Franklyn’sMedi cal English

Preface Doctors are inevitable in today’s world as the patients are. Patients come in all different shapes and sizes. They also speak many different languages. Similarly doctors hail from different territory and from different background. Whether you are working abroad or at home, there will come a time when you will need to rely on English to communicate. These pages can help nurses, doctors, pharmacists, paramedics, receptionists, specialists or even the patients who frequent the chambers of those humanoid Gods. Franklyn’s Medical English will help you learn some basic English expressions, terms and vocabulary related to the medical field. By studying and practising Medical English, you will be able to make your patients feel more comfortable, and have a better understanding of their needs. You will also learn how to talk to their loved ones and communicate with other medical staffs who speak English. The patients will achieve a cutting edge benefit out of those medical terms which so far were an obstacle to them. These will enable them to communicate with ease and will help the doctors to diagnose the needs of the visitors more quickly and effectively. This highly interactive, specialist course, aims to provide the student with a sufficient level of Medical English terminology to help develop the communication skills required to converse with English speaking doctors and patients. So let’s take a plunge into the world of Medicos and try our medical bent of mind with Franklyn’s Medical English. Franklyn’s Medical English course covers a broad range of topics which include:


Unit 1• Medical vocabulary, terminology, and Idioms (1-5 classes) Unit 2• Sample Diseases and Comprehension Tests. (6-10 classes) Unit 3• Common Expressions on Doctor -Patient relationships, Medical Jokes.(11-15 Classes) Unit 4• Human Body; Understanding the scientific terms and names for the different body parts. (16th Class) Unit 5• Medical abbreviations. Story related to the Medical Fields. (17- 20 classes)

Unit 1
Class 1 Vocabulary
Word part of speech abnormal adj ache noun/verb acute adj

Meaning not normal for the human body

Example sentence This amount of weight loss is abnormal for women of your age. I can't sleep because my knees ache in the night. We knew the baby was coming right away because the woman's labour pains were acute. Your son is extremely allergic to peanuts. We called the ambulance when Josh stopped breathing. I can't remember the accident because I had amnesia. We had to amputate his leg because the infection spread

pain that won't go away quick to become severe/bad

allergy noun allergic adj ambulance noun amnesia noun amputation noun amputate verb

a body's abnormal reaction to certain foods or environmental substances (eg causes a rash) emergency vehicle that rushes people to a hospital a condition that causes people to lose their memory permanent removal of a limb


so quickly. anaemia noun anaemic adj antibiotics noun anti-depressant noun appointment noun arthritis noun asthma (attack) noun occurs when the body doesn't have enough red blood cells I have low energy because I am anaemic.

medication that kills bacteria and My throat infection went away cures infections after I started the antibiotics. medication that helps relieve anxiety and sadness a scheduled meeting with a medical professional a disease that causes the joints to become swollen and crippled a condition that causes a blockage of the airway and makes it difficult for a person to breathe a disease-causing organism The anti-depressants helped me get on with life after Lucy died. I've made you an appointment with a specialist in three week's time. My grandmother can't knit anymore because the arthritis in her hands is so bad. I carry an inhaler when I run because I have asthma.

bacteria noun bedsore noun benign adj biopsy noun blood count noun blood donor noun blood pressure

To prevent the spread of bacteria it is important that nurses wash their hands often. If you don't get up and take a walk, you will develop painful bedsores. We're hoping that the tests will show that the lump in your breast is benign.

wounds that develop on a patient's body from lying in one place for too long not harmful (not cancerous)

removal of human tissue in order The biopsy ruled out a number to conduct certain medical tests of illnesses. the amount of red and white blood cells a person has a person who gives blood to a blood bank or other person the rate at which blood flows You will be happy to know that your blood count is almost back to normal. Blood donors have to answer questions about their medical history. High blood pressure puts you


the chapel is on the third floor. but it turned out his leg was broken. You will probably always have to wear a brace on your ankle when you jog. chemotherapy noun My mother has already had three rounds of chemotherapy. The woman was badly bruised when she came into the emergency room. chapeline noun procedure that involves removing The baby was so large that we a baby from its mother through had to perform a Caesarean an incision in the woman's lower section. My leg was in a cast for graduation. C-section noun cancer noun cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) noun cast noun chapel. a priest who visits patients in the hospital type of treatment used on cancer patients There are many different options when it comes to treating cancer. 4 . If you want a place to pray. You saved your brother's life by performing CPR. Class 2 Caesarean section. We thought it was just a sprain. We thought it was going to be a breech birth.noun brace noun breech adj broken adj bruise noun bruised adj through the body (high/low) a device that holds injured body parts in place position of an unborn baby in which the feet are down and the head is up a bone that is divided in two or more pieces as a result of an injury injured body tissue that is visible underneath the skin at risk of having a heart attack. but the baby turned himself around. abdomen disease caused by the uncontrollable growth of cells restoring a person's breath and circulation a hard bandage that is wrapped around a broken bone to keep it in place a place where loved ones can go to pray for a patient's recovery.

a sac in the body-tissue filled with fluid (sometimes diseased) unable to hear We're going to remove the cysts just to be on the safe side. characterized by itchy spots all over the body It is best to get chickenpox as a child so that you don't get it worse as an adult. loss of mental capacity type of disease typically involving insulin deficiency medical explanation of an illness or condition experiencing pain a medical disorder that is harmful I understand that this disease to a person's health runs in your family. It is hard to watch a loved one suffering with dementia. requiring immediate and constant You can't see her right now. The doctor would prefer to share the diagnosis with the patient himself. in need of water It is easy for the elderly to become dehydrated in this heat. The accident left the patient both deaf and blind.chickenpox noun coroner noun critical condition noun crutches noun cyst noun deaf adj deficiency noun dehydrated adj dementia noun diabetes noun diagnosis noun discomfort noun disease noun dislocated adj a virus commonly contracted by children. a person who determines the We only call the coroner if we cause of death after a person dies think a death is suspicious. medical attention she's in critical condition. objects that people with injured I'd rather hop on one foot than legs or feet use to help them walk use crutches. 5 . People with diabetes have to constantly check their blood sugar levels. when a bone is temporarily separated from its joint You will have to wear a sling because of your dislocated shoulder. a lack of something necessary for The tests show that you have one's health an iron deficiency. This pain medication should relieve some of your discomfort.

People who have the flu should not visit hospital patients. higher than normal body temperature many types of respiratory or intestinal infections passed on through a virus broken or cracked bone a micro-organism. eyes. The child was rushed into the ER after he had a severe allergic reaction to a bee sting. a test that incorrectly comes back We had two false negative negative pregnancy tests. causing death The doctor made a fatal error when he wrote the wrong prescription. Your wrist is fractured and needs a cast. especially one Flowers are not allowed in the that causes disease ward to avoid the risk of germs being brought in. and his temperature is near danger point. That growth on your shoulder is starting to worry me. This cream is for external use only. either on or under the skin instance in which blood stops pumping through the heart The disease is part genetic and part environmental. He is very feverish. or mouth. medical background of a person's The doctor was concerned family members about my family history of skin cancer.emergency noun ER (emergency room) noun external adj false negative noun adj family history noun fatal adj fever noun feverish adj flu (influenza) noun fracture noun fractured adj germ noun genetic adj growth noun heart attack noun a medical problem that needs immediate attention the hospital room used for treating patients with immediate and life-threatening injuries on the outside It is important that children know which number to dial in case of an emergency. a medical condition or physical feature that is passed on in the family a ball of tissue that grows bigger than normal. so we didn't know we were having a baby. People who smoke are at greater risk of having a heart 6 . Do not get it near your ears.

HIV noun hives noun illness noun ill adj the virus that infects the human T-cells and leads to AIDS bumps that appear on the surface of the skin during an allergic reaction general term for any condition that makes a person feel sick for a certain period of time HIV can be passed down from the mother to her fetus. The wound should be covered when you swim to prevent it from becoming infected. Babies are immunized three times in their first year. The nurse will demonstrate how to bathe an infant. We have to do more x-rays because the first ones were inconclusive. Her illness went away when she started eating better. Her injuries were minor. young baby diseased area of the body (viral or bacterial) appearance (red and swollen) of an injured body part damage to the body section of the hospital where patients get constant attention and doctors rely on specialized equipment 7 . My right ankle was so inflamed it was twice the size of my left one. and viruses an injection that protects against a specific disease cut in the body made during surgery unclear You can't have visitors because your immune system is low. Class 3 immune system noun immunization noun immunize verb incision noun inconclusive adj infant noun infection noun infected adj inflamed adj injury noun intensive care unit (ICU) noun the parts of the body that fight diseases. just a few cuts and bruises. She will remain in the ICU until she can breathe on her own.attack. I had to have stitches to close the incision. infections. I broke out in hives after I ate that potato casserole.

The victim was shot in two places but the bullet wounds are not life-threatening. medical school (med. You must wear a face mask and gloves while you are in the OR. I'm afraid at least one of the tumours is malignant. The needle will make your lower body feel numb. a diagnosis place where samples of blood/urine etc. caused by lack of oxygen in the brain expected to grow and get much worse (especially related to cancerous cells) I'll take these samples down to the lab on my way out. are taken for testing a machine that keeps patients alive by helping them breathe when injuries and conditions are extremely serious feeling of dizziness and being off-balance. If you are allergic to this medication your skin will get red and itchy. lie down and call me. OR (operating room) the place where major surgeries noun and operations take place 8 . place where someone trains to be After eight years of medical school) a doctor school I can finally practice noun medicine. inside the organs The doctors will be monitoring her for any internal bleeding. The woman has severe brain damage and is currently on life support. The toddler was so dehydrated that the doctor decided to get him on an IV. newborn noun numb adj an infant that is less than three months old no feeling in a certain body part You have to support her neck because she is still a newborn. If you are feeling lightheaded again.internal adj itchy adj IV noun lab results noun lab (laboratory) noun life support noun life-threatening adj light-headed adj malignant adj under the skin. feeling discomfort on the skin's surface a tube that pumps liquids and medication into a patient's body tests that come back from a The lab results have come in laboratory and help doctors make and you are free to go home.

pharmacy.operation noun operate on verb pain noun pain killer. but it was successful. The patients in Room 4 are not getting along. personal (eg test results) high energy X-rays that destroy cancer cells 9 . The child was bitten by a poisonous snake. attempt to fix a problem strong discomfort in certain areas We gave your husband some of the body medicine to relieve some of the pain. drugstore a place where people go to buy noun medication and other medical supplies physician noun poison noun poisonous adj prenatal adj prescription noun prescribe verb privacy noun private adj radiation noun doctor a substance that is very dangerous if it enters the human body of the time period leading up to giving birth the correct amount and type of medication needed to cure an illness or relieve symptoms being alone. Ask the pharmacist if there is a generic brand of this medication. the cancer will come back. We thought her legs were paralyzed for life. type of medicine that takes away some or all of the discomfort of an illness or injury unable to move certain areas of the body a person staying in a hospital or medical facility a person who fills a doctor's prescription and gives people advice about medication You can take two pain killers every four hours. You should be able to buy a bandage at the pharmacy. If the radiation doesn't kill all of the abnormal cells. You will have to pay for a private hospital room if you don't want a room-mate. The woman was well prepared for labour because she took the prenatal classes. but she is learning how to walk. pain reliever noun paralyzed adj patient noun pharmacist noun a medical procedure that involves The operation lasted seven going inside a person's body in an hours. You will need to visit your doctor to get another prescription. Ask your family physician to refer you to a specialist.

shock noun side effects noun sore adj spasm noun specialist noun sprain noun/verb stable condition The woman was in shock after being pulled from the river. knee etc) My family doctor is sending me to a specialist. painful I have a sore throat and a runny nose.residency resident noun routine check-up noun scrubs noun part of a doctor's training that takes place in the hospital. Class 4 scrub up verb second opinion noun seizure noun carefully wash hands before and after seeing a patient I have to scrub up and get ready for surgery. input from a second doctor about I went to another doctor to get an illness or symptom a second opinion about these headaches. sudden violent movements or unconsciousness caused by electrical signal malfunction in the brain body not getting enough blood flow People who suffer from epilepsy are prone to seizures. white. a doctor's appointment to check a I'd like to see you a year from person's general health now for a routine check-up. wrist. a doctor that is an expert in a certain kind of medicine an injury (less serious than a break) to a joint (ankle. the uncontrollable tightening of a Ever since I injured my leg muscle I've been having muscle spasms in my upper thigh. a student working under a doctor John is a resident under Dr Brown. other symptoms that might occur One of the side effects of as a result of a certain medication antidepressants is a loss of or procedure appetite. a patient is stable if their medical You can see your husband 10 . or blue) worn by medical professionals I have some extra scrubs in my locker. plain uniform (usually green. I sprained my knee playing soccer.

