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Greg Welch1 and Gary Bishop2 TR 95-041 Department of Computer Science University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3175 Updated: Monday, July 24, 2006

Abstract

In 1960, R.E. Kalman published his famous paper describing a recursive solution to the discrete-data linear filtering problem. Since that time, due in large part to advances in digital computing, the Kalman filter has been the subject of extensive research and application, particularly in the area of autonomous or assisted navigation. The Kalman filter is a set of mathematical equations that provides an efficient computational (recursive) means to estimate the state of a process, in a way that minimizes the mean of the squared error. The filter is very powerful in several aspects: it supports estimations of past, present, and even future states, and it can do so even when the precise nature of the modeled system is unknown. The purpose of this paper is to provide a practical introduction to the discrete Kalman filter. This introduction includes a description and some discussion of the basic discrete Kalman filter, a derivation, description and some discussion of the extended Kalman filter, and a relatively simple (tangible) example with real numbers & results.

1. welch@cs.unc.edu, http://www.cs.unc.edu/~welch 2. gb@cs.unc.edu, http://www.cs.unc.edu/~gb

2) m n (1.Welch & Bishop. in the absence of either a driving function or process noise. The Process to be Estimated The Kalman filter addresses the general problem of trying to estimate the state x ∈ ℜ of a discrete-time controlled process that is governed by the linear stochastic difference equation x k = Ax k – 1 + Bu k – 1 + w k – 1 . particularly in the area of autonomous or assisted navigation. Since that time. and with normal probability distributions p ( w ) ∼ N ( 0. July 24. TR 95-041. Q ) . (1. The m × n matrix H in the measurement equation (1. Jacobs93]. the Kalman filter has been the subject of extensive research and application. We can then define a priori and a posteriori estimate errors as ˆ e k ≡ x k – x k . with a measurement z ∈ ℜ that is zk = H xk + vk . which also contains some interesting historical narrative.E. while a more complete introductory discussion can be found in [Sorenson70]. Lewis86.1) relates the state at the previous time step k – 1 to the state at the current step k . The Computational Origins of the Filter ˆ We define x k ∈ ℜ (note the “super minus”) to be our a priori state estimate at step k given n ˆ knowledge of the process prior to step k. but here we assume it is constant. Brown92. They are assumed to be independent (of each other). (1. and ˆ ek ≡ xk – xk . R. Kalman published his famous paper describing a recursive solution to the discretedata linear filtering problem [Kalman60]. The n × n matrix A in the difference equation (1. In practice H might change with each time step or measurement. the process noise covariance Q and measurement noise covariance R matrices might change with each time step or measurement. A very “friendly” introduction to the general idea of the Kalman filter can be found in Chapter 1 of [Maybeck79]. n UNC-Chapel Hill. 2006 . An Introduction to the Kalman Filter 2 1 The Discrete Kalman Filter In 1960.4) In practice. Grewal93.2) relates the state to the measurement zk. Maybeck79. however here we assume they are constant. white. Note that in practice A might change with each time step. The n × l l matrix B relates the optional control input u ∈ ℜ to the state x. due in large part to advances in digital computing.3) (1.1) The random variables w k and v k represent the process and measurement noise (respectively). R ) . but here we assume it is constant. More extensive references include [Gelb74. and x k ∈ ℜ to be our a posteriori state estimate at step k given measurement z k . p ( v ) ∼ N ( 0.

