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Preface Doctors are inevitable in today’s world as the patients are. Patients come in all different shapes and sizes. They also speak many different languages. Similarly doctors hail from different territory and from different background. Whether you are working abroad or at home, there will come a time when you will need to rely on English to communicate. These pages can help nurses, doctors, pharmacists, paramedics, receptionists, specialists or even the patients who frequent the chambers of those humanoid Gods. Franklyn’s Medical English will help you learn some basic English expressions, terms and vocabulary related to the medical field. By studying and practising Medical English, you will be able to make your patients feel more comfortable, and have a better understanding of their needs. You will also learn how to talk to their loved ones and communicate with other medical staffs who speak English. The patients will achieve a cutting edge benefit out of those medical terms which so far were an obstacle to them. These will enable them to communicate with ease and will help the doctors to diagnose the needs of the visitors more quickly and effectively. This highly interactive, specialist course, aims to provide the student with a sufficient level of Medical English terminology to help develop the communication skills required to converse with English speaking doctors and patients. So let’s take a plunge into the world of Medicos and try our medical bent of mind with Franklyn’s Medical English. Franklyn’s Medical English course covers a broad range of topics which include:
Unit 1• Medical vocabulary, terminology, and Idioms (1-5 classes) Unit 2• Sample Diseases and Comprehension Tests. (6-10 classes) Unit 3• Common Expressions on Doctor -Patient relationships, Medical Jokes.(11-15 Classes) Unit 4• Human Body; Understanding the scientific terms and names for the different body parts. (16th Class) Unit 5• Medical abbreviations. Story related to the Medical Fields. (17- 20 classes)
Class 1 Vocabulary
Word part of speech abnormal adj ache noun/verb acute adj
Meaning not normal for the human body
Example sentence This amount of weight loss is abnormal for women of your age. I can't sleep because my knees ache in the night. We knew the baby was coming right away because the woman's labour pains were acute. Your son is extremely allergic to peanuts. We called the ambulance when Josh stopped breathing. I can't remember the accident because I had amnesia. We had to amputate his leg because the infection spread
pain that won't go away quick to become severe/bad
allergy noun allergic adj ambulance noun amnesia noun amputation noun amputate verb
a body's abnormal reaction to certain foods or environmental substances (eg causes a rash) emergency vehicle that rushes people to a hospital a condition that causes people to lose their memory permanent removal of a limb
so quickly. anaemia noun anaemic adj antibiotics noun anti-depressant noun appointment noun arthritis noun asthma (attack) noun occurs when the body doesn't have enough red blood cells I have low energy because I am anaemic.
medication that kills bacteria and My throat infection went away cures infections after I started the antibiotics. medication that helps relieve anxiety and sadness a scheduled meeting with a medical professional a disease that causes the joints to become swollen and crippled a condition that causes a blockage of the airway and makes it difficult for a person to breathe a disease-causing organism The anti-depressants helped me get on with life after Lucy died. I've made you an appointment with a specialist in three week's time. My grandmother can't knit anymore because the arthritis in her hands is so bad. I carry an inhaler when I run because I have asthma.
bacteria noun bedsore noun benign adj biopsy noun blood count noun blood donor noun blood pressure
To prevent the spread of bacteria it is important that nurses wash their hands often. If you don't get up and take a walk, you will develop painful bedsores. We're hoping that the tests will show that the lump in your breast is benign.
wounds that develop on a patient's body from lying in one place for too long not harmful (not cancerous)
removal of human tissue in order The biopsy ruled out a number to conduct certain medical tests of illnesses. the amount of red and white blood cells a person has a person who gives blood to a blood bank or other person the rate at which blood flows You will be happy to know that your blood count is almost back to normal. Blood donors have to answer questions about their medical history. High blood pressure puts you
If you want a place to pray. abdomen disease caused by the uncontrollable growth of cells restoring a person's breath and circulation a hard bandage that is wrapped around a broken bone to keep it in place a place where loved ones can go to pray for a patient's recovery. the chapel is on the third floor. but the baby turned himself around. You will probably always have to wear a brace on your ankle when you jog. but it turned out his leg was broken. a priest who visits patients in the hospital type of treatment used on cancer patients There are many different options when it comes to treating cancer. The woman was badly bruised when she came into the emergency room. chemotherapy noun My mother has already had three rounds of chemotherapy. My leg was in a cast for graduation. Class 2 Caesarean section. 4 . We thought it was just a sprain.noun brace noun breech adj broken adj bruise noun bruised adj through the body (high/low) a device that holds injured body parts in place position of an unborn baby in which the feet are down and the head is up a bone that is divided in two or more pieces as a result of an injury injured body tissue that is visible underneath the skin at risk of having a heart attack. You saved your brother's life by performing CPR. chapeline noun procedure that involves removing The baby was so large that we a baby from its mother through had to perform a Caesarean an incision in the woman's lower section. We thought it was going to be a breech birth. C-section noun cancer noun cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) noun cast noun chapel.
medical attention she's in critical condition. a sac in the body-tissue filled with fluid (sometimes diseased) unable to hear We're going to remove the cysts just to be on the safe side. when a bone is temporarily separated from its joint You will have to wear a sling because of your dislocated shoulder. It is hard to watch a loved one suffering with dementia. The accident left the patient both deaf and blind. characterized by itchy spots all over the body It is best to get chickenpox as a child so that you don't get it worse as an adult. objects that people with injured I'd rather hop on one foot than legs or feet use to help them walk use crutches. 5 . loss of mental capacity type of disease typically involving insulin deficiency medical explanation of an illness or condition experiencing pain a medical disorder that is harmful I understand that this disease to a person's health runs in your family. a lack of something necessary for The tests show that you have one's health an iron deficiency. requiring immediate and constant You can't see her right now.chickenpox noun coroner noun critical condition noun crutches noun cyst noun deaf adj deficiency noun dehydrated adj dementia noun diabetes noun diagnosis noun discomfort noun disease noun dislocated adj a virus commonly contracted by children. This pain medication should relieve some of your discomfort. People with diabetes have to constantly check their blood sugar levels. a person who determines the We only call the coroner if we cause of death after a person dies think a death is suspicious. The doctor would prefer to share the diagnosis with the patient himself. in need of water It is easy for the elderly to become dehydrated in this heat.
a test that incorrectly comes back We had two false negative negative pregnancy tests. either on or under the skin instance in which blood stops pumping through the heart The disease is part genetic and part environmental. That growth on your shoulder is starting to worry me. higher than normal body temperature many types of respiratory or intestinal infections passed on through a virus broken or cracked bone a micro-organism. and his temperature is near danger point. eyes. This cream is for external use only. a medical condition or physical feature that is passed on in the family a ball of tissue that grows bigger than normal. Do not get it near your ears.emergency noun ER (emergency room) noun external adj false negative noun adj family history noun fatal adj fever noun feverish adj flu (influenza) noun fracture noun fractured adj germ noun genetic adj growth noun heart attack noun a medical problem that needs immediate attention the hospital room used for treating patients with immediate and life-threatening injuries on the outside It is important that children know which number to dial in case of an emergency. especially one Flowers are not allowed in the that causes disease ward to avoid the risk of germs being brought in. He is very feverish. causing death The doctor made a fatal error when he wrote the wrong prescription. The child was rushed into the ER after he had a severe allergic reaction to a bee sting. People who have the flu should not visit hospital patients. so we didn't know we were having a baby. medical background of a person's The doctor was concerned family members about my family history of skin cancer. or mouth. People who smoke are at greater risk of having a heart 6 . Your wrist is fractured and needs a cast.
My right ankle was so inflamed it was twice the size of my left one. The nurse will demonstrate how to bathe an infant.attack. I broke out in hives after I ate that potato casserole. Class 3 immune system noun immunization noun immunize verb incision noun inconclusive adj infant noun infection noun infected adj inflamed adj injury noun intensive care unit (ICU) noun the parts of the body that fight diseases. We have to do more x-rays because the first ones were inconclusive. young baby diseased area of the body (viral or bacterial) appearance (red and swollen) of an injured body part damage to the body section of the hospital where patients get constant attention and doctors rely on specialized equipment 7 . HIV noun hives noun illness noun ill adj the virus that infects the human T-cells and leads to AIDS bumps that appear on the surface of the skin during an allergic reaction general term for any condition that makes a person feel sick for a certain period of time HIV can be passed down from the mother to her fetus. I had to have stitches to close the incision. She will remain in the ICU until she can breathe on her own. and viruses an injection that protects against a specific disease cut in the body made during surgery unclear You can't have visitors because your immune system is low. Her illness went away when she started eating better. infections. The wound should be covered when you swim to prevent it from becoming infected. just a few cuts and bruises. Babies are immunized three times in their first year. Her injuries were minor.
a diagnosis place where samples of blood/urine etc. The woman has severe brain damage and is currently on life support. feeling discomfort on the skin's surface a tube that pumps liquids and medication into a patient's body tests that come back from a The lab results have come in laboratory and help doctors make and you are free to go home. inside the organs The doctors will be monitoring her for any internal bleeding. If you are feeling lightheaded again. I'm afraid at least one of the tumours is malignant. are taken for testing a machine that keeps patients alive by helping them breathe when injuries and conditions are extremely serious feeling of dizziness and being off-balance. medical school (med. OR (operating room) the place where major surgeries noun and operations take place 8 . You must wear a face mask and gloves while you are in the OR. The needle will make your lower body feel numb. place where someone trains to be After eight years of medical school) a doctor school I can finally practice noun medicine. If you are allergic to this medication your skin will get red and itchy. lie down and call me. caused by lack of oxygen in the brain expected to grow and get much worse (especially related to cancerous cells) I'll take these samples down to the lab on my way out. The victim was shot in two places but the bullet wounds are not life-threatening. newborn noun numb adj an infant that is less than three months old no feeling in a certain body part You have to support her neck because she is still a newborn. The toddler was so dehydrated that the doctor decided to get him on an IV.internal adj itchy adj IV noun lab results noun lab (laboratory) noun life support noun life-threatening adj light-headed adj malignant adj under the skin.
pain reliever noun paralyzed adj patient noun pharmacist noun a medical procedure that involves The operation lasted seven going inside a person's body in an hours. The woman was well prepared for labour because she took the prenatal classes. type of medicine that takes away some or all of the discomfort of an illness or injury unable to move certain areas of the body a person staying in a hospital or medical facility a person who fills a doctor's prescription and gives people advice about medication You can take two pain killers every four hours. but she is learning how to walk. If the radiation doesn't kill all of the abnormal cells. The child was bitten by a poisonous snake. You will have to pay for a private hospital room if you don't want a room-mate. You will need to visit your doctor to get another prescription. Ask the pharmacist if there is a generic brand of this medication. the cancer will come back. You should be able to buy a bandage at the pharmacy. pharmacy. personal (eg test results) high energy X-rays that destroy cancer cells 9 . attempt to fix a problem strong discomfort in certain areas We gave your husband some of the body medicine to relieve some of the pain. Ask your family physician to refer you to a specialist. The patients in Room 4 are not getting along. drugstore a place where people go to buy noun medication and other medical supplies physician noun poison noun poisonous adj prenatal adj prescription noun prescribe verb privacy noun private adj radiation noun doctor a substance that is very dangerous if it enters the human body of the time period leading up to giving birth the correct amount and type of medication needed to cure an illness or relieve symptoms being alone.operation noun operate on verb pain noun pain killer. but it was successful. We thought her legs were paralyzed for life.