It may sting when I insert the needle. alive. temporary pain now. umbilical cord noun the lifeline from the mother to the I had an emergency C-section fetus (when cut at birth this forms because the umbilical cord the belly button) was wrapped around the baby's neck. The heart transplant saved your life. ligaments (parts that hold the joints together) growing bigger and rounder after an injury to a joint pain or physical changes that occur because of an illness or disease amount of heat measured in a body. he is in a stable condition. You aren't pregnant. The ultrasound shows that we are expecting a baby boy. symptoms noun temperature noun tender adj test results noun therapy noun transplant noun ultrasound noun You have all of the symptoms of a diabetic. worry that causes muscles to You need to take some time tighten and blood pressure to rise off work and relieve some of your stress. We brought Jesse to emergency because he was running a (high) temperature. The test results came back negative. but appearing to be asleep and unaware of the surroundings I hit my head on the steering wheel and was still unconscious adj 11 . higher than normal temperature painful when touched or used medical information that helps doctors understand a patient's condition or body treatment aimed at improving a person's mental or physical condition moving of an organ from one human to another a test that examines the body's internal organs and processes using sound waves (often used during pregnancies) I knew my ankle was sprained because it was so swollen. I was able to go back to work a few weeks after starting the therapy. The incision was tender after the surgery.noun sting noun/verb stress noun stressed adj swelling noun swollen adj condition is no longer changing rapidly sharp.

Your blood count is abnormal. a dangerous organism that causes The virus is contractable the spread of minor and major through the exchange of diseases bodily fluids. Discontinue using this cream immediately if it makes you feel-----------------. the thin tubes that transport blood I'm just looking for the best around the body and back to the vein in which to insert the heart needle. The children's ---------------------is located on the fourth floor of the hospital. The doctor wrote me a -------------------------for a new type of pain reliever.unconscious when the ambulance arrived. If you get in the wheelchair I'll take you down to see the garden. I should warn you that we're entering the mental health ward. so you may have--------------------. The wounded soldiers are being airlifted to the hospital. time of day when friends and family are allowed to visit patients in hospital discharge of a person stomach contents through the mouth a section of a hospital or health facility where patients stay a chair on wheels used for transporting patients from place to place injury to body ("flesh wound" means not deep) a photograph of a person's bones and organs I'm afraid you'll have to come back during visiting hours. Class 5 Vocabulary Quiz 1 2 3 4 5 You shouldn't drive because this medicine might make you feel-----------------. 12 . The technician took x-rays of my shoulder to make sure it wasn't broken. The pregnant woman can't stop vomiting. urine sample noun vein noun virus noun visiting hours noun vomit noun/verb ward noun wheelchair noun wound noun wounded adj x-ray noun/verb a small amount of the body's liquid waste that is tested for different medical reasons The urine sample tells us how much alcohol is in your blood.

such as the back or the brain. In many cases specialists require a referral from a family doctor before they will see a patient. 7 The ----------------------suggests that your wife is seventeen weeks pregnant. 10 You couldn't have inherited the disease because it is not------------------. Study the list and then check your understanding by taking the quiz. including cancer specializes in eye diseases specialist for babies and children specializes in the body's movement foot specialist 13 . such as cancer. allergist: anesthesiologist: cardiologist: chiropractor: dentist: dermatologist: fertility specialist: gynecologist: massage therapist: midwife: naturopath: neurologist: obstetrician: occupational therapist: oncologist: ophthalmologist: pediatrician: physical therapist: podiatrist: specializes in determining food and environmental allergies specializes in pain prevention during surgery heart specialist back specialist tooth specialist skin specialist helps people who have difficulty getting pregnant specializes in women's needs specializes in muscle relaxation helps women deliver babies in a natural way specializes in natural cures and remedies brain specialist specialist for pregnant women specializes in workplace health tumour specialist. They either treat specific parts of the body. or they specialize in certain diseases. Here is a list of the most common types of specialists. Medical Specialists Medical specialists are experts in certain fields of medicine. 9 The physician will be monitoring your ------------to make sure it isn't cancerous. Family doctors keep a list of local specialists and can help patients choose the right specialist for each medical issue.6 ------------------------------from this medication include nausea and depression. 8 The patient has asked for some -------------------while her family is visiting.

-------------------------------------------------------I don't want to take any drugs that will cause me to become addicted to them. -------------------------------------------------------I've been having major chest pains this week. We have tried everything that the books suggest. I don't know what to do now. --------------------------------------------------------My husband and I have been trying to get pregnant for three years. but it also might be grass. -------------------------------------------------------My left eye has an infection that won't go away and my vision has been blurry for two weeks now. We want to know when we are due and we want to make sure the fetus is healthy. but I do need some sort of pain relief. I hate being stuck in a wheelchair. Which specialist does each patient need? 1 I have a terrible rash on my arms and legs. I'm also having trouble breathing. She hasn't put on any weight in two months and she keeps getting ear infections. -------------------------------------------------------My husband and I just took a home pregnancy test. and it came out positive.psychiatrist: radiologist: specialist in mental health specializes in imaging tests Referral Quiz Read the patient complaints. -------------------------------------------------------The test results show that I have an advanced form of blood cancer. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 14 . -------------------------------------------------------My baby is not developing properly. -------------------------------------------------------I still can't walk and it's been three months since my accident. -------------------------------------------------------I get terrible acne and I have tried all of the products in the pharmacy. I think I'm allergic to dairy food.

used for taking blood or administering medicine the pouch that contains liquids to be pumped into a patient's body small plastic measuring cup equipment that makes small things appear larger than they are a device used for looking into a patient's ears equipment that fits over the nose and mouth and supplies oxygen an object that is used to separate the doctor and patient from others in an open room 15 . Study the vocabulary and try the matching exercise.---------------------------------------------------------- Medical Supplies and Tools Here is a list of some of the most common supplies found in doctor's offices. and number combinations of various sizes used to test a person's eyesight instrument used during operations and medical procedures (assists the doctor in pulling. antiseptic bandage bandage scissors blood pressure monitor dressing elastic tape eye chart forceps gauze hypodermic needle IV bag medicine cup microscope otoscope oxygen mask privacy screen liquid used to sterilize (clean) the surface of the skin a cloth covering that is placed over a wound to prevent bleeding. netted material used for dressing wounds sharp pointed metal piece that pricks the skin (attached to a syringe). and retrieving) thin. operating rooms. word. and medical kits. holding. swelling and infection tool used to cut bandages a tool that measures the force of blood flow through a person's body protective covering that is placed over a wound a thin roll of stretchy material that is sticky on one side a poster of letter.

scales stethoscope syringe table and head-rest paper test tube thermometer vial a device that measures a person's weight equipment for listening to a person's heart and lungs a cylinder-shaped piece that attaches to a needle and can be filled with liquid paper that is placed on an examining table or head-rest to prevent the spread of germs glass cylinder that is filled with blood or other liquids and can be capped and placed in a storage area an instrument used to check a person's body temperature a small bottle or container used for storing liquids Matching Exercise Match the comments with the supplies that are needed: 1 I can't catch my breath. 3d. 4h. 10e a table and head-rest paper b Thermometer c oxygen mask d hypodermic needle e bandage scissors f Scales g eye chart h Antiseptic i IV bag j privacy screen Unit 2 Class 6 Article 1: 16 . 7j. 6 Let's find out your weight. 6f. 3 We'll have to get a blood sample. 7 I need to examine the patient in private. 4 I need to sterilize the wound. 8 Let's check your vision. 8g. 5i. 2 Prepare the examining table for the next patient. 2a. 5 We'll have to feed him with liquids. 9b. 10 Can you cut this gauze for me? Answers: 1c. 9 Let's see if you are running a fever.

A. ? any age B. D. D. tightness or pressure. chest pain. Many of these conditions are reversible with medication but not 100% reversible in all patients. pollution) . airway obstruction and airway sensitivity. Experts don't agree why the rate is increasing but here are some ideas: . regular lung infections. and being male. C. presence of allergies. ? ? ? coughing chest pain all of the above 1. The current rise in asthma cases among children is alarming. dust. Multiple Choice Questions: 0. Common symptoms of asthma are wheezing. Some risk factors for asthma are a family history of asthma. However. Some common features of asthma are inflammation. What age does asthma present at? A. 17 .Overview of Asthma Asthma is a disease of the lungs that is that is characterized by tightening of the air pathways. exposure to tobacco smoke. C.) . it can be controlled. ? ? ? childhood 30s 10-12 years 2. Asthma is ___________ of the lungs. low birth weight. shortness of breath.Children don't have strong immune systems (they aren't exposed to many childhood diseases.Decreases in the rates of breast feeding may also play a role.Children are being exposed to more triggers (things that bring on asthma attacks. coughing. Asthma may occur at any age but is very common in children. What are some common symptoms associated with asthma? A. Approximately 10% of children have asthma and that rate may rise in the future. Asthma is a disease that causes many problems for the patient. ? shortness of breath B. With the right information and medical attention medical professionals can prevent many deaths. tobacco smoke.

? young adults B. Many of the symptoms of asthma are 100% ________ with medication in some patients. there has been an increase in asthma cases among ________. C. ? Children are being exposed to more triggers. D. D. ? risk factors B. D. C. A. ? ? ? ? a part a disease a risk factor a symptom 3. ? ? ? 1% 10% 15% 7. Recently. C. What is one idea why the asthma rate is increasing in children? A. regular lung infestions. Family history of asthma. C. D. C. 18 . B. ? reversible B. and exposure to tabacco smake are all ___________ of asthma A. ? ? ? triggers diseases exposures 4. ? 20% B. ? ? ? IV drug users the elderly children 5. D. ? ? ? stronger avoidable sensitivity 6.A. A. What percent of children have asthma? A.

Fill in the gaps with the words form the text above. tobacco smoke. coughing. regular lung infections. A. Some for asthma are a family history of asthma. Asthma is a disease that causes _________ . 8. C. Asthma is a disease that causes many for the patient. C. i---------is a disease of the that is that is characterized by tightening of the air pathways. The current rise in asthma cases among is alarming. Experts don’t agree why the rate is increasing but here are some ideas: . ? severe headaches B. presence of allergies. Common symptoms of asthma are wheezing. More children are smoking. Class 7 B. D. Breast feeding has increased. A. Some common of asthma are inflammation. D. ? ? ? Children have strong immune systems. Asthma may occur at age but is very common in children.Children don’t have strong (they aren’t exposed to many childhood diseases. airway obstruction and airway sensitivity. D. Approximately 10% of children have asthma and that rate may rise in the future. pollution) . C. and being male. tightness or pressure.Children are being exposed to more (things that bring on asthma attacks. shortness of .B. ? ? ? triggers features risk factors 9. Many of these conditions are reversible with medication but not 100% reversible in all patients. chest pain. it can be 19 ? ? ? tightening of air pathways relaxation of the lungs medication .Decreases in the rates of breast feeding may also play a role. low birth weight.) . ? diseases B. exposure to tobacco smoke. dust. Airway obstruction and airway sensitivity are common ________ of asthma. However.