or the residual. A residual of zero means that the two are in complete agreement. July 24. - On the other hand. and then solving for K. This minimization can be accomplished by first substituting (1. substituting that into (1. Equation (1.6).6) is given by1 K k = Pk H T ( H Pk H T + R ) Pk H T = ---------------------------H Pk H T + R –1 . The n × m matrix K in (1. Pk → 0 lim K k = 0 .7) ˆ The difference ( z k – H x k ) in (1. 2006 .7) is chosen to be the gain or blending factor that minimizes the a posteriori error covariance (1.5) (1.8) we see that as the measurement error covariance R approaches zero. UNC-Chapel Hill.7) into the above definition for e k . the gain K weights the residual less heavily. and the a posteriori estimate error covariance is T Pk = E [ ek ek ] . Specifically.-T (1.6) In deriving the equations for the Kalman filter.8) Looking at (1. All of the Kalman filter equations can be algebraically manipulated into to several forms. performing the indicated expectations.7) is given in “The Probabilistic Origins of the Filter” found below.8) represents the Kalman gain in one popular form.7).Welch & Bishop. Brown92. we begin with the goal of finding an equation that ˆ ˆ computes an a posteriori state estimate x k as a linear combination of an a priori estimate x k and ˆ a weighted difference between an actual measurement z k and a measurement prediction H x k as shown below in (1. TR 95-041. Some justification for (1. the gain K weights the residual more heavily. Rk → 0 lim K k = H –1 . Specifically. One form of the resulting K that minimizes (1. An Introduction to the Kalman Filter 3 The a priori estimate error covariance is then Pk = E [ ek ek ] . setting that result equal to zero.6). ˆ ˆ ˆ xk = xk + K ( zk – H xk ) - (1.7) is called the measurement innovation. - 1. For more details see [Maybeck79. The ˆ residual reflects the discrepancy between the predicted measurement H x k and the actual measurement z k . taking the derivative of the trace of the result with respect to K. . Jacobs93]. as the a priori estimate error covariance P k approaches zero. (1.

see [Maybeck79. Brown92. we will narrow the focus to the specific equations and their use in this version of the filter. As such. P k ). - For more details on the probabilistic origins of the Kalman filter. ˆ E [ xk ] = xk ˆ ˆ E [ ( xk – xk ) ( xk – xk ) T ] = Pk .6) reflects the variance of the state distribution (the second non-central moment). The Discrete Kalman Filter Algorithm We will begin this section with a broad overview. Jacobs93]. The measurement update equations are responsible for the feedback—i.4) are met. the actual measurement z k is “trusted” more and more. E [ ( x k – x k ) ( x k – x k ) T ] ) ˆ = N ( x k. the equations for the Kalman filter fall into two groups: time update equations and measurement update equations. July 24. . UNC-Chapel Hill. The a posteriori state estimate (1.3) and (1. ˆ ˆ p ( x k z k ) ∼ N ( E [ x k ]. TR 95-041. The Kalman filter estimates a process by using a form of feedback control: the filter estimates the process state at some time and then obtains feedback in the form of (noisy) measurements. 2006 . as the a priori estimate error covariance P k approaches zero the actual measurement z k is trusted less and less. In other words. For now let it suffice to point out that the Kalman filter maintains the first two moments of the state distribution. The time update equations can also be thought of as predictor equations. An Introduction to the Kalman Filter 4 Another way of thinking about the weighting by K is that as the measurement error covariance R approaches zero. On the other hand. After presenting this high-level view. Indeed the final estimation algorithm resembles that of a predictor-corrector algorithm for solving numerical problems as shown below in Figure 1-1. while the measurement update equations can be thought of as corrector equations.7) reflects the mean (the first moment) of the state distribution— it is normally distributed if the conditions of (1. while the ˆ predicted measurement H x k is trusted more and more. The Probabilistic Origins of the Filter ˆ The justification for (1.Welch & Bishop. covering the “high-level” operation of one form of the discrete Kalman filter (see the previous footnote). The time update equations are responsible for projecting forward (in time) the current state and error covariance estimates to obtain the a priori estimates for the next time step.e.7) is rooted in the probability of the a priori estimate x k conditioned on all prior measurements z k (Bayes’ rule). The a posteriori estimate error covariance (1. for incorporating a new measurement into the a priori estimate to obtain an improved a posteriori estimate. while the predicted ˆ measurement H x k is trusted less and less.