knee etc) My family doctor is sending me to a specialist. I sprained my knee playing soccer. sudden violent movements or unconsciousness caused by electrical signal malfunction in the brain body not getting enough blood flow People who suffer from epilepsy are prone to seizures. wrist. the uncontrollable tightening of a Ever since I injured my leg muscle I've been having muscle spasms in my upper thigh. plain uniform (usually green. other symptoms that might occur One of the side effects of as a result of a certain medication antidepressants is a loss of or procedure appetite. a student working under a doctor John is a resident under Dr Brown. Class 4 scrub up verb second opinion noun seizure noun carefully wash hands before and after seeing a patient I have to scrub up and get ready for surgery. white.residency resident noun routine check-up noun scrubs noun part of a doctor's training that takes place in the hospital. a doctor's appointment to check a I'd like to see you a year from person's general health now for a routine check-up. shock noun side effects noun sore adj spasm noun specialist noun sprain noun/verb stable condition The woman was in shock after being pulled from the river. painful I have a sore throat and a runny nose. a doctor that is an expert in a certain kind of medicine an injury (less serious than a break) to a joint (ankle. input from a second doctor about I went to another doctor to get an illness or symptom a second opinion about these headaches. a patient is stable if their medical You can see your husband 10 . or blue) worn by medical professionals I have some extra scrubs in my locker.
alive. temporary pain now. symptoms noun temperature noun tender adj test results noun therapy noun transplant noun ultrasound noun You have all of the symptoms of a diabetic. worry that causes muscles to You need to take some time tighten and blood pressure to rise off work and relieve some of your stress. but appearing to be asleep and unaware of the surroundings I hit my head on the steering wheel and was still unconscious adj 11 . higher than normal temperature painful when touched or used medical information that helps doctors understand a patient's condition or body treatment aimed at improving a person's mental or physical condition moving of an organ from one human to another a test that examines the body's internal organs and processes using sound waves (often used during pregnancies) I knew my ankle was sprained because it was so swollen. The heart transplant saved your life. he is in a stable condition. You aren't pregnant.noun sting noun/verb stress noun stressed adj swelling noun swollen adj condition is no longer changing rapidly sharp. The test results came back negative. The ultrasound shows that we are expecting a baby boy. ligaments (parts that hold the joints together) growing bigger and rounder after an injury to a joint pain or physical changes that occur because of an illness or disease amount of heat measured in a body. It may sting when I insert the needle. umbilical cord noun the lifeline from the mother to the I had an emergency C-section fetus (when cut at birth this forms because the umbilical cord the belly button) was wrapped around the baby's neck. We brought Jesse to emergency because he was running a (high) temperature. I was able to go back to work a few weeks after starting the therapy. The incision was tender after the surgery.
I should warn you that we're entering the mental health ward.unconscious when the ambulance arrived. The wounded soldiers are being airlifted to the hospital. time of day when friends and family are allowed to visit patients in hospital discharge of a person stomach contents through the mouth a section of a hospital or health facility where patients stay a chair on wheels used for transporting patients from place to place injury to body ("flesh wound" means not deep) a photograph of a person's bones and organs I'm afraid you'll have to come back during visiting hours. If you get in the wheelchair I'll take you down to see the garden. urine sample noun vein noun virus noun visiting hours noun vomit noun/verb ward noun wheelchair noun wound noun wounded adj x-ray noun/verb a small amount of the body's liquid waste that is tested for different medical reasons The urine sample tells us how much alcohol is in your blood. The technician took x-rays of my shoulder to make sure it wasn't broken. so you may have--------------------. a dangerous organism that causes The virus is contractable the spread of minor and major through the exchange of diseases bodily fluids. 12 . Discontinue using this cream immediately if it makes you feel-----------------. the thin tubes that transport blood I'm just looking for the best around the body and back to the vein in which to insert the heart needle. Class 5 Vocabulary Quiz 1 2 3 4 5 You shouldn't drive because this medicine might make you feel-----------------. Your blood count is abnormal. The doctor wrote me a -------------------------for a new type of pain reliever. The pregnant woman can't stop vomiting. The children's ---------------------is located on the fourth floor of the hospital.
Family doctors keep a list of local specialists and can help patients choose the right specialist for each medical issue. or they specialize in certain diseases. including cancer specializes in eye diseases specialist for babies and children specializes in the body's movement foot specialist 13 . Here is a list of the most common types of specialists. 10 You couldn't have inherited the disease because it is not------------------. 9 The physician will be monitoring your ------------to make sure it isn't cancerous. such as the back or the brain. 8 The patient has asked for some -------------------while her family is visiting. such as cancer. Study the list and then check your understanding by taking the quiz. They either treat specific parts of the body. In many cases specialists require a referral from a family doctor before they will see a patient. Medical Specialists Medical specialists are experts in certain fields of medicine. 7 The ----------------------suggests that your wife is seventeen weeks pregnant. allergist: anesthesiologist: cardiologist: chiropractor: dentist: dermatologist: fertility specialist: gynecologist: massage therapist: midwife: naturopath: neurologist: obstetrician: occupational therapist: oncologist: ophthalmologist: pediatrician: physical therapist: podiatrist: specializes in determining food and environmental allergies specializes in pain prevention during surgery heart specialist back specialist tooth specialist skin specialist helps people who have difficulty getting pregnant specializes in women's needs specializes in muscle relaxation helps women deliver babies in a natural way specializes in natural cures and remedies brain specialist specialist for pregnant women specializes in workplace health tumour specialist.6 ------------------------------from this medication include nausea and depression.
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 0 14 . She hasn't put on any weight in two months and she keeps getting ear infections. but I do need some sort of pain relief. Which specialist does each patient need? 1 I have a terrible rash on my arms and legs. -------------------------------------------------------The test results show that I have an advanced form of blood cancer. but it also might be grass. I'm also having trouble breathing. -------------------------------------------------------My husband and I just took a home pregnancy test. -------------------------------------------------------My left eye has an infection that won't go away and my vision has been blurry for two weeks now. -------------------------------------------------------My baby is not developing properly. and it came out positive. We want to know when we are due and we want to make sure the fetus is healthy.psychiatrist: radiologist: specialist in mental health specializes in imaging tests Referral Quiz Read the patient complaints. I think I'm allergic to dairy food. -------------------------------------------------------I still can't walk and it's been three months since my accident. We have tried everything that the books suggest. -------------------------------------------------------I don't want to take any drugs that will cause me to become addicted to them. -------------------------------------------------------I get terrible acne and I have tried all of the products in the pharmacy. --------------------------------------------------------My husband and I have been trying to get pregnant for three years. I don't know what to do now. -------------------------------------------------------I've been having major chest pains this week. I hate being stuck in a wheelchair.
swelling and infection tool used to cut bandages a tool that measures the force of blood flow through a person's body protective covering that is placed over a wound a thin roll of stretchy material that is sticky on one side a poster of letter. and medical kits. used for taking blood or administering medicine the pouch that contains liquids to be pumped into a patient's body small plastic measuring cup equipment that makes small things appear larger than they are a device used for looking into a patient's ears equipment that fits over the nose and mouth and supplies oxygen an object that is used to separate the doctor and patient from others in an open room 15 . antiseptic bandage bandage scissors blood pressure monitor dressing elastic tape eye chart forceps gauze hypodermic needle IV bag medicine cup microscope otoscope oxygen mask privacy screen liquid used to sterilize (clean) the surface of the skin a cloth covering that is placed over a wound to prevent bleeding. word. operating rooms. Study the vocabulary and try the matching exercise. and number combinations of various sizes used to test a person's eyesight instrument used during operations and medical procedures (assists the doctor in pulling. and retrieving) thin.---------------------------------------------------------- Medical Supplies and Tools Here is a list of some of the most common supplies found in doctor's offices. holding. netted material used for dressing wounds sharp pointed metal piece that pricks the skin (attached to a syringe).
4h. 9b. 6 Let's find out your weight. 7 I need to examine the patient in private. 5i. 7j. 10 Can you cut this gauze for me? Answers: 1c. 8 Let's check your vision. 6f. 8g. 3 We'll have to get a blood sample. 2 Prepare the examining table for the next patient. 10e a table and head-rest paper b Thermometer c oxygen mask d hypodermic needle e bandage scissors f Scales g eye chart h Antiseptic i IV bag j privacy screen Unit 2 Class 6 Article 1: 16 . 5 We'll have to feed him with liquids.scales stethoscope syringe table and head-rest paper test tube thermometer vial a device that measures a person's weight equipment for listening to a person's heart and lungs a cylinder-shaped piece that attaches to a needle and can be filled with liquid paper that is placed on an examining table or head-rest to prevent the spread of germs glass cylinder that is filled with blood or other liquids and can be capped and placed in a storage area an instrument used to check a person's body temperature a small bottle or container used for storing liquids Matching Exercise Match the comments with the supplies that are needed: 1 I can't catch my breath. 2a. 9 Let's see if you are running a fever. 4 I need to sterilize the wound. 3d.
shortness of breath. Asthma is ___________ of the lungs. C.Decreases in the rates of breast feeding may also play a role. tightness or pressure. ? any age B.) . coughing. presence of allergies. Approximately 10% of children have asthma and that rate may rise in the future. and being male.Overview of Asthma Asthma is a disease of the lungs that is that is characterized by tightening of the air pathways. What age does asthma present at? A.Children are being exposed to more triggers (things that bring on asthma attacks. pollution) . Asthma is a disease that causes many problems for the patient. Common symptoms of asthma are wheezing. 17 . ? ? ? coughing chest pain all of the above 1.Children don't have strong immune systems (they aren't exposed to many childhood diseases. chest pain. A. ? ? ? childhood 30s 10-12 years 2. Asthma may occur at any age but is very common in children. C. airway obstruction and airway sensitivity. What are some common symptoms associated with asthma? A. it can be controlled. Experts don't agree why the rate is increasing but here are some ideas: . Multiple Choice Questions: 0. regular lung infections. exposure to tobacco smoke. Many of these conditions are reversible with medication but not 100% reversible in all patients. With the right information and medical attention medical professionals can prevent many deaths. However. tobacco smoke. The current rise in asthma cases among children is alarming. ? shortness of breath B. Some common features of asthma are inflammation. Some risk factors for asthma are a family history of asthma. dust. D. low birth weight. D.
A. B. D. What is one idea why the asthma rate is increasing in children? A. ? ? ? 1% 10% 15% 7. 18 . ? ? ? triggers diseases exposures 4. C. C. ? Children are being exposed to more triggers. D. there has been an increase in asthma cases among ________. ? ? ? ? a part a disease a risk factor a symptom 3. ? young adults B. D. C. D. Many of the symptoms of asthma are 100% ________ with medication in some patients. ? ? ? IV drug users the elderly children 5. What percent of children have asthma? A. ? risk factors B.A. C. Family history of asthma. ? ? ? stronger avoidable sensitivity 6. C. Recently. ? 20% B. and exposure to tabacco smake are all ___________ of asthma A. A. regular lung infestions. D. ? reversible B.
and being male. exposure to tobacco smoke. pollution) . i---------is a disease of the that is that is characterized by tightening of the air pathways. Breast feeding has increased. ? diseases B. it can be 19 ? ? ? tightening of air pathways relaxation of the lungs medication . D. presence of allergies. Experts don’t agree why the rate is increasing but here are some ideas: . C. chest pain. ? severe headaches B.Decreases in the rates of breast feeding may also play a role. A. A. Fill in the gaps with the words form the text above. Asthma may occur at age but is very common in children. coughing. Common symptoms of asthma are wheezing. Approximately 10% of children have asthma and that rate may rise in the future. Airway obstruction and airway sensitivity are common ________ of asthma. Asthma is a disease that causes many for the patient. Class 7 B. tobacco smoke. ? ? ? triggers features risk factors 9. dust. Asthma is a disease that causes _________ . ? ? ? Children have strong immune systems. C. However. D. Many of these conditions are reversible with medication but not 100% reversible in all patients. 8. D.Children don’t have strong (they aren’t exposed to many childhood diseases.B. low birth weight. tightness or pressure. C. regular lung infections. The current rise in asthma cases among is alarming.Children are being exposed to more (things that bring on asthma attacks. airway obstruction and airway sensitivity. More children are smoking. Some common of asthma are inflammation. shortness of . Some for asthma are a family history of asthma.) .
