Franklyn’sMedi cal English

Preface Doctors are inevitable in today’s world as the patients are. Patients come in all different shapes and sizes. They also speak many different languages. Similarly doctors hail from different territory and from different background. Whether you are working abroad or at home, there will come a time when you will need to rely on English to communicate. These pages can help nurses, doctors, pharmacists, paramedics, receptionists, specialists or even the patients who frequent the chambers of those humanoid Gods. Franklyn’s Medical English will help you learn some basic English expressions, terms and vocabulary related to the medical field. By studying and practising Medical English, you will be able to make your patients feel more comfortable, and have a better understanding of their needs. You will also learn how to talk to their loved ones and communicate with other medical staffs who speak English. The patients will achieve a cutting edge benefit out of those medical terms which so far were an obstacle to them. These will enable them to communicate with ease and will help the doctors to diagnose the needs of the visitors more quickly and effectively. This highly interactive, specialist course, aims to provide the student with a sufficient level of Medical English terminology to help develop the communication skills required to converse with English speaking doctors and patients. So let’s take a plunge into the world of Medicos and try our medical bent of mind with Franklyn’s Medical English. Franklyn’s Medical English course covers a broad range of topics which include:


Unit 1• Medical vocabulary, terminology, and Idioms (1-5 classes) Unit 2• Sample Diseases and Comprehension Tests. (6-10 classes) Unit 3• Common Expressions on Doctor -Patient relationships, Medical Jokes.(11-15 Classes) Unit 4• Human Body; Understanding the scientific terms and names for the different body parts. (16th Class) Unit 5• Medical abbreviations. Story related to the Medical Fields. (17- 20 classes)

Unit 1
Class 1 Vocabulary
Word part of speech abnormal adj ache noun/verb acute adj

Meaning not normal for the human body

Example sentence This amount of weight loss is abnormal for women of your age. I can't sleep because my knees ache in the night. We knew the baby was coming right away because the woman's labour pains were acute. Your son is extremely allergic to peanuts. We called the ambulance when Josh stopped breathing. I can't remember the accident because I had amnesia. We had to amputate his leg because the infection spread

pain that won't go away quick to become severe/bad

allergy noun allergic adj ambulance noun amnesia noun amputation noun amputate verb

a body's abnormal reaction to certain foods or environmental substances (eg causes a rash) emergency vehicle that rushes people to a hospital a condition that causes people to lose their memory permanent removal of a limb


so quickly. anaemia noun anaemic adj antibiotics noun anti-depressant noun appointment noun arthritis noun asthma (attack) noun occurs when the body doesn't have enough red blood cells I have low energy because I am anaemic.

medication that kills bacteria and My throat infection went away cures infections after I started the antibiotics. medication that helps relieve anxiety and sadness a scheduled meeting with a medical professional a disease that causes the joints to become swollen and crippled a condition that causes a blockage of the airway and makes it difficult for a person to breathe a disease-causing organism The anti-depressants helped me get on with life after Lucy died. I've made you an appointment with a specialist in three week's time. My grandmother can't knit anymore because the arthritis in her hands is so bad. I carry an inhaler when I run because I have asthma.

bacteria noun bedsore noun benign adj biopsy noun blood count noun blood donor noun blood pressure

To prevent the spread of bacteria it is important that nurses wash their hands often. If you don't get up and take a walk, you will develop painful bedsores. We're hoping that the tests will show that the lump in your breast is benign.

wounds that develop on a patient's body from lying in one place for too long not harmful (not cancerous)

removal of human tissue in order The biopsy ruled out a number to conduct certain medical tests of illnesses. the amount of red and white blood cells a person has a person who gives blood to a blood bank or other person the rate at which blood flows You will be happy to know that your blood count is almost back to normal. Blood donors have to answer questions about their medical history. High blood pressure puts you


C-section noun cancer noun cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) noun cast noun chapel. My leg was in a cast for graduation. The woman was badly bruised when she came into the emergency room. If you want a place to pray. chapeline noun procedure that involves removing The baby was so large that we a baby from its mother through had to perform a Caesarean an incision in the woman's lower section. You saved your brother's life by performing CPR. You will probably always have to wear a brace on your ankle when you jog. We thought it was just a sprain.noun brace noun breech adj broken adj bruise noun bruised adj through the body (high/low) a device that holds injured body parts in place position of an unborn baby in which the feet are down and the head is up a bone that is divided in two or more pieces as a result of an injury injured body tissue that is visible underneath the skin at risk of having a heart attack. Class 2 Caesarean section. a priest who visits patients in the hospital type of treatment used on cancer patients There are many different options when it comes to treating cancer. the chapel is on the third floor. We thought it was going to be a breech birth. abdomen disease caused by the uncontrollable growth of cells restoring a person's breath and circulation a hard bandage that is wrapped around a broken bone to keep it in place a place where loved ones can go to pray for a patient's recovery. but it turned out his leg was broken. chemotherapy noun My mother has already had three rounds of chemotherapy. but the baby turned himself around. 4 .

It is hard to watch a loved one suffering with dementia. The accident left the patient both deaf and blind. 5 . loss of mental capacity type of disease typically involving insulin deficiency medical explanation of an illness or condition experiencing pain a medical disorder that is harmful I understand that this disease to a person's health runs in your family. characterized by itchy spots all over the body It is best to get chickenpox as a child so that you don't get it worse as an adult. a lack of something necessary for The tests show that you have one's health an iron deficiency. requiring immediate and constant You can't see her right now. in need of water It is easy for the elderly to become dehydrated in this heat. when a bone is temporarily separated from its joint You will have to wear a sling because of your dislocated shoulder. objects that people with injured I'd rather hop on one foot than legs or feet use to help them walk use crutches. a sac in the body-tissue filled with fluid (sometimes diseased) unable to hear We're going to remove the cysts just to be on the safe side. The doctor would prefer to share the diagnosis with the patient himself. People with diabetes have to constantly check their blood sugar levels. This pain medication should relieve some of your discomfort. a person who determines the We only call the coroner if we cause of death after a person dies think a death is suspicious. medical attention she's in critical condition.chickenpox noun coroner noun critical condition noun crutches noun cyst noun deaf adj deficiency noun dehydrated adj dementia noun diabetes noun diagnosis noun discomfort noun disease noun dislocated adj a virus commonly contracted by children.

and his temperature is near danger point. People who have the flu should not visit hospital patients. either on or under the skin instance in which blood stops pumping through the heart The disease is part genetic and part environmental. or mouth. That growth on your shoulder is starting to worry me. higher than normal body temperature many types of respiratory or intestinal infections passed on through a virus broken or cracked bone a micro-organism. medical background of a person's The doctor was concerned family members about my family history of skin cancer. eyes. People who smoke are at greater risk of having a heart 6 . causing death The doctor made a fatal error when he wrote the wrong prescription. He is very feverish. a medical condition or physical feature that is passed on in the family a ball of tissue that grows bigger than normal. especially one Flowers are not allowed in the that causes disease ward to avoid the risk of germs being brought in. Your wrist is fractured and needs a cast. so we didn't know we were having a baby. The child was rushed into the ER after he had a severe allergic reaction to a bee sting.emergency noun ER (emergency room) noun external adj false negative noun adj family history noun fatal adj fever noun feverish adj flu (influenza) noun fracture noun fractured adj germ noun genetic adj growth noun heart attack noun a medical problem that needs immediate attention the hospital room used for treating patients with immediate and life-threatening injuries on the outside It is important that children know which number to dial in case of an emergency. Do not get it near your ears. This cream is for external use only. a test that incorrectly comes back We had two false negative negative pregnancy tests.

My right ankle was so inflamed it was twice the size of my left one. Her injuries were minor. Her illness went away when she started eating better. HIV noun hives noun illness noun ill adj the virus that infects the human T-cells and leads to AIDS bumps that appear on the surface of the skin during an allergic reaction general term for any condition that makes a person feel sick for a certain period of time HIV can be passed down from the mother to her fetus. I had to have stitches to close the incision. and viruses an injection that protects against a specific disease cut in the body made during surgery unclear You can't have visitors because your immune system is low. Babies are immunized three times in their first year. The wound should be covered when you swim to prevent it from becoming infected.attack. The nurse will demonstrate how to bathe an infant. infections. just a few cuts and bruises. Class 3 immune system noun immunization noun immunize verb incision noun inconclusive adj infant noun infection noun infected adj inflamed adj injury noun intensive care unit (ICU) noun the parts of the body that fight diseases. young baby diseased area of the body (viral or bacterial) appearance (red and swollen) of an injured body part damage to the body section of the hospital where patients get constant attention and doctors rely on specialized equipment 7 . She will remain in the ICU until she can breathe on her own. I broke out in hives after I ate that potato casserole. We have to do more x-rays because the first ones were inconclusive.

The victim was shot in two places but the bullet wounds are not life-threatening. You must wear a face mask and gloves while you are in the OR. The needle will make your lower body feel numb. inside the organs The doctors will be monitoring her for any internal bleeding. lie down and call me. If you are feeling lightheaded again. a diagnosis place where samples of blood/urine etc. newborn noun numb adj an infant that is less than three months old no feeling in a certain body part You have to support her neck because she is still a newborn. OR (operating room) the place where major surgeries noun and operations take place 8 . feeling discomfort on the skin's surface a tube that pumps liquids and medication into a patient's body tests that come back from a The lab results have come in laboratory and help doctors make and you are free to go home. caused by lack of oxygen in the brain expected to grow and get much worse (especially related to cancerous cells) I'll take these samples down to the lab on my way out. The woman has severe brain damage and is currently on life support.internal adj itchy adj IV noun lab results noun lab (laboratory) noun life support noun life-threatening adj light-headed adj malignant adj under the skin. medical school (med. The toddler was so dehydrated that the doctor decided to get him on an IV. I'm afraid at least one of the tumours is malignant. If you are allergic to this medication your skin will get red and itchy. place where someone trains to be After eight years of medical school) a doctor school I can finally practice noun medicine. are taken for testing a machine that keeps patients alive by helping them breathe when injuries and conditions are extremely serious feeling of dizziness and being off-balance.

You should be able to buy a bandage at the pharmacy. pain reliever noun paralyzed adj patient noun pharmacist noun a medical procedure that involves The operation lasted seven going inside a person's body in an hours. pharmacy. The child was bitten by a poisonous snake. Ask your family physician to refer you to a specialist. The patients in Room 4 are not getting along. We thought her legs were paralyzed for life. attempt to fix a problem strong discomfort in certain areas We gave your husband some of the body medicine to relieve some of the pain. The woman was well prepared for labour because she took the prenatal classes. If the radiation doesn't kill all of the abnormal cells. drugstore a place where people go to buy noun medication and other medical supplies physician noun poison noun poisonous adj prenatal adj prescription noun prescribe verb privacy noun private adj radiation noun doctor a substance that is very dangerous if it enters the human body of the time period leading up to giving birth the correct amount and type of medication needed to cure an illness or relieve symptoms being alone. Ask the pharmacist if there is a generic brand of this medication. personal (eg test results) high energy X-rays that destroy cancer cells 9 . but she is learning how to walk. You will need to visit your doctor to get another prescription. type of medicine that takes away some or all of the discomfort of an illness or injury unable to move certain areas of the body a person staying in a hospital or medical facility a person who fills a doctor's prescription and gives people advice about medication You can take two pain killers every four hours. You will have to pay for a private hospital room if you don't want a room-mate. but it was successful. the cancer will come back.operation noun operate on verb pain noun pain killer.