2006 . A and B are from (1. The specific equations for the time and measurement updates are presented below in Table 1-1 and Table 1-2. The final step is to obtain an a posteriori error covariance estimate via (1. while Q is from (1.13) The first task during the measurement update is to compute the Kalman gain. The ongoing discrete Kalman filter cycle. K k . Again (1. Figure 1-2 below offers a complete picture of the operation of the filter.10) Again notice how the time update equations in Table 1-1 project the state and covariance estimates forward from time step k – 1 to step k .12).7) repeated here for completeness.Welch & Bishop. The Kalman filter instead recursively conditions the current estimate on all of the past measurements. Table 1-2: Discrete Kalman ﬁlter measurement update equations. Initial conditions for the filter are discussed in the earlier references. combining the high-level diagram of Figure 1-1 with the equations from Table 1-1 and Table 1-2. The next step is to actually measure the process to obtain z k . An Introduction to the Kalman Filter 5 Time Update (“Predict”) Measurement Update (“Correct”) Figure 1-1.11) (1.12) is simply (1. The measurement update adjusts the projected estimate by an actual measurement at that time. and then to generate an a posteriori state estimate by incorporating the measurement as in (1. ˆ ˆ x k = Ax k – 1 + Bu k – 1 P k = AP k – 1 A T + Q - (1. This recursive nature is one of the very appealing features of the Kalman filter—it makes practical implementations much more feasible than (for example) an implementation of a Wiener filter [Brown92] which is designed to operate on all of the data directly for each estimate. The time update projects the current state estimate ahead in time.13). K k = Pk H T ( H Pk H T + R ) ˆ ˆ ˆ xk = xk + K k ( zk – H xk ) P k = ( I – K k H )P k –1 (1. UNC-Chapel Hill.11) is the same as (1. July 24. Notice that the equation given here as (1. TR 95-041.3). the process is repeated with the previous a posteriori estimates used to project or predict the new a priori estimates.12) (1. Table 1-1: Discrete Kalman ﬁlter time update equations.8).1). After each time and measurement update pair.9) (1.

Measuring the measurement error covariance R is generally practical (possible) because we need to be able to measure the process anyway (while operating the filter) so we should generally be able to take some off-line sample measurements in order to determine the variance of the measurement noise. or for example by determining the steady-state value of P k as described in [Grewal93]. Sometimes a relatively simple (poor) process model can produce acceptable results if one “injects” enough uncertainty into the process via the selection of Q . If this is the case. The determination of the process noise covariance Q is generally more difficult as we typically do not have the ability to directly observe the process we are estimating. frequently with the help of another (distinct) Kalman filter in a process generally referred to as system identification. UNC-Chapel Hill. 2006 . An Introduction to the Kalman Filter 6 Filter Parameters and Tuning In the actual implementation of the filter.are in fact constant. In either case. July 24.Welch & Bishop. often times superior filter performance (statistically speaking) can be obtained by tuning the filter parameters Q and R . both the estimation error covariance P k and the Kalman gain K k will stabilize quickly and then remain constant (see the filter update equations in Figure 1-2). whether or not we have a rational basis for choosing the parameters. Certainly in this case one would hope that the process measurements are reliable. the measurement noise covariance R is usually measured prior to operation of the filter. Measurement Update (“Correct”) Time Update (“Predict”) (1) Project the state ahead ˆ ˆ x k = Ax k – 1 + (1) Compute the Kalman gain K k = Pk H T ( H Pk H T Bu k – 1 + R) –1 (2) Project the error covariance ahead P k = AP k – 1 A T + Q (2) Update estimate with measurement zk ˆ ˆ ˆ xk = xk + K k ( zk – H xk ) (3) Update the error covariance P k = ( I – K k H )P k - ˆ Initial estimates for x k – 1 and P k – 1 Figure 1-2. A complete picture of the operation of the Kalman filter. The tuning is usually performed off-line. TR 95-041. these parameters can be pre-computed by either running the filter off-line. combining the high-level diagram of Figure 1-1 with the equations from Table 1-1 and Table 1-2. In closing we note that under conditions where Q and R .