What are some risk factors for arthritis? . Any. Try to answer the following conversation questions. This is the most prevalent. If the disease lasts long or occurs repeatedly. the cartilage of the bone slowly wears away with age and the bones rub together. Factor. Gout is a condition where the body cannot effectively remove uric acid and the uric acid crystallizes in the joints like needles. stiffness. redness and loss of function. If the joint lining continues to grow. The three most common types of arthritis are: 1. 2. . Triggers. Breath. Damage to the synovial lining cause synovial fluid to leak and produce fluid in the joint lining. All of this causes pain. Gout. 3. speaking out loud. Problem.What are some treatment options available to arthritis patients? 20 .What are some of the main types of arthritis? . In osteoarthritis. With the right information and medical attention. When the cartilage is warn down. Lungs. swelling and distress for the patient. inflammation causes damage to the cartilage and synovial lining.) In rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis is not always limited to the joints of the body and can affect soft tissues and internal organs. These crystals cause swelling and severe pain. The typical signs of arthritis are swelling of the joint that is warm to the touch. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Osteoarthritis. Article 2A: Overview of Arthritis Arthritis is a general term that refers to over a hundred different types of joint inflammation. Immune. the body チ fs immune system begins to attack the joints of the body causing the joint lining to swell. pain and stiffness. System. tenderness. This adds to the swelling along with the inflammatory response of the body. it can permanently damage the bone. Feature.controlled. the space in the joint becomes smaller and the bones may rub together. This joint inflammation causes swelling. Children. medical professionals can prevent many deaths. it can lead to tissue damage. pain. List: A Asthma. In the joint.

Class 8 Article 2B: Arthritis Information for the Patient Arthritis is caused by inflammation inside the joints of the body. current medications. The goals of arthritis treatment are to avoid pain and further destruction of the joint.. There are more than 100 different types of arthritis and treatment may vary depending on the type of arthritis the patient has. Surgery to correct the joint damage may also be an option. To diagnose arthritis a variety of blood tests and xrays may be necessary. Factors to take under consideration are age. pain relievers and anti-inflammatory medication should be taken to relieve the pain and swelling. However. Treatment for arthritis generally involves pain management. Some common symptoms of arthritis are redness.what can I for you this morning? PATIENT Good Morning. splints and supporters to help support the joints especially during strenuous activities. and being overweight. There are many types of arthritis and in general the causes are still unknown. Arthritis is very common and affects almost a third of the American population. When the joint becomes painful. Work conditions that require heavy lifting and being overweight cause heavy stress on the joints of the body. I'm sick of it. One way is to avoid activities that cause pain. osteoarthritis. These may include age. It seems to be getting worse. the patient should use braces. there are some risk factors for arthritis.heartburn. overall health and medical history. Just me a minute. Fill in the Gaps with suitable alternatives. Same about do give how missed out progress some sound want DOCTOR Good Morning. Wilson . DOCTOR Let me just have a look at your notes. 1. Arthritis also occurs more often in women than men. Mr. Treatment will vary with the type of arthritis and the patient. warmth around the joint. and stiffness. joint pain. doctor. A physical therapist can advise exercise routines that help maintain joint mobility. Lastly. old thing . exercise and relaxation. the cartilage in the joints wears down causing the most common type of arthritis. With age. gender. swelling. lifestyle factors. I see you've 21 .

The clavicle is also known as the: MOTORIST'S BONE SCAPULARY END COLLAR BONE LUCKY BONE 22 . Finally the pharmacist suggests her some but warns her if the baby doesn’t in a day. And I don't seem to be getting any better. She is angry and rather the pharmacist first because she doesn’t like to be kept . which produces red cells.been coming to us once a month for time. That's about often I've been coming to see you. Bones are also held together by: 5. does it? Let me ask you a few questions.what do you to know? 2 .consult cough mixture get better hanging on counter relies on short with turn into look after making up on over the A woman walks into the pharmacy to buy some medicine for her toddler. Bones contain _____ . Hands and feet contain _____ of all the body bones. I just don't seem to be making any at all. How many bones are there in the human body? 3. The connexion between bones is called: 4. Would you say that's right? PATIENT Yes. HEMATIC TISSUE 1/5 26 VERTEBER VERTEBRIS CELL JELLY 6. The sales assistant first wants to the pharmacist the situation. The human bone frame is called the: SKELETAL 1028 A JOINT LIAGTURES MIELLUS 1/3 1 1/2 23 1/4 12 84 SKELETON 116 A KNUCKLE LIGUENTS 206 A KNEE LIGAMENTS AN ELBOW LINKS MARROW SQUELETTON CORPSE 2. even though her company greatly on her work. something like that. I'm worse in fact. 7. 8. just to see if we've something. The skull contains _____ bone(s). The thoracic cavity bone frame is also called the: STERNOTHORACIC BOX TOP CAGE 10. The customer then decides to stay at home and her child. PATIENT All right . The spinal column bones are called: VERTEBRAE COSTAL FRAME VERTEBRE RIBCAGE 9. DOCTOR That doesn't too good. Class 9 Medical English Quiz (1) THE BASIC BODY STRUCTURE 1. The woman has to wait a little as the pharmacist is just busy a prescription. or to see if you've left anything . the cough may something bad.

HEAVIEST 4 3 1 2 5 3 4. Skin receptors detecting heat are called __ RUFFINI CORPUSCLES RUFFIAN CORPUSCLES RUFFINI CORPUSCLES 10. Proximal carpal bones are those _____ the body. in an adult body. in an adult body. The thumb is one bone _____ than the other fingers.Medical English Quiz 2: THE SKIN 1. How many bones are there in the carpus? 5. amounts to about __ Kg 5. Distal carpal bones are those ______ from the body. The dermis is also called the __ CORIUM INNERMOST TISSUE 9. The smallest finger is called the : LITTLE FINGER 10. The skin is the organ with the __ surface area in the whole body. Skin receptors detecting motion are called __ PACINIAN CORPUSCLES PACCINO'S CORPUSCLES PACINIANS CORPUSCLES PUCCINI'S CORPUSCLES Class 10 Medical English Quiz 3 : THE HAND 1. The carpus is also known as the ______ 4. Distal carpal bones _____ with metacarpal bones. The dermis is __ times thicker than the epidermis. amounts to __ square meter(s) 3. How many bones are there in a hand? 3. SECOND LARGEST 3 4 1 LARGEST 2 SECOND HEAVIEST 1 2 4 3 4 2 FOLICULES FOLLICULES FOLICLES SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE RUFFINI CORPUSCULES FOURTH HEAVIEST THIRD HEAVIEST THIRD LARGEST FOURTH LARGEST 2. 7. Its average weight. Both hands _____ the same number of bones. Finger bones are also called : 9. Its average surface. It is the __ organ in the whole body. The epidermis contains __ layer(s) of cells. CONTAINS 72 WRIST 6 NEAR AWAY ARTICULATE PHALANXES SMALL FINGER 9 34 43 ELBOW 8 NEAREST 12 CLOSER NEARER FAR AWAY CONTAIN 27 KNEE ANKLE DO NOT CONTAIN DOES NOT CONTAIN 2. Hair bulbs are located in __ FOLLICLES COLLAGENEOUS MATTER 8. THE FURTHEST AWAY FURTHER AWAY ARTICULE PHALANGES JOLLY FINGER ARTICLE FOREBONES 7. 23 . ENCOUNTER ANTEBONES EAR FINGER 8. 6. 6.

2 1 Kg 17% 1 3 1. 550 35% 50% 45% 650 45% 55% 55% 600 50% 60% 35% 700 40% 65% 65% WILL MUSCLE VOLUNTARY MUSCLE 2. LARGE LARGEST LARGER MOST LARGE Medical English Quiz No. The cerebrum is broken down into 4 lobes. A MILLION A STROKE ANTEBRAIN LATERAL HALVES A TRILLION A STRIKE FRONTBRAIN SIDE HALVES 5. On average. The cerebrum is also called the: FOREBRAIN QUARTERS 7. Rupture or blockage of a brain blood-vessel is called: 6. The functions of each hemisphere are co-ordinated by commissural fibres. also called: CONTACTIVE FIBRES UNION FIBRES LINKING FIBRES CONNECTIVE FIBRES 9. 4.5 Kg 2. 5. Smooth muscle is also called : INTERNAL MUSCLE ORGAN MUSCLE INNER MUSCLE 7. 10. The brain represents _____ of the whole central nervous system. 3. Our body contains over _____ muscles. The two types of striated muscular tissue are called dark fibres and _____. 4. CLEAR FIBRES BANDS ALL PAIR FIBRES STRIPS SOME LIGHT FIBRES 8. _____ muscle movement is a pull.SHORTER SMALLER LACKING LITTLER Medical English Quiz 4 : THE BRAIN 1. Muscular fibres striations are also called : 9. The brain contains about _____ neurones. Striated muscle is also called : SKELETON MUSCLE BONE MUSCLE INVOLUNTARY MUSCLE FAIR FIBRES LINES EVERY STRIPES ALL OF 6. Brain cells die off if not oxygenated for more than ____ minutes. 24 . Smooth muscle tissue has _____ striations.5 Kg 97% 4 2 Kg 57% 77% A BILLION A STREAK A FIT FIRSTBRAIN SIDE GLOBES A HUNDRED MILLION 2. Muscles account for about _____ of our weight. Muscles use ______ more oxygen when in motion than at rest. The cerebrum is divided into 2 hemispheres also called the: 8. named after the bone to which they are ______ NEAR NEARER NEAREST THE MOST NEAR 10. The corpus callosum is the _____ of commissural fibres. muscular contraction rate is of about _____. 5: The Muscular System 1. The brain weighs an average of: 3.

I'm hoping to get to the bottom of this soon. You have a long road to recovery. Patient • • • • • • • • • • I don't understand what this means. We've ruled out diabetes. We have several options to discuss. How are you feeling today? Patient: A bit better. The transfusion was a success. Sample Conversation Doctor: Hi Jessica. It looks like you're ready to go home. Doctor's Diagnosis Physician • • • • • • • • • • • • Your test results have come in. I'd like to keep you here over night. 25 . We'll know more in a few days. I'm afraid the prognosis isn't good. I'm going to get a second opinion. The blood test came back negative. You're not in the clear yet.NOT NONE NO ANY Unit 3 Class 11 Common Expressions with Real Life Medical Fields and Coversations. Am I going to need surgery? Is it good news or bad? When will the tests results come in? How long do I have to stay in the hospital? What is the success rate? Are they going to run more tests? Is this a common problem for people my age? I'd like to discuss other options.

Patient: Things like what? Cancer? Doctor: Actually. The biopsy shows that the tumour is benign. Doctor: Don't get too excited. that's a load off my mind. Is it good news or bad? Doctor: I guess it's a bit of both. We're going to take it out anyway just to be on the safe side. Patient: Wow. Say. I'm thinking more along the lines of a food allergy. That means no soccer. Doctor: Okay. Check your understanding 1 2 3 Why did the woman have to switch medication? What bad news does the doctor give the patient? What medical procedure did the patient already undergo? Class 12 Visiting Hours 26 . I haven't felt sick to my stomach since you switched my medication. Patient: I was afraid you were going to say that. Doctor: These things often are stress related. Patient: I've probably just been so worried about this stupid lump. Doctor: Now for the good news. your test results came in this morning. After the operation you're going to have to stay off your feet for at least three weeks. Patient: It's about time.Doctor: That's good to hear. which means it's not cancerous. but we're still going to do a few blood tests just to rule a few things out. Are you still feeling nauseous? Patient: No. It looks like you're going to need surgery to remove the tumour from your leg. We still need to get to the bottom of all of this weight loss. Doctor: Great. Which do you want first? Patient: Let's get the bad news over with. Thanks Doctor.

and some appropriate responses that you may be able to give them. Could you tell me which room Mrs Smythe is in? Is my child going to be okay? When can we speak with the doctor? What time are visiting hours? I'm trying to locate my sister. Study the different people that may come to visit the patient. boy and girl) Brother and Sister/siblings (other children of the patient's parents) Extended family Grandmother and Grandfather (mother and father of patient's parents) Aunt and Uncle (brother and sister of patient's parents) Niece and Nephew (girl and boy child of patient's siblings) Cousins (children of patient's aunt or uncle) Friends and other loved ones Best friend (patient's closest friend) Room-mate (a person the patient lives with) Neighbour (a friend who lives near the patient) Co-worker (a person who works with the patient) Boyfriend or Girlfriend (the man or woman the patient loves/dates) Fiancé (the man or woman the patient is engaged to marry) Questions and Concerns of Loved Ones • • • • • • • • We're Michael's grandparents. Immediate family Mother and Father (patient's parents) Husband or Wife (the man or woman the patient is married to) Son and Daughter (children of the patient.) Is there anything you can do to make him more comfortable. (I'm trying to find my sister's room. involves dealing with the people who are close to your patients. monitor. My child would like something to drink. certain loved ones will be allowed to visit. It is a difficult time for people who have loved ones in the hospital. In many cases you may form stronger relationships with the patients' visitors than the patients themselves.Part of being a nurse. 27 . and inform visitors on a daily basis. while others will not. Depending on the condition of the patient. Showing them compassion and explaining the rules is much easier if you have the necessary English skills. it is often necessary to welcome. Then read some typical concerns and questions that visitors may have. When a patient is staying in a hospital or other health facility.