Class 4 scrub up verb second opinion noun seizure noun carefully wash hands before and after seeing a patient I have to scrub up and get ready for surgery. a doctor's appointment to check a I'd like to see you a year from person's general health now for a routine check-up.residency resident noun routine check-up noun scrubs noun part of a doctor's training that takes place in the hospital. or blue) worn by medical professionals I have some extra scrubs in my locker. plain uniform (usually green. painful I have a sore throat and a runny nose. white. other symptoms that might occur One of the side effects of as a result of a certain medication antidepressants is a loss of or procedure appetite. knee etc) My family doctor is sending me to a specialist. a student working under a doctor John is a resident under Dr Brown. wrist. sudden violent movements or unconsciousness caused by electrical signal malfunction in the brain body not getting enough blood flow People who suffer from epilepsy are prone to seizures. I sprained my knee playing soccer. the uncontrollable tightening of a Ever since I injured my leg muscle I've been having muscle spasms in my upper thigh. a patient is stable if their medical You can see your husband 10 . input from a second doctor about I went to another doctor to get an illness or symptom a second opinion about these headaches. a doctor that is an expert in a certain kind of medicine an injury (less serious than a break) to a joint (ankle. shock noun side effects noun sore adj spasm noun specialist noun sprain noun/verb stable condition The woman was in shock after being pulled from the river.

temporary pain now. alive. ligaments (parts that hold the joints together) growing bigger and rounder after an injury to a joint pain or physical changes that occur because of an illness or disease amount of heat measured in a body. but appearing to be asleep and unaware of the surroundings I hit my head on the steering wheel and was still unconscious adj 11 . It may sting when I insert the needle. worry that causes muscles to You need to take some time tighten and blood pressure to rise off work and relieve some of your stress. The heart transplant saved your life. umbilical cord noun the lifeline from the mother to the I had an emergency C-section fetus (when cut at birth this forms because the umbilical cord the belly button) was wrapped around the baby's neck. You aren't pregnant.noun sting noun/verb stress noun stressed adj swelling noun swollen adj condition is no longer changing rapidly sharp. symptoms noun temperature noun tender adj test results noun therapy noun transplant noun ultrasound noun You have all of the symptoms of a diabetic. he is in a stable condition. The ultrasound shows that we are expecting a baby boy. The incision was tender after the surgery. I was able to go back to work a few weeks after starting the therapy. We brought Jesse to emergency because he was running a (high) temperature. higher than normal temperature painful when touched or used medical information that helps doctors understand a patient's condition or body treatment aimed at improving a person's mental or physical condition moving of an organ from one human to another a test that examines the body's internal organs and processes using sound waves (often used during pregnancies) I knew my ankle was sprained because it was so swollen. The test results came back negative.

The doctor wrote me a -------------------------for a new type of pain reliever. The pregnant woman can't stop vomiting.unconscious when the ambulance arrived. a dangerous organism that causes The virus is contractable the spread of minor and major through the exchange of diseases bodily fluids. time of day when friends and family are allowed to visit patients in hospital discharge of a person stomach contents through the mouth a section of a hospital or health facility where patients stay a chair on wheels used for transporting patients from place to place injury to body ("flesh wound" means not deep) a photograph of a person's bones and organs I'm afraid you'll have to come back during visiting hours. The children's ---------------------is located on the fourth floor of the hospital. 12 . Class 5 Vocabulary Quiz 1 2 3 4 5 You shouldn't drive because this medicine might make you feel-----------------. Discontinue using this cream immediately if it makes you feel-----------------. so you may have--------------------. The wounded soldiers are being airlifted to the hospital. I should warn you that we're entering the mental health ward. The technician took x-rays of my shoulder to make sure it wasn't broken. the thin tubes that transport blood I'm just looking for the best around the body and back to the vein in which to insert the heart needle. If you get in the wheelchair I'll take you down to see the garden. urine sample noun vein noun virus noun visiting hours noun vomit noun/verb ward noun wheelchair noun wound noun wounded adj x-ray noun/verb a small amount of the body's liquid waste that is tested for different medical reasons The urine sample tells us how much alcohol is in your blood. Your blood count is abnormal.

or they specialize in certain diseases. 10 You couldn't have inherited the disease because it is not------------------. such as the back or the brain. including cancer specializes in eye diseases specialist for babies and children specializes in the body's movement foot specialist 13 . Medical Specialists Medical specialists are experts in certain fields of medicine. 7 The ----------------------suggests that your wife is seventeen weeks pregnant. Here is a list of the most common types of specialists. 9 The physician will be monitoring your ------------to make sure it isn't cancerous. Family doctors keep a list of local specialists and can help patients choose the right specialist for each medical issue. allergist: anesthesiologist: cardiologist: chiropractor: dentist: dermatologist: fertility specialist: gynecologist: massage therapist: midwife: naturopath: neurologist: obstetrician: occupational therapist: oncologist: ophthalmologist: pediatrician: physical therapist: podiatrist: specializes in determining food and environmental allergies specializes in pain prevention during surgery heart specialist back specialist tooth specialist skin specialist helps people who have difficulty getting pregnant specializes in women's needs specializes in muscle relaxation helps women deliver babies in a natural way specializes in natural cures and remedies brain specialist specialist for pregnant women specializes in workplace health tumour specialist. In many cases specialists require a referral from a family doctor before they will see a patient.6 ------------------------------from this medication include nausea and depression. such as cancer. 8 The patient has asked for some -------------------while her family is visiting. They either treat specific parts of the body. Study the list and then check your understanding by taking the quiz.

She hasn't put on any weight in two months and she keeps getting ear infections. -------------------------------------------------------The test results show that I have an advanced form of blood cancer. I'm also having trouble breathing. -------------------------------------------------------I don't want to take any drugs that will cause me to become addicted to them. We have tried everything that the books suggest. I don't know what to do now. Which specialist does each patient need? 1 I have a terrible rash on my arms and legs. but I do need some sort of pain relief. -------------------------------------------------------I get terrible acne and I have tried all of the products in the pharmacy. --------------------------------------------------------My husband and I have been trying to get pregnant for three years. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 14 . We want to know when we are due and we want to make sure the fetus is healthy. -------------------------------------------------------I've been having major chest pains this week. I hate being stuck in a wheelchair. -------------------------------------------------------My baby is not developing properly. -------------------------------------------------------My left eye has an infection that won't go away and my vision has been blurry for two weeks now. I think I'm allergic to dairy food. -------------------------------------------------------I still can't walk and it's been three months since my accident.psychiatrist: radiologist: specialist in mental health specializes in imaging tests Referral Quiz Read the patient complaints. -------------------------------------------------------My husband and I just took a home pregnancy test. but it also might be grass. and it came out positive.

---------------------------------------------------------- Medical Supplies and Tools Here is a list of some of the most common supplies found in doctor's offices. and retrieving) thin. netted material used for dressing wounds sharp pointed metal piece that pricks the skin (attached to a syringe). operating rooms. antiseptic bandage bandage scissors blood pressure monitor dressing elastic tape eye chart forceps gauze hypodermic needle IV bag medicine cup microscope otoscope oxygen mask privacy screen liquid used to sterilize (clean) the surface of the skin a cloth covering that is placed over a wound to prevent bleeding. used for taking blood or administering medicine the pouch that contains liquids to be pumped into a patient's body small plastic measuring cup equipment that makes small things appear larger than they are a device used for looking into a patient's ears equipment that fits over the nose and mouth and supplies oxygen an object that is used to separate the doctor and patient from others in an open room 15 . swelling and infection tool used to cut bandages a tool that measures the force of blood flow through a person's body protective covering that is placed over a wound a thin roll of stretchy material that is sticky on one side a poster of letter. and number combinations of various sizes used to test a person's eyesight instrument used during operations and medical procedures (assists the doctor in pulling. holding. and medical kits. word. Study the vocabulary and try the matching exercise.

10 Can you cut this gauze for me? Answers: 1c. 6 Let's find out your weight. 7j. 7 I need to examine the patient in private. 9b. 3d. 2a. 9 Let's see if you are running a fever. 3 We'll have to get a blood sample. 4h. 8g. 5 We'll have to feed him with liquids. 2 Prepare the examining table for the next patient. 5i. 4 I need to sterilize the wound. 8 Let's check your vision. 6f. 10e a table and head-rest paper b Thermometer c oxygen mask d hypodermic needle e bandage scissors f Scales g eye chart h Antiseptic i IV bag j privacy screen Unit 2 Class 6 Article 1: 16 .scales stethoscope syringe table and head-rest paper test tube thermometer vial a device that measures a person's weight equipment for listening to a person's heart and lungs a cylinder-shaped piece that attaches to a needle and can be filled with liquid paper that is placed on an examining table or head-rest to prevent the spread of germs glass cylinder that is filled with blood or other liquids and can be capped and placed in a storage area an instrument used to check a person's body temperature a small bottle or container used for storing liquids Matching Exercise Match the comments with the supplies that are needed: 1 I can't catch my breath.

chest pain. However. What age does asthma present at? A. Approximately 10% of children have asthma and that rate may rise in the future. What are some common symptoms associated with asthma? A. ? shortness of breath B. Common symptoms of asthma are wheezing. Experts don't agree why the rate is increasing but here are some ideas: .Decreases in the rates of breast feeding may also play a role. tobacco smoke. C. ? ? ? coughing chest pain all of the above 1. shortness of breath. Some risk factors for asthma are a family history of asthma. ? ? ? childhood 30s 10-12 years 2.Overview of Asthma Asthma is a disease of the lungs that is that is characterized by tightening of the air pathways. ? any age B. dust. it can be controlled. pollution) . Some common features of asthma are inflammation. A. Multiple Choice Questions: 0. Many of these conditions are reversible with medication but not 100% reversible in all patients. presence of allergies. tightness or pressure.Children are being exposed to more triggers (things that bring on asthma attacks. exposure to tobacco smoke.) . coughing. Asthma may occur at any age but is very common in children. C. regular lung infections. Asthma is ___________ of the lungs. 17 . and being male.Children don't have strong immune systems (they aren't exposed to many childhood diseases. With the right information and medical attention medical professionals can prevent many deaths. D. The current rise in asthma cases among children is alarming. low birth weight. airway obstruction and airway sensitivity. Asthma is a disease that causes many problems for the patient. D.

? ? ? ? a part a disease a risk factor a symptom 3. ? ? ? IV drug users the elderly children 5. C. Many of the symptoms of asthma are 100% ________ with medication in some patients. regular lung infestions. D. C. D. and exposure to tabacco smake are all ___________ of asthma A. there has been an increase in asthma cases among ________. ? ? ? triggers diseases exposures 4. ? ? ? stronger avoidable sensitivity 6. ? 20% B. What percent of children have asthma? A. A. ? Children are being exposed to more triggers. What is one idea why the asthma rate is increasing in children? A. D.A. Family history of asthma. Recently. ? reversible B. C. B. ? ? ? 1% 10% 15% 7. C. ? young adults B. 18 . C. D. A. ? risk factors B. D.

Experts don’t agree why the rate is increasing but here are some ideas: . regular lung infections.Children are being exposed to more (things that bring on asthma attacks. Asthma is a disease that causes _________ . Fill in the gaps with the words form the text above. C. Asthma may occur at age but is very common in children. tightness or pressure. ? ? ? triggers features risk factors 9. chest pain. Breast feeding has increased. Some for asthma are a family history of asthma. However. dust. coughing. pollution) . ? severe headaches B. C. ? ? ? Children have strong immune systems. A. i---------is a disease of the that is that is characterized by tightening of the air pathways. low birth weight. Class 7 B. ? diseases B. Airway obstruction and airway sensitivity are common ________ of asthma. Some common of asthma are inflammation.) . C.Decreases in the rates of breast feeding may also play a role. and being male. shortness of . D. exposure to tobacco smoke. tobacco smoke. The current rise in asthma cases among is alarming.Children don’t have strong (they aren’t exposed to many childhood diseases. Asthma is a disease that causes many for the patient. Many of these conditions are reversible with medication but not 100% reversible in all patients. presence of allergies. More children are smoking.B. Approximately 10% of children have asthma and that rate may rise in the future. airway obstruction and airway sensitivity. Common symptoms of asthma are wheezing. it can be 19 ? ? ? tightening of air pathways relaxation of the lungs medication . 8. D. A. D.

it can permanently damage the bone. This joint inflammation causes swelling. speaking out loud. This is the most prevalent. Damage to the synovial lining cause synovial fluid to leak and produce fluid in the joint lining. . the cartilage of the bone slowly wears away with age and the bones rub together. 2. tenderness.controlled. Lungs. Problem. Try to answer the following conversation questions. These crystals cause swelling and severe pain. Immune. Gout. Osteoarthritis. With the right information and medical attention. Triggers. pain and stiffness. pain. Arthritis is not always limited to the joints of the body and can affect soft tissues and internal organs. When the cartilage is warn down. the body チ fs immune system begins to attack the joints of the body causing the joint lining to swell. Feature. swelling and distress for the patient.What are some of the main types of arthritis? . If the disease lasts long or occurs repeatedly. inflammation causes damage to the cartilage and synovial lining. In osteoarthritis. it can lead to tissue damage. medical professionals can prevent many deaths. Children. All of this causes pain. System. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA. The three most common types of arthritis are: 1. Any. the space in the joint becomes smaller and the bones may rub together. If the joint lining continues to grow.What are some risk factors for arthritis? . 3. Factor.) In rheumatoid arthritis. List: A Asthma. Breath. Gout is a condition where the body cannot effectively remove uric acid and the uric acid crystallizes in the joints like needles. The typical signs of arthritis are swelling of the joint that is warm to the touch. redness and loss of function.What are some treatment options available to arthritis patients? 20 . In the joint. stiffness. This adds to the swelling along with the inflammatory response of the body. Article 2A: Overview of Arthritis Arthritis is a general term that refers to over a hundred different types of joint inflammation.