we must begin by modifying some of the material n presented in section 1. But what happens if the process to be estimated and (or) the measurement relationship to the process is non-linear? Some of the most interesting and successful applications of Kalman filtering have been such situations.3) UNC-Chapel Hill.4) (2. with a measurement z ∈ ℜ that is z k = h ( x k. one can approximate the state and measurement vector without them as ˜ ˆ x k = f ( x k – 1. A Kalman filter that linearizes about the current mean and covariance is referred to as an extended Kalman filter or EKF. For example.2) relates the state x k to the measurement z k . Let us assume that our process again has a state vector x ∈ ℜ . and increase the magnitude if the dynamics start changing rapidly. w k – 1 ) . (2.1) where the random variables w k and v k again represent the process and measurement noise as in (1.3) and (1.2) m (2. 2006 . we can linearize the estimation around the current estimate using the partial derivatives of the process and measurement functions to compute estimates even in the face of non-linear relationships. For example. To do so. However. 0 ) and ˜ ˜ z k = h ( x k. the Kalman filter addresses the general problem of trying to n estimate the state x ∈ ℜ of a discrete-time controlled process that is governed by a linear stochastic difference equation. 0 ) . The non-linear function h in the measurement equation (2. July 24. In something akin to a Taylor series. ˆ where x k is some a posteriori estimate of the state (from a previous time step k). in the case of tracking the head of a user of a 3D virtual environment we might reduce the magnitude of Q k if the user seems to be moving slowly.Welch & Bishop. the noise in measurements of nearby beacons will be smaller than that in far-away beacons. In practice of course one does not know the individual values of the noise w k and v k at each time step. TR 95-041. In this case the non-linear function f in the difference equation (2.1) relates the state at the previous time step k – 1 to the state at the current time step k . v k ) . An Introduction to the Kalman Filter 7 It is frequently the case however that the measurement error (in particular) does not remain constant. when sighting beacons in our optoelectronic tracker ceiling panels. u k – 1 . (2. 2 The Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) The Process to be Estimated As described above in section 1. u k – 1 . It includes as parameters any driving function u k – 1 and the zero-mean process noise wk. but that the process is now governed by the non-linear stochastic difference equation x k = f ( x k – 1. Also. In such cases Q k might be chosen to account for both uncertainty about the user’s intentions and uncertainty in the model.4). the process noise Q is sometimes changed dynamically during filter operation—becoming Q k —in order to adjust to different dynamics.

The EKF is simply an ad hoc state estimator that only approximates the optimality of Bayes’ rule by linearization. j ] = ∂ f [i] ˆ (x . even though they are in fact different at each time step. W . 0) .4). where • • • • • x k and z k are the actual state and measurement vectors. The Computational Origins of the Filter To estimate a process with non-linear difference and measurement relationships. ∂ w[ j ] k – 1 k – 1 • H is the Jacobian matrix of partial derivatives of h with respect to x. TR 95-041.u . ˜ ˜ x k and z k are the approximate state and measurement vectors from (2. ˆ x k is an a posteriori estimate of the state at step k. 0) . V [ i. j ] = ∂h [ i ] ˜ ( x . ˜ ˆ xk ≈ xk + A ( xk – 1 – xk – 1 ) + W wk – 1 . 0) . A is the Jacobian matrix of partial derivatives of f with respect to x.3) and (2. using methods that preserve the normal distributions throughout the non-linear transformations [Julier96].5) (2.3) and (2.6) W is the Jacobian matrix of partial derivatives of f with respect to w. ∂ v[ j ] k Note that for simplicity in the notation we do not use the time step subscript k with the Jacobians A . ∂ x[ j] k – 1 k – 1 (2. July 24. ∂ x[ j] k • V is the Jacobian matrix of partial derivatives of h with respect to v.u .4). Some interesting work has been done by Julier et al. in developing a variation to the EKF.Welch & Bishop.4). 2006 . we begin by writing new governing equations that linearize an estimate about (2.3) and (1. the random variables w k and v k represent the process and measurement noise as in (1. j ] = ∂h [ i ] ˜ ( x . and V . W [ i. An Introduction to the Kalman Filter 8 It is important to note that a fundamental flaw of the EKF is that the distributions (or densities in the continuous case) of the various random variables are no longer normal after undergoing their respective nonlinear transformations. UNC-Chapel Hill. that is A [ i. ˜ ˜ zk ≈ zk + H ( xk – xk ) + V vk . j ] = • ∂ f [i] ˆ (x . H . 0) . H [ i.