All this means that you need to be fluent in using a set of special kinds of word groups. And even if you’re not a doctor. about the treatment. but plain everyday language that has to do with health and illness. Room 7 is down the hall to your right. you’ll find it necessary to use these word groups quite often. We had to transfer your mother-in-law to the ICU. while prescribing medicines. you’ll often have to talk about your own or someone’s illness or health. Everyday Medical English: Speaking about health and illness This is an area where even people who are generally fluent stumble quite often. It's in your brother's best interest. The second collection contains word groups that doctors (as well as others) use when they’re speaking to patients while examining them. this is not normally a problem. Doctor to patient Here are 3 separate collections of word groups. We do the best we can around here. He's in isolation because of the transplant. you’ll have to describe and explain to your doctor (and to other people) how you’re suffering. But for non-native speakers of English. The doctor would ask you a number of questions. The first collection contains word groups that doctors (as well as others) use when they’re speaking to patients in order to find out about an illness. And at home and when you’re among your friends. Questions and Responses from Nurses • • • • • • • • • • • • • • What is your relation to Jessica? You'll have to come back during visiting hours. and you’ll have to understand those questions and answer them. You’ll have to speak to them while examining them. For a fluent native speaker of English.• • • Is there somewhere I can lie down for a while. Could you tell me where the chapel is? Please tell her to get well soon. These are word groups that doctors (as well as others) usually use when they’re speaking to patients. You see. I'll give you two some privacy now. this is a real problem when they have to use English to speak. when you’re ill. This Lesson will help you get over this difficulty. And if you’re a doctor or a medical professional. Not a set of technical terms.) She's doing much better this morning. The doctor would like to have a word with you. you’ll have to discuss illness and health with patients and others. Does your daughter need anything? I'm afraid she's not having a very good day today. of course — just as this is not a problem for you in your own mother tongue. You’ll have to speak to patients about the history and symptoms of their illness. The third collection contains 28 . because ‘illness’ is a topic that people speak to you about quite often. (The doctor wants to speak to you. There's a quiet room for families down the hall. Ms Lee is too tired for visitors.

word groups that doctors (as well as others) use when they’re speaking to patients about the diagnosis that has been made and about the treatment. Case-taking: Questioning the patient Pick up each word group and utter it ALOUD — several times. Everyone to everyone else who is ill. mothers and others who are ill. So you can imagine how universally useful these word groups are. Practise uttering the word groups until you can utter each of them with a ready flow. • Any pain in your muscles? • Any pains in your chest when you cough? • Any problems with your chest? • Any problems with your waterworks? • Any shortness of breath? • Apart from your headaches. Now remember this: Just because this section has been given the heading “Doctor to patient”. You see. will you? • Did the tablets help? • Did you ever have any fractures? • Did you ever have trouble with your liver? • Did you have a comfortable night? • Do bright lights bother you? • Do the eyes water when you read? • Do you always sweat? • Do you belch? • Do you bring up any phlegm? • Do you cough a lot? • Do you cough much? • Do you cough up phlegm? • Do you cough when you smell certain foods or other smells? • Do you drink a lot? • Do you drink? • Do you ever bring something up? • Do you ever faint? • Do you ever feel completely possessed by another person? • Do you ever feel giddy? • Do you ever feel like vomiting? • Do you ever get short of breath? • Do you ever get wheezy? • Do you ever have dizzy spells? • Do you ever have nose bleeds? • Do you ever see double images in front of your eyes? • Do you ever see distorted images before your eyes? • Do you ever see unusual shapes before your eyes? • Do you ever suffer from headaches? • Do you ever wet the bed? • Do you feel any pain inside your ears? • Do you feel any pain or discomfort down below? • Do you feel any weakness in your limbs? • Do you ever take aspirins or anything like that? • Do you relate the cramps in anyway to your meals? • Do you have any cough or phlegm? • Do your ankles ever swell up? • Do you feel sick when you get these headaches? • Do you find that you’re losing your eyelashes? • Do you get any pain on breathing? • Do you get any pains in the chest? • Do you get headaches when you’re reading? • Do you get headaches? • Do you get out of breath easily? • Do you get tired easily? • Do you give him liquids? • Do you go out drinking much? • Do you have a cold? • Do you have a history of any serious illness? • Do you have a sore throat? • Do you have any allergies? • Do you have any chest pains after exercise? • Do you have any difficulty moving your arms or legs? • Do you have any discharge from your eyes? • Do you have a cough? • Do you have any aches or pains? • Do you have any pain in passing water? • Do you have any trouble with passing water? • Do you have any trouble with your stomach or bowels? • Do you have any pain while passing urine? • Do you have bad breath? • Do you have headaches? • Do you have palpitations? • Do you have to strain to pass your motions? • Do you have to strain to pass your water? • Do you know when these headaches are coming on? • Do your muscles feel stiff in the morning? • Do you often get diarrhoea? • Do you often get constipation?• Do you often have a fever? • Do you often lose your temper? • Do you play any sports? • Do you see spots in front of your eyes? • Do you smoke? • Do you socialize much? • Do you strain when 29 . Fathers and mothers when they have to speak to sons and daughters who are ill. Friends when they have to speak to friends and others who are ill. don’t think that the word groups given are useful only to doctors. come back to the word groups once a week (at least for 3 or 4 weeks at a stretch) and repeat uttering them several times — ALOUD. After that. these are word groups that everybody will find useful when they have to speak to someone who is ill: Sons and daughters when they have to speak to fathers. are there any other problems? • Are your parents fit and well? • Are your parents in good health? • Are you a heavy drinker? • Are you aware of anything when you swallow? • Are you breastfeeding? • Are you doing better today? • Are you having any difficulty with your hearing? • Are you long-sighted? • Are you married? • Are you short of breath? • Are you short-sighted? • Are your bowels regular? • Are your stools black? • Can I just come back for a moment to these dizzy spells? • Can you describe the pain? • Can you describe the problem? • Can you describe the symptoms? • Can you see any letters at all? • Can you show me where it hurts? • Can you tell me exactly how you turned your foot? • Can you tell me which tooth is causing the problem? • Can you describe the dizzy spells? • Describe what’s wrong. that’s not so. No.

we'll look after her. I'm afraid that's the policy. Visitor: And leave her all alone overnight? Visitor: Surely you can make an exception? What if she needs me in the night? 30 . Visitor: My wife's in room 3B. sir Sorry. What she really needs is her rest. or does it go anywhere else? • Does light bother you? • Does lying down help the pain? • Does she eat at the usual times? • Does she have a good appetite? • Does she have any rashes? • Does she sleep at the normal time? • Does that medicine have any effect? • Does that hurt at all? • Does the knee feel tender here? • Does the pain have any relation to all this? • Does your husband smoke? • Does your nose run a lot? • Does your water dribble? • Has he ever had a fever? • Has there been any changes in your health since your last visit? • Has this been a problem before? • Have these headaches affected your vision at all? • Have you brought your urine sample? • Have you noticed any problems with your eyesight? • Have you got a cough — a persistent cough? • Have you ever been admitted to a hospital? • Have you ever been operated on? • Have you ever blacked out? • Have you ever coughed up blood? • Have you ever fainted? • Have you ever had backaches before? • Have you ever had any problems? • Have you ever had chicken pox? • Have you ever had measles? • Have you ever had your tonsils out? • Have you had a head injury? • Have you had an anaesthetic before? • Have you had any cough at all? • Have you had any diseases in the family — like diabetes or high blood pressure? • Have you had any falls? • Have you had any miscarriages? • Have you had any pain in your chest? • Have you had any serious illness in the past? • Have you had any shortness of breath? • Have you had (this) problem before? • Have you had this (problem) long? • Have you lost any weight? • Have you noticed any blood in your stools? • Have you noticed any blood in your water? • Have you noticed any swelling of your ankles? • Have you noticed any twitching of your muscles? • Have you noticed any weakness or tingling in your limbs? • Have you put on weight recently? • Have you taken any aspirin? • Have you taken anything for it? • Have you usually got lots of energy? Class 13 Sample Conversation Nurse: Nurse: Nurse: Nurse: I'm afraid visiting hours are over. you'll have to come back in the pass water? • Do you suffer from double vision? • Do you sweat at night? • Do you vomit? • Do you wheeze? • Do your eyeballs feel painful? • Do your eyes get red easily? • Do your eyes get tired easily? • Do your eyes itch? • Do your eyes water? • Do your legs swell? • Do your motions smell bad? • Do you wear glasses? • Do these headaches come on at any particular time? • Do you ever get these headaches at night? • Does it bother you when you are walking? • Does any special food upset your stomach? • Does anyone else in your family suffer from this problem? • Does anything in particular bring on this pain? • Does anything make the pain better? • Does anything make the pain worse? • Does he cough a lot? • Does he ever bring up his food? • Does he ever get diarrhoea? • Does he pass wind as normal? • Does the pain affect your work? • Does it bother you in any way? • Does it burn when you pass water? • Does it come on any particular time? • Does the discharge have a bad smell? • Does it hurt if you bend your knee? • Does it hurt much? • Does it hurt when I do this? • Does it hurt when you swallow? • Does the pain stay in one place. Don't worry. sir.