To diagnose arthritis a variety of blood tests and xrays may be necessary. warmth around the joint. old thing . Same about do give how missed out progress some sound want DOCTOR Good Morning. Factors to take under consideration are age. swelling. the patient should use braces. joint pain. and being overweight. It seems to be getting worse.. Arthritis is very common and affects almost a third of the American population.heartburn. There are more than 100 different types of arthritis and treatment may vary depending on the type of arthritis the patient has. Some common symptoms of arthritis are redness. With age. lifestyle factors. doctor. These may include age. the cartilage in the joints wears down causing the most common type of arthritis. Surgery to correct the joint damage may also be an option. Wilson . DOCTOR Let me just have a look at your notes. current medications. However. Treatment will vary with the type of arthritis and the patient. The goals of arthritis treatment are to avoid pain and further destruction of the joint. One way is to avoid activities that cause pain. Work conditions that require heavy lifting and being overweight cause heavy stress on the joints of the body. pain relievers and anti-inflammatory medication should be taken to relieve the pain and swelling. I see you've 21 . 1. There are many types of arthritis and in general the causes are still unknown. and stiffness. osteoarthritis. gender. Treatment for arthritis generally involves pain management. A physical therapist can advise exercise routines that help maintain joint mobility. Mr. there are some risk factors for arthritis.Class 8 Article 2B: Arthritis Information for the Patient Arthritis is caused by inflammation inside the joints of the body. Fill in the Gaps with suitable alternatives. exercise and relaxation. overall health and medical history.what can I for you this morning? PATIENT Good Morning. Just me a minute. Arthritis also occurs more often in women than men. When the joint becomes painful. I'm sick of it. Lastly. splints and supporters to help support the joints especially during strenuous activities.

The sales assistant first wants to the pharmacist the situation. which produces red cells. And I don't seem to be getting any better. something like that. Finally the pharmacist suggests her some but warns her if the baby doesn’t in a day.been coming to us once a month for time.consult cough mixture get better hanging on counter relies on short with turn into look after making up on over the A woman walks into the pharmacy to buy some medicine for her toddler. The spinal column bones are called: VERTEBRAE COSTAL FRAME VERTEBRE RIBCAGE 9. DOCTOR That doesn't too good. She is angry and rather the pharmacist first because she doesn’t like to be kept . The skull contains _____ bone(s). Class 9 Medical English Quiz (1) THE BASIC BODY STRUCTURE 1. just to see if we've something. HEMATIC TISSUE 1/5 26 VERTEBER VERTEBRIS CELL JELLY 6. The thoracic cavity bone frame is also called the: STERNOTHORACIC BOX TOP CAGE 10. That's about often I've been coming to see you. 7. How many bones are there in the human body? 3. The human bone frame is called the: SKELETAL 1028 A JOINT LIAGTURES MIELLUS 1/3 1 1/2 23 1/4 12 84 SKELETON 116 A KNUCKLE LIGUENTS 206 A KNEE LIGAMENTS AN ELBOW LINKS MARROW SQUELETTON CORPSE 2. Hands and feet contain _____ of all the body bones. Bones are also held together by: 5. Bones contain _____ . PATIENT All right . I'm worse in fact. The connexion between bones is called: 4.what do you to know? 2 . the cough may something bad. I just don't seem to be making any at all. The customer then decides to stay at home and her child. 8. or to see if you've left anything . The clavicle is also known as the: MOTORIST'S BONE SCAPULARY END COLLAR BONE LUCKY BONE 22 . even though her company greatly on her work. The woman has to wait a little as the pharmacist is just busy a prescription. does it? Let me ask you a few questions. Would you say that's right? PATIENT Yes.

The dermis is __ times thicker than the epidermis. Skin receptors detecting heat are called __ RUFFINI CORPUSCLES RUFFIAN CORPUSCLES RUFFINI CORPUSCLES 10. Its average surface. 7. in an adult body. Finger bones are also called : 9. ENCOUNTER ANTEBONES EAR FINGER 8. Skin receptors detecting motion are called __ PACINIAN CORPUSCLES PACCINO'S CORPUSCLES PACINIANS CORPUSCLES PUCCINI'S CORPUSCLES Class 10 Medical English Quiz 3 : THE HAND 1. It is the __ organ in the whole body. The skin is the organ with the __ surface area in the whole body. amounts to __ square meter(s) 3.Medical English Quiz 2: THE SKIN 1. Its average weight. 6. Proximal carpal bones are those _____ the body. 23 . How many bones are there in a hand? 3. How many bones are there in the carpus? 5. The thumb is one bone _____ than the other fingers. The smallest finger is called the : LITTLE FINGER 10. SECOND LARGEST 3 4 1 LARGEST 2 SECOND HEAVIEST 1 2 4 3 4 2 FOLICULES FOLLICULES FOLICLES SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE RUFFINI CORPUSCULES FOURTH HEAVIEST THIRD HEAVIEST THIRD LARGEST FOURTH LARGEST 2. HEAVIEST 4 3 1 2 5 3 4. Distal carpal bones are those ______ from the body. The epidermis contains __ layer(s) of cells. Distal carpal bones _____ with metacarpal bones. amounts to about __ Kg 5. Both hands _____ the same number of bones. The dermis is also called the __ CORIUM INNERMOST TISSUE 9. 6. Hair bulbs are located in __ FOLLICLES COLLAGENEOUS MATTER 8. The carpus is also known as the ______ 4. THE FURTHEST AWAY FURTHER AWAY ARTICULE PHALANGES JOLLY FINGER ARTICLE FOREBONES 7. in an adult body. CONTAINS 72 WRIST 6 NEAR AWAY ARTICULATE PHALANXES SMALL FINGER 9 34 43 ELBOW 8 NEAREST 12 CLOSER NEARER FAR AWAY CONTAIN 27 KNEE ANKLE DO NOT CONTAIN DOES NOT CONTAIN 2.

5 Kg 2. 10. LARGE LARGEST LARGER MOST LARGE Medical English Quiz No. muscular contraction rate is of about _____. 2 1 Kg 17% 1 3 1. The cerebrum is broken down into 4 lobes. Muscles use ______ more oxygen when in motion than at rest. Striated muscle is also called : SKELETON MUSCLE BONE MUSCLE INVOLUNTARY MUSCLE FAIR FIBRES LINES EVERY STRIPES ALL OF 6. CLEAR FIBRES BANDS ALL PAIR FIBRES STRIPS SOME LIGHT FIBRES 8. The two types of striated muscular tissue are called dark fibres and _____. also called: CONTACTIVE FIBRES UNION FIBRES LINKING FIBRES CONNECTIVE FIBRES 9.5 Kg 97% 4 2 Kg 57% 77% A BILLION A STREAK A FIT FIRSTBRAIN SIDE GLOBES A HUNDRED MILLION 2. 3. Our body contains over _____ muscles. Smooth muscle is also called : INTERNAL MUSCLE ORGAN MUSCLE INNER MUSCLE 7. The brain contains about _____ neurones. Muscles account for about _____ of our weight. 4. 5: The Muscular System 1. A MILLION A STROKE ANTEBRAIN LATERAL HALVES A TRILLION A STRIKE FRONTBRAIN SIDE HALVES 5. _____ muscle movement is a pull. On average. The brain weighs an average of: 3. The cerebrum is divided into 2 hemispheres also called the: 8. named after the bone to which they are ______ NEAR NEARER NEAREST THE MOST NEAR 10. The corpus callosum is the _____ of commissural fibres. 550 35% 50% 45% 650 45% 55% 55% 600 50% 60% 35% 700 40% 65% 65% WILL MUSCLE VOLUNTARY MUSCLE 2. The cerebrum is also called the: FOREBRAIN QUARTERS 7. Smooth muscle tissue has _____ striations.SHORTER SMALLER LACKING LITTLER Medical English Quiz 4 : THE BRAIN 1. The brain represents _____ of the whole central nervous system. 4. Rupture or blockage of a brain blood-vessel is called: 6. The functions of each hemisphere are co-ordinated by commissural fibres. 5. 24 . Muscular fibres striations are also called : 9. Brain cells die off if not oxygenated for more than ____ minutes.

I'd like to keep you here over night. We'll know more in a few days. You have a long road to recovery. Doctor's Diagnosis Physician • • • • • • • • • • • • Your test results have come in. You're not in the clear yet. Am I going to need surgery? Is it good news or bad? When will the tests results come in? How long do I have to stay in the hospital? What is the success rate? Are they going to run more tests? Is this a common problem for people my age? I'd like to discuss other options. The blood test came back negative. I'm hoping to get to the bottom of this soon. Sample Conversation Doctor: Hi Jessica. 25 . Patient • • • • • • • • • • I don't understand what this means. The transfusion was a success. I'm afraid the prognosis isn't good. I'm going to get a second opinion.NOT NONE NO ANY Unit 3 Class 11 Common Expressions with Real Life Medical Fields and Coversations. We have several options to discuss. How are you feeling today? Patient: A bit better. We've ruled out diabetes. It looks like you're ready to go home.

Patient: It's about time. Is it good news or bad? Doctor: I guess it's a bit of both. After the operation you're going to have to stay off your feet for at least three weeks. that's a load off my mind. I haven't felt sick to my stomach since you switched my medication. which means it's not cancerous. Patient: I was afraid you were going to say that. Say. I'm thinking more along the lines of a food allergy. Check your understanding 1 2 3 Why did the woman have to switch medication? What bad news does the doctor give the patient? What medical procedure did the patient already undergo? Class 12 Visiting Hours 26 . We're going to take it out anyway just to be on the safe side. We still need to get to the bottom of all of this weight loss. your test results came in this morning. Are you still feeling nauseous? Patient: No. Doctor: Okay. Thanks Doctor. but we're still going to do a few blood tests just to rule a few things out. Patient: Wow. That means no soccer. It looks like you're going to need surgery to remove the tumour from your leg. Patient: Things like what? Cancer? Doctor: Actually. Doctor: Don't get too excited. Doctor: Now for the good news. Doctor: Great. Patient: I've probably just been so worried about this stupid lump. Doctor: These things often are stress related.Doctor: That's good to hear. Which do you want first? Patient: Let's get the bad news over with. The biopsy shows that the tumour is benign.