controlled. Arthritis is not always limited to the joints of the body and can affect soft tissues and internal organs. pain and stiffness. All of this causes pain. 3. This is the most prevalent. Article 2A: Overview of Arthritis Arthritis is a general term that refers to over a hundred different types of joint inflammation. If the disease lasts long or occurs repeatedly. 2.) In rheumatoid arthritis.What are some risk factors for arthritis? . Factor. This joint inflammation causes swelling. Osteoarthritis. Gout. This adds to the swelling along with the inflammatory response of the body. the body ﾁ fs immune system begins to attack the joints of the body causing the joint lining to swell. Try to answer the following conversation questions. Gout is a condition where the body cannot effectively remove uric acid and the uric acid crystallizes in the joints like needles. With the right information and medical attention.What are some treatment options available to arthritis patients? 20 . System. Feature. Immune. pain. Problem. When the cartilage is warn down.What are some of the main types of arthritis? . The three most common types of arthritis are: 1. Any. Breath. swelling and distress for the patient. These crystals cause swelling and severe pain. medical professionals can prevent many deaths. The typical signs of arthritis are swelling of the joint that is warm to the touch. Triggers. speaking out loud. it can permanently damage the bone. Children. the space in the joint becomes smaller and the bones may rub together. In osteoarthritis. the cartilage of the bone slowly wears away with age and the bones rub together. Lungs. stiffness. . redness and loss of function. it can lead to tissue damage. If the joint lining continues to grow. inflammation causes damage to the cartilage and synovial lining. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA. List: A Asthma. tenderness. In the joint. Damage to the synovial lining cause synovial fluid to leak and produce fluid in the joint lining.
overall health and medical history. The goals of arthritis treatment are to avoid pain and further destruction of the joint. I'm sick of it. DOCTOR Let me just have a look at your notes. there are some risk factors for arthritis. 1. Work conditions that require heavy lifting and being overweight cause heavy stress on the joints of the body. osteoarthritis. swelling. Arthritis also occurs more often in women than men. Same about do give how missed out progress some sound want DOCTOR Good Morning. and stiffness. I see you've 21 . There are more than 100 different types of arthritis and treatment may vary depending on the type of arthritis the patient has. and being overweight. Arthritis is very common and affects almost a third of the American population. joint pain. gender. warmth around the joint. These may include age. Treatment for arthritis generally involves pain management. the cartilage in the joints wears down causing the most common type of arthritis.what can I for you this morning? PATIENT Good Morning. Just me a minute. However. doctor. pain relievers and anti-inflammatory medication should be taken to relieve the pain and swelling. Treatment will vary with the type of arthritis and the patient. To diagnose arthritis a variety of blood tests and xrays may be necessary. old thing . exercise and relaxation. the patient should use braces.heartburn. Wilson . current medications. Mr. With age. When the joint becomes painful. One way is to avoid activities that cause pain.. Lastly. Some common symptoms of arthritis are redness. splints and supporters to help support the joints especially during strenuous activities. lifestyle factors. It seems to be getting worse. Surgery to correct the joint damage may also be an option. A physical therapist can advise exercise routines that help maintain joint mobility.Class 8 Article 2B: Arthritis Information for the Patient Arthritis is caused by inflammation inside the joints of the body. Fill in the Gaps with suitable alternatives. There are many types of arthritis and in general the causes are still unknown. Factors to take under consideration are age.
I'm worse in fact. Bones contain _____ . The skull contains _____ bone(s). Hands and feet contain _____ of all the body bones. How many bones are there in the human body? 3. Class 9 Medical English Quiz (1) THE BASIC BODY STRUCTURE 1. The spinal column bones are called: VERTEBRAE COSTAL FRAME VERTEBRE RIBCAGE 9. the cough may something bad.been coming to us once a month for time. Finally the pharmacist suggests her some but warns her if the baby doesn’t in a day. The connexion between bones is called: 4. Would you say that's right? PATIENT Yes. That's about often I've been coming to see you. The customer then decides to stay at home and her child. The woman has to wait a little as the pharmacist is just busy a prescription. And I don't seem to be getting any better. The sales assistant first wants to the pharmacist the situation. 8. She is angry and rather the pharmacist first because she doesn’t like to be kept . The clavicle is also known as the: MOTORIST'S BONE SCAPULARY END COLLAR BONE LUCKY BONE 22 . which produces red cells.consult cough mixture get better hanging on counter relies on short with turn into look after making up on over the A woman walks into the pharmacy to buy some medicine for her toddler. 7. just to see if we've something. does it? Let me ask you a few questions. I just don't seem to be making any at all. PATIENT All right . HEMATIC TISSUE 1/5 26 VERTEBER VERTEBRIS CELL JELLY 6. The thoracic cavity bone frame is also called the: STERNOTHORACIC BOX TOP CAGE 10.what do you to know? 2 . DOCTOR That doesn't too good. Bones are also held together by: 5. something like that. even though her company greatly on her work. The human bone frame is called the: SKELETAL 1028 A JOINT LIAGTURES MIELLUS 1/3 1 1/2 23 1/4 12 84 SKELETON 116 A KNUCKLE LIGUENTS 206 A KNEE LIGAMENTS AN ELBOW LINKS MARROW SQUELETTON CORPSE 2. or to see if you've left anything .
The dermis is __ times thicker than the epidermis. The carpus is also known as the ______ 4. 23 . The smallest finger is called the : LITTLE FINGER 10. Proximal carpal bones are those _____ the body. Distal carpal bones _____ with metacarpal bones. Distal carpal bones are those ______ from the body. 6. 6. in an adult body. The skin is the organ with the __ surface area in the whole body. The epidermis contains __ layer(s) of cells. Skin receptors detecting motion are called __ PACINIAN CORPUSCLES PACCINO'S CORPUSCLES PACINIANS CORPUSCLES PUCCINI'S CORPUSCLES Class 10 Medical English Quiz 3 : THE HAND 1. Its average surface. amounts to about __ Kg 5.Medical English Quiz 2: THE SKIN 1. Skin receptors detecting heat are called __ RUFFINI CORPUSCLES RUFFIAN CORPUSCLES RUFFINI CORPUSCLES 10. Its average weight. Hair bulbs are located in __ FOLLICLES COLLAGENEOUS MATTER 8. THE FURTHEST AWAY FURTHER AWAY ARTICULE PHALANGES JOLLY FINGER ARTICLE FOREBONES 7. The thumb is one bone _____ than the other fingers. amounts to __ square meter(s) 3. HEAVIEST 4 3 1 2 5 3 4. in an adult body. How many bones are there in a hand? 3. The dermis is also called the __ CORIUM INNERMOST TISSUE 9. 7. CONTAINS 72 WRIST 6 NEAR AWAY ARTICULATE PHALANXES SMALL FINGER 9 34 43 ELBOW 8 NEAREST 12 CLOSER NEARER FAR AWAY CONTAIN 27 KNEE ANKLE DO NOT CONTAIN DOES NOT CONTAIN 2. It is the __ organ in the whole body. Finger bones are also called : 9. Both hands _____ the same number of bones. SECOND LARGEST 3 4 1 LARGEST 2 SECOND HEAVIEST 1 2 4 3 4 2 FOLICULES FOLLICULES FOLICLES SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE RUFFINI CORPUSCULES FOURTH HEAVIEST THIRD HEAVIEST THIRD LARGEST FOURTH LARGEST 2. ENCOUNTER ANTEBONES EAR FINGER 8. How many bones are there in the carpus? 5.
The cerebrum is divided into 2 hemispheres also called the: 8. Muscles use ______ more oxygen when in motion than at rest. 4. named after the bone to which they are ______ NEAR NEARER NEAREST THE MOST NEAR 10. 24 . 5: The Muscular System 1. Muscles account for about _____ of our weight. 3. muscular contraction rate is of about _____. Smooth muscle is also called : INTERNAL MUSCLE ORGAN MUSCLE INNER MUSCLE 7. 5. 550 35% 50% 45% 650 45% 55% 55% 600 50% 60% 35% 700 40% 65% 65% WILL MUSCLE VOLUNTARY MUSCLE 2. Muscular fibres striations are also called : 9. The cerebrum is broken down into 4 lobes. 10. The brain contains about _____ neurones. The two types of striated muscular tissue are called dark fibres and _____. LARGE LARGEST LARGER MOST LARGE Medical English Quiz No.SHORTER SMALLER LACKING LITTLER Medical English Quiz 4 : THE BRAIN 1. The brain weighs an average of: 3. The functions of each hemisphere are co-ordinated by commissural fibres. The corpus callosum is the _____ of commissural fibres. A MILLION A STROKE ANTEBRAIN LATERAL HALVES A TRILLION A STRIKE FRONTBRAIN SIDE HALVES 5. Rupture or blockage of a brain blood-vessel is called: 6. Striated muscle is also called : SKELETON MUSCLE BONE MUSCLE INVOLUNTARY MUSCLE FAIR FIBRES LINES EVERY STRIPES ALL OF 6. CLEAR FIBRES BANDS ALL PAIR FIBRES STRIPS SOME LIGHT FIBRES 8. The cerebrum is also called the: FOREBRAIN QUARTERS 7.5 Kg 2. Smooth muscle tissue has _____ striations. 4. also called: CONTACTIVE FIBRES UNION FIBRES LINKING FIBRES CONNECTIVE FIBRES 9. 2 1 Kg 17% 1 3 1. On average. The brain represents _____ of the whole central nervous system. _____ muscle movement is a pull. Our body contains over _____ muscles.5 Kg 97% 4 2 Kg 57% 77% A BILLION A STREAK A FIT FIRSTBRAIN SIDE GLOBES A HUNDRED MILLION 2. Brain cells die off if not oxygenated for more than ____ minutes.
We have several options to discuss. How are you feeling today? Patient: A bit better. I'm hoping to get to the bottom of this soon. You're not in the clear yet. It looks like you're ready to go home.NOT NONE NO ANY Unit 3 Class 11 Common Expressions with Real Life Medical Fields and Coversations. The blood test came back negative. 25 . I'd like to keep you here over night. Am I going to need surgery? Is it good news or bad? When will the tests results come in? How long do I have to stay in the hospital? What is the success rate? Are they going to run more tests? Is this a common problem for people my age? I'd like to discuss other options. You have a long road to recovery. Patient • • • • • • • • • • I don't understand what this means. Sample Conversation Doctor: Hi Jessica. The transfusion was a success. We've ruled out diabetes. I'm afraid the prognosis isn't good. We'll know more in a few days. Doctor's Diagnosis Physician • • • • • • • • • • • • Your test results have come in. I'm going to get a second opinion.
I haven't felt sick to my stomach since you switched my medication. Is it good news or bad? Doctor: I guess it's a bit of both. Thanks Doctor. Say.Doctor: That's good to hear. Patient: It's about time. Patient: I was afraid you were going to say that. Doctor: These things often are stress related. That means no soccer. We're going to take it out anyway just to be on the safe side. Patient: Things like what? Cancer? Doctor: Actually. Doctor: Okay. After the operation you're going to have to stay off your feet for at least three weeks. Patient: I've probably just been so worried about this stupid lump. Doctor: Great. The biopsy shows that the tumour is benign. I'm thinking more along the lines of a food allergy. but we're still going to do a few blood tests just to rule a few things out. It looks like you're going to need surgery to remove the tumour from your leg. that's a load off my mind. your test results came in this morning. which means it's not cancerous. We still need to get to the bottom of all of this weight loss. Are you still feeling nauseous? Patient: No. Which do you want first? Patient: Let's get the bad news over with. Doctor: Now for the good news. Check your understanding 1 2 3 Why did the woman have to switch medication? What bad news does the doctor give the patient? What medical procedure did the patient already undergo? Class 12 Visiting Hours 26 . Doctor: Don't get too excited. Patient: Wow.