Visitor: Can't her friends even stop by to bring her flowers? Nurse: Visitor: Well. When is the doctor free? I need to renew my prescription. When can they come? Nurse: Visiting hours are from 9 to 11 in the morning and 4 to 7 in the evening. I really hate to leave her. Nurse: Visitor: Okay. Thanks for understanding. My child needs to come in for a check-up. Why don't you head home and get something to eat yourself? She's in good hands here. 31 . I need to see the doctor. I guess it's all in her best interest. I'm going to bring your wife her dinner. but I'm afraid while your wife is on bedrest the doctor has requested that only immediate family members come in to see her. I'll tell her you were here and that you'll see her in the morning. Do you think the doctor could squeeze us in today? I need to make an appointment for my husband. Now. We just can't risk any germs that might come in with them.. but that's probably a good idea. The doctor wants to see me again in two week's time. Booking a Doctor's Appointment Patient • • • • • • • • I need to make an appointment. Nurse: Check your understanding 1 2 3 What is the man's relation to the patient? Why does the nurse send the man away? The nurse thanks the man because. Flowers are not permitted in this ward.Visitor: Some of her friends want to see her too..

like other children? • Is there a history of diabetes in your family? • Is there any bad smell from your nose? • Is there any blood in it? • Is there any discharge from your ears? • Is there any discharge or watering of the eyes? • Is there any heart disease in the family? • Is there any rash on the body? • Is there anybody with blood pressure trouble in the family? • Is there anybody with kidney trouble in the family? • Is there anything else you feel the same time? • Is there anything that makes the pain better? • Is there anything that makes the pain worse? • Is there anything you need? • Is this a life-long habit? • Is your digestion all right? • Is your hearing affected? • Is there anybody with heart trouble in the family? • So you fell over and grazed your knees? • Try and explain what happens when the pain comes on. I'm sorry the doctor is not taking new patients.Receptionist • • • • • • • • • • What is your chart number? What is the appointment regarding? Which day/what time is good for you? Is January the 3rd okay with you? How does four o'clock sound? We'll see you then. You'll be seeing Dr Lindsay. We're running an hour behind schedule. Everyday Medical English: Speaking about health and illness • How about sore throats? • How about your bowels? • How about your relations with your colleagues? • How about your relations with your husband? • How are you at the moment? • How are you feeling today? • How can I help you? • How do you feel in general? • How are you feeling at the moment? • How does it feel? • How have you been keeping up to now? • How is your appetite? • How long do these headaches last? • How long does the pain last? • How long has it been bothering you? • How long has this been going on? • How long has this bothered you? • How long has your voice been hoarse? • How long have the headaches been bothering you? • How long have they been bothering you? • How long have you had this pain? • How long have you had these pains? • How long have you had this boil? • How long have you had this discharge? • How long have you had this problem with your vision? • How long have you had this problem? • How long have your gums been bleeding? • How many do you smoke each day? • How many times do you have to go during the night? • How often do you feed him? • How often do you get this pain? • How old are you? • How old is your last child? • How would you describe the pain(s)? • How many episodes (of cramps) a day were you getting? • How’s your health otherwise? • How about your weight? Is it steady? • Is his toilet normal? • Is it a localized or general pain? • Is the pain bad enough to wake you up? • Is it broken? • Is the pain continuous or does it come and go? • Is it sore all the time? • Is it sore to the touch? • Is it thick or light? • Is she active. • Was it painful? • Was it something you tried to lift? • Was there any other position that might bring the cramp on? • Was there anything that started it off? • With the right eye. Dr Jones is away. We'll call you if there are any cancellations. can you see anything? • What about coughs? • What about wheezing? • What about shortness of breath? • What are you taking for your headache? • What brings on your cough? • What brings you here? • What brought this on? • What caused this? • What colour is the stuff you bring up? • What colour is the vomit? • What effect does food have? • What has your health been like? • What kind of pain is it? • What seems to be the problem? • What seems to bring it on? • What sort of exercise do you take? • What sorts of things makes it sore? • 32 .

George Mason. It's at home and I'm at work right now. What's your name. and I think I might have a chest infection or something. 33 . please. we had a cancellation for 2:00pm today if you can get away from the office. what do you need to see the doctor about? Receptionist: Hmm. Hold one moment while I grab your chart. Sure. Receptionist: Actually. Now. I was really hoping to get in today or tomorrow in case I need some antibiotics. or anything we can do for you? Class 14 Sample Conversation Receptionist: Doctor's office. Well. sorry.What’s your appetite like? • What’s brought you along today? • What’s the colour of this discharge? • What’s the matter? • What’s the pain like? • What’s the stream (= urine) like? • What’s the trouble? • What medication are you taking now? • Were you breathless? • Were you breathless with this discomfort? • Were you aware of palpitations? • Were you sneezing and coughing? • When did his first tooth appear? • When did the trouble first start? • When did the pain(s) start? • When did you first notice the lump? • When did you first notice the pain? • When did you first notice this? • When did you move into town from the country? • When does the pain come on? • When was the last time you had a tetanus shot? • When was the last time you visited your dentist? • Where did you catch the infection? • Where does it hurt? • Where is it sore? • Where is the pain exactly? • Where is the pain most severe? • Where are these headaches? • Which one is worse — the top teeth or bottom teeth? • Which part of your chest is affected? • Which part of your back is affected? • Which part of your head is affected? • Would it be sore if I were to tap the tooth? • Where is the pain exactly? • You’re not vomiting now? • No black-looking stool? • You don’t think the cramps are likely to come on before or after meals? • And the longest episode (of cramps) lasted for? • And your bowels? Have they changed? • You don’t feel sick at all? • Any questions. My cough is getting worse each day. Do you think it can wait until Wednesday? Caller: Oh. Maybe I'll have to go to the walk-in-clinic instead. please? Receptionist: Okay Mr Mason. Doctor Harris is off tomorrow. Jane speaking. No. Harris. I've been fighting a cold for more than a week. How can I help you? Caller: Caller: Caller: Caller: Caller: I need to make an appointment with Dr. Receptionist: Do you know your chart number? Receptionist: No problem. Receptionist: Thanks for waiting.

" The second surgeon said. Four surgeons were taking a coffee break and discussing their work. so you can probably count on seeing the doctor around 2:30. Check your understanding 1 2 3 Why does the caller phone the doctor's office? Which is true about George Mason? When will the doctor see Mr Mason? Class 15 Medical Jokes: 1. "It's from my wife's family. "How could your wife's family give you high blood pressure?" He sighed. Mason. then what is the bad news??" "I couldn't reach you yesterday. "Neither." 3. he said. "I think that accountants are the easiest to operate on. Receptionist: No problem." the doctor said. The doctor says: "About this medical test I did on you. You open them up and everything is in alphabetical order. Thanks for fitting me in. Doc. Receptionist: We're running a bit behind schedule. come now. It comes from my family. I have some good news and some bad news." The man asks for the good news first: "The good news is that you have 24 hours to live." "Oh. A man gets a telephone call from a doctor. Doc!" 2. it's almost 1:00pm already." says the doctor. Horrified. We'll see you in an hour or so. "High blood pressure. "I think that librarians are the easiest to operate on. the man asked: "If that is the good news." "Your mother's side or your father's?" the doctor asked. You open them up and everything inside is numbered." 34 . Caller: That's great. Mr.Caller: Gee." he replied. The first surgeon said. When a physician remarked on a new patient's extraordinarily ruddy complexion. I think I can make it if I leave right now. "You oughta meet 'em sometime.

"But I've always worn a 15 collar. so I thought I'd do the same! 5. He bought a nice." the shirtmaker said." said the man. and your eyes will pop andyour ears will ring. "Christ died between two thieves." the man interrupted. Doctor: I have some good news and some bad news. "Sixteen collar." The fourth surgeon said. " I came here for blood test. the doctor and the lawyer again asked "Why are we standing here?" "Well. They're heartless. spineless. "let's get your measurement. the doomed man decided he'd treat himself in the remaining time he had here on Earth. and their heads are interchangeable. measuring again. A man sought medical aid because he had popped eyes and a ringing in his ears. After dozens of very expensive tests and weeks of hospitalization. gutless. One of them was crying. his eyes kept popping and his ears still rang.The third surgeon said. A doctor looked him over andsuggested removal of his tonsils." 6. Two guys were sitting outside a medical clinic. "So? Why are you crying? Are you afraid?" 35 ." 4.34 sleeve. the lawyer asked "What do you want me to do?" "Nothing. Which do you want first? Patient: Give me the bad news first." As the hours wore on." the shirtmaker repeated. hired a chauffeur. and had the best tailor in town make him 30 new suits. "You have 6 months to live. Then he decided that even his shirts would be made-toorder. "I'm warning you. "Okay. tears were pouring down his face. Patient: What's the good news? Doctor: It turns out that your other leg didn't need to be amputated at all 7. Just stand there. The other guy asked." said the shirtmaker. Doctor: Well. " Why are you crying?" The first one replied. After standing for some time." said the old man. He asked the doctor to stand by one side of his bed and his lawyer to stand by the other. You keep on wearing a 15 collar. the doctor and the lawyer watched the man weaken. A third doctor told him bluntly." The second one asked. When his time had almost arrived. but still. new car. so the patient consulted another doctor who suggested removal of his teeth. "I think that electricians are the easiest to operate on. The teeth were pulled. Just stand there. the rich old man was told he had only 24 hours to live. the doctor asked "What do you want me to do?" "Nothing. The operation resulted in no improvement. He immediately called his doctor and his lawyer to his room. "Listen. we accidentally amputated the wrong leg. 16 collar…" "Fifteen." A while later. "I think that lawyers are the easiest to operate on. Hmm…. You open them up and everything is color coded." In that event.

and it was the stress of my work in weapons research that helped to put me here. I don't think you have much time left." "Wonderful. There is always a need for books on science." "Another interesting possibility. I will certainly refrain from making my former mistake." So Joe left and when he returned in 5 hours the surgeon said "I got done quicker 36 . "Or else. During the blood test they cut my finger. and if I do. is there anyone you would like to see?" Bending down toward his patient. "And finally. the second one started crying. or I may even write a novel based on my experiences in the psychiatric instutition. if none of these things appeals to me. Looking down at the sick man. "I have come for a urine test. "Why are you crying?" Then the second guy replied." said the psychiatrist. I'm sure you would want to know the facts. you are a very sick man." agreed the doctor. where I believe the situation will be less difficult and stressful. The first one was astonished and asked the other. "Yes. "I might teach. The surgeon said "You're in luck! I'm an expert at reattaching limbs! Come back in 5 hours. There is something to be said for dedicating your life to expanding the knowledge of young people." 8. and chose to interview him first. the doctor decided to tell him the truth. the sufferer said. "I feel that I should tell you. "if we release you. I might write." Hearing this. "Then again." 9. you see." continued the patient. "Another doctor.The first guy replied." said the psychiatrist." "Definitely. If I am released. Joe wrapped the arm in a plastic bag and took Jim to a surgeon. I was a nuclear physicist. I shall limit myself to work in pure theory. 10. The psychiatrist that ran the institution decided it was better to proceed with caution. "No." "Who is it?" In a slightly stronger tone. Now. A man who had been in a mental institution for some years finally improved to the point where it was thought he might be released. what do you plan to do with your life?" The inmate said. I can always continue to be a teakettle. Not that. Joe and Jim were out cutting wood and Jim cut his arm off. as we are considering. "Tell me. "It would be wonderful to get back to real life. the doctor heard him feebly answer." said the doctor.

You will need to learn the names of the internal (inside the skin) and external body parts. A few weeks later. Joe put the head in a plastic bag and took it and the rest of Jim to the surgeon. Here are the basics to get you started. Let's have a beer. Jim is down at the pub. "So am I. throwing darts. Jim died." Joe said "I understand . "Oh no! The surgery went fine! Jim suffocated in that plastic bag. "Windy. Jim had a terrible accident and cut his head off. One remarked to the other. The surgeon said "No problem.heads are tough. Head 37 ." 11. and Jim cut his leg off. Jim's down at the soccer field." So Joe left and when he returned in twelve hours the surgeon said regretfully "I'm sorry. The surgeon looked at the situation and said "Gosh." The surgeon said." Joe left and when he came back in 6 hours the surgeon said "I finished early." And the third man chimed in. Joe and Jim were cutting wood again. Joe put the leg in a plastic bag and took it and Jim back to the surgeon.than I expected. were playing golf one fine March day. Come back on 12 hours. Three retirees." Unit 4 Class 16 Human Body One of the first things you need to know when studying Medical English is the parts of the body. A few weeks later." the second man replied." Joe went down to the soccer field and there was Jim. each with a hearing loss. heads are really tough. but legs are a little tougher." Joe went to the pub and there was Jim. kicking goals. isn't it?" "No. "it's Thursday. Come back in 8 hours. You will also need to learn the words for the functions of each of these body parts.