Study the different people that may come to visit the patient. Showing them compassion and explaining the rules is much easier if you have the necessary English skills. Could you tell me which room Mrs Smythe is in? Is my child going to be okay? When can we speak with the doctor? What time are visiting hours? I'm trying to locate my sister. It is a difficult time for people who have loved ones in the hospital. monitor. Then read some typical concerns and questions that visitors may have. certain loved ones will be allowed to visit. (I'm trying to find my sister's room. 27 . and inform visitors on a daily basis. while others will not. it is often necessary to welcome. My child would like something to drink.Part of being a nurse. Immediate family Mother and Father (patient's parents) Husband or Wife (the man or woman the patient is married to) Son and Daughter (children of the patient. and some appropriate responses that you may be able to give them. In many cases you may form stronger relationships with the patients' visitors than the patients themselves. involves dealing with the people who are close to your patients. boy and girl) Brother and Sister/siblings (other children of the patient's parents) Extended family Grandmother and Grandfather (mother and father of patient's parents) Aunt and Uncle (brother and sister of patient's parents) Niece and Nephew (girl and boy child of patient's siblings) Cousins (children of patient's aunt or uncle) Friends and other loved ones Best friend (patient's closest friend) Room-mate (a person the patient lives with) Neighbour (a friend who lives near the patient) Co-worker (a person who works with the patient) Boyfriend or Girlfriend (the man or woman the patient loves/dates) Fiancé (the man or woman the patient is engaged to marry) Questions and Concerns of Loved Ones • • • • • • • • We're Michael's grandparents. When a patient is staying in a hospital or other health facility.) Is there anything you can do to make him more comfortable. Depending on the condition of the patient.

He's in isolation because of the transplant. Doctor to patient Here are 3 separate collections of word groups. and you’ll have to understand those questions and answer them. because ‘illness’ is a topic that people speak to you about quite often. I'll give you two some privacy now. The first collection contains word groups that doctors (as well as others) use when they’re speaking to patients in order to find out about an illness. this is a real problem when they have to use English to speak. You see. when you’re ill. The doctor would ask you a number of questions. while prescribing medicines. The third collection contains 28 . This Lesson will help you get over this difficulty. And if you’re a doctor or a medical professional. Does your daughter need anything? I'm afraid she's not having a very good day today. You’ll have to speak to patients about the history and symptoms of their illness. For a fluent native speaker of English. And at home and when you’re among your friends. of course — just as this is not a problem for you in your own mother tongue. Room 7 is down the hall to your right. Not a set of technical terms. You’ll have to speak to them while examining them.• • • Is there somewhere I can lie down for a while. There's a quiet room for families down the hall. Could you tell me where the chapel is? Please tell her to get well soon. All this means that you need to be fluent in using a set of special kinds of word groups. Questions and Responses from Nurses • • • • • • • • • • • • • • What is your relation to Jessica? You'll have to come back during visiting hours. about the treatment. It's in your brother's best interest. The doctor would like to have a word with you. The second collection contains word groups that doctors (as well as others) use when they’re speaking to patients while examining them.) She's doing much better this morning. We do the best we can around here. These are word groups that doctors (as well as others) usually use when they’re speaking to patients. you’ll have to discuss illness and health with patients and others. this is not normally a problem. you’ll often have to talk about your own or someone’s illness or health. We had to transfer your mother-in-law to the ICU. But for non-native speakers of English. (The doctor wants to speak to you. Everyday Medical English: Speaking about health and illness This is an area where even people who are generally fluent stumble quite often. Ms Lee is too tired for visitors. you’ll find it necessary to use these word groups quite often. And even if you’re not a doctor. you’ll have to describe and explain to your doctor (and to other people) how you’re suffering. but plain everyday language that has to do with health and illness.

don’t think that the word groups given are useful only to doctors. • Any pain in your muscles? • Any pains in your chest when you cough? • Any problems with your chest? • Any problems with your waterworks? • Any shortness of breath? • Apart from your headaches. No. these are word groups that everybody will find useful when they have to speak to someone who is ill: Sons and daughters when they have to speak to fathers. mothers and others who are ill.word groups that doctors (as well as others) use when they’re speaking to patients about the diagnosis that has been made and about the treatment. are there any other problems? • Are your parents fit and well? • Are your parents in good health? • Are you a heavy drinker? • Are you aware of anything when you swallow? • Are you breastfeeding? • Are you doing better today? • Are you having any difficulty with your hearing? • Are you long-sighted? • Are you married? • Are you short of breath? • Are you short-sighted? • Are your bowels regular? • Are your stools black? • Can I just come back for a moment to these dizzy spells? • Can you describe the pain? • Can you describe the problem? • Can you describe the symptoms? • Can you see any letters at all? • Can you show me where it hurts? • Can you tell me exactly how you turned your foot? • Can you tell me which tooth is causing the problem? • Can you describe the dizzy spells? • Describe what’s wrong. So you can imagine how universally useful these word groups are. Friends when they have to speak to friends and others who are ill. that’s not so. will you? • Did the tablets help? • Did you ever have any fractures? • Did you ever have trouble with your liver? • Did you have a comfortable night? • Do bright lights bother you? • Do the eyes water when you read? • Do you always sweat? • Do you belch? • Do you bring up any phlegm? • Do you cough a lot? • Do you cough much? • Do you cough up phlegm? • Do you cough when you smell certain foods or other smells? • Do you drink a lot? • Do you drink? • Do you ever bring something up? • Do you ever faint? • Do you ever feel completely possessed by another person? • Do you ever feel giddy? • Do you ever feel like vomiting? • Do you ever get short of breath? • Do you ever get wheezy? • Do you ever have dizzy spells? • Do you ever have nose bleeds? • Do you ever see double images in front of your eyes? • Do you ever see distorted images before your eyes? • Do you ever see unusual shapes before your eyes? • Do you ever suffer from headaches? • Do you ever wet the bed? • Do you feel any pain inside your ears? • Do you feel any pain or discomfort down below? • Do you feel any weakness in your limbs? • Do you ever take aspirins or anything like that? • Do you relate the cramps in anyway to your meals? • Do you have any cough or phlegm? • Do your ankles ever swell up? • Do you feel sick when you get these headaches? • Do you find that you’re losing your eyelashes? • Do you get any pain on breathing? • Do you get any pains in the chest? • Do you get headaches when you’re reading? • Do you get headaches? • Do you get out of breath easily? • Do you get tired easily? • Do you give him liquids? • Do you go out drinking much? • Do you have a cold? • Do you have a history of any serious illness? • Do you have a sore throat? • Do you have any allergies? • Do you have any chest pains after exercise? • Do you have any difficulty moving your arms or legs? • Do you have any discharge from your eyes? • Do you have a cough? • Do you have any aches or pains? • Do you have any pain in passing water? • Do you have any trouble with passing water? • Do you have any trouble with your stomach or bowels? • Do you have any pain while passing urine? • Do you have bad breath? • Do you have headaches? • Do you have palpitations? • Do you have to strain to pass your motions? • Do you have to strain to pass your water? • Do you know when these headaches are coming on? • Do your muscles feel stiff in the morning? • Do you often get diarrhoea? • Do you often get constipation?• Do you often have a fever? • Do you often lose your temper? • Do you play any sports? • Do you see spots in front of your eyes? • Do you smoke? • Do you socialize much? • Do you strain when 29 . Fathers and mothers when they have to speak to sons and daughters who are ill. come back to the word groups once a week (at least for 3 or 4 weeks at a stretch) and repeat uttering them several times — ALOUD. Practise uttering the word groups until you can utter each of them with a ready flow. Now remember this: Just because this section has been given the heading “Doctor to patient”. Everyone to everyone else who is ill. After that. Case-taking: Questioning the patient Pick up each word group and utter it ALOUD — several times. You see.

Don't worry. sir. I'm afraid that's the policy. What she really needs is her rest. you'll have to come back in the morning. we'll look after her. Visitor: My wife's in room pass water? • Do you suffer from double vision? • Do you sweat at night? • Do you vomit? • Do you wheeze? • Do your eyeballs feel painful? • Do your eyes get red easily? • Do your eyes get tired easily? • Do your eyes itch? • Do your eyes water? • Do your legs swell? • Do your motions smell bad? • Do you wear glasses? • Do these headaches come on at any particular time? • Do you ever get these headaches at night? • Does it bother you when you are walking? • Does any special food upset your stomach? • Does anyone else in your family suffer from this problem? • Does anything in particular bring on this pain? • Does anything make the pain better? • Does anything make the pain worse? • Does he cough a lot? • Does he ever bring up his food? • Does he ever get diarrhoea? • Does he pass wind as normal? • Does the pain affect your work? • Does it bother you in any way? • Does it burn when you pass water? • Does it come on any particular time? • Does the discharge have a bad smell? • Does it hurt if you bend your knee? • Does it hurt much? • Does it hurt when I do this? • Does it hurt when you swallow? • Does the pain stay in one place. Visitor: And leave her all alone overnight? Visitor: Surely you can make an exception? What if she needs me in the night? 30 . or does it go anywhere else? • Does light bother you? • Does lying down help the pain? • Does she eat at the usual times? • Does she have a good appetite? • Does she have any rashes? • Does she sleep at the normal time? • Does that medicine have any effect? • Does that hurt at all? • Does the knee feel tender here? • Does the pain have any relation to all this? • Does your husband smoke? • Does your nose run a lot? • Does your water dribble? • Has he ever had a fever? • Has there been any changes in your health since your last visit? • Has this been a problem before? • Have these headaches affected your vision at all? • Have you brought your urine sample? • Have you noticed any problems with your eyesight? • Have you got a cough — a persistent cough? • Have you ever been admitted to a hospital? • Have you ever been operated on? • Have you ever blacked out? • Have you ever coughed up blood? • Have you ever fainted? • Have you ever had backaches before? • Have you ever had any problems? • Have you ever had chicken pox? • Have you ever had measles? • Have you ever had your tonsils out? • Have you had a head injury? • Have you had an anaesthetic before? • Have you had any cough at all? • Have you had any diseases in the family — like diabetes or high blood pressure? • Have you had any falls? • Have you had any miscarriages? • Have you had any pain in your chest? • Have you had any serious illness in the past? • Have you had any shortness of breath? • Have you had (this) problem before? • Have you had this (problem) long? • Have you lost any weight? • Have you noticed any blood in your stools? • Have you noticed any blood in your water? • Have you noticed any swelling of your ankles? • Have you noticed any twitching of your muscles? • Have you noticed any weakness or tingling in your limbs? • Have you put on weight recently? • Have you taken any aspirin? • Have you taken anything for it? • Have you usually got lots of energy? Class 13 Sample Conversation Nurse: Nurse: Nurse: Nurse: I'm afraid visiting hours are over. sir Sorry.

Now. When is the doctor free? I need to renew my prescription. Nurse: Visitor: Okay. Visitor: Can't her friends even stop by to bring her flowers? Nurse: Visitor: Well. I need to see the doctor. Booking a Doctor's Appointment Patient • • • • • • • • I need to make an appointment. Thanks for understanding.. Flowers are not permitted in this ward.Visitor: Some of her friends want to see her too. My child needs to come in for a check-up. I'll tell her you were here and that you'll see her in the morning. When can they come? Nurse: Visiting hours are from 9 to 11 in the morning and 4 to 7 in the evening. Do you think the doctor could squeeze us in today? I need to make an appointment for my husband. We just can't risk any germs that might come in with them. but I'm afraid while your wife is on bedrest the doctor has requested that only immediate family members come in to see her. I'm going to bring your wife her dinner. but that's probably a good idea. I guess it's all in her best interest. I really hate to leave her. 31 . Nurse: Check your understanding 1 2 3 What is the man's relation to the patient? Why does the nurse send the man away? The nurse thanks the man because. Why don't you head home and get something to eat yourself? She's in good hands here. The doctor wants to see me again in two week's time..