Then read some typical concerns and questions that visitors may have. it is often necessary to welcome. boy and girl) Brother and Sister/siblings (other children of the patient's parents) Extended family Grandmother and Grandfather (mother and father of patient's parents) Aunt and Uncle (brother and sister of patient's parents) Niece and Nephew (girl and boy child of patient's siblings) Cousins (children of patient's aunt or uncle) Friends and other loved ones Best friend (patient's closest friend) Room-mate (a person the patient lives with) Neighbour (a friend who lives near the patient) Co-worker (a person who works with the patient) Boyfriend or Girlfriend (the man or woman the patient loves/dates) Fiancé (the man or woman the patient is engaged to marry) Questions and Concerns of Loved Ones • • • • • • • • We're Michael's grandparents. certain loved ones will be allowed to visit. monitor. Could you tell me which room Mrs Smythe is in? Is my child going to be okay? When can we speak with the doctor? What time are visiting hours? I'm trying to locate my sister. Showing them compassion and explaining the rules is much easier if you have the necessary English skills. and inform visitors on a daily basis. When a patient is staying in a hospital or other health facility. while others will not. Immediate family Mother and Father (patient's parents) Husband or Wife (the man or woman the patient is married to) Son and Daughter (children of the patient. 27 .Part of being a nurse. Study the different people that may come to visit the patient. My child would like something to drink. and some appropriate responses that you may be able to give them. It is a difficult time for people who have loved ones in the hospital. Depending on the condition of the patient.) Is there anything you can do to make him more comfortable. involves dealing with the people who are close to your patients. In many cases you may form stronger relationships with the patients' visitors than the patients themselves. (I'm trying to find my sister's room.
These are word groups that doctors (as well as others) usually use when they’re speaking to patients. You’ll have to speak to them while examining them. There's a quiet room for families down the hall. The doctor would ask you a number of questions. He's in isolation because of the transplant. Not a set of technical terms. For a fluent native speaker of English. but plain everyday language that has to do with health and illness. But for non-native speakers of English. You’ll have to speak to patients about the history and symptoms of their illness. because ‘illness’ is a topic that people speak to you about quite often. And at home and when you’re among your friends. you’ll have to describe and explain to your doctor (and to other people) how you’re suffering. I'll give you two some privacy now. And if you’re a doctor or a medical professional. Does your daughter need anything? I'm afraid she's not having a very good day today. Everyday Medical English: Speaking about health and illness This is an area where even people who are generally fluent stumble quite often. about the treatment. We had to transfer your mother-in-law to the ICU. you’ll find it necessary to use these word groups quite often.• • • Is there somewhere I can lie down for a while. this is not normally a problem. Questions and Responses from Nurses • • • • • • • • • • • • • • What is your relation to Jessica? You'll have to come back during visiting hours. this is a real problem when they have to use English to speak. you’ll have to discuss illness and health with patients and others. The third collection contains 28 . you’ll often have to talk about your own or someone’s illness or health. This Lesson will help you get over this difficulty. when you’re ill. All this means that you need to be fluent in using a set of special kinds of word groups.) She's doing much better this morning. The second collection contains word groups that doctors (as well as others) use when they’re speaking to patients while examining them. We do the best we can around here. The doctor would like to have a word with you. while prescribing medicines. Could you tell me where the chapel is? Please tell her to get well soon. It's in your brother's best interest. Room 7 is down the hall to your right. And even if you’re not a doctor. The first collection contains word groups that doctors (as well as others) use when they’re speaking to patients in order to find out about an illness. You see. and you’ll have to understand those questions and answer them. (The doctor wants to speak to you. of course — just as this is not a problem for you in your own mother tongue. Ms Lee is too tired for visitors. Doctor to patient Here are 3 separate collections of word groups.
come back to the word groups once a week (at least for 3 or 4 weeks at a stretch) and repeat uttering them several times — ALOUD.word groups that doctors (as well as others) use when they’re speaking to patients about the diagnosis that has been made and about the treatment. Everyone to everyone else who is ill. You see. don’t think that the word groups given are useful only to doctors. will you? • Did the tablets help? • Did you ever have any fractures? • Did you ever have trouble with your liver? • Did you have a comfortable night? • Do bright lights bother you? • Do the eyes water when you read? • Do you always sweat? • Do you belch? • Do you bring up any phlegm? • Do you cough a lot? • Do you cough much? • Do you cough up phlegm? • Do you cough when you smell certain foods or other smells? • Do you drink a lot? • Do you drink? • Do you ever bring something up? • Do you ever faint? • Do you ever feel completely possessed by another person? • Do you ever feel giddy? • Do you ever feel like vomiting? • Do you ever get short of breath? • Do you ever get wheezy? • Do you ever have dizzy spells? • Do you ever have nose bleeds? • Do you ever see double images in front of your eyes? • Do you ever see distorted images before your eyes? • Do you ever see unusual shapes before your eyes? • Do you ever suffer from headaches? • Do you ever wet the bed? • Do you feel any pain inside your ears? • Do you feel any pain or discomfort down below? • Do you feel any weakness in your limbs? • Do you ever take aspirins or anything like that? • Do you relate the cramps in anyway to your meals? • Do you have any cough or phlegm? • Do your ankles ever swell up? • Do you feel sick when you get these headaches? • Do you find that you’re losing your eyelashes? • Do you get any pain on breathing? • Do you get any pains in the chest? • Do you get headaches when you’re reading? • Do you get headaches? • Do you get out of breath easily? • Do you get tired easily? • Do you give him liquids? • Do you go out drinking much? • Do you have a cold? • Do you have a history of any serious illness? • Do you have a sore throat? • Do you have any allergies? • Do you have any chest pains after exercise? • Do you have any difficulty moving your arms or legs? • Do you have any discharge from your eyes? • Do you have a cough? • Do you have any aches or pains? • Do you have any pain in passing water? • Do you have any trouble with passing water? • Do you have any trouble with your stomach or bowels? • Do you have any pain while passing urine? • Do you have bad breath? • Do you have headaches? • Do you have palpitations? • Do you have to strain to pass your motions? • Do you have to strain to pass your water? • Do you know when these headaches are coming on? • Do your muscles feel stiff in the morning? • Do you often get diarrhoea? • Do you often get constipation?• Do you often have a fever? • Do you often lose your temper? • Do you play any sports? • Do you see spots in front of your eyes? • Do you smoke? • Do you socialize much? • Do you strain when 29 . Fathers and mothers when they have to speak to sons and daughters who are ill. Practise uttering the word groups until you can utter each of them with a ready flow. So you can imagine how universally useful these word groups are. No. are there any other problems? • Are your parents fit and well? • Are your parents in good health? • Are you a heavy drinker? • Are you aware of anything when you swallow? • Are you breastfeeding? • Are you doing better today? • Are you having any difficulty with your hearing? • Are you long-sighted? • Are you married? • Are you short of breath? • Are you short-sighted? • Are your bowels regular? • Are your stools black? • Can I just come back for a moment to these dizzy spells? • Can you describe the pain? • Can you describe the problem? • Can you describe the symptoms? • Can you see any letters at all? • Can you show me where it hurts? • Can you tell me exactly how you turned your foot? • Can you tell me which tooth is causing the problem? • Can you describe the dizzy spells? • Describe what’s wrong. • Any pain in your muscles? • Any pains in your chest when you cough? • Any problems with your chest? • Any problems with your waterworks? • Any shortness of breath? • Apart from your headaches. that’s not so. Case-taking: Questioning the patient Pick up each word group and utter it ALOUD — several times. Friends when they have to speak to friends and others who are ill. mothers and others who are ill. these are word groups that everybody will find useful when they have to speak to someone who is ill: Sons and daughters when they have to speak to fathers. After that. Now remember this: Just because this section has been given the heading “Doctor to patient”.
I'm afraid that's the policy. or does it go anywhere else? • Does light bother you? • Does lying down help the pain? • Does she eat at the usual times? • Does she have a good appetite? • Does she have any rashes? • Does she sleep at the normal time? • Does that medicine have any effect? • Does that hurt at all? • Does the knee feel tender here? • Does the pain have any relation to all this? • Does your husband smoke? • Does your nose run a lot? • Does your water dribble? • Has he ever had a fever? • Has there been any changes in your health since your last visit? • Has this been a problem before? • Have these headaches affected your vision at all? • Have you brought your urine sample? • Have you noticed any problems with your eyesight? • Have you got a cough — a persistent cough? • Have you ever been admitted to a hospital? • Have you ever been operated on? • Have you ever blacked out? • Have you ever coughed up blood? • Have you ever fainted? • Have you ever had backaches before? • Have you ever had any problems? • Have you ever had chicken pox? • Have you ever had measles? • Have you ever had your tonsils out? • Have you had a head injury? • Have you had an anaesthetic before? • Have you had any cough at all? • Have you had any diseases in the family — like diabetes or high blood pressure? • Have you had any falls? • Have you had any miscarriages? • Have you had any pain in your chest? • Have you had any serious illness in the past? • Have you had any shortness of breath? • Have you had (this) problem before? • Have you had this (problem) long? • Have you lost any weight? • Have you noticed any blood in your stools? • Have you noticed any blood in your water? • Have you noticed any swelling of your ankles? • Have you noticed any twitching of your muscles? • Have you noticed any weakness or tingling in your limbs? • Have you put on weight recently? • Have you taken any aspirin? • Have you taken anything for it? • Have you usually got lots of energy? Class 13 Sample Conversation Nurse: Nurse: Nurse: Nurse: I'm afraid visiting hours are over. Visitor: And leave her all alone overnight? Visitor: Surely you can make an exception? What if she needs me in the night? 30 . Visitor: My wife's in room 3B. What she really needs is her rest. sir.you pass water? • Do you suffer from double vision? • Do you sweat at night? • Do you vomit? • Do you wheeze? • Do your eyeballs feel painful? • Do your eyes get red easily? • Do your eyes get tired easily? • Do your eyes itch? • Do your eyes water? • Do your legs swell? • Do your motions smell bad? • Do you wear glasses? • Do these headaches come on at any particular time? • Do you ever get these headaches at night? • Does it bother you when you are walking? • Does any special food upset your stomach? • Does anyone else in your family suffer from this problem? • Does anything in particular bring on this pain? • Does anything make the pain better? • Does anything make the pain worse? • Does he cough a lot? • Does he ever bring up his food? • Does he ever get diarrhoea? • Does he pass wind as normal? • Does the pain affect your work? • Does it bother you in any way? • Does it burn when you pass water? • Does it come on any particular time? • Does the discharge have a bad smell? • Does it hurt if you bend your knee? • Does it hurt much? • Does it hurt when I do this? • Does it hurt when you swallow? • Does the pain stay in one place. Don't worry. sir Sorry. we'll look after her. you'll have to come back in the morning.
When is the doctor free? I need to renew my prescription.. Do you think the doctor could squeeze us in today? I need to make an appointment for my husband. Now. My child needs to come in for a check-up. Why don't you head home and get something to eat yourself? She's in good hands here. I guess it's all in her best interest. Flowers are not permitted in this ward. I'm going to bring your wife her dinner. Thanks for understanding. The doctor wants to see me again in two week's time.. I'll tell her you were here and that you'll see her in the morning. Nurse: Check your understanding 1 2 3 What is the man's relation to the patient? Why does the nurse send the man away? The nurse thanks the man because. I need to see the doctor. Nurse: Visitor: Okay. but I'm afraid while your wife is on bedrest the doctor has requested that only immediate family members come in to see her. 31 . Booking a Doctor's Appointment Patient • • • • • • • • I need to make an appointment. We just can't risk any germs that might come in with them. but that's probably a good idea. When can they come? Nurse: Visiting hours are from 9 to 11 in the morning and 4 to 7 in the evening. I really hate to leave her. Visitor: Can't her friends even stop by to bring her flowers? Nurse: Visitor: Well.Visitor: Some of her friends want to see her too.
