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Cryocooler

Cryocooler

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The simplified gas entropy generation equation (2-28) is

0

1

,



∂∂

∂∂

=

′′′

∫αβ

ββ

β

β

β

β

β

β

β

β

β

β

β

β

β

β

τ

ρ

A

gen

dS

T T

k

n

V

T

x

Tk

x

t

s

s

(2-61)

The last term in Equation (2-60) is a surface integral representing the entropy generation

due to volumetric heat transfer between the two phases. The same integral appears in

Equation (2-61). By a similar method as that with the energy method, these terms can be

expressed as

40

(

)

α

α

β

β

α

α

ββ

β

β

β αβ

T

T

T H

a

dS

T T

k

n

V

v

A

=

− ∫

1

(2-62)

and

(

).

1

α

α

β

β

β

β

αα

α

α

α αβ

T

T

T H

a

dS

T T

k

n

V

v

A

=

(2-63)

Substitution of Equation (2-62) and Equation (2-63) into the entropy generation model

and dropping the volume averaging notation results in

( )

( )

( )

α

β

β

α

αα

α

α

α

α

α

α

ρ

ρ

T

T

TH

a

xT

Tk

N

x

s

u

x

ts

s

v

k

gen



∂∂

∂∂

∂∂

+

=

′′′,

(2-64)

and

( ).

,

α

β

α

β

ββ

β

β

β

β

τ

ρ

T

T

TH

a

xT

T

k

x

ts

s

v

gen

+



∂∂

∂∂

∂∂

=

′′′

(2-65)

At this point, it is possible to write the entropy generation rate equation for the gas-matrix

system, which is

.
0

,

,

,

′′′

+

′′′

=

′′′

gen

gen

sys

gen

s

s

s

β

β

α

α

ε

ε

(2-66)

By using the Bridgman tables (49) the Maxwell relation for a pure substance can be

written in a more convenient form as

(

),

1

ρ

ρ hd

dE

T

ds

=

(2-67)

which can then be used to simplify the entropy generation equations for the gas and the

matrix. After considerable simplification, using the energy and momentum equations, the

gas entropy generation equation reduces to

41

.

2

2

2

,

xp

Tu

T

T

T
T H

a

xT

T k

N

s

v

k

gen

∂∂

+



∂∂

=

′′′

α

αα

α

β

β

α

α

αα

α

(2-68)

For an incompressible substance, the Maxwell Relation reduces to

,

dT

Tc

ds =

(2-69)

which, together with the matrix energy equation, and the matrix entropy generation

equation reduces to

.

2

2

2

,

α

β

β

α

β

ββ

β

β

τ

T

T

T
T H

a

xT

Tk

s

v

gen

+



∂∂

=

′′′

(2-70)

Now the system entropy generation equation can be written

.
0

2

2

2

2

2

,

∂∂

+



∂∂

+



∂∂

=

′′′

43

42

1

4
43

4
42

1

4
4 3

4
4 2

1

4
4 3

4
4 2

1

losses

inertial

and

viscous

transfer

heat

Film

v

conduction

Matrix

conduction

Gas

k

sys

gen

xp

Tu

T

T

T
T H

a

xT

Tk

xT

T k

N

s

α

αα

α

α

β

β

α

β

ββ

β

β

α

αα

α

ε

τ

ε

ε

(2-71)

It should be noted that all terms are positive definite, including the last term representing

entropy generation due to viscous and inertial losses. This requires that the sign of the

pressure gradient always be opposite to the sign of the velocity. This is an interesting

result, but not one that is immediately obvious. Using the momentum equation, this term

can be written as

0



+

+

=

∂∂

F

x u

u

tu

Tu

xp

Tu

α

α

α

α

α

αα

α

αα

ρ

ρ

(2-72)

where F is the Darcy-Forchheimer surface integral,

42

.

ˆ

ˆ

3

ˆ

~

1





=

αβ

α

α

α

α

α

α

α

µ

µ

A

dS

u

u

p

I

n

V

F

r

r

(2-73)

This indicates that if F IS NOT a strict function of velocity as proposed then it must

combine with the acceleration terms such that the entropy generation is positive definite.

For positive velocity

x u

u

tu

F

α

α

α

α
α ρ

ρ

(2-74)

and for negative velocity

.

x u

u

tu

F

α

α

α

α
α ρ

ρ

(2-75)

The other implication which is possible to extract from this result is that if F IS a strict

function of velocity, as proposed, then the acceleration terms should be eliminated from

the momentum equation. This produces the positive definite result

.

0

1

2/
1

2

3

2

+

=

=

∂∂

Kc

u

u

K

T

F

Tu

xp

Tu

f

ε

ρ

µε

α

α

α

α

αα

α

αα

(2-76)

There is an additional requirement on the functionality of the interfacial

convection terms. The assumptions imposed by Equation (2-54) must satisfy the

additional requirement that

43

.
0

ˆ

1

ˆ

1

2



=

∫αβ

α

α

α

β

β

β

β

β

α

α
αα

α

α

α

β

β

β

β

α

α

A

v

dS

T

k

n

T

TT

V

T

TT

V

T

T

T
T H

a

(2-77)

where the volume averaging notation is reapplied for clarity. This statement is produced

by retaining the surface integrals representing the interfacial heat transfer through the

simplification process for the gas and matrix entropy generation equations. In this form,

it is clear that the entropy generation due to this effect is directly dependent on the

temperature deviation quantities, α

Tˆ and β

Tˆ, which are defined in the Appendix 1. These

quantities are proportional to the volume-averaged temperature difference.

The entropy generation can be used to calculate lost available power by

integrating the volumetric entropy generation rate over the entire regenerator. The lost

power is then the total entropy generation rate times the reference temperature giving

.

0

2

2

2

2

2

0

,



∂∂

+



∂∂

+



∂∂

=

′′′

=

rL

v

k

o

L

sys

gen

o

lost

Adx

xp

Tu

T

T

T
T H

a

xT

Tk

xT

T k

N

T

Adx

s

T

W

α

αα

α

α

β

β

α

β

β

β

β

β

α

αα

α

ε

τ

ε

ε

&

(2-78)

The reference temperature is the lowest naturally occurring temperature in the system.

The lost power represents the additional input power that is required to perform the same

thermodynamic function as compared to an internally reversible refrigerator. The lost

power is a scalar value which can then be used as an optimization parameter. This idea is

not investigated beyond this level in the dissertation other than calculating this value in

Chapter 5. This form of the lost power represents an internal method of calculation. An

44

alternative method can be considered based on an external control volume. The lost

power for a quasi-steady system with only mass flow interactions with the external

environment can be found by cyclical integration of the entropy flux at the boundaries.

These two methods of calculating the lost power will give identical results for an

analytical system, but differences will be notices for a numerical approximation. This

provides a good method for evaluating the accuracy of a numerical scheme. Values of

this lost power discrepancy are reported in Chapter 5 for the numerical model presented

in Chapter 3.

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