Dr Jones is away.Receptionist • • • • • • • • • • What is your chart number? What is the appointment regarding? Which day/what time is good for you? Is January the 3rd okay with you? How does four o'clock sound? We'll see you then. like other children? • Is there a history of diabetes in your family? • Is there any bad smell from your nose? • Is there any blood in it? • Is there any discharge from your ears? • Is there any discharge or watering of the eyes? • Is there any heart disease in the family? • Is there any rash on the body? • Is there anybody with blood pressure trouble in the family? • Is there anybody with kidney trouble in the family? • Is there anything else you feel the same time? • Is there anything that makes the pain better? • Is there anything that makes the pain worse? • Is there anything you need? • Is this a life-long habit? • Is your digestion all right? • Is your hearing affected? • Is there anybody with heart trouble in the family? • So you fell over and grazed your knees? • Try and explain what happens when the pain comes on. I'm sorry the doctor is not taking new patients. We're running an hour behind schedule. • Was it painful? • Was it something you tried to lift? • Was there any other position that might bring the cramp on? • Was there anything that started it off? • With the right eye. Everyday Medical English: Speaking about health and illness • How about sore throats? • How about your bowels? • How about your relations with your colleagues? • How about your relations with your husband? • How are you at the moment? • How are you feeling today? • How can I help you? • How do you feel in general? • How are you feeling at the moment? • How does it feel? • How have you been keeping up to now? • How is your appetite? • How long do these headaches last? • How long does the pain last? • How long has it been bothering you? • How long has this been going on? • How long has this bothered you? • How long has your voice been hoarse? • How long have the headaches been bothering you? • How long have they been bothering you? • How long have you had this pain? • How long have you had these pains? • How long have you had this boil? • How long have you had this discharge? • How long have you had this problem with your vision? • How long have you had this problem? • How long have your gums been bleeding? • How many do you smoke each day? • How many times do you have to go during the night? • How often do you feed him? • How often do you get this pain? • How old are you? • How old is your last child? • How would you describe the pain(s)? • How many episodes (of cramps) a day were you getting? • How’s your health otherwise? • How about your weight? Is it steady? • Is his toilet normal? • Is it a localized or general pain? • Is the pain bad enough to wake you up? • Is it broken? • Is the pain continuous or does it come and go? • Is it sore all the time? • Is it sore to the touch? • Is it thick or light? • Is she active. can you see anything? • What about coughs? • What about wheezing? • What about shortness of breath? • What are you taking for your headache? • What brings on your cough? • What brings you here? • What brought this on? • What caused this? • What colour is the stuff you bring up? • What colour is the vomit? • What effect does food have? • What has your health been like? • What kind of pain is it? • What seems to be the problem? • What seems to bring it on? • What sort of exercise do you take? • What sorts of things makes it sore? • 32 . We'll call you if there are any cancellations. You'll be seeing Dr Lindsay.

we had a cancellation for 2:00pm today if you can get away from the office. Receptionist: Thanks for waiting. please? Receptionist: Okay Mr Mason. How can I help you? Caller: Caller: Caller: Caller: Caller: I need to make an appointment with Dr. and I think I might have a chest infection or something. Sure. Hold one moment while I grab your chart. or anything we can do for you? Class 14 Sample Conversation Receptionist: Doctor's office. 33 . Receptionist: Actually. please. It's at home and I'm at work right now. Receptionist: Do you know your chart number? Receptionist: No problem. I've been fighting a cold for more than a week. Harris.What’s your appetite like? • What’s brought you along today? • What’s the colour of this discharge? • What’s the matter? • What’s the pain like? • What’s the stream (= urine) like? • What’s the trouble? • What medication are you taking now? • Were you breathless? • Were you breathless with this discomfort? • Were you aware of palpitations? • Were you sneezing and coughing? • When did his first tooth appear? • When did the trouble first start? • When did the pain(s) start? • When did you first notice the lump? • When did you first notice the pain? • When did you first notice this? • When did you move into town from the country? • When does the pain come on? • When was the last time you had a tetanus shot? • When was the last time you visited your dentist? • Where did you catch the infection? • Where does it hurt? • Where is it sore? • Where is the pain exactly? • Where is the pain most severe? • Where are these headaches? • Which one is worse — the top teeth or bottom teeth? • Which part of your chest is affected? • Which part of your back is affected? • Which part of your head is affected? • Would it be sore if I were to tap the tooth? • Where is the pain exactly? • You’re not vomiting now? • No black-looking stool? • You don’t think the cramps are likely to come on before or after meals? • And the longest episode (of cramps) lasted for? • And your bowels? Have they changed? • You don’t feel sick at all? • Any questions. Do you think it can wait until Wednesday? Caller: Oh. My cough is getting worse each day. Now. No. what do you need to see the doctor about? Receptionist: Hmm. I was really hoping to get in today or tomorrow in case I need some antibiotics. Maybe I'll have to go to the walk-in-clinic instead. George Mason. What's your name. Doctor Harris is off tomorrow. Well. Jane speaking. sorry.

I think I can make it if I leave right now." the doctor said." "Your mother's side or your father's?" the doctor asked." 34 . Caller: That's great. You open them up and everything inside is numbered. A man gets a telephone call from a doctor. When a physician remarked on a new patient's extraordinarily ruddy complexion. then what is the bad news??" "I couldn't reach you yesterday. so you can probably count on seeing the doctor around 2:30. "I think that accountants are the easiest to operate on. "I think that librarians are the easiest to operate on." The second surgeon said. Doc!" 2." says the doctor. "High blood pressure. Four surgeons were taking a coffee break and discussing their work. come now." 3. Receptionist: We're running a bit behind schedule. The doctor says: "About this medical test I did on you." he replied." "Oh. he said. We'll see you in an hour or so. Mr. Horrified.Caller: Gee. Mason. "It's from my wife's family. Thanks for fitting me in. "Neither. "How could your wife's family give you high blood pressure?" He sighed. "You oughta meet 'em sometime. I have some good news and some bad news. You open them up and everything is in alphabetical order. Receptionist: No problem. Check your understanding 1 2 3 Why does the caller phone the doctor's office? Which is true about George Mason? When will the doctor see Mr Mason? Class 15 Medical Jokes: 1. The first surgeon said. the man asked: "If that is the good news." The man asks for the good news first: "The good news is that you have 24 hours to live. it's almost 1:00pm already. Doc. It comes from my family.

"I think that electricians are the easiest to operate on.The third surgeon said. "I think that lawyers are the easiest to operate on." the shirtmaker said." 6. Then he decided that even his shirts would be made-toorder. Just stand there. measuring again. gutless. Doctor: Well. and had the best tailor in town make him 30 new suits. the doctor and the lawyer again asked "Why are we standing here?" "Well. "I'm warning you. we accidentally amputated the wrong leg." the shirtmaker repeated. tears were pouring down his face." said the shirtmaker. He asked the doctor to stand by one side of his bed and his lawyer to stand by the other. He bought a nice. his eyes kept popping and his ears still rang. Patient: What's the good news? Doctor: It turns out that your other leg didn't need to be amputated at all 7. After standing for some time. The other guy asked. The operation resulted in no improvement. Two guys were sitting outside a medical clinic. "Listen." A while later. new car. the lawyer asked "What do you want me to do?" "Nothing. the rich old man was told he had only 24 hours to live. "Christ died between two thieves. After dozens of very expensive tests and weeks of hospitalization. "You have 6 months to live." The fourth surgeon said. He immediately called his doctor and his lawyer to his room. When his time had almost arrived." 4. and your eyes will pop andyour ears will ring." The second one asked. Which do you want first? Patient: Give me the bad news first. so I thought I'd do the same! 5. You open them up and everything is color coded. hired a chauffeur. "So? Why are you crying? Are you afraid?" 35 . The teeth were pulled." said the man. so the patient consulted another doctor who suggested removal of his teeth. the doctor and the lawyer watched the man weaken." said the old man. the doomed man decided he'd treat himself in the remaining time he had here on Earth. the doctor asked "What do you want me to do?" "Nothing. One of them was crying. They're heartless." the man interrupted. spineless. "let's get your measurement. " Why are you crying?" The first one replied. 16 collar…" "Fifteen. You keep on wearing a 15 collar. but still." As the hours wore on. and their heads are interchangeable. "Sixteen collar. " I came here for blood test. "But I've always worn a 15 collar. A doctor looked him over andsuggested removal of his tonsils." In that event.34 sleeve. Doctor: I have some good news and some bad news. A third doctor told him bluntly. Hmm…. Just stand there. "Okay. A man sought medical aid because he had popped eyes and a ringing in his ears.

I will certainly refrain from making my former mistake." Hearing this. and if I do. There is always a need for books on science." 8. I can always continue to be a teakettle. where I believe the situation will be less difficult and stressful. you see." said the psychiatrist. 10. Not that. "Or else. or I may even write a novel based on my experiences in the psychiatric instutition. is there anyone you would like to see?" Bending down toward his patient. "It would be wonderful to get back to real life. There is something to be said for dedicating your life to expanding the knowledge of young people." "Wonderful. "if we release you. "Another doctor. The first one was astonished and asked the other. "No. the doctor heard him feebly answer. Joe wrapped the arm in a plastic bag and took Jim to a surgeon. I shall limit myself to work in pure theory. "I might teach. "Then again." said the psychiatrist. Looking down at the sick man. I'm sure you would want to know the facts. and it was the stress of my work in weapons research that helped to put me here. the doctor decided to tell him the truth. "Tell me. "Yes. I was a nuclear physicist. A man who had been in a mental institution for some years finally improved to the point where it was thought he might be released." continued the patient. Now." "Who is it?" In a slightly stronger tone. Joe and Jim were out cutting wood and Jim cut his arm off. and chose to interview him first. I don't think you have much time left. if none of these things appeals to me. as we are considering." "Another interesting possibility. you are a very sick man." "Definitely. "I feel that I should tell you. I might write. "I have come for a urine test." said the doctor. The psychiatrist that ran the institution decided it was better to proceed with caution. "Why are you crying?" Then the second guy replied. the sufferer said. If I am released." So Joe left and when he returned in 5 hours the surgeon said "I got done quicker 36 . the second one started crying. During the blood test they cut my finger. what do you plan to do with your life?" The inmate said." agreed the doctor.The first guy replied. "And finally." 9. The surgeon said "You're in luck! I'm an expert at reattaching limbs! Come back in 5 hours.

were playing golf one fine March day. "Oh no! The surgery went fine! Jim suffocated in that plastic bag. Come back in 8 hours. One remarked to the other.heads are tough. Jim is down at the pub." Unit 4 Class 16 Human Body One of the first things you need to know when studying Medical English is the parts of the body. A few weeks later. heads are really tough. each with a hearing loss. A few weeks later. You will also need to learn the words for the functions of each of these body parts. Joe put the leg in a plastic bag and took it and Jim back to the surgeon. but legs are a little tougher. Joe and Jim were cutting wood again. and Jim cut his leg off. "Windy." Joe said "I understand . "it's Thursday." Joe went down to the soccer field and there was Jim. Let's have a beer. You will need to learn the names of the internal (inside the skin) and external body parts. Jim's down at the soccer field. "So am I. throwing darts." 11. Here are the basics to get you started.than I expected. The surgeon said "No problem." The surgeon said." And the third man chimed in. Head 37 ." So Joe left and when he returned in twelve hours the surgeon said regretfully "I'm sorry." Joe went to the pub and there was Jim. kicking goals. Three retirees. The surgeon looked at the situation and said "Gosh." Joe left and when he came back in 6 hours the surgeon said "I finished early." the second man replied. Jim had a terrible accident and cut his head off. Come back on 12 hours. Joe put the head in a plastic bag and took it and the rest of Jim to the surgeon. Jim died. isn't it?" "No.

inside which the spine connects the upper body to the lower body. the bladder for holding liquid waste. Human Body Quiz 38 . The upper arms have the muscles known as triceps and biceps. is located here as well. Beneath the ribcage are the stomach and the waist. which in women includes the breasts. Lower Limbs (legs) The top of the leg is called the thigh. Between the elbow and the next joint. At the bottom of a person's face is the chin. They are also commonly referred to as the rear end or the bum (especially with children). Beneath the hairline at the front of the face is the forehead. At the ends of the toes are toenails. the nose for smelling. Below the wrist is the hand with four fingers and one thumb. Beneath this area is called the armpit or underarm. Babies suck on the nipples of their mother's breasts. Upper Body At the top and front of the upper body. On the inside of the upper body are the heart for pumping blood and the lungs for breathing. which is responsible for thinking. The front of the lower leg is the shin and the back of the lower leg is the calf. is the forearm. At the ends of the fingers are fingernails. The smallest toe is often called the little toe while the large one is called the big toe. The neck is what attaches the head to the upper body. On the front side of the upper body is the chest. The top of a person's scalp is covered with hair. The internal organs in the lower body include the intestines for digesting food. are the hips. the penis (male) or the vagina (female). as well as the liver and the kidneys. more commonly referred to as the belly button. Beside the thumb is the index finger. and on the inside of the mouth are the teeth for biting and the tongue for tasting. the wrist. Lower Body Below the waist. and the joint in the middle of the leg is the knee. This area also contains the woman's uterus. At the sides of the face are the cheeks and at the sides of the head are the ears for hearing. Beside the index finger is the middle finger. Between the hips are the reproductive organs. followed by the ring finger and the little finger. The rear side of the upper body is called the back. The ankle connects the foot to the leg. Upper Limbs (arms) The arms are attached to the shoulders. The jaw is located on the inside of the cheeks and chin. on left and right.Inside the head is the brain. just below the neck is the collar bone. and the mouth for eating. At the back of the lower body are the buttocks for sitting on. which holds a baby when a woman is pregnant. On the outside of the mouth are the lips. Underneath the forehead are the eyes for seeing. The joint halfway down the arm is called the elbow. Food is swallowed down the throat. The navel. Each foot has five toes.