Dr Jones is away. can you see anything? • What about coughs? • What about wheezing? • What about shortness of breath? • What are you taking for your headache? • What brings on your cough? • What brings you here? • What brought this on? • What caused this? • What colour is the stuff you bring up? • What colour is the vomit? • What effect does food have? • What has your health been like? • What kind of pain is it? • What seems to be the problem? • What seems to bring it on? • What sort of exercise do you take? • What sorts of things makes it sore? • 32 . We're running an hour behind schedule. You'll be seeing Dr Lindsay. • Was it painful? • Was it something you tried to lift? • Was there any other position that might bring the cramp on? • Was there anything that started it off? • With the right eye. like other children? • Is there a history of diabetes in your family? • Is there any bad smell from your nose? • Is there any blood in it? • Is there any discharge from your ears? • Is there any discharge or watering of the eyes? • Is there any heart disease in the family? • Is there any rash on the body? • Is there anybody with blood pressure trouble in the family? • Is there anybody with kidney trouble in the family? • Is there anything else you feel the same time? • Is there anything that makes the pain better? • Is there anything that makes the pain worse? • Is there anything you need? • Is this a life-long habit? • Is your digestion all right? • Is your hearing affected? • Is there anybody with heart trouble in the family? • So you fell over and grazed your knees? • Try and explain what happens when the pain comes on. Everyday Medical English: Speaking about health and illness • How about sore throats? • How about your bowels? • How about your relations with your colleagues? • How about your relations with your husband? • How are you at the moment? • How are you feeling today? • How can I help you? • How do you feel in general? • How are you feeling at the moment? • How does it feel? • How have you been keeping up to now? • How is your appetite? • How long do these headaches last? • How long does the pain last? • How long has it been bothering you? • How long has this been going on? • How long has this bothered you? • How long has your voice been hoarse? • How long have the headaches been bothering you? • How long have they been bothering you? • How long have you had this pain? • How long have you had these pains? • How long have you had this boil? • How long have you had this discharge? • How long have you had this problem with your vision? • How long have you had this problem? • How long have your gums been bleeding? • How many do you smoke each day? • How many times do you have to go during the night? • How often do you feed him? • How often do you get this pain? • How old are you? • How old is your last child? • How would you describe the pain(s)? • How many episodes (of cramps) a day were you getting? • How’s your health otherwise? • How about your weight? Is it steady? • Is his toilet normal? • Is it a localized or general pain? • Is the pain bad enough to wake you up? • Is it broken? • Is the pain continuous or does it come and go? • Is it sore all the time? • Is it sore to the touch? • Is it thick or light? • Is she active.Receptionist • • • • • • • • • • What is your chart number? What is the appointment regarding? Which day/what time is good for you? Is January the 3rd okay with you? How does four o'clock sound? We'll see you then. I'm sorry the doctor is not taking new patients. We'll call you if there are any cancellations.
Jane speaking. Receptionist: Thanks for waiting. No. Hold one moment while I grab your chart. Now. My cough is getting worse each day. Receptionist: Actually. what do you need to see the doctor about? Receptionist: Hmm. George Mason. I've been fighting a cold for more than a week. 33 . we had a cancellation for 2:00pm today if you can get away from the office. sorry. or anything we can do for you? Class 14 Sample Conversation Receptionist: Doctor's office. How can I help you? Caller: Caller: Caller: Caller: Caller: I need to make an appointment with Dr. Sure. Harris. and I think I might have a chest infection or something. I was really hoping to get in today or tomorrow in case I need some antibiotics.What’s your appetite like? • What’s brought you along today? • What’s the colour of this discharge? • What’s the matter? • What’s the pain like? • What’s the stream (= urine) like? • What’s the trouble? • What medication are you taking now? • Were you breathless? • Were you breathless with this discomfort? • Were you aware of palpitations? • Were you sneezing and coughing? • When did his first tooth appear? • When did the trouble first start? • When did the pain(s) start? • When did you first notice the lump? • When did you first notice the pain? • When did you first notice this? • When did you move into town from the country? • When does the pain come on? • When was the last time you had a tetanus shot? • When was the last time you visited your dentist? • Where did you catch the infection? • Where does it hurt? • Where is it sore? • Where is the pain exactly? • Where is the pain most severe? • Where are these headaches? • Which one is worse — the top teeth or bottom teeth? • Which part of your chest is affected? • Which part of your back is affected? • Which part of your head is affected? • Would it be sore if I were to tap the tooth? • Where is the pain exactly? • You’re not vomiting now? • No black-looking stool? • You don’t think the cramps are likely to come on before or after meals? • And the longest episode (of cramps) lasted for? • And your bowels? Have they changed? • You don’t feel sick at all? • Any questions. It's at home and I'm at work right now. Receptionist: Do you know your chart number? Receptionist: No problem. Well. please. What's your name. Maybe I'll have to go to the walk-in-clinic instead. Do you think it can wait until Wednesday? Caller: Oh. please? Receptionist: Okay Mr Mason. Doctor Harris is off tomorrow.
"It's from my wife's family." "Oh. it's almost 1:00pm already." he replied. the man asked: "If that is the good news. The doctor says: "About this medical test I did on you. "High blood pressure. It comes from my family." The second surgeon said. You open them up and everything inside is numbered. I think I can make it if I leave right now." says the doctor. Mason. "You oughta meet 'em sometime. We'll see you in an hour or so. Horrified. Check your understanding 1 2 3 Why does the caller phone the doctor's office? Which is true about George Mason? When will the doctor see Mr Mason? Class 15 Medical Jokes: 1. he said. Mr. "I think that librarians are the easiest to operate on." 3. come now. so you can probably count on seeing the doctor around 2:30. When a physician remarked on a new patient's extraordinarily ruddy complexion. then what is the bad news??" "I couldn't reach you yesterday.Caller: Gee." 34 . Doc!" 2. "I think that accountants are the easiest to operate on. Four surgeons were taking a coffee break and discussing their work." The man asks for the good news first: "The good news is that you have 24 hours to live. A man gets a telephone call from a doctor. Caller: That's great. The first surgeon said. Receptionist: We're running a bit behind schedule." "Your mother's side or your father's?" the doctor asked. You open them up and everything is in alphabetical order. Doc. "Neither. Receptionist: No problem. Thanks for fitting me in. I have some good news and some bad news. "How could your wife's family give you high blood pressure?" He sighed." the doctor said.
"I think that lawyers are the easiest to operate on. One of them was crying." the shirtmaker repeated. the rich old man was told he had only 24 hours to live. gutless. Then he decided that even his shirts would be made-toorder. hired a chauffeur. "So? Why are you crying? Are you afraid?" 35 . Doctor: I have some good news and some bad news. "But I've always worn a 15 collar." The second one asked. A third doctor told him bluntly. so the patient consulted another doctor who suggested removal of his teeth. "Christ died between two thieves." 6." the man interrupted. measuring again. Doctor: Well. so I thought I'd do the same! 5. Just stand there. and your eyes will pop andyour ears will ring. They're heartless." As the hours wore on. "You have 6 months to live. tears were pouring down his face. the doctor and the lawyer watched the man weaken. After dozens of very expensive tests and weeks of hospitalization. and their heads are interchangeable. spineless. After standing for some time. A doctor looked him over andsuggested removal of his tonsils. but still. the doctor asked "What do you want me to do?" "Nothing. The teeth were pulled. " I came here for blood test. He asked the doctor to stand by one side of his bed and his lawyer to stand by the other. A man sought medical aid because he had popped eyes and a ringing in his ears." 4. 16 collar…" "Fifteen.The third surgeon said. "Sixteen collar. "Listen." said the man. You keep on wearing a 15 collar. we accidentally amputated the wrong leg. Patient: What's the good news? Doctor: It turns out that your other leg didn't need to be amputated at all 7. When his time had almost arrived. "let's get your measurement." said the shirtmaker. He bought a nice. You open them up and everything is color coded. Hmm…. Two guys were sitting outside a medical clinic. and had the best tailor in town make him 30 new suits." In that event. He immediately called his doctor and his lawyer to his room. The other guy asked. the lawyer asked "What do you want me to do?" "Nothing. Just stand there. the doctor and the lawyer again asked "Why are we standing here?" "Well." said the old man. "I'm warning you. "I think that electricians are the easiest to operate on. the doomed man decided he'd treat himself in the remaining time he had here on Earth. his eyes kept popping and his ears still rang." A while later. new car. Which do you want first? Patient: Give me the bad news first." The fourth surgeon said. The operation resulted in no improvement. " Why are you crying?" The first one replied.34 sleeve." the shirtmaker said. "Okay.
"Tell me. The first one was astonished and asked the other." 9. If I am released. what do you plan to do with your life?" The inmate said. I might write." Hearing this. is there anyone you would like to see?" Bending down toward his patient." "Definitely. I will certainly refrain from making my former mistake. you see. "I have come for a urine test. the doctor heard him feebly answer. "Then again. The psychiatrist that ran the institution decided it was better to proceed with caution. or I may even write a novel based on my experiences in the psychiatric instutition." agreed the doctor. There is something to be said for dedicating your life to expanding the knowledge of young people. "Yes." "Wonderful. "Why are you crying?" Then the second guy replied. if none of these things appeals to me. Joe wrapped the arm in a plastic bag and took Jim to a surgeon. "I might teach. and if I do." "Another interesting possibility. "I feel that I should tell you. you are a very sick man. as we are considering. There is always a need for books on science. Joe and Jim were out cutting wood and Jim cut his arm off. Looking down at the sick man. The surgeon said "You're in luck! I'm an expert at reattaching limbs! Come back in 5 hours. "Another doctor. "It would be wonderful to get back to real life." said the psychiatrist." "Who is it?" In a slightly stronger tone." continued the patient. I can always continue to be a teakettle. "if we release you. "Or else." 8. the doctor decided to tell him the truth. I shall limit myself to work in pure theory. "And finally." said the psychiatrist. Not that. During the blood test they cut my finger." said the doctor. A man who had been in a mental institution for some years finally improved to the point where it was thought he might be released. I was a nuclear physicist. the sufferer said. and chose to interview him first. 10." So Joe left and when he returned in 5 hours the surgeon said "I got done quicker 36 . where I believe the situation will be less difficult and stressful. the second one started crying. I'm sure you would want to know the facts. I don't think you have much time left. Now. and it was the stress of my work in weapons research that helped to put me here.The first guy replied. "No.
" Joe went to the pub and there was Jim. but legs are a little tougher. Joe put the leg in a plastic bag and took it and Jim back to the surgeon. heads are really tough. Three retirees. Come back in 8 hours. isn't it?" "No. Jim had a terrible accident and cut his head off. "it's Thursday. "Oh no! The surgery went fine! Jim suffocated in that plastic bag. were playing golf one fine March day." Unit 4 Class 16 Human Body One of the first things you need to know when studying Medical English is the parts of the body. throwing darts. kicking goals. each with a hearing loss. Let's have a beer." So Joe left and when he returned in twelve hours the surgeon said regretfully "I'm sorry. Here are the basics to get you started. You will also need to learn the words for the functions of each of these body parts. and Jim cut his leg off. A few weeks later. Jim's down at the soccer field. Joe and Jim were cutting wood again. Joe put the head in a plastic bag and took it and the rest of Jim to the surgeon." Joe went down to the soccer field and there was Jim. Come back on 12 hours." And the third man chimed in.than I expected. The surgeon looked at the situation and said "Gosh.heads are tough." Joe said "I understand . A few weeks later. Jim died." The surgeon said. "So am I." 11. One remarked to the other." Joe left and when he came back in 6 hours the surgeon said "I finished early. The surgeon said "No problem. Head 37 . Jim is down at the pub. "Windy. You will need to learn the names of the internal (inside the skin) and external body parts." the second man replied.