This area also contains the woman's uterus. Below the wrist is the hand with four fingers and one thumb. is located here as well. On the outside of the mouth are the lips. is the forearm. Beneath this area is called the armpit or underarm. just below the neck is the collar bone. which is responsible for thinking. The jaw is located on the inside of the cheeks and chin. The navel. inside which the spine connects the upper body to the lower body. and the joint in the middle of the leg is the knee. The front of the lower leg is the shin and the back of the lower leg is the calf. The neck is what attaches the head to the upper body. At the ends of the fingers are fingernails. Beside the index finger is the middle finger. Food is swallowed down the throat. Each foot has five toes. Beneath the hairline at the front of the face is the forehead. The joint halfway down the arm is called the elbow. the nose for smelling. On the front side of the upper body is the chest. Between the hips are the reproductive organs.Inside the head is the brain. Babies suck on the nipples of their mother's breasts. Upper Body At the top and front of the upper body. At the back of the lower body are the buttocks for sitting on. The upper arms have the muscles known as triceps and biceps. Beside the thumb is the index finger. the wrist. Human Body Quiz 38 . the bladder for holding liquid waste. Lower Limbs (legs) The top of the leg is called the thigh. At the sides of the face are the cheeks and at the sides of the head are the ears for hearing. and on the inside of the mouth are the teeth for biting and the tongue for tasting. followed by the ring finger and the little finger. Upper Limbs (arms) The arms are attached to the shoulders. and the mouth for eating. On the inside of the upper body are the heart for pumping blood and the lungs for breathing. At the bottom of a person's face is the chin. as well as the liver and the kidneys. Beneath the ribcage are the stomach and the waist. The internal organs in the lower body include the intestines for digesting food. which in women includes the breasts. They are also commonly referred to as the rear end or the bum (especially with children). are the hips. Lower Body Below the waist. more commonly referred to as the belly button. The ankle connects the foot to the leg. The top of a person's scalp is covered with hair. Between the elbow and the next joint. The rear side of the upper body is called the back. Underneath the forehead are the eyes for seeing. on left and right. The smallest toe is often called the little toe while the large one is called the big toe. which holds a baby when a woman is pregnant. the penis (male) or the vagina (female). At the ends of the toes are toenails.

Another word for belly button is------------------. We'll put a cool cloth on your -----------------to get your fever down. The newborn is getting his -----------------changed in the nursery. The patient lost so much weight his ---------------were sunken in.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Your tonsils can get swollen when you have a sore -----------------------The ------------------is located in the middle of the arm. The ----------------on his knee was scraped off when he hit the road. 39 . My Dad's little ------------------was lost in the accident. She may never walk again because her ---------------was so badly injured. Your grandfather will be able to walk better after his --------------------surgery.

40 .

41 .

contact us for assistance. before aa equal part of each AA affected area AAA abdominal aortic aneurysm A2 aortic second sound AAL acute lymphoblastic. medical. and dental records. leukemia. There are many others.anterior 42 . rarely used. A a artery. and some doctors and hospitals create their own.Unit 5 Class 17 These medical abbreviations are commonly used in hospital. If you cannot locate an abbreviation in this glossary.

acid phosphate ACL anterior cruciate ligament ACTH adrenocorticotrophic hormone AD right ear add. admission AE above elbow AEA above elbow amputation AF atrial fibrillation. albumin alc. ampule ANA antinuclear antibody anes. ambulating.c. phos. alcohol alk. accommodation acid phos. anterior ante before ANUG acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis 43 . amputation. alanine aminotransferase (formerly SGPT) AMA against medical advice amb. fib. abductor or abduction ADH antidiruetic hormone ADL activites of daily living ad lib as desired adm.axillary line ab antibody AB abortion abd abdomen ABG arterial blood gasses ABN abnormal ABP arterial blood pressure abs absent a. anesthesia ann. above knee aka alcoholic ketoacidosis AKA above knee amputation alb. before meals (ante sebum) Ac acute AC anterior chamber acc accident accom. afebrile AFB acid fast bacilli AFO ankle-foot orthosis AFP alpha fetoprotein A/G albumin globulin ratio (blood) AGA appropriate gestational age AI aortic insufficiency AIDS acquired immunodeficiency syndrome AJ ankle jerk a. annulus fibrosis ANS autonomic nervous system ant.k. alkaline phosphate ALL acute lymphocytic leukemia ALS amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ALT alternating with. ambulatory AMI acute myocardial infarction AML acute myeloid leukemia amnio amniocentesis amp.

axillary A. 2 patient with mild systemic disease A. basal. Ascheim-Zondek test B B. American Society of Anesthesiologists A.A.A.S. axilla.A.S.S. 1 normal healthy patient A.Anxty anxiety A/O alert and oriented AOB alcohol on breath AODM adult onset diabetes mellitus AP ante partum A&P auscultation and percussion A-P anteroposterior APC atrial premature contractions aph aphasia A-P & lat anteroposterior and lateral AP resection abdominal perineal resection of the rectum aq.S. Flutter atrial flutter ATN acute tubular necrosis ATNR asymmetrical tonic neck reflex AU both ears aud.Z. auditory Aur. bath BA barium Bab.aortic stenosis ASA acetylsalicylic acid. aspirin A. Babinski sign Ba. 3 patient with severe systemic disease A.A.A. acute rheumatic fever AROM artificial rupture of membranes art arterial AS left ear.S. Fib auricular fibrillation A-V arteriovenous AVF arteriovenous fistula AVR aortic valve replacement A&W alive and well Ax. water AR aortic regurgitation ARD acute respiratory distress ARDS adult respiratory distress syndrome ARF acute respiratory failure. 4 patient with incapacitating systemic disease that is constant threat to life ASAP as soon as possible ASCVD atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease ASD atrial septal defect ASHD arteriosclerotic heart disease at.E barium enema Bas.basilar baso basophile BBB bundle branch block BBT basal body temperature BCA basal cell atypia BCD basal cell dysplasia BCE basal cell epithelioma 44 .

Bilateral. bowel movement BMR basal metabolic rate body wt.d. barium enema BEA below elbow amputation BFP biological false positive Bic.i.T bleeding time BM black male. brachial BrBx. both ears. twice daily BIH bilateral inguinal hernia bilat. bilaterally bili bilirubin b. breech presentation BR bedrest. biceps b.n. breath sounds BSA body surface area BSB bedside bag BSC bedside commode BSD bedside drainage BSO bilateral salpingooophorectomy BST blood serologic test BT bleeding time BTL bilateral tubal ligation BUN blood urea nitrogen BW birth weight Bx. acute BOW bag of water BP blood pressure BPD bronchopulmonary dysplasia BPH benign prostatic hypertrophy BPM beats per minute Br. breast biopsy broncho bronchoscopy BRP bathroom privileges BS blood sugar. twice a night BiW twice weekly BJ biceps reflex bk. bathroom brach. with 45 .BCG bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine (tuberculosis vaccine) BDC burn dressing change BE below elbow. bone marrow. back BK below knee BKA below knee amputation bl cult blood culture bld. blood Bl. bowel sounds B.i.S. biopsy Class 18 C c. body weight BOMA otitis media.

Celsius complement CI-XII 1st to 12th cranial nerve C-1 to C-7 cervical vertebrae Ca calcium CA carcinoma. chloride Clav.T clotting time cm. cubic centimeter CC chief complaint CCU coronary care unit CD cardiac disease. cancer CABG coronary artery bypass graft CAD coronary artery disease CAHD coronary atherosclerotic heart disease Cal calorie. coronary heart disease Chem. carotid card. centigrade.C cervical. contagious disease CEA carcinoembryonic antigen Cerv. catheter CB Cesarean birth CBC complete blood count CBD common bile duct CBF cerebral blood flow CBG capillary blood gas CBR complete bed rest cc. complaints 46 . clavicle cldy cloudy CLL chronic lymphocytic leukemia Cl. cardiac index CIS carcinoma in situ CK creatinine kinase Cl chlorine.I color index CI cardiac insufficiency. chemotherapy CHF congestive heart failure CHO carbohydrate Chol cholesterol Chr chronic C. cystic fibrosis CHD congenital heart disease. constipation c/o complains of. cervical CF cardiac failure. centimeter CML chronic myeloid leukemia CMV cytomegalovirus CN cranial nerve CNS central nervous system cnst. cardiac Card Cath cardiac catheterization CAT computerized axial tomography cath catheterization. Caucasian C. cervix. calories CAPD continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis Caps capsules car.

continued COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Cor heart CPAP continuous positive airway pressure CPC clinicopathological conference CPD cephalo-pelvic disproportion CPK creatinine phosphokinase CPPB continuous positive pressure breathing CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation CPT chest physical therapy CR closed reduction cran. concentrated cons. CS Cesarean section C&S culture and sensitivity CSF cerebrospinal fluid C-spine cervical spine CT computed axial tomography C-V cardiovascular CVA cerebrovascular accident. culture CxR chest x-ray Cysto cystoscopy D DAP distal airway pressure db. communicable comp. consultation cont. Dermatology DES Diethylstilbestrol D5RL 5% dextrose and lactated ringers D5W 5% dextrose and sterile water 47 . decibel DBE deep breathing exercise d/c discontinue DC discharges. combination comm. costovertebral angle CVL central venous line CVP central venous pressure CVS cardiovascular system Cx cervix. creatinine CRF chronic renal failure C/S. cranial CRD chronic respiratory disease creat. compound. decreased dehyd. combine. dehydrated Derm. distilled water DDx differential diagnosis D&E dilation and evacuation decr. discontinue D&C dilation and curettage DD discharge diagnosis D/DW dextrose.Co2 carbon dioxide comb. compress conc. contractions.

P. ears. dilute dim. diagnostic imaging DIAG. disposition dist. dorsal pedia DPT diphtheria. pertussis. diminished DIP distal interphalangeal (joint) dis. diameter DIC disseminated intravascular coagulation.coli Escherichia coli ECS endocervical scrape ECT electroconvulsive ED emergency department EDC estimated date of confinement EDOD estimated date of delivery EEG electroencephalogram EENT eyes. dressing D/S discharge summary DTR deep tendon reflexes DT’s delirium tremens DU duodenal ulcer DUB dysfunctional uterine bleeding DUI driving under influence D/W dextrose in water Dx diagnosis E e without EBL estimated blood loss EBV Epstein-Barr virus ECF extended care facility. throat EEX electrodiagnosis 48 . differential dil. diastolic murmur DNA deoxyribonucleic acid DNKA did not keep appointment DOA dead on arrival DOB date of birth DOE dyspnea on exertion Dors dorsal D. disseminated coagulopathy diff. distilled. tetanus vaccine DR delivery room D&R dilation and radium implant drsg. extracellular fluid ECG electrocardiogram ECHO enterocytopathogenic human orphan virus E. divorced DJD degenerative joint disease DKA diabetic ketoacidosis DLE disseminated lupus erythematosis D/L DI decilter DM diabetes mellitus. distal DIU death in utero div. disease disch.DI diabetes insipidus. nose. diagnosis diam. discharge disp.

emergency medical service En. Fahrenheit FA fluorescent antibody F. exercise. Lap exploratory laparotomy ext.gastroduodenoscopy EKG electrocardiogram elev. foreign body FBS fasting blood sugar FD fully dilated FDA Food and Drug Administration FDP flexor digitorum profundus Fe def. eosinophiles EOM extraocular movement Epis. medial episiotomy Epis. episiotomy Epis. fluids flac. throat Eoc. Med. force fluid FFP fresh frozen plasma fh fundal height FH family history. expiratory Exp. RML right mediolateral episiotomy ERCP endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate EST electroshock therapy ETIOL. elevated ELF elective low forceps EmBx endometrial biopsy EMG electromyogram EMS endometrial scrape. femoral popliteal fet.f. example expir expiration. female.EGA estimated gestational age EGD esophago.B. extremities. gen. pop. femoral fem. external genitalia F F finger.uterine contraction FHT fetal heart tones FiO2 faction of inspired oxygen concentration fl.LML left mediolateral episiotomy Epis. etiology ETOH ethanol EUA examine under anesthesia EVAL evaluation ex. external ext. fetal FEV forced expiratory volume f. first aid F. nose. fetal heart FHR fetal heart rate FHR-UC fetal heart rate. enema ENT ears.A. flaccid 49 . iron deficiency FEF forced expiratory flow FEKG fetal electrocardiogram fem.