The patient lost so much weight his ---------------were sunken in. Another word for belly button is------------------. The ----------------on his knee was scraped off when he hit the road. We'll put a cool cloth on your -----------------to get your fever down. The newborn is getting his -----------------changed in the nursery. 39 . Your grandfather will be able to walk better after his --------------------surgery.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Your tonsils can get swollen when you have a sore -----------------------The ------------------is located in the middle of the arm. My Dad's little ------------------was lost in the accident. She may never walk again because her ---------------was so badly injured.

40 .

41 .

and some doctors and hospitals create their own. leukemia.anterior 42 . A a artery. rarely used. contact us for assistance. If you cannot locate an abbreviation in this glossary. There are many others.Unit 5 Class 17 These medical abbreviations are commonly used in hospital. and dental records. before aa equal part of each AA affected area AAA abdominal aortic aneurysm A2 aortic second sound AAL acute lymphoblastic. medical.

accommodation acid phos. albumin alc.c. phos. abductor or abduction ADH antidiruetic hormone ADL activites of daily living ad lib as desired adm. acid phosphate ACL anterior cruciate ligament ACTH adrenocorticotrophic hormone AD right ear add. before meals (ante sebum) Ac acute AC anterior chamber acc accident accom. anterior ante before ANUG acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis 43 . amputation. annulus fibrosis ANS autonomic nervous system ant. ambulating. ambulatory AMI acute myocardial infarction AML acute myeloid leukemia amnio amniocentesis amp. alcohol alk. afebrile AFB acid fast bacilli AFO ankle-foot orthosis AFP alpha fetoprotein A/G albumin globulin ratio (blood) AGA appropriate gestational age AI aortic insufficiency AIDS acquired immunodeficiency syndrome AJ ankle jerk a. alkaline phosphate ALL acute lymphocytic leukemia ALS amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ALT alternating with.axillary line ab antibody AB abortion abd abdomen ABG arterial blood gasses ABN abnormal ABP arterial blood pressure abs absent a. above knee aka alcoholic ketoacidosis AKA above knee amputation alb. ampule ANA antinuclear antibody anes. admission AE above elbow AEA above elbow amputation AF atrial fibrillation. fib. alanine aminotransferase (formerly SGPT) AMA against medical advice amb.k. anesthesia ann.

bath BA barium Bab.E barium enema Bas. axillary A. 2 patient with mild systemic disease A. aspirin A. Fib auricular fibrillation A-V arteriovenous AVF arteriovenous fistula AVR aortic valve replacement A&W alive and well Ax. Ascheim-Zondek test B B.Z. auditory Aur. Babinski sign Ba.basilar baso basophile BBB bundle branch block BBT basal body temperature BCA basal cell atypia BCD basal cell dysplasia BCE basal cell epithelioma 44 .S.Anxty anxiety A/O alert and oriented AOB alcohol on breath AODM adult onset diabetes mellitus AP ante partum A&P auscultation and percussion A-P anteroposterior APC atrial premature contractions aph aphasia A-P & lat anteroposterior and lateral AP resection abdominal perineal resection of the rectum aq.aortic stenosis ASA acetylsalicylic acid. American Society of Anesthesiologists A. axilla. basal.S.S. 4 patient with incapacitating systemic disease that is constant threat to life ASAP as soon as possible ASCVD atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease ASD atrial septal defect ASHD arteriosclerotic heart disease at. Flutter atrial flutter ATN acute tubular necrosis ATNR asymmetrical tonic neck reflex AU both ears aud. acute rheumatic fever AROM artificial rupture of membranes art arterial AS left ear. 3 patient with severe systemic disease A.A.S.A.A. water AR aortic regurgitation ARD acute respiratory distress ARDS adult respiratory distress syndrome ARF acute respiratory failure.A.S.A. 1 normal healthy patient A.

Bilateral. with 45 .BCG bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine (tuberculosis vaccine) BDC burn dressing change BE below elbow. bowel sounds B.S. body weight BOMA otitis media. breast biopsy broncho bronchoscopy BRP bathroom privileges BS blood sugar.T bleeding time BM black male. breath sounds BSA body surface area BSB bedside bag BSC bedside commode BSD bedside drainage BSO bilateral salpingooophorectomy BST blood serologic test BT bleeding time BTL bilateral tubal ligation BUN blood urea nitrogen BW birth weight Bx. both ears.n. breech presentation BR bedrest.i. acute BOW bag of water BP blood pressure BPD bronchopulmonary dysplasia BPH benign prostatic hypertrophy BPM beats per minute Br. brachial BrBx. biceps b. twice a night BiW twice weekly BJ biceps reflex bk.d. blood Bl. back BK below knee BKA below knee amputation bl cult blood culture bld. barium enema BEA below elbow amputation BFP biological false positive Bic. bilaterally bili bilirubin b. twice daily BIH bilateral inguinal hernia bilat. bowel movement BMR basal metabolic rate body wt. biopsy Class 18 C c.i. bathroom brach. bone marrow.

carotid card. cancer CABG coronary artery bypass graft CAD coronary artery disease CAHD coronary atherosclerotic heart disease Cal calorie. coronary heart disease Chem. cardiac index CIS carcinoma in situ CK creatinine kinase Cl chlorine. cubic centimeter CC chief complaint CCU coronary care unit CD cardiac disease. clavicle cldy cloudy CLL chronic lymphocytic leukemia Cl. constipation c/o complains of. centigrade. chloride Clav. calories CAPD continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis Caps capsules car. Celsius complement CI-XII 1st to 12th cranial nerve C-1 to C-7 cervical vertebrae Ca calcium CA carcinoma. cystic fibrosis CHD congenital heart disease.I color index CI cardiac insufficiency. cervix. catheter CB Cesarean birth CBC complete blood count CBD common bile duct CBF cerebral blood flow CBG capillary blood gas CBR complete bed rest cc. contagious disease CEA carcinoembryonic antigen Cerv. chemotherapy CHF congestive heart failure CHO carbohydrate Chol cholesterol Chr chronic C.T clotting time cm. Caucasian C. cervical CF cardiac failure. complaints 46 . centimeter CML chronic myeloid leukemia CMV cytomegalovirus CN cranial nerve CNS central nervous system cnst.C cervical. cardiac Card Cath cardiac catheterization CAT computerized axial tomography cath catheterization.

compress conc. Dermatology DES Diethylstilbestrol D5RL 5% dextrose and lactated ringers D5W 5% dextrose and sterile water 47 . contractions. concentrated cons. continued COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Cor heart CPAP continuous positive airway pressure CPC clinicopathological conference CPD cephalo-pelvic disproportion CPK creatinine phosphokinase CPPB continuous positive pressure breathing CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation CPT chest physical therapy CR closed reduction cran. dehydrated Derm. decibel DBE deep breathing exercise d/c discontinue DC discharges. discontinue D&C dilation and curettage DD discharge diagnosis D/DW dextrose.Co2 carbon dioxide comb. CS Cesarean section C&S culture and sensitivity CSF cerebrospinal fluid C-spine cervical spine CT computed axial tomography C-V cardiovascular CVA cerebrovascular accident. creatinine CRF chronic renal failure C/S. decreased dehyd. combination comm. communicable comp. cranial CRD chronic respiratory disease creat. culture CxR chest x-ray Cysto cystoscopy D DAP distal airway pressure db. combine. consultation cont. compound. distilled water DDx differential diagnosis D&E dilation and evacuation decr. costovertebral angle CVL central venous line CVP central venous pressure CVS cardiovascular system Cx cervix.

distal DIU death in utero div. nose. differential dil.DI diabetes insipidus. dorsal pedia DPT diphtheria. distilled. extracellular fluid ECG electrocardiogram ECHO enterocytopathogenic human orphan virus E. dressing D/S discharge summary DTR deep tendon reflexes DT’s delirium tremens DU duodenal ulcer DUB dysfunctional uterine bleeding DUI driving under influence D/W dextrose in water Dx diagnosis E e without EBL estimated blood loss EBV Epstein-Barr virus ECF extended care facility.coli Escherichia coli ECS endocervical scrape ECT electroconvulsive ED emergency department EDC estimated date of confinement EDOD estimated date of delivery EEG electroencephalogram EENT eyes. throat EEX electrodiagnosis 48 . diagnostic imaging DIAG. divorced DJD degenerative joint disease DKA diabetic ketoacidosis DLE disseminated lupus erythematosis D/L DI decilter DM diabetes mellitus. diastolic murmur DNA deoxyribonucleic acid DNKA did not keep appointment DOA dead on arrival DOB date of birth DOE dyspnea on exertion Dors dorsal D. dilute dim. pertussis. ears. discharge disp. disseminated coagulopathy diff. tetanus vaccine DR delivery room D&R dilation and radium implant drsg.P. disease disch. diagnosis diam. disposition dist. diminished DIP distal interphalangeal (joint) dis. diameter DIC disseminated intravascular coagulation.

femoral fem. RML right mediolateral episiotomy ERCP endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate EST electroshock therapy ETIOL. iron deficiency FEF forced expiratory flow FEKG fetal electrocardiogram fem. pop. exercise.LML left mediolateral episiotomy Epis. emergency medical service En. force fluid FFP fresh frozen plasma fh fundal height FH family history. elevated ELF elective low forceps EmBx endometrial biopsy EMG electromyogram EMS endometrial scrape. Fahrenheit FA fluorescent antibody F. episiotomy Epis. fluids flac.gastroduodenoscopy EKG electrocardiogram elev. fetal FEV forced expiratory volume f. external ext.EGA estimated gestational age EGD esophago. throat Eoc. nose. foreign body FBS fasting blood sugar FD fully dilated FDA Food and Drug Administration FDP flexor digitorum profundus Fe def. female. eosinophiles EOM extraocular movement Epis. expiratory Exp. fetal heart FHR fetal heart rate FHR-UC fetal heart rate. etiology ETOH ethanol EUA examine under anesthesia EVAL evaluation ex. enema ENT ears. femoral popliteal fet.uterine contraction FHT fetal heart tones FiO2 faction of inspired oxygen concentration fl.f. Med. gen.B. external genitalia F F finger.A. example expir expiration. medial episiotomy Epis. first aid F. extremities. Lap exploratory laparotomy ext. flaccid 49 .

growth hormone G. GMA grand mal attack GNC general nursing care GP General Practitioner. genl.F. gestation GFR glomerulo filtration rate G. hypodermic H/A headache HAF hyperalimentation fluid 50 . grains (dosage) Grav. gait training flexor.C. drop Gt. fluid ounce FM finger movement FPAL full term premature abortion living fract. general anesthesia GB gallbladder GBS gallbladder series G.% grams per 100 c.A.gram negative gm.H. fractional FRC functional residual capacity FS finger stick FSH follicle stimulating hormone FT full term FTD failure to descend FTND full term normal delivery FTT failure to thrive FUB functional uterine bleeding F/U. pregnancy gt.flex. hour. gastrointestinal gluc glucose gm gram Gm+ gram positive Gm. oz.c. grain.I.F-U. general paralysis gr.U. flexion fl. follow-up FUO fever of unknown origin FVC forced vital capacity FW fetal weight Fx fracture G ______________________________ G gravida G. drops GSW gunshot wound GTT glucose tolerance test GU genitourinary G/W glucose and water GYN Gynecology H ______________________________ h hour H hydrogen history. general gest. gonococcus GCS Glasgow Coma Scale GE Gastroenterology G/E gastroenteritis gen.