The rear side of the upper body is called the back. Between the hips are the reproductive organs. On the front side of the upper body is the chest. The joint halfway down the arm is called the elbow. Beneath this area is called the armpit or underarm. the bladder for holding liquid waste. Underneath the forehead are the eyes for seeing. Upper Body At the top and front of the upper body. Babies suck on the nipples of their mother's breasts. Human Body Quiz 38 . and the mouth for eating. Lower Limbs (legs) The top of the leg is called the thigh. Beside the thumb is the index finger. just below the neck is the collar bone. and on the inside of the mouth are the teeth for biting and the tongue for tasting. The neck is what attaches the head to the upper body. Beneath the ribcage are the stomach and the waist. Lower Body Below the waist. The navel. At the back of the lower body are the buttocks for sitting on. Each foot has five toes. is located here as well. The internal organs in the lower body include the intestines for digesting food. Beneath the hairline at the front of the face is the forehead. Between the elbow and the next joint. Below the wrist is the hand with four fingers and one thumb. Upper Limbs (arms) The arms are attached to the shoulders. On the inside of the upper body are the heart for pumping blood and the lungs for breathing. The jaw is located on the inside of the cheeks and chin. The ankle connects the foot to the leg. At the ends of the fingers are fingernails. inside which the spine connects the upper body to the lower body. is the forearm. and the joint in the middle of the leg is the knee. At the sides of the face are the cheeks and at the sides of the head are the ears for hearing. the nose for smelling. the penis (male) or the vagina (female). more commonly referred to as the belly button. Beside the index finger is the middle finger.Inside the head is the brain. as well as the liver and the kidneys. The upper arms have the muscles known as triceps and biceps. Food is swallowed down the throat. The front of the lower leg is the shin and the back of the lower leg is the calf. which holds a baby when a woman is pregnant. which is responsible for thinking. The smallest toe is often called the little toe while the large one is called the big toe. on left and right. At the bottom of a person's face is the chin. On the outside of the mouth are the lips. followed by the ring finger and the little finger. They are also commonly referred to as the rear end or the bum (especially with children). the wrist. are the hips. The top of a person's scalp is covered with hair. At the ends of the toes are toenails. This area also contains the woman's uterus. which in women includes the breasts.
Another word for belly button is------------------. She may never walk again because her ---------------was so badly injured. Your grandfather will be able to walk better after his --------------------surgery. We'll put a cool cloth on your -----------------to get your fever down. The ----------------on his knee was scraped off when he hit the road. The patient lost so much weight his ---------------were sunken in. My Dad's little ------------------was lost in the accident. The newborn is getting his -----------------changed in the nursery.1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Your tonsils can get swollen when you have a sore -----------------------The ------------------is located in the middle of the arm. 39 .
medical. rarely used. A a artery.anterior 42 . leukemia.Unit 5 Class 17 These medical abbreviations are commonly used in hospital. before aa equal part of each AA affected area AAA abdominal aortic aneurysm A2 aortic second sound AAL acute lymphoblastic. and some doctors and hospitals create their own. There are many others. contact us for assistance. and dental records. If you cannot locate an abbreviation in this glossary.
above knee aka alcoholic ketoacidosis AKA above knee amputation alb. fib. afebrile AFB acid fast bacilli AFO ankle-foot orthosis AFP alpha fetoprotein A/G albumin globulin ratio (blood) AGA appropriate gestational age AI aortic insufficiency AIDS acquired immunodeficiency syndrome AJ ankle jerk a. albumin alc. alcohol alk. phos. abductor or abduction ADH antidiruetic hormone ADL activites of daily living ad lib as desired adm. before meals (ante sebum) Ac acute AC anterior chamber acc accident accom. ambulatory AMI acute myocardial infarction AML acute myeloid leukemia amnio amniocentesis amp. annulus fibrosis ANS autonomic nervous system ant.axillary line ab antibody AB abortion abd abdomen ABG arterial blood gasses ABN abnormal ABP arterial blood pressure abs absent a. alkaline phosphate ALL acute lymphocytic leukemia ALS amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ALT alternating with. ambulating. ampule ANA antinuclear antibody anes. alanine aminotransferase (formerly SGPT) AMA against medical advice amb. admission AE above elbow AEA above elbow amputation AF atrial fibrillation. anterior ante before ANUG acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis 43 . amputation. accommodation acid phos. acid phosphate ACL anterior cruciate ligament ACTH adrenocorticotrophic hormone AD right ear add.k.c. anesthesia ann.
1 normal healthy patient A.basilar baso basophile BBB bundle branch block BBT basal body temperature BCA basal cell atypia BCD basal cell dysplasia BCE basal cell epithelioma 44 .S.A.S. Flutter atrial flutter ATN acute tubular necrosis ATNR asymmetrical tonic neck reflex AU both ears aud.S.S. aspirin A.S.Z.A.A. bath BA barium Bab. basal. Babinski sign Ba.A.Anxty anxiety A/O alert and oriented AOB alcohol on breath AODM adult onset diabetes mellitus AP ante partum A&P auscultation and percussion A-P anteroposterior APC atrial premature contractions aph aphasia A-P & lat anteroposterior and lateral AP resection abdominal perineal resection of the rectum aq. 3 patient with severe systemic disease A. water AR aortic regurgitation ARD acute respiratory distress ARDS adult respiratory distress syndrome ARF acute respiratory failure. axillary A. American Society of Anesthesiologists A.aortic stenosis ASA acetylsalicylic acid. axilla. Ascheim-Zondek test B B. 2 patient with mild systemic disease A. 4 patient with incapacitating systemic disease that is constant threat to life ASAP as soon as possible ASCVD atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease ASD atrial septal defect ASHD arteriosclerotic heart disease at.A. auditory Aur.E barium enema Bas. acute rheumatic fever AROM artificial rupture of membranes art arterial AS left ear. Fib auricular fibrillation A-V arteriovenous AVF arteriovenous fistula AVR aortic valve replacement A&W alive and well Ax.
biopsy Class 18 C c. barium enema BEA below elbow amputation BFP biological false positive Bic.T bleeding time BM black male.d. twice daily BIH bilateral inguinal hernia bilat. Bilateral.S. breath sounds BSA body surface area BSB bedside bag BSC bedside commode BSD bedside drainage BSO bilateral salpingooophorectomy BST blood serologic test BT bleeding time BTL bilateral tubal ligation BUN blood urea nitrogen BW birth weight Bx. breech presentation BR bedrest. bathroom brach. bone marrow. bowel sounds B. body weight BOMA otitis media. blood Bl. breast biopsy broncho bronchoscopy BRP bathroom privileges BS blood sugar.i.n. acute BOW bag of water BP blood pressure BPD bronchopulmonary dysplasia BPH benign prostatic hypertrophy BPM beats per minute Br.i. twice a night BiW twice weekly BJ biceps reflex bk. brachial BrBx. with 45 . both ears. back BK below knee BKA below knee amputation bl cult blood culture bld. biceps b. bowel movement BMR basal metabolic rate body wt. bilaterally bili bilirubin b.BCG bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine (tuberculosis vaccine) BDC burn dressing change BE below elbow.
cystic fibrosis CHD congenital heart disease. catheter CB Cesarean birth CBC complete blood count CBD common bile duct CBF cerebral blood flow CBG capillary blood gas CBR complete bed rest cc. cancer CABG coronary artery bypass graft CAD coronary artery disease CAHD coronary atherosclerotic heart disease Cal calorie. cervix. cardiac index CIS carcinoma in situ CK creatinine kinase Cl chlorine. constipation c/o complains of.T clotting time cm. cervical CF cardiac failure. contagious disease CEA carcinoembryonic antigen Cerv. calories CAPD continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis Caps capsules car. cubic centimeter CC chief complaint CCU coronary care unit CD cardiac disease. Caucasian C. Celsius complement CI-XII 1st to 12th cranial nerve C-1 to C-7 cervical vertebrae Ca calcium CA carcinoma. clavicle cldy cloudy CLL chronic lymphocytic leukemia Cl. cardiac Card Cath cardiac catheterization CAT computerized axial tomography cath catheterization.I color index CI cardiac insufficiency. centigrade. chemotherapy CHF congestive heart failure CHO carbohydrate Chol cholesterol Chr chronic C. carotid card. centimeter CML chronic myeloid leukemia CMV cytomegalovirus CN cranial nerve CNS central nervous system cnst. complaints 46 . chloride Clav.C cervical. coronary heart disease Chem.
concentrated cons. decreased dehyd. decibel DBE deep breathing exercise d/c discontinue DC discharges. CS Cesarean section C&S culture and sensitivity CSF cerebrospinal fluid C-spine cervical spine CT computed axial tomography C-V cardiovascular CVA cerebrovascular accident. dehydrated Derm. combine. distilled water DDx differential diagnosis D&E dilation and evacuation decr. contractions. costovertebral angle CVL central venous line CVP central venous pressure CVS cardiovascular system Cx cervix. cranial CRD chronic respiratory disease creat. compress conc. creatinine CRF chronic renal failure C/S. communicable comp.Co2 carbon dioxide comb. Dermatology DES Diethylstilbestrol D5RL 5% dextrose and lactated ringers D5W 5% dextrose and sterile water 47 . discontinue D&C dilation and curettage DD discharge diagnosis D/DW dextrose. culture CxR chest x-ray Cysto cystoscopy D DAP distal airway pressure db. consultation cont. continued COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Cor heart CPAP continuous positive airway pressure CPC clinicopathological conference CPD cephalo-pelvic disproportion CPK creatinine phosphokinase CPPB continuous positive pressure breathing CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation CPT chest physical therapy CR closed reduction cran. combination comm. compound.
extracellular fluid ECG electrocardiogram ECHO enterocytopathogenic human orphan virus E. throat EEX electrodiagnosis 48 . tetanus vaccine DR delivery room D&R dilation and radium implant drsg. diminished DIP distal interphalangeal (joint) dis. dorsal pedia DPT diphtheria. disseminated coagulopathy diff. diameter DIC disseminated intravascular coagulation. pertussis. disposition dist.coli Escherichia coli ECS endocervical scrape ECT electroconvulsive ED emergency department EDC estimated date of confinement EDOD estimated date of delivery EEG electroencephalogram EENT eyes. differential dil. divorced DJD degenerative joint disease DKA diabetic ketoacidosis DLE disseminated lupus erythematosis D/L DI decilter DM diabetes mellitus. dilute dim. diagnostic imaging DIAG.P. diastolic murmur DNA deoxyribonucleic acid DNKA did not keep appointment DOA dead on arrival DOB date of birth DOE dyspnea on exertion Dors dorsal D. discharge disp. ears. disease disch. distal DIU death in utero div.DI diabetes insipidus. distilled. nose. diagnosis diam. dressing D/S discharge summary DTR deep tendon reflexes DT’s delirium tremens DU duodenal ulcer DUB dysfunctional uterine bleeding DUI driving under influence D/W dextrose in water Dx diagnosis E e without EBL estimated blood loss EBV Epstein-Barr virus ECF extended care facility.
gen. Med. emergency medical service En. fetal FEV forced expiratory volume f.A.gastroduodenoscopy EKG electrocardiogram elev. external ext. eosinophiles EOM extraocular movement Epis. iron deficiency FEF forced expiratory flow FEKG fetal electrocardiogram fem. fetal heart FHR fetal heart rate FHR-UC fetal heart rate. Lap exploratory laparotomy ext. fluids flac.f. episiotomy Epis. femoral fem. flaccid 49 . female. extremities.LML left mediolateral episiotomy Epis. femoral popliteal fet. external genitalia F F finger.EGA estimated gestational age EGD esophago. elevated ELF elective low forceps EmBx endometrial biopsy EMG electromyogram EMS endometrial scrape.uterine contraction FHT fetal heart tones FiO2 faction of inspired oxygen concentration fl. enema ENT ears. example expir expiration. medial episiotomy Epis. RML right mediolateral episiotomy ERCP endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate EST electroshock therapy ETIOL. foreign body FBS fasting blood sugar FD fully dilated FDA Food and Drug Administration FDP flexor digitorum profundus Fe def.B. etiology ETOH ethanol EUA examine under anesthesia EVAL evaluation ex. throat Eoc. Fahrenheit FA fluorescent antibody F. force fluid FFP fresh frozen plasma fh fundal height FH family history. expiratory Exp. nose. first aid F. exercise. pop.