genl.H. follow-up FUO fever of unknown origin FVC forced vital capacity FW fetal weight Fx fracture G ______________________________ G gravida G.F-U. general gest.% grams per 100 c. gestation GFR glomerulo filtration rate G.gram negative oz. gastrointestinal gluc glucose gm gram Gm+ gram positive Gm. grain. drop Gt. gait training gtts. general paralysis gr. general anesthesia GB gallbladder GBS gallbladder series G. fluid ounce FM finger movement FPAL full term premature abortion living fract. hypodermic H/A headache HAF hyperalimentation fluid 50 . drops GSW gunshot wound GTT glucose tolerance test GU genitourinary G/W glucose and water GYN Gynecology H ______________________________ h hour H hydrogen history. flexion fl.F. fractional FRC functional residual capacity FS finger stick FSH follicle stimulating hormone FT full term FTD failure to descend FTND full term normal delivery FTT failure to thrive FUB functional uterine bleeding F/U. GMA grand mal attack GNC general nursing care GP General Practitioner. grains (dosage) Grav. pregnancy gt.C.I. hour.c.flex. gonococcus GCS Glasgow Coma Scale GE Gastroenterology G/E gastroenteritis gen. flexor. growth hormone G.A.U.

d. hematocrit HCVD hypertensive cardiovascular disease h. Hodgkin’s disease HDl high density lipids HEENT head. histology HIV human immunodificiency virus HKAFO hip knee ankle foot orthosis HLA human leukocyte group A. eyes. at bedtime Hd head. ears. reddening. Hgb hemoglobin HB heart block HBP high blood pressure HC head circumference H&C hot and cold HCG human chorionic gonadotropin HCO3 bicarbonate Hct. tenderness HS bedtime HSG hysterosalpingography H2O water H2O2 hydrogen peroxide Ht height. histocompatibility leukocyte focus HM hand movement HMD hyaline membrane disease HMG human menopausal gonadotropin HNP herniated nucleus pulposus h/o history of H.. hyperalimenation Hz hertz (cycles/second) Class 19 51 . heart HVD hypertensive vascular disease Hx history Hyperal. horizontal H&P history and physical hpf high power field HPI history of present illness HPL human placental lactogen HR heart rate H. house officer HOB head of bed horiz.O. heat. swelling. hernia Hem Hematology Hem Pro hematology profile Hep. nose. Lock Heparin lock HGO hepatic glucose output HH hard of hearing HIDA(scan) hepatobiliary scan HIE hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy hist.T. throat hern.S.HASCVD hypertensive arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease Hb.R. history.

intracutaneous(ly) ICCU intensive coronary care unit ICF intracellular fluid ICS intercostal space ICT insulin coma therapy ICU intensive care unit i. identification. injection INR coagulant response time inspir inspiration.c. inches Inc. intramedullary IMCU intermediate medical care unit imp. inspiratory int. internal INTHC intrathecally IO inferior oblique I&O intake and output IOP intraocular pressure IP intraperitoneal IPJ interphalangeal joint IPPB intermittent positive pressure breathing IQ intelligence quota IRDS idiopathic respiratory distress syndrome 52 . increased (ing) Inev.II I radioactive iodine IA intra-arterially IABP intra-aortic balloon pump i. inferior inj injured. Infectious Disease I&D incision and drainage IDDM insulin dependent diabetes mellitus I/E inspiratory. AB inevitable abortion inf infusion. AB incomplete abortion incr. impression IMP inpatient multidimensional psych scale IMV intermittent mandatory ventilation In.d. expiratory Ig immunoglobulin IGA immunoglobulin A IGE immunoglobulin E IGG immunoglobulin gamma G(Globulin) IGM immunoglobulin M IH infectious hepatitis IHD ischemic heart disease IM intramuscular. during the day ID intradermal.

laceration lacr. K-J knee jerk KK knee kick 17 KS 17 keto steroids KUB kidney. lacrimal lact. liter. ureter. laparotomy lat. third lumbar vertebrae LA left antrum lab. lactic LAD left anterior descending coronary artery L&D labor and delivery LAE left atrial enlargement lam. laminectomy lap. kidney KC1 potassium chloride Kcal. lower.. kilogram KJ. kg. light. IU International Unit IUC intrauterine catheter IUCP intrauterine contraceptive device IUD intrauterine device IUFD intrauterine fetal death IUGR intrauterine growth retardation IUP intrauterine pregnancy IUTP intrauterine term pregnancy IV intravenous(ly) IVC inferior vena cava.L3 second.irreg. lumbar L2. Kilocalorie. intravenous cholangiogram IVD intervertebral disc IVP intravenous pyelogram IVPB intravenous piggy back IVU intravenous urogram JJ J joint J-P Jackson Pratt drain JRA juvenile rheumatoid arthritis jt.. lateral LAVH laparoscopic assisted vaginal hysterectomy lax laxative 53 .U. joint JVP jugular venous pulse K K potassium. Irregular IS intercostal space IST insulin shock therapy ITP idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura I. liver. laboratory lac. bladder (x-rays) KVO keep vein open L L left. calorie Kg.

lb. pound LB large bowel LBBB left bundle branch block LBP lower back pain LBW low birth weight LCA left coronary artery L.D. lethal dose LDH lactic dehydrogenase LDL low density lipids LE lupus erythematosus L.E. lower extremities leuc. leukocytes LF low forceps, low flap LFA left frontoanterior LFD low forceps delivery LFP left frontoposterior LFT left frontotransverse, liver function test lg large, leg LGA large for gestational age LGV lymphogranuloma venereum LH luteinizing hormone LHT left hypertrophia LICS left intercostal space lig. ligament LIH left inguinal hernia liq. liquid LKS liver, kidneys, spleen LL lower lid LLE left lower extremity LLG left lateral gaze LLL left lower lobe LLQ left lower quadrant LMA left mentoanterior LMD family doctor l/min liter per minute LML left mediolateral LMP left mentoposterior, last menstrual period LMT left mentotransverse L.N. lymph node LNMP last normal menstrual period LOA left occiput anterior L.O.C. loss of consciousness, level of consciousness, laxative of choice LOM left otitis media LOP left occipital posterior LOS length of stay LOT left occiput anterior LP lumbar puncture, light perception lpf low power field LPN licensed practical nurse LR labor room, lateral rectus, light reflex LRQ lower right quadrant Ls. loose


L.S. lumbosacral LSA lateral sacrum anterior LSB left sternal border LSCS lower segment Cesarean section LSK liver, spleen, kidneys LSO left salpingo-oophorectomy LSP left sacrum posterior LST left sacrum transverse Lt. left, light LTCS low transverse Cesarean section LUE left upper extremity LUL left upper lobe LUQ left upper quadrant LV left ventricle LVEDP left ventricular end diastolic pressure LVF left ventricular failure LVH left ventricular hypertrophy L & W living and well LWCT Lee-White Clotting Time, coagulation time Lymphs lymphocytes lytes electrolytes

m. minim m,M married, male, mother murmur, meter, mass, molar MA mental age macro. macrocytic, macroscopic MAP mean arterial pressure max. maximum, maxillary MBC maximum breathing capacity mcg. microgram MCH mean corpuscular hemoglobin MCHC mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration MCL midclavicular line MCP metacarpophalangeal joint MCV mean corpuscular volume MD muscular dystrophy MDI metered dose inhaler Mdnt. midnight ME middle ear, medical examiner MEC medical emergency clinic Med. medicine MEq./L milliequivalents per liter Mets. metastasis mg. milligram Mg. magnesium MG myasthenia gravis mg/dl milligrams per deciliter mg.% milligrams per 100 cc m.g.r. murmurs, gallops, or rubs


MH marital history Ml myocardial infarction, mitral insufficiency micro microcytic, microscopic MICU medical intensive care unit min minute Mitr.I mitral insufficiency ml. milliliter MLF medial longitudinal fasciculus mm millimeter mm. muscles MM mucous membrane MMPI Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Mn. manganese, midnight mod moderate MOM milk of magnesia mono. monocyte MP metacarpophalangea, metacarpophalangeal MPA malpractice attorney MR medial rectus, mental retardation, mitral regurgitation MRI magnetic resonance imaging MRM modified radical mastectomy ms mitral stenosis Ms murmurs MS mitral stenosis, multiple sclerosis, morphine sulfate MSL midsternal line mss massage MT metacarpophalangeal (joint) M.T. muscles and tendons MVA motor vehicle accident MVP mitral valve prolapse MVR mitral valve replacement MW maximum voluntary ventilation

n. nerve N2 nitrogen N2O nitrous oxide (anesthetic) Na sodium NaCl sodium chloride NAD no apparent distress nb note well NB newborn NBM nothing by mouth NBS normal bowel sounds, normal breath sounds NED no evidence of disease neg. negative NER no evidence of recurrence NERD no evidence of recurrent disease Neur. Neurology NG nasogastric tube NI no insurance


P. nervous system NSA no significant abnormality NSAID nonsteriodal anti-inflammatory drug NSD normal spontaneous delivery NSR normal sinus rhythm NST non-stress test N&V nausea and vomiting NS Neurosurgery NSVD normal spontaneous vaginal delivery NTG nitroglycerine NTP normal temperature and pressure nullip never gave birth NVD nausea.S. ointment O. operation OPC outpatient clinic OPD outpatient department Ophth. OBG Obstetrics OB/GYN Obstetrics and Gynecology Obs observation OBS organic brain syndrome OCC. vomiting. Neuropsychiatry NPH NPH insulin (Neutral Protamine Zinc) NPN nonprotein nitrogen NPO nothing by mouth Ns. nerves N. without O oral O2 oxygen O2 cap. occasional OD right eye O/E on examination OH occupational history 17 OH 17 hydroxy steroid OHD organic heart disease oint. occipital. nocturnal NOS not otherwise specified NP neuropsychiatric N. oxygen capacity O2 sat. otitis media OMS organic mental syndrome OOB out of bed Op. oxygen saturation OA osteoarthritis OB. diarrhea N&W normal and well NWB non-weight bearing NYD not yet diagnosed O o none.NIC neonatal intensive care NICU neonatal intensive care unit NIDDM noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus NKA no known allergies NM neuromuscular NMR nuclear magnetic resonance noct. Ophthalmology 57 .M.

palpate. Orthopaedic Surgery os opening. Pathology PA view posterioranterior view on x-ray Pb lead PB peripheral blood PBI protein bound iodine p/c. auricular contraction PaCO2 arterial carbon dioxide tension pressure PACU post anesthesia care unit PAF paroxysmal atrial fibrillation palp. reactive to light and accommodation (normal) PET positron emission tomography PF push fluids PFC persistent fetal circulation 58 .. after meals PCL posterior cruciate ligament PCO2 carbon dioxide concentration PCV packed cell volume (of blood) PD pupillary distance.OR operating room. paraplegic PARU post anesthesia recovery unit PAS pulmonary artery systolic pressure PAT pregnancy at term. round. Pediatrics PEEP positive end expiratory pressure PEG pneumoencephalogram PEN Penicillin PERRLA pupils equal. p. paroxysm atrial tachycardia Path. occupational therapy. peritoneal dialysis PDA patent ductus arteriosus pdr. mouth.c. open reduction OR-IF open reduction with internal fixation ORT operating room technician Ortho. pulmonary embolism Ped.T. palpated. old tuberculin OU both eyes OV office visit oz. powder PDR Physician’s Desk Reference PDN private duty nurse PE physical examination. ounce P ______________________________ P after. bone OS left eye ot. phosphorus pulse P2 pulmonic second heart sound PA physician’s assistant P-A posteroanterior p & a percussion and auscultation PAC premature atrial. palpable PaO2 alveolar oxygen pressure Pap Papanicolaou test (pap smear) Para prior births. ear Oto Otolaryngology OTC over-the-counter (pharmaceuticals) O.