Hodgkin’s disease HDl high density lipids HEENT head.T. Hgb hemoglobin HB heart block HBP high blood pressure HC head circumference H&C hot and cold HCG human chorionic gonadotropin HCO3 bicarbonate Hct. hematocrit HCVD hypertensive cardiovascular disease h. reddening.S. heat.HASCVD hypertensive arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease Hb. throat hern. eyes. history. tenderness HS bedtime HSG hysterosalpingography H2O water H2O2 hydrogen peroxide Ht height. house officer HOB head of bed horiz. hyperalimenation Hz hertz (cycles/second) Class 19 51 . at bedtime Hd head. Lock Heparin lock HGO hepatic glucose output HH hard of hearing HIDA(scan) hepatobiliary scan HIE hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy hist. heart HVD hypertensive vascular disease Hx history Hyperal. histocompatibility leukocyte focus HM hand movement HMD hyaline membrane disease HMG human menopausal gonadotropin HNP herniated nucleus pulposus h/o history of H. ears. histology HIV human immunodificiency virus HKAFO hip knee ankle foot orthosis HLA human leukocyte group A. swelling.R.O. hernia Hem Hematology Hem Pro hematology profile Hep. horizontal H&P history and physical hpf high power field HPI history of present illness HPL human placental lactogen HR heart rate H.d. nose..

II I radioactive iodine IA intra-arterially IABP intra-aortic balloon pump i. AB inevitable abortion inf infusion. inferior inj injured. intracutaneous(ly) ICCU intensive coronary care unit ICF intracellular fluid ICS intercostal space ICT insulin coma therapy ICU intensive care unit i. expiratory Ig immunoglobulin IGA immunoglobulin A IGE immunoglobulin E IGG immunoglobulin gamma G(Globulin) IGM immunoglobulin M IH infectious hepatitis IHD ischemic heart disease IM intramuscular. during the day ID intradermal. AB incomplete abortion incr. inspiratory int.d. injection INR coagulant response time inspir inspiration. inches Inc. intramedullary IMCU intermediate medical care unit imp. Infectious Disease I&D incision and drainage IDDM insulin dependent diabetes mellitus I/E inspiratory. increased (ing) Inev.c. impression IMP inpatient multidimensional psych scale IMV intermittent mandatory ventilation In. internal INTHC intrathecally IO inferior oblique I&O intake and output IOP intraocular pressure IP intraperitoneal IPJ interphalangeal joint IPPB intermittent positive pressure breathing IQ intelligence quota IRDS idiopathic respiratory distress syndrome 52 . identification.

irreg. lower. liter. Kilocalorie. joint JVP jugular venous pulse K K potassium. calorie Kg. kidney KC1 potassium chloride Kcal. laceration lacr.L3 second. light..U. lacrimal lact. kilogram KJ. kg. liver. Irregular IS intercostal space IST insulin shock therapy ITP idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura I. bladder (x-rays) KVO keep vein open L L left. lateral LAVH laparoscopic assisted vaginal hysterectomy lax laxative 53 . ureter. laparotomy lat. IU International Unit IUC intrauterine catheter IUCP intrauterine contraceptive device IUD intrauterine device IUFD intrauterine fetal death IUGR intrauterine growth retardation IUP intrauterine pregnancy IUTP intrauterine term pregnancy IV intravenous(ly) IVC inferior vena cava. intravenous cholangiogram IVD intervertebral disc IVP intravenous pyelogram IVPB intravenous piggy back IVU intravenous urogram JJ J joint J-P Jackson Pratt drain JRA juvenile rheumatoid arthritis jt. lumbar L2. laboratory lac. K-J knee jerk KK knee kick 17 KS 17 keto steroids KUB kidney. laminectomy lap. third lumbar vertebrae LA left antrum lab. lactic LAD left anterior descending coronary artery L&D labor and delivery LAE left atrial enlargement lam..

lb. pound LB large bowel LBBB left bundle branch block LBP lower back pain LBW low birth weight LCA left coronary artery L.D. lethal dose LDH lactic dehydrogenase LDL low density lipids LE lupus erythematosus L.E. lower extremities leuc. leukocytes LF low forceps, low flap LFA left frontoanterior LFD low forceps delivery LFP left frontoposterior LFT left frontotransverse, liver function test lg large, leg LGA large for gestational age LGV lymphogranuloma venereum LH luteinizing hormone LHT left hypertrophia LICS left intercostal space lig. ligament LIH left inguinal hernia liq. liquid LKS liver, kidneys, spleen LL lower lid LLE left lower extremity LLG left lateral gaze LLL left lower lobe LLQ left lower quadrant LMA left mentoanterior LMD family doctor l/min liter per minute LML left mediolateral LMP left mentoposterior, last menstrual period LMT left mentotransverse L.N. lymph node LNMP last normal menstrual period LOA left occiput anterior L.O.C. loss of consciousness, level of consciousness, laxative of choice LOM left otitis media LOP left occipital posterior LOS length of stay LOT left occiput anterior LP lumbar puncture, light perception lpf low power field LPN licensed practical nurse LR labor room, lateral rectus, light reflex LRQ lower right quadrant Ls. loose


L.S. lumbosacral LSA lateral sacrum anterior LSB left sternal border LSCS lower segment Cesarean section LSK liver, spleen, kidneys LSO left salpingo-oophorectomy LSP left sacrum posterior LST left sacrum transverse Lt. left, light LTCS low transverse Cesarean section LUE left upper extremity LUL left upper lobe LUQ left upper quadrant LV left ventricle LVEDP left ventricular end diastolic pressure LVF left ventricular failure LVH left ventricular hypertrophy L & W living and well LWCT Lee-White Clotting Time, coagulation time Lymphs lymphocytes lytes electrolytes

m. minim m,M married, male, mother murmur, meter, mass, molar MA mental age macro. macrocytic, macroscopic MAP mean arterial pressure max. maximum, maxillary MBC maximum breathing capacity mcg. microgram MCH mean corpuscular hemoglobin MCHC mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration MCL midclavicular line MCP metacarpophalangeal joint MCV mean corpuscular volume MD muscular dystrophy MDI metered dose inhaler Mdnt. midnight ME middle ear, medical examiner MEC medical emergency clinic Med. medicine MEq./L milliequivalents per liter Mets. metastasis mg. milligram Mg. magnesium MG myasthenia gravis mg/dl milligrams per deciliter mg.% milligrams per 100 cc m.g.r. murmurs, gallops, or rubs


MH marital history Ml myocardial infarction, mitral insufficiency micro microcytic, microscopic MICU medical intensive care unit min minute Mitr.I mitral insufficiency ml. milliliter MLF medial longitudinal fasciculus mm millimeter mm. muscles MM mucous membrane MMPI Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Mn. manganese, midnight mod moderate MOM milk of magnesia mono. monocyte MP metacarpophalangea, metacarpophalangeal MPA malpractice attorney MR medial rectus, mental retardation, mitral regurgitation MRI magnetic resonance imaging MRM modified radical mastectomy ms mitral stenosis Ms murmurs MS mitral stenosis, multiple sclerosis, morphine sulfate MSL midsternal line mss massage MT metacarpophalangeal (joint) M.T. muscles and tendons MVA motor vehicle accident MVP mitral valve prolapse MVR mitral valve replacement MW maximum voluntary ventilation

n. nerve N2 nitrogen N2O nitrous oxide (anesthetic) Na sodium NaCl sodium chloride NAD no apparent distress nb note well NB newborn NBM nothing by mouth NBS normal bowel sounds, normal breath sounds NED no evidence of disease neg. negative NER no evidence of recurrence NERD no evidence of recurrent disease Neur. Neurology NG nasogastric tube NI no insurance


otitis media OMS organic mental syndrome OOB out of bed Op. nerves N. nocturnal NOS not otherwise specified NP neuropsychiatric N. oxygen saturation OA osteoarthritis OB. Ophthalmology 57 . vomiting. oxygen capacity O2 sat. operation OPC outpatient clinic OPD outpatient department Ophth. ointment O.S. diarrhea N&W normal and well NWB non-weight bearing NYD not yet diagnosed O o none.NIC neonatal intensive care NICU neonatal intensive care unit NIDDM noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus NKA no known allergies NM neuromuscular NMR nuclear magnetic resonance noct. nervous system NSA no significant abnormality NSAID nonsteriodal anti-inflammatory drug NSD normal spontaneous delivery NSR normal sinus rhythm NST non-stress test N&V nausea and vomiting NS Neurosurgery NSVD normal spontaneous vaginal delivery NTG nitroglycerine NTP normal temperature and pressure nullip never gave birth NVD nausea. occasional OD right eye O/E on examination OH occupational history 17 OH 17 hydroxy steroid OHD organic heart disease oint.M. OBG Obstetrics OB/GYN Obstetrics and Gynecology Obs observation OBS organic brain syndrome OCC. without O oral O2 oxygen O2 cap.P. Neuropsychiatry NPH NPH insulin (Neutral Protamine Zinc) NPN nonprotein nitrogen NPO nothing by mouth Ns. occipital.

mouth. old tuberculin OU both eyes OV office visit oz.. round.T. palpable PaO2 alveolar oxygen pressure Pap Papanicolaou test (pap smear) Para prior births. phosphorus pulse P2 pulmonic second heart sound PA physician’s assistant P-A posteroanterior p & a percussion and auscultation PAC premature atrial. ounce P ______________________________ P after. open reduction OR-IF open reduction with internal fixation ORT operating room technician Ortho. auricular contraction PaCO2 arterial carbon dioxide tension pressure PACU post anesthesia care unit PAF paroxysmal atrial fibrillation palp. bone OS left eye ot. ear Oto Otolaryngology OTC over-the-counter (pharmaceuticals) O. Pathology PA view posterioranterior view on x-ray Pb lead PB peripheral blood PBI protein bound iodine p/c. pulmonary embolism Ped. peritoneal dialysis PDA patent ductus arteriosus pdr. after meals PCL posterior cruciate ligament PCO2 carbon dioxide concentration PCV packed cell volume (of blood) PD pupillary distance. occupational therapy. palpated.c. powder PDR Physician’s Desk Reference PDN private duty nurse PE physical examination. p. Pediatrics PEEP positive end expiratory pressure PEG pneumoencephalogram PEN Penicillin PERRLA pupils equal. reactive to light and accommodation (normal) PET positron emission tomography PF push fluids PFC persistent fetal circulation 58 . paroxysm atrial tachycardia Path. Orthopaedic Surgery os opening.OR operating room. paraplegic PARU post anesthesia recovery unit PAS pulmonary artery systolic pressure PAT pregnancy at term. palpate.