U.A.C. general paralysis gr. genl.flex. gastrointestinal gluc glucose gm gram Gm+ gram positive Gm. drop Gt. follow-up FUO fever of unknown origin FVC forced vital capacity FW fetal weight Fx fracture G ______________________________ G gravida G. flexion fl. grain.F. pregnancy gt. grains (dosage) Grav. GMA grand mal attack GNC general nursing care GP General Practitioner.F-U.tr. gonococcus GCS Glasgow Coma Scale GE Gastroenterology G/E gastroenteritis gen.gram negative gm.H. flexor. general anesthesia GB gallbladder GBS gallbladder series G.% grams per 100 c.I. fractional FRC functional residual capacity FS finger stick FSH follicle stimulating hormone FT full term FTD failure to descend FTND full term normal delivery FTT failure to thrive FUB functional uterine bleeding F/U. gait training gtts. growth hormone G. fluid ounce FM finger movement FPAL full term premature abortion living fract. oz. hour. gestation GFR glomerulo filtration rate G. general gest. hypodermic H/A headache HAF hyperalimentation fluid 50 .c. drops GSW gunshot wound GTT glucose tolerance test GU genitourinary G/W glucose and water GYN Gynecology H ______________________________ h hour H hydrogen history.
reddening.R.. nose.HASCVD hypertensive arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease Hb. hyperalimenation Hz hertz (cycles/second) Class 19 51 . hematocrit HCVD hypertensive cardiovascular disease h. tenderness HS bedtime HSG hysterosalpingography H2O water H2O2 hydrogen peroxide Ht height. at bedtime Hd head. heat. histology HIV human immunodificiency virus HKAFO hip knee ankle foot orthosis HLA human leukocyte group A. ears. heart HVD hypertensive vascular disease Hx history Hyperal. hernia Hem Hematology Hem Pro hematology profile Hep. history.O. eyes. throat hern. swelling.T. Hgb hemoglobin HB heart block HBP high blood pressure HC head circumference H&C hot and cold HCG human chorionic gonadotropin HCO3 bicarbonate Hct. Hodgkin’s disease HDl high density lipids HEENT head.d. house officer HOB head of bed horiz. Lock Heparin lock HGO hepatic glucose output HH hard of hearing HIDA(scan) hepatobiliary scan HIE hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy hist. horizontal H&P history and physical hpf high power field HPI history of present illness HPL human placental lactogen HR heart rate H.S. histocompatibility leukocyte focus HM hand movement HMD hyaline membrane disease HMG human menopausal gonadotropin HNP herniated nucleus pulposus h/o history of H.
Infectious Disease I&D incision and drainage IDDM insulin dependent diabetes mellitus I/E inspiratory. intracutaneous(ly) ICCU intensive coronary care unit ICF intracellular fluid ICS intercostal space ICT insulin coma therapy ICU intensive care unit i. increased (ing) Inev. identification. inferior inj injured. expiratory Ig immunoglobulin IGA immunoglobulin A IGE immunoglobulin E IGG immunoglobulin gamma G(Globulin) IGM immunoglobulin M IH infectious hepatitis IHD ischemic heart disease IM intramuscular. AB inevitable abortion inf infusion.II I radioactive iodine IA intra-arterially IABP intra-aortic balloon pump i. internal INTHC intrathecally IO inferior oblique I&O intake and output IOP intraocular pressure IP intraperitoneal IPJ interphalangeal joint IPPB intermittent positive pressure breathing IQ intelligence quota IRDS idiopathic respiratory distress syndrome 52 . impression IMP inpatient multidimensional psych scale IMV intermittent mandatory ventilation In. during the day ID intradermal. AB incomplete abortion incr. inspiratory int. inches Inc. injection INR coagulant response time inspir inspiration. intramedullary IMCU intermediate medical care unit imp.d.c.
laboratory lac.L3 second. kidney KC1 potassium chloride Kcal. third lumbar vertebrae LA left antrum lab.. ureter.irreg. liver. kilogram KJ. bladder (x-rays) KVO keep vein open L L left. lactic LAD left anterior descending coronary artery L&D labor and delivery LAE left atrial enlargement lam.. laparotomy lat. IU International Unit IUC intrauterine catheter IUCP intrauterine contraceptive device IUD intrauterine device IUFD intrauterine fetal death IUGR intrauterine growth retardation IUP intrauterine pregnancy IUTP intrauterine term pregnancy IV intravenous(ly) IVC inferior vena cava. lumbar L2. laminectomy lap. Irregular IS intercostal space IST insulin shock therapy ITP idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura I. laceration lacr. lateral LAVH laparoscopic assisted vaginal hysterectomy lax laxative 53 . K-J knee jerk KK knee kick 17 KS 17 keto steroids KUB kidney. calorie Kg. light. intravenous cholangiogram IVD intervertebral disc IVP intravenous pyelogram IVPB intravenous piggy back IVU intravenous urogram JJ J joint J-P Jackson Pratt drain JRA juvenile rheumatoid arthritis jt. kg. Kilocalorie. lacrimal lact.U. lower. liter. joint JVP jugular venous pulse K K potassium.
lb. pound LB large bowel LBBB left bundle branch block LBP lower back pain LBW low birth weight LCA left coronary artery L.D. lethal dose LDH lactic dehydrogenase LDL low density lipids LE lupus erythematosus L.E. lower extremities leuc. leukocytes LF low forceps, low flap LFA left frontoanterior LFD low forceps delivery LFP left frontoposterior LFT left frontotransverse, liver function test lg large, leg LGA large for gestational age LGV lymphogranuloma venereum LH luteinizing hormone LHT left hypertrophia LICS left intercostal space lig. ligament LIH left inguinal hernia liq. liquid LKS liver, kidneys, spleen LL lower lid LLE left lower extremity LLG left lateral gaze LLL left lower lobe LLQ left lower quadrant LMA left mentoanterior LMD family doctor l/min liter per minute LML left mediolateral LMP left mentoposterior, last menstrual period LMT left mentotransverse L.N. lymph node LNMP last normal menstrual period LOA left occiput anterior L.O.C. loss of consciousness, level of consciousness, laxative of choice LOM left otitis media LOP left occipital posterior LOS length of stay LOT left occiput anterior LP lumbar puncture, light perception lpf low power field LPN licensed practical nurse LR labor room, lateral rectus, light reflex LRQ lower right quadrant Ls. loose
L.S. lumbosacral LSA lateral sacrum anterior LSB left sternal border LSCS lower segment Cesarean section LSK liver, spleen, kidneys LSO left salpingo-oophorectomy LSP left sacrum posterior LST left sacrum transverse Lt. left, light LTCS low transverse Cesarean section LUE left upper extremity LUL left upper lobe LUQ left upper quadrant LV left ventricle LVEDP left ventricular end diastolic pressure LVF left ventricular failure LVH left ventricular hypertrophy L & W living and well LWCT Lee-White Clotting Time, coagulation time Lymphs lymphocytes lytes electrolytes
m. minim m,M married, male, mother murmur, meter, mass, molar MA mental age macro. macrocytic, macroscopic MAP mean arterial pressure max. maximum, maxillary MBC maximum breathing capacity mcg. microgram MCH mean corpuscular hemoglobin MCHC mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration MCL midclavicular line MCP metacarpophalangeal joint MCV mean corpuscular volume MD muscular dystrophy MDI metered dose inhaler Mdnt. midnight ME middle ear, medical examiner MEC medical emergency clinic Med. medicine MEq./L milliequivalents per liter Mets. metastasis mg. milligram Mg. magnesium MG myasthenia gravis mg/dl milligrams per deciliter mg.% milligrams per 100 cc m.g.r. murmurs, gallops, or rubs
MH marital history Ml myocardial infarction, mitral insufficiency micro microcytic, microscopic MICU medical intensive care unit min minute Mitr.I mitral insufficiency ml. milliliter MLF medial longitudinal fasciculus mm millimeter mm. muscles MM mucous membrane MMPI Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Mn. manganese, midnight mod moderate MOM milk of magnesia mono. monocyte MP metacarpophalangea, metacarpophalangeal MPA malpractice attorney MR medial rectus, mental retardation, mitral regurgitation MRI magnetic resonance imaging MRM modified radical mastectomy ms mitral stenosis Ms murmurs MS mitral stenosis, multiple sclerosis, morphine sulfate MSL midsternal line mss massage MT metacarpophalangeal (joint) M.T. muscles and tendons MVA motor vehicle accident MVP mitral valve prolapse MVR mitral valve replacement MW maximum voluntary ventilation
n. nerve N2 nitrogen N2O nitrous oxide (anesthetic) Na sodium NaCl sodium chloride NAD no apparent distress nb note well NB newborn NBM nothing by mouth NBS normal bowel sounds, normal breath sounds NED no evidence of disease neg. negative NER no evidence of recurrence NERD no evidence of recurrent disease Neur. Neurology NG nasogastric tube NI no insurance
nerves N. diarrhea N&W normal and well NWB non-weight bearing NYD not yet diagnosed O o none. without O oral O2 oxygen O2 cap. oxygen saturation OA osteoarthritis OB. nervous system NSA no significant abnormality NSAID nonsteriodal anti-inflammatory drug NSD normal spontaneous delivery NSR normal sinus rhythm NST non-stress test N&V nausea and vomiting NS Neurosurgery NSVD normal spontaneous vaginal delivery NTG nitroglycerine NTP normal temperature and pressure nullip never gave birth NVD nausea. nocturnal NOS not otherwise specified NP neuropsychiatric N. occasional OD right eye O/E on examination OH occupational history 17 OH 17 hydroxy steroid OHD organic heart disease oint. vomiting.P. Neuropsychiatry NPH NPH insulin (Neutral Protamine Zinc) NPN nonprotein nitrogen NPO nothing by mouth Ns. Ophthalmology 57 . otitis media OMS organic mental syndrome OOB out of bed Op. OBG Obstetrics OB/GYN Obstetrics and Gynecology Obs observation OBS organic brain syndrome OCC. ointment O. operation OPC outpatient clinic OPD outpatient department Ophth.NIC neonatal intensive care NICU neonatal intensive care unit NIDDM noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus NKA no known allergies NM neuromuscular NMR nuclear magnetic resonance noct.S. oxygen capacity O2 sat.M. occipital.
pulmonary embolism Ped. peritoneal dialysis PDA patent ductus arteriosus pdr. paroxysm atrial tachycardia Path. Pathology PA view posterioranterior view on x-ray Pb lead PB peripheral blood PBI protein bound iodine p/c. palpated. Orthopaedic Surgery os opening. p. open reduction OR-IF open reduction with internal fixation ORT operating room technician Ortho.c. ear Oto Otolaryngology OTC over-the-counter (pharmaceuticals) O. phosphorus pulse P2 pulmonic second heart sound PA physician’s assistant P-A posteroanterior p & a percussion and auscultation PAC premature atrial. round. mouth. ounce P ______________________________ P after.. auricular contraction PaCO2 arterial carbon dioxide tension pressure PACU post anesthesia care unit PAF paroxysmal atrial fibrillation palp.OR operating room. Pediatrics PEEP positive end expiratory pressure PEG pneumoencephalogram PEN Penicillin PERRLA pupils equal. old tuberculin OU both eyes OV office visit oz. palpable PaO2 alveolar oxygen pressure Pap Papanicolaou test (pap smear) Para prior births. reactive to light and accommodation (normal) PET positron emission tomography PF push fluids PFC persistent fetal circulation 58 . occupational therapy. bone OS left eye ot. palpate. powder PDR Physician’s Desk Reference PDN private duty nurse PE physical examination. paraplegic PARU post anesthesia recovery unit PAS pulmonary artery systolic pressure PAT pregnancy at term.T. after meals PCL posterior cruciate ligament PCO2 carbon dioxide concentration PCV packed cell volume (of blood) PD pupillary distance.
per rectum PR Proctology PRBC packed red blood cells PRE progressive resistive exercise prem premature pre-op preoperative prep.M. popliteal pos. post nasal drip pneu. practical nurse P&N Psychiatry and Neurology PNC prenatal clinic.. physical. or potass. post prandial PPBS post prandial blood sugar PPD purified protein derivative PPF protein plasma fractional PPH post partum hemorrhage ppm parts per million PPPG post prandial plasma glucose p.d. according to circumstances p. pneumonia PNI peripheral nerve injury PNX pneumothorax p. platelets PM petit mal P. pneumo.n.r. potassium pp post partum. posterior POSTOP. postoperative day polys polymorphonuclear leukocytes POMR problem oriented medical record poplit. prepare for primip. PRN as often as necessary 59 .m. post-mortem PMH past medical history PMN polymorphonuclear (leukocytes) PM&R Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation PN poorly nourished. postoperative pot. placenta plts. first pregnancy p.r. afternoon. positive post. Pitocin PKU phenylkentonuria Plac.o.PFT pulmonary function test pH hydrogen ion concentration PH past history pharm pharmacy PHYS. physiology PI present illness. by mouth PO2 oxygen pressure (or tension) POC product of conception p.o. premature nodal contraction PND paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea.r. pulmonary insufficiency PICA posterior inferior coronary artery PICU pulmonary intensive care unit PID pelvic inflammatory disease PIP proximal interphalangeal Pit.