3) and (1.8) we see that we do not actually need the second (hypothetical) Kalman filter: ˜ ˜ ˆ x k = x k + K k e zk ˜ ˜ = xk + K k ( zk – zk ) (2. with ˜ ˜ x k and z k coming from (2. This motivates us to ˜ use the actual measurement residual e zk in (2.8) we can write governing equations for an error process as ˜ ˆ e xk ≈ A ( x k – 1 – x k – 1 ) + εk . (2. ˜ ˜ e zk ≈ H e xk + η k . ˜ ˜ e xk ≡ x k – x k . The random variables of (2.10) are linear. it is the actual state vector.9) and (2. (2.4).3) and (2.8) (2. with Q and R as in (1. and the Kalman gain K k coming from (1.11) and making use of (2. Using (2. i.7).11) By substituting (2.8). W Q k W T ) p ( η k ) ∼ N ( 0. July 24.7) and (2. E [ e x k e x k ] ) p ( ε k ) ∼ N ( 0. V R k V T ) ˆ Given these approximations and letting the predicted value of e k be zero. UNC-Chapel Hill. ˜ ˜ e zk ≡ z k – z k . the quantity one is trying to estimate. and that they closely resemble the difference and measurement equations (1.12) back into (2. On the other hand. (2.13) can now be used for the measurement update in the extended Kalman filter. the Kalman filter ˆ equation used to estimate e k is ˜ ˆ e k = K k e zk . it is the actual measurement that one is using to estimate x k .7) to obtain the a posteriori state estimates for the original non-linear process as ˜ ˆ ˆ xk = xk + ek .Welch & Bishop.7) Remember that in practice one does not have access to x k in (2.9).2) from the discrete Kalman filter. TR 95-041.9) and (2.12) (2.4) respectively.e.9) (2.13) Equation (2. could then be used along with (2.10) have approximately the following probability distributions (see the previous footnote): ˜ ˜T ˜ p ( e x k ) ∼ N ( 0. one does have access to z k in (2. An Introduction to the Kalman Filter 9 Now we define a new notation for the prediction error. 2006 . This estimate.10) where ε k and η k represent new independent random variables having zero mean and covariance matrices WQW T and VRV T . and the measurement residual.8) and a second (hypothetical) Kalman filter to ˜ ˆ estimate the prediction error e x k given by (2. call it e k .1) and (1.11) with the appropriate substitution for the measurement error covariance. Notice that the equations (2.

T T T K k = Pk H k ( H k Pk H k + V k Rk V k ) –1 (2.17) (2.14) comes from (2.18) ˆ ˆ ˆ x k = x k + K k ( z k – h ( x k. the measurement update equations in Table 2-2 correct the state and covariance estimates with the measurement z k . 2006 . TR 95-041. A k and W k are the process Jacobians at step k.17) comes from (2. Again h in (2. combining the high-level diagram of Figure 1-1 with the equations from Table 2-1 and Table 2-2. to reinforce the notion that they are different at (and therefore must be recomputed at) each time step.15) As with the basic discrete Kalman filter. W . ˆ ˆ x k = f ( x k – 1. and R k is the measurement noise covariance (1.) The basic operation of the EKF is the same as the linear discrete Kalman filter as shown in Figure 1-1.3). 0 ) T T Pk = Ak Pk – 1 Ak + W k Qk – 1 W k - (2. UNC-Chapel Hill. Note that we have ˜ ˆ substituted x k for x k to remain consistent with the earlier “super minus” a priori notation. Again f in (2. and Q k is the process noise covariance (1. Figure 2-1 below offers a complete picture of the operation of the EKF. the time update equations in Table 2-1 project the state and covariance estimates from the previous time step k – 1 to the current time step k . 0 ) ) P k = ( I – K k H k )P k - - - As with the basic discrete Kalman filter. Table 2-1: EKF time update equations. Table 2-2: EKF measurement update equations. An Introduction to the Kalman Filter 10 The complete set of EKF equations is shown below in Table 2-1 and Table 2-2.14) (2.4) at step k. u k – 1 .3) at step k. and that we now attach the subscript k to the Jacobians A . H k and V are the measurement Jacobians at step k. July 24. H .16) (2. (Note we now subscript R allowing it to change with each measurement.Welch & Bishop. and V .4).