pneumo. physical. by mouth PO2 oxygen pressure (or tension) POC product of conception p. popliteal pos. placenta plts. afternoon. physiology PI present illness. potassium pp post partum.r. pneumonia PNI peripheral nerve injury PNX pneumothorax p. prepare for primip. practical nurse P&N Psychiatry and Neurology PNC prenatal clinic.M. premature nodal contraction PND paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea.o.n. post-mortem PMH past medical history PMN polymorphonuclear (leukocytes) PM&R Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation PN poorly nourished. positive post. Pitocin PKU phenylkentonuria Plac. first pregnancy p. platelets PM petit mal P. post prandial PPBS post prandial blood sugar PPD purified protein derivative PPF protein plasma fractional PPH post partum hemorrhage ppm parts per million PPPG post prandial plasma glucose p. or potass..r.d. posterior POSTOP. postoperative pot.m.PFT pulmonary function test pH hydrogen ion concentration PH past history pharm pharmacy PHYS.o. PRN as often as necessary 59 . per rectum PR Proctology PRBC packed red blood cells PRE progressive resistive exercise prem premature pre-op preoperative prep. according to circumstances p. post nasal drip pneu.r. postoperative day polys polymorphonuclear leukocytes POMR problem oriented medical record poplit. pulmonary insufficiency PICA posterior inferior coronary artery PICU pulmonary intensive care unit PID pelvic inflammatory disease PIP proximal interphalangeal Pit.

w.d. QNS quantity not sufficient q. each. Psychiatry pt. four times a week q.p.n. Pt.i. prognosis PROM passive range of motion. psychotic. every four hours 60 .n. q. productive Prog. peripheral vascular PVC premature ventricular contraction PVD peripheral vascular disease PVR pulmonary vascular resistance PVT previous trouble PWB% partial weight bearing with percent Px.l.d. every other night q.Q.s. every night q. pronator.o. every other day q. percutaneous transluminal angioplasty PTB patellar tendon bearing PTCA percutaneous transvenous coronary angioplasty (balloon angioplasty) PU pregnancy urine PUD peptic ulcer disease PUPPP pruritic urticarial papules & plaques of pregnancy PV plasma volume. physical therapy. every day q.d..h. pronation pros.i. prostatic prosth. prostate. as much as you please q. Protestant pro.q. Plastic Surgery PSH past surgical history psi pounds per square inch PSMA progressive spinal muscular atrophy Psych. as much as desired qn. premature rupture of membranes pron. posterior tibial artery pulse PTA prior to admission. PX physical examination Class 20 Q q every q. every q. four times a day q. every hour q2H every two hours q4H every four hours q.q.. Q. prosthesis prot. patient PT physical therapy P.n..o.time prothrombin time PS pulmonary stenosis.

respiratory.s. rehabilitation resp. rectal (ly).m. rectum. right arm sitting RAtx radiation therapy RBBB right bundle branch block rbc/RBC red blood cell. rectus muscle reg. every week R r. rhesus blood factor RH right hyperphoria RHD rheumatic heart disease RHF right heart failure RHT right hypertrophia RIH right inguinal hernia RLA Rancho Los Amigo Scale R to L&A react to light and accommodation RLE right lower extremity RLF retrolental fibroplasia RLL right lower lobe RLQ right lower quadrant RMA right mentoanterior RML right mediolateral. radial RAI radioactive iodine r. Rh.a. quantity.S.w. right atrium rad. quart qts.. R right. rectal. quantitative or quantity q. 61 . reaction to degeneration RDS respiratory distress syndrome RE reconditioning exercise rect. red blood count RCA right coronary artery RCS reticulum cell sarcoma RCU respiratory care unit RD respiratory distress. regular rehab. right middle lobe RMP right mentoposterior RMSF Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever RMT right mentotransverse RNA ribonucleic acid RO.q. rub. rectal temperature Ra radium RA rheumatoid arthritis. roentgen. quadriplegic quant.A.v. drops quad. R/O rule out ROA right occipital anterior ROM range of motion. respirations RF rheumatic fever RFA right frontoanterior RFP right frontoposterior RFT right frontotransverse Rh. rupture of membranes. as much as you wish q. sufficient qt. rapid alternating movements R. x-ray R.

and equal RSO right salpingo-oophorectomy RSA right sacrum anterior RSD reflex sympathetic dystrophy RSP right sacrum posterior RSR regular sinus rhythm RST right sacrum transverse Rt. sibling 62 . subcutaneous(ly) SC sickle cell SCC sickle cell crisis SCD sudden cardiac death schiz schizophrenia SCU special care unit sec second sed. sensory. regular.SGO-T serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase SH social history. separated Sept. serum hepatitis SI sacroiliac joint. right RT radiation therapy. AB septic abortion Serol. prescription S ______________________________ s without S sensation. serum Sa. rate erythrocyte sedimentation rate sem. sensitive. without correction (without glasses) RR&E round. Saline S&A sugar and acetone SAH systemic arterial hypertension SaO2 arterial oxygen saturation SB stillborn SBE subacute bacterial endocarditis SBFT small bowel follow through (x-ray) SBO small bowel obstruction s. serology. stroke index sib.right otitis media ROP right occipital posterior ROS review of systems ROT right occipital transverse RP retrograde pyelogram RQ respiratory quotient RR recovery room RRE. ves seminal vesicles Sens. sensation sep. respiratory therapy RTC return to clinic RUC regular uterine contraction RUE right upper extremity RUL right upper lobe RUQ right upper quadrant RV residual volume RVH right ventricular hypertrophy Rx therapy. serological test SGA small for gestational age s.c.

slightly SL under the tongue SLE systemic lupus erythematosus SLR straight leg raising sm small SMA-14 routine admission chemistry SNS sympathetic nervous system SO superior oblique SO4 sulfate S. objective assessment plan SOB shortness of breath sod.S. sponge sp.. superior supin. streptococcus S. sulfate sup.P. subcutaneous subling. stimulus response SROM spontaneous rupture of membranes SS social service SSE soap suds enema st stage (of disease) st. spinal S/P status post (previous condition) sp. stomach Staph. supination supp suppository surg. superior rectus muscle. sonogram S. repeat once if urgent sp. surgical SVC superior vena cava SVD spontaneous vaginaldelivery SVR systemic vascular resistance SVT supra ventricular tachycardia SWD short wave diathermy Sx symptoms sys.S. sodium skeletal Sl.STAT immediately STD sexually transmitted disease stom. spine. spinal fluid spg. spine. spinal cord spec. serological test for syphilis subcut. Staph. staphylococcus stat.T. solution sono. systolic 63 .O.fl. subjective.A. sublingual sulf. specific gravity sp&H speech and hearing spin. system syst. spinal spont. sedimentation rate. surgery. spontaneous SR system review. specimen sp.SICU surgical intensive care unit SIDS sudden infant death syndrome skel. stomach strep.

w.A. transient ischemic attack t. cytomegalovirus (CMV).therapeutic thor. OD tension. tuning fork T of F tetralogy of Fallot TGA transposition great vessels THERAP. respiration tr trace trach tracheostomy TS tricuspid stenosis TSH thyroid stimulating hormone 64 . cough.T.d. three times per week TJ triceps reflex TKR total knee replacement TLC tender loving care. and metastases TO telephone order TOA tubo-ovarian abscess to AA to affected areas T.T T3 triodothyronine T4 total serum thyroxine TA tendon Achilles T&A tonsils and adenoids. tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy T&C type and crossmatch tab. total lung capacity T.i. pulse. therapy. tympanum membrani (ear drum) TMJ temporomandibular joint TNI total nodal irradiation TNM tumor. herpes virus II TP term pregnancy TPA thrombo proteolytic activity TPN total parenteral nutrition TPR temperature. tablespoon TCDB turn. thorax. right eye TORCH (titer) toxoplamosis others (hepatitis. beta strep. deep breathe TEE transesophageal echocardiography temp temperature TENS transient electric nerve stimulation TESD total end systolic diameter T. etc. nodes.i. three times a day TIP terminal interphalangeal (joint) TIUP term intrauterine pregnancy t.F.) rubella. tetanus antitoxin TB tuberculosis TBI total body irradiation TBLC term birth living child tbsp. thoracic THR total hip replacement TI tricuspid insufficiency TIA transient ischemic shock. flu. mumps.M. tablet TAB therapeutic abortion TAH total abdominal hysterectomy T.

uterus. traction U U. unilateral u/o under observation for. vertical 65 . vaginal VC. thoracic TTI total thromboplastin index TTP thrombotic thrombocytopenia purpura T-Tube cholangiogram TUR transurethral resection TURB transurethral resection of the bladder TURP transurethral resection of the prostate TV tidal volume TVH total vaginal hysterectomy TVR tricuspid valve replacement Tx treatment. US ultrasound USI urinary stress incontinence USN ultrasonic nebulizer USP.tsp. Urology URQ upper right quadrant u/s. upper gastrointestinal tract UL upper lid uln ulnar ULQ upper left quadrant ung. urine URD upper respiratory disease URI upper respiratory infection Urol. (vit. uterine UTI urinary tract infection UVL ultraviolet light V V vein VA visual acuity vag vagina. United States Pharmacy USPHA United States Public Health Administration ut. ointment unilat.cap) vital capacity VCS vasoconstrictor substance VCU voiding cystourethrogram Vd void VD venereal disease VDRL blood test for syphilis vent. urine output Ur.T. temperature. unit U/A urinalysis UC uterine contractions UCD usual childhood diseases UCG urinary chorionic gonadotropin UCHD usual childhood diseases UG upward gaze UGI upper gastrointestinal series (x-rays). teaspoon TSS toxic shock syndrome T. ventilator vert.

vital signs VSA vital signs absent VSD ventricular septal defect VSS vital signs stable VT.o. Year Medical Story 66 .VF visual fields.I. V Tach ventricular tachycardia V & T volume and tension (pulse) VTX vertex Vx. weight w/u workup X x times X exophoria distance XT exotrophia distance Y y. vaginal irrigation Via by way of VIPS voluntary interruption of pregnancy and sterilization service white blood count W/C. ventricular fibrillation VG vein graft VHD valvular heart disease VI volume index V. WBC white blood cells. white W/A while awake Wass. wheelchair WBT weight bearing to tolerance WDWN well developed. years old yrs. vertex presentation W W widowed. wh. well nourished WE wide excision WF white female wk week WM white male w/n within WN well nourished WNL within normal limits WP whirlpool wt. vitamin VLDL very low density lipoproteins VM vestibular membrane VN visiting nurse VO verbal order VOD vision right eye vol volume VOS vision left eye VP venous pressure VPC ventricular premature contraction VS. Wasserman WB whole blood wbc. V.S.

Even the healthiest people may get a short. The heart muscles may be equally affected. It is also a slightly hereditary complaint. sharp pain in the legs after a strenuous day. cannot take quinine without becoming dizzy or getting buzzing in the ears. but that is poor consolation. This condition may be a good enough excuse for not doing jobs you don’t like doing. Many older people can bring it on by making powerful stretching movements while lying down in bed. it undoubtedly makes intermittent claudication far more troublesome. avoiding over-stretching and tablets containing quinine sulphate at bed-time may be all that is needed. This is by no means the same as the night-time cramp already mentioned. Whatever may or may not be one’s views about the habit. It may be slight. If this sort of night cramp becomes a real nuisance. but gradually becomes more pronounced.1. Intermittent claudication is caused by the narrowing of the arteries and often starts in the 30s. or even after sitting in a chair at the office in a draught. and there is no absolute cure. active patients can be very distressing and is more serious. Then the pain is not merely an ache. or the reverse. It is not uncommon and has the rather clumsy name of intermittent claudications. It is a disease which affects men far more than women and attacks are more common in cold weather. but a definite. which can become so severe that the patient finds he or she cannot stand after much walking. CRAMPS Night Cramp is something from which a great many people occasionally suffer and they don’t easily forget it. They may have to decide whether they would rather have cramp and no dizziness. A number of patients will secretly admit that so long as they keep off tobacco they do not get this fearsome cramp. however. The patient first complains of aching legs after exercise. A very small number of patients. The patient learns to regulate the amount of exercise he or she can comfortably take. 67 . But cramp in the lower limbs in the daytime and in younger. It generally means that the arteries everywhere in the body have become narrowed and blood cannot reach the muscles fast enough when they are in use. crippling cramp. No drugs offer a complete relief but there is one habit which the sufferer must give up — smoking.

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