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Cryocooler

Cryocooler

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Published by: alirezata on Feb 29, 2012
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The phase average of Equation (2-17) is

( )

( )

.
0

,



+

+

=

′′′

αα

α

α

α

α

α

α

ρ

ρ

Tq

u

s

ts

sgen

r

r

(A1-46)

The first term on the right in Equation (A2-46) representing the time rate of change of

entropy can be expanded to obtain

( )

(

)

.

ˆ

ˆ

ts

t s

ts

ts

+

=

=

α

α

α

α

α

α

α

α

α

α

α

ρ

ρ

ε

ρ

ρ

(A1-47)

In developing this volume-averaged equation, the no-slip assumption is valid at the fluid

solid interface. Gradients in the porosity will also be neglected. Now applying the

averaging theorems to the second term on the right of Equation (A2-46) representing the

convection of entropy gives

( )

(

) (

) (

)

(

)

.

ˆ

ˆ

ˆ

ˆ

ˆ

ˆ

ˆ

ˆ

ˆ

α

α

α

α

α

α

α

α

α

α

α

α

α

α

α

α

α

α

α

α

α

α

α

α

α

ρ

ρ

ρ

ρ

ρ

ε

ρ

u

s

s

u

u

s

u

s

u

s

u

s

r

r

r

r

r

r

+

+

+

+

=

(A1-48)

Using Fourier’s Law, the third term on the right of Equation (A2-46) can be expanded to

∫ ∇



−∇

=



αβ

αα

α

α

αα

α

αα

α

A

dS

T T

k

n

V

TT

k

T T

k

1

(A1-49)

Substituting Equation (A2-47) through Equation (A2-49) into Equation (A2-46) produces

148

(

)

(

) (

) (

)

(

)

∫ ∇



+

+

+

+

+

+

=

′′′

αβ

αα

α

α

α

αα

α

α

α

α

α

α

α

α

α

α

α

α

α

α

α

α

α

α

α

α

α

α

α

α

α

α

α

α

α

α

α

α

α

α

α

α

ε

ρ

ε

ρ

ε

ρ

ε

ρ

ε

ρ

ρ

ε

ρ

A

gen

dS

T T

k

n

V

TT

k

u

s

s

u

u

s

u

s

u

s

ts

t s

s

1

1

ˆ

ˆ

ˆ

1

ˆ

ˆ

1

ˆ

ˆ

1

ˆ

ˆ

1

ˆ

ˆ

1

,

r

r

r

r

r

(A1-50)

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