology and Systems Biology of the Fungal Cell by Steven D. Lincoln.Center for Plant Science Innovation and Dept of Plant Pathology. University of Nebraska. 2/29/2012 fungi classi & physio 29 .

SUMMARY 2/29/2012 fungi classi & physio 30 .

2/29/2012 fungi classi & physio 31 .com ‡ www.wikipedia.estechlab.com/mold-and-fungi/fungal-glossary) ‡Essential of medical microbiology by Rajesh bhatia and Ratanlal lchhpujani.B Arora.REFERENCES ‡Textbook of microbiology by Ananthnarayana and Paniker ‡Modern¶s abc of biology by B. ‡www.

‡By the physiology we can know that how the fungi feed. -harmful -useful fingi.what are their nutrition sources .conclusion ‡Knowledge of classification of different types of fungi helps us to differentiate. 2/29/2012 fungi classi & physio 32 .

Thank you all 2/29/2012 fungi classi & physio 33 .

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