posterior POSTOP. pulmonary insufficiency PICA posterior inferior coronary artery PICU pulmonary intensive care unit PID pelvic inflammatory disease PIP proximal interphalangeal Pit.o. PRN as often as necessary 59 . physiology PI present illness. per rectum PR Proctology PRBC packed red blood cells PRE progressive resistive exercise prem premature pre-op preoperative prep. positive post.r. pneumo. first pregnancy p. potassium pp post partum. post-mortem PMH past medical history PMN polymorphonuclear (leukocytes) PM&R Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation PN poorly nourished. popliteal pos. physical. prepare for primip.. postoperative pot.o. practical nurse P&N Psychiatry and Neurology PNC prenatal clinic. or potass.r. according to circumstances p. platelets PM petit mal P. by mouth PO2 oxygen pressure (or tension) POC product of conception p.M. postoperative day polys polymorphonuclear leukocytes POMR problem oriented medical record poplit. premature nodal contraction PND paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea. post prandial PPBS post prandial blood sugar PPD purified protein derivative PPF protein plasma fractional PPH post partum hemorrhage ppm parts per million PPPG post prandial plasma glucose p. pneumonia PNI peripheral nerve injury PNX pneumothorax p. Pitocin PKU phenylkentonuria Plac. afternoon.n.d.m.r.PFT pulmonary function test pH hydrogen ion concentration PH past history pharm pharmacy PHYS. placenta plts. post nasal drip pneu.

l. as much as desired qn.q.i. Protestant pro.p. QNS quantity not sufficient q.d. prostatic prosth. every other day q. every other night q. each..i. as much as you please q. productive Prog.n. protein. Pt. psychotic.s. Psychiatry pt.o. PX physical examination Class 20 Q q every q.T. Q. prognosis PROM passive range of motion. q. every hour q2H every two hours q4H every four hours q. four times a day q.h.d. premature rupture of membranes pron.n.Q.time prothrombin time PS pulmonary stenosis. Plastic Surgery PSH past surgical history psi pounds per square inch PSMA progressive spinal muscular atrophy Psych.o. patient PT physical therapy every day q. four times a week q. prosthesis prot.w. pronator. physical therapy. pronation pros. every q.d.. peripheral vascular PVC premature ventricular contraction PVD peripheral vascular disease PVR pulmonary vascular resistance PVT previous trouble PWB% partial weight bearing with percent Px.h. every four hours 60 . prostate. percutaneous transluminal angioplasty PTB patellar tendon bearing PTCA percutaneous transvenous coronary angioplasty (balloon angioplasty) PU pregnancy urine PUD peptic ulcer disease PUPPP pruritic urticarial papules & plaques of pregnancy PV plasma volume. posterior tibial artery pulse PTA prior to admission.q.. every night q.n.

rub. sufficient qt. respirations RF rheumatic fever RFA right frontoanterior RFP right frontoposterior RFT right frontotransverse Rh. R right. radial RAI radioactive iodine r. rapid alternating movements R. every week R r. rectum.A.v. rehabilitation resp. right arm sitting RAtx radiation therapy RBBB right bundle branch block rbc/RBC red blood cell.. drops quad.q.S. rectus muscle reg. R/O rule out ROA right occipital anterior ROM range of motion. quadriplegic quant. rectal temperature Ra radium RA rheumatoid arthritis.s. rectal (ly). 61 . quantitative or quantity q.a. rhesus blood factor RH right hyperphoria RHD rheumatic heart disease RHF right heart failure RHT right hypertrophia RIH right inguinal hernia RLA Rancho Los Amigo Scale R to L&A react to light and accommodation RLE right lower extremity RLF retrolental fibroplasia RLL right lower lobe RLQ right lower quadrant RMA right mentoanterior RML right mediolateral. Rh. rectal.m. rupture of membranes. as much as you wish q. respiratory.w. regular rehab. red blood count RCA right coronary artery RCS reticulum cell sarcoma RCU respiratory care unit RD respiratory distress. quart qts. quantity. right atrium rad. right middle lobe RMP right mentoposterior RMSF Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever RMT right mentotransverse RNA ribonucleic acid RO. x-ray R. reaction to degeneration RDS respiratory distress syndrome RE reconditioning exercise rect. roentgen.

SGO-T serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase SH social history. separated Sept. without correction (without glasses) SGOT. sensitive. sensation sep. sensory. Saline S&A sugar and acetone SAH systemic arterial hypertension SaO2 arterial oxygen saturation SB stillborn SBE subacute bacterial endocarditis SBFT small bowel follow through (x-ray) SBO small bowel obstruction s. sibling 62 . stroke index sib. subcutaneous(ly) SC sickle cell SCC sickle cell crisis SCD sudden cardiac death schiz schizophrenia SCU special care unit sec second sed. serology. serological test SGA small for gestational age s.right otitis media ROP right occipital posterior ROS review of systems ROT right occipital transverse RP retrograde pyelogram RQ respiratory quotient RR recovery room RRE. right RT radiation therapy. prescription S ______________________________ s without S serum Sa. RR&E round. serum hepatitis SI sacroiliac joint. AB septic abortion Serol. and equal RSO right salpingo-oophorectomy RSA right sacrum anterior RSD reflex sympathetic dystrophy RSP right sacrum posterior RSR regular sinus rhythm RST right sacrum transverse Rt. rate erythrocyte sedimentation rate sem. respiratory therapy RTC return to clinic RUC regular uterine contraction RUE right upper extremity RUL right upper lobe RUQ right upper quadrant RV residual volume RVH right ventricular hypertrophy Rx therapy. regular. ves seminal vesicles Sens.c.

serological test for syphilis subcut. surgery. stimulus response SROM spontaneous rupture of membranes SS social service SSE soap suds enema st stage (of disease) st. spinal fluid spg. spine. superior rectus muscle. superior supin. objective assessment plan SOB shortness of breath sedimentation rate. supination supp suppository surg. spinal cord spec.O. spinal spont.STAT immediately STD sexually transmitted disease stom. subjective. specimen sp. Staph.O. sponge sp. spine..SICU surgical intensive care unit SIDS sudden infant death syndrome skel. repeat once if urgent sp. skeletal Sl. stomach strep. systolic 63 . subcutaneous subling. surgical SVC superior vena cava SVD spontaneous vaginaldelivery SVR systemic vascular resistance SVT supra ventricular tachycardia SWD short wave diathermy Sx symptoms specific gravity sp&H speech and hearing spin. stomach Staph.S. spinal S/P status post (previous condition) sp. sonogram S. solution sono. staphylococcus stat. system syst.fl. sulfate sup. sublingual sulf. streptococcus S. slightly SL under the tongue SLE systemic lupus erythematosus SLR straight leg raising sm small SMA-14 routine admission chemistry SNS sympathetic nervous system SO superior oblique SO4 sulfate S. sodium Sol.P. st.A.S. spontaneous SR system review.

flu.F. three times a day TIP terminal interphalangeal (joint) TIUP term intrauterine pregnancy t. deep breathe TEE transesophageal echocardiography temp temperature TENS transient electric nerve stimulation TESD total end systolic diameter T. therapy. three times per week TJ triceps reflex TKR total knee replacement TLC tender loving care. and metastases TO telephone order TOA tubo-ovarian abscess to AA to affected areas T.T T3 triodothyronine T4 total serum thyroxine TA tendon Achilles T&A tonsils and adenoids.w. thorax. etc.A.i. total lung capacity T.) rubella.therapeutic thor. tablespoon TCDB turn. transient ischemic attack t. tuning fork T of F tetralogy of Fallot TGA transposition great vessels THERAP.d. cough. tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy T&C type and crossmatch tab.M. OD tension. herpes virus II TP term pregnancy TPA thrombo proteolytic activity TPN total parenteral nutrition TPR temperature. cytomegalovirus (CMV). tablet TAB therapeutic abortion TAH total abdominal hysterectomy T. nodes.i. thoracic THR total hip replacement TI tricuspid insufficiency TIA transient ischemic shock. tympanum membrani (ear drum) TMJ temporomandibular joint TNI total nodal irradiation TNM tumor. right eye TORCH (titer) toxoplamosis others (hepatitis. pulse. tetanus antitoxin TB tuberculosis TBI total body irradiation TBLC term birth living child tbsp. respiration tr trace trach tracheostomy TS tricuspid stenosis TSH thyroid stimulating hormone 64 . beta strep. mumps.T.

ventilator vert. vertical 65 . United States Pharmacy USPHA United States Public Health Administration ut. (vit. uterus. US ultrasound USI urinary stress incontinence USN ultrasonic nebulizer USP. teaspoon TSS toxic shock syndrome T. urine output Ur.cap) vital capacity VCS vasoconstrictor substance VCU voiding cystourethrogram Vd void VD venereal disease VDRL blood test for syphilis vent.tsp. thoracic TTI total thromboplastin index TTP thrombotic thrombocytopenia purpura T-Tube cholangiogram TUR transurethral resection TURB transurethral resection of the bladder TURP transurethral resection of the prostate TV tidal volume TVH total vaginal hysterectomy TVR tricuspid valve replacement Tx treatment. unilateral u/o under observation for. urine URD upper respiratory disease URI upper respiratory infection Urol. upper gastrointestinal tract UL upper lid uln ulnar ULQ upper left quadrant ung. uterine UTI urinary tract infection UVL ultraviolet light V V vein VA visual acuity vag vagina. traction U U. ointment unilat. unit U/A urinalysis UC uterine contractions UCD usual childhood diseases UCG urinary chorionic gonadotropin UCHD usual childhood diseases UG upward gaze UGI upper gastrointestinal series (x-rays). Urology URQ upper right quadrant u/s. vaginal VC. temperature.T.

ventricular fibrillation VG vein graft VHD valvular heart disease VI volume index V.o. wheelchair WBT weight bearing to tolerance WDWN well developed. years old yrs. well nourished WE wide excision WF white female wk week WM white male w/n within WN well nourished WNL within normal limits WP whirlpool wt. Wasserman WB whole blood wbc. V Tach ventricular tachycardia V & T volume and tension (pulse) VTX vertex Vx. Year Medical Story 66 . white W/A while awake Wass. vaginal irrigation Via by way of VIPS voluntary interruption of pregnancy and sterilization service vit. vital signs VSA vital signs absent VSD ventricular septal defect VSS vital signs stable VT. white blood count W/C. vitamin VLDL very low density lipoproteins VM vestibular membrane VN visiting nurse VO verbal order VOD vision right eye vol volume VOS vision left eye VP venous pressure VPC ventricular premature contraction vertex presentation W W widowed. weight w/u workup X x times X exophoria distance XT exotrophia distance Y y. wh. WBC white blood cells.I.VF visual fields. V.

It is also a slightly hereditary complaint. or even after sitting in a chair at the office in a draught. but that is poor consolation. Even the healthiest people may get a short. sharp pain in the legs after a strenuous day. or the reverse. active patients can be very distressing and is more serious. Intermittent claudication is caused by the narrowing of the arteries and often starts in the 30s. The patient first complains of aching legs after exercise. it undoubtedly makes intermittent claudication far more troublesome. Then the pain is not merely an ache.1. however. The heart muscles may be equally affected. It may be slight. It generally means that the arteries everywhere in the body have become narrowed and blood cannot reach the muscles fast enough when they are in use. It is not uncommon and has the rather clumsy name of intermittent claudications. But cramp in the lower limbs in the daytime and in younger. but gradually becomes more pronounced. which can become so severe that the patient finds he or she cannot stand after much walking. A very small number of patients. and there is no absolute cure. CRAMPS Night Cramp is something from which a great many people occasionally suffer and they don’t easily forget it. cannot take quinine without becoming dizzy or getting buzzing in the ears. This is by no means the same as the night-time cramp already mentioned. The patient learns to regulate the amount of exercise he or she can comfortably take. This condition may be a good enough excuse for not doing jobs you don’t like doing. Many older people can bring it on by making powerful stretching movements while lying down in bed. crippling cramp. No drugs offer a complete relief but there is one habit which the sufferer must give up — smoking. but a definite. avoiding over-stretching and tablets containing quinine sulphate at bed-time may be all that is needed. 67 . They may have to decide whether they would rather have cramp and no dizziness. Whatever may or may not be one’s views about the habit. It is a disease which affects men far more than women and attacks are more common in cold weather. If this sort of night cramp becomes a real nuisance. A number of patients will secretly admit that so long as they keep off tobacco they do not get this fearsome cramp.

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