.i.prod. psychotic. Psychiatry pt. QNS quantity not sufficient q.w.l. PX physical examination Class 20 Q q every q.s.n.h. pronator. prognosis PROM passive range of motion. four times a day q..n. Pt. pronation pros.q. Q. peripheral vascular PVC premature ventricular contraction PVD peripheral vascular disease PVR pulmonary vascular resistance PVT previous trouble PWB% partial weight bearing with percent Px. premature rupture of membranes pron.T. every other night q. every four hours 60 . physical therapy.d. protein. every q. every night q.Q. prosthesis prot.o. prostate.q. every hour q2H every two hours q4H every four hours q. Protestant pro.time prothrombin time PS pulmonary stenosis.i. posterior tibial artery pulse PTA prior to admission.d. as much as desired qn.n.h. percutaneous transluminal angioplasty PTB patellar tendon bearing PTCA percutaneous transvenous coronary angioplasty (balloon angioplasty) PU pregnancy urine PUD peptic ulcer disease PUPPP pruritic urticarial papules & plaques of pregnancy PV plasma volume. as much as you please q. productive Prog. q. each.p.d.. Plastic Surgery PSH past surgical history psi pounds per square inch PSMA progressive spinal muscular atrophy Psych. every day q.o. prostatic prosth. every other day q. four times a week q. patient PT physical therapy P.
quart qts. rehabilitation resp. rectal (ly). respiratory. Rh. right arm sitting RAtx radiation therapy RBBB right bundle branch block rbc/RBC red blood cell. quadriplegic quant. rectal. R/O rule out ROA right occipital anterior ROM range of motion. regular rehab. right middle lobe RMP right mentoposterior RMSF Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever RMT right mentotransverse RNA ribonucleic acid RO. red blood count RCA right coronary artery RCS reticulum cell sarcoma RCU respiratory care unit RD respiratory distress.s. rub. respirations RF rheumatic fever RFA right frontoanterior RFP right frontoposterior RFT right frontotransverse Rh. rhesus blood factor RH right hyperphoria RHD rheumatic heart disease RHF right heart failure RHT right hypertrophia RIH right inguinal hernia RLA Rancho Los Amigo Scale R to L&A react to light and accommodation RLE right lower extremity RLF retrolental fibroplasia RLL right lower lobe RLQ right lower quadrant RMA right mentoanterior RML right mediolateral. sufficient qt. right atrium rad. rectum. quantitative or quantity q.a. radial RAI radioactive iodine r.w.S. x-ray R.A. every week R r. drops quad.v.q.m. quantity. as much as you wish q. rectal temperature Ra radium RA rheumatoid arthritis. roentgen. rapid alternating movements R. 61 . R right.. rupture of membranes. rectus muscle reg. reaction to degeneration RDS respiratory distress syndrome RE reconditioning exercise rect.
serological test SGA small for gestational age s. Saline S&A sugar and acetone SAH systemic arterial hypertension SaO2 arterial oxygen saturation SB stillborn SBE subacute bacterial endocarditis SBFT small bowel follow through (x-ray) SBO small bowel obstruction s. sensory.gl. right RT radiation therapy.c. respiratory therapy RTC return to clinic RUC regular uterine contraction RUE right upper extremity RUL right upper lobe RUQ right upper quadrant RV residual volume RVH right ventricular hypertrophy Rx therapy. stroke index sib. rate erythrocyte sedimentation rate sem. separated Sept. sensation sep.SGO-T serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase SH social history. serum hepatitis SI sacroiliac joint. serology. AB septic abortion Serol. ves seminal vesicles Sens. subcutaneous(ly) SC sickle cell SCC sickle cell crisis SCD sudden cardiac death schiz schizophrenia SCU special care unit sec second sed.right otitis media ROP right occipital posterior ROS review of systems ROT right occipital transverse RP retrograde pyelogram RQ respiratory quotient RR recovery room RRE. without correction (without glasses) SGOT. sibling 62 . regular. serum Sa. prescription S ______________________________ s without S sensation. and equal RSO right salpingo-oophorectomy RSA right sacrum anterior RSD reflex sympathetic dystrophy RSP right sacrum posterior RSR regular sinus rhythm RST right sacrum transverse Rt. sensitive. RR&E round.
stomach Staph. superior supin. sponge sp. objective assessment plan SOB shortness of breath sod. sedimentation rate. sonogram S. staphylococcus stat.cd. subcutaneous subling.S. stomach strep. system syst. surgical SVC superior vena cava SVD spontaneous vaginaldelivery SVR systemic vascular resistance SVT supra ventricular tachycardia SWD short wave diathermy Sx symptoms sys. sodium Sol.A. spinal fluid spg. spinal cord spec.. spine. superior rectus muscle. repeat once if urgent sp. skeletal Sl.SICU surgical intensive care unit SIDS sudden infant death syndrome skel. spine.O.S.T. surgery. spinal spont. spinal S/P status post (previous condition) sp. supination supp suppository surg. slightly SL under the tongue SLE systemic lupus erythematosus SLR straight leg raising sm small SMA-14 routine admission chemistry SNS sympathetic nervous system SO superior oblique SO4 sulfate S. sulfate sup.O.P. serological test for syphilis subcut. solution sono.STAT immediately STD sexually transmitted disease stom. sublingual sulf. specimen sp.gr specific gravity sp&H speech and hearing spin. st. streptococcus S. subjective. stimulus response SROM spontaneous rupture of membranes SS social service SSE soap suds enema st stage (of disease) st. spontaneous SR system review. systolic 63 .fl. Staph.
OD tension. therapy. three times per week TJ triceps reflex TKR total knee replacement TLC tender loving care.) rubella.i. beta strep. pulse. thorax. right eye TORCH (titer) toxoplamosis others (hepatitis. tetanus antitoxin TB tuberculosis TBI total body irradiation TBLC term birth living child tbsp. herpes virus II TP term pregnancy TPA thrombo proteolytic activity TPN total parenteral nutrition TPR temperature. nodes.A. respiration tr trace trach tracheostomy TS tricuspid stenosis TSH thyroid stimulating hormone 64 . flu. thoracic THR total hip replacement TI tricuspid insufficiency TIA transient ischemic shock.T. tablet TAB therapeutic abortion TAH total abdominal hysterectomy T.M.i. tuning fork T of F tetralogy of Fallot TGA transposition great vessels THERAP. mumps. deep breathe TEE transesophageal echocardiography temp temperature TENS transient electric nerve stimulation TESD total end systolic diameter T. transient ischemic attack t. three times a day TIP terminal interphalangeal (joint) TIUP term intrauterine pregnancy t.w.F. etc.d.therapeutic thor. cytomegalovirus (CMV).T T3 triodothyronine T4 total serum thyroxine TA tendon Achilles T&A tonsils and adenoids. and metastases TO telephone order TOA tubo-ovarian abscess to AA to affected areas T. total lung capacity T. tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy T&C type and crossmatch tab. tympanum membrani (ear drum) TMJ temporomandibular joint TNI total nodal irradiation TNM tumor. cough. tablespoon TCDB turn.
urine URD upper respiratory disease URI upper respiratory infection Urol. thoracic TTI total thromboplastin index TTP thrombotic thrombocytopenia purpura T-Tube cholangiogram TUR transurethral resection TURB transurethral resection of the bladder TURP transurethral resection of the prostate TV tidal volume TVH total vaginal hysterectomy TVR tricuspid valve replacement Tx treatment. unilateral u/o under observation for. ventilator vert. unit U/A urinalysis UC uterine contractions UCD usual childhood diseases UCG urinary chorionic gonadotropin UCHD usual childhood diseases UG upward gaze UGI upper gastrointestinal series (x-rays). United States Pharmacy USPHA United States Public Health Administration ut.tsp. vertical 65 . upper gastrointestinal tract UL upper lid uln ulnar ULQ upper left quadrant ung. uterine UTI urinary tract infection UVL ultraviolet light V V vein VA visual acuity vag vagina. uterus. US ultrasound USI urinary stress incontinence USN ultrasonic nebulizer USP. vaginal VC. urine output Ur. ointment unilat. Urology URQ upper right quadrant u/s.T.cap) vital capacity VCS vasoconstrictor substance VCU voiding cystourethrogram Vd void VD venereal disease VDRL blood test for syphilis vent. teaspoon TSS toxic shock syndrome T. temperature. traction U U. (vit.
years old yrs. well nourished WE wide excision WF white female wk week WM white male w/n within WN well nourished WNL within normal limits WP whirlpool wt. ventricular fibrillation VG vein graft VHD valvular heart disease VI volume index V. V. WBC white blood cells. wheelchair WBT weight bearing to tolerance WDWN well developed. weight w/u workup X x times X exophoria distance XT exotrophia distance Y y. Year Medical Story 66 .o.I.ch. vertex presentation W W widowed. white blood count W/C. vitamin VLDL very low density lipoproteins VM vestibular membrane VN visiting nurse VO verbal order VOD vision right eye vol volume VOS vision left eye VP venous pressure VPC ventricular premature contraction VS. V Tach ventricular tachycardia V & T volume and tension (pulse) VTX vertex Vx. vital signs VSA vital signs absent VSD ventricular septal defect VSS vital signs stable VT. vaginal irrigation Via by way of VIPS voluntary interruption of pregnancy and sterilization service vit. wh.S.VF visual fields. Wasserman WB whole blood wbc. white W/A while awake Wass.
It generally means that the arteries everywhere in the body have become narrowed and blood cannot reach the muscles fast enough when they are in use. or even after sitting in a chair at the office in a draught. The patient learns to regulate the amount of exercise he or she can comfortably take. crippling cramp. but gradually becomes more pronounced. however. Even the healthiest people may get a short. which can become so severe that the patient finds he or she cannot stand after much walking. Then the pain is not merely an ache. but a definite. A very small number of patients. They may have to decide whether they would rather have cramp and no dizziness. 67 . Intermittent claudication is caused by the narrowing of the arteries and often starts in the 30s. sharp pain in the legs after a strenuous day. it undoubtedly makes intermittent claudication far more troublesome. This condition may be a good enough excuse for not doing jobs you don’t like doing. A number of patients will secretly admit that so long as they keep off tobacco they do not get this fearsome cramp. The patient first complains of aching legs after exercise. This is by no means the same as the night-time cramp already mentioned. but that is poor consolation. The heart muscles may be equally affected. It may be slight. cannot take quinine without becoming dizzy or getting buzzing in the ears. Many older people can bring it on by making powerful stretching movements while lying down in bed. or the reverse. No drugs offer a complete relief but there is one habit which the sufferer must give up — smoking. It is not uncommon and has the rather clumsy name of intermittent claudications. It is also a slightly hereditary complaint. avoiding over-stretching and tablets containing quinine sulphate at bed-time may be all that is needed. and there is no absolute cure. CRAMPS Night Cramp is something from which a great many people occasionally suffer and they don’t easily forget it. But cramp in the lower limbs in the daytime and in younger. It is a disease which affects men far more than women and attacks are more common in cold weather. If this sort of night cramp becomes a real nuisance. active patients can be very distressing and is more serious.1. Whatever may or may not be one’s views about the habit.
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