org/Cookbook/KalmanFiltering (valid link as of July 24. To help in developing a better feel for the operation and capability of the filter. 0 ) that does affect the state. The Process Model In this simple example let us attempt to estimate a scalar random constant. we present a very simple example here. and the extended Kalman filter. 2006). Andrew Straw has made available a Python/SciPy implementation of this example at http://www. a voltage for example. An Introduction to the Kalman Filter 11 Measurement Update (“Correct”) Time Update (“Predict”) (1) Project the state ahead ˆ ˆ x k = f ( x k – 1.g. combining the high-level diagram of Figure 1-1 with the equations from Table 2-1 and Table 2-2.Welch & Bishop. if there is not a one-to-one mapping between the measurement z k and the state via h . (1) Compute the Kalman gain . u k – 1 . A complete picture of the operation of the extended Kalman filter. our process is governed by the linear difference equation x k = Ax k – 1 + Bu k – 1 + w k = xk – 1 + wk . TR 95-041. our analog to digital converter is not very accurate).scipy. Let’s assume that we have the ability to take measurements of the constant. July 24. UNC-Chapel Hill.1 volt RMS white measurement noise (e. the Jacobian H k affects the Kalman gain so that it only magnifies the portion of ˆ the residual z k – h ( x k. In this case the process is unobservable. 2006 .T K k = Pk H k ( H k Pk H k + 0) T V k Rk V k ) –1 (2) Project the error covariance ahead T T Pk = Ak Pk – 1 Ak + W k Qk – 1 W k (2) Update estimate with measurement zk ˆ ˆ ˆ x k = x k + K k ( z k – h ( x k.T . For example. but that the measurements are corrupted by a 0. 0 ) ) (3) Update the error covariance P k = ( I – K k H k )P k - ˆ Initial estimates for x k – 1 and P k – 1 Figure 2-1. In this example. then as you might expect the filter will quickly diverge. 3 A Kalman Filter in Action: Estimating a Random Constant In the previous two sections we presented the basic form for the discrete Kalman filter. An important feature of the EKF is that the Jacobian H k in the equation for the Kalman gain K k serves to correctly propagate or “magnify” only the relevant component of the measurement information. Of course if over all measurements there is not a one-to-one mapping between the measurement z k and the state via h .

Presuming a very small process variance. In other words. (We could certainly let Q = 0 but assuming a small but non-zero value gives us more flexibility in “tuning” the filter as we will demonstrate below. we let Q = 1e – 5 . Similarly we need to choose an initial value for P k – 1 . call it P 0 . Pk = Pk – 1 + Q . before starting we let x k – 1 = 0 .1) ˆ ˆ ˆ xk = xk + K k ( zk – xk ) .) The Filter Equations and Parameters Our time update equations are ˆ ˆ xk = xk – 1 . As it turns out. (Notice that we dropped the subscript k in several places because the respective parameters remain constant in our simple model.Welch & Bishop. - UNC-Chapel Hill. 2006 . P k = ( 1 – K k )P k . The state does not change from step to step so A = 1 . the alternative choice is not critical. An Introduction to the Kalman Filter 1 12 with a measurement z ∈ ℜ that is zk = H xk + vk = xk + vk . Our noisy measurement is of the state directly so H = 1 . There is no control input so u = 0 . July 24. We’ll start our filter with P 0 = 1 . TR 95-041. so we will “seed” our filter with the guess ˆ that the constant is 0. and our measurement update equations are K k = Pk ( Pk + R ) Pk = --------------Pk + R –1 - . If we were absolutely certain that ˆ our initial state estimate x 0 = 0 was correct.) Let’s assume that from experience we know that the true value of the random constant has a standard normal probability distribution. choosing P 0 = 0 would cause the filter to initially and ˆ always believe x k = 0 . We could choose almost any P 0 ≠ 0 and the filter would eventually converge. (3. we would let P 0 = 0 . However given the ˆ uncertainty in our initial estimate x 0 .

TR 95-041.2 -0. but pre-generating the set of 50 measurements allowed me to run several simulations with the same exact measurements (i.37727 is given by the solid line. the noisy measurements by the cross marks. and the filter estimate by the remaining curve.1 volt RMS white measurement noise).37727 is given by the solid line.1 (remember we presumed that the measurements are corrupted by a 0. Below in Figure 3-2 we have plotted the value of P k versus the iteration. This will become more evident in the second and third simulation. The true value of the random constant x = – 0. and the filter estimate by the remaining curve.01 . July 24.1 ) 2 = 0.37727 (there is no “hat” on the x because it represents the “truth”). Figure 3-1 depicts the results of this first simulation. -0.3 -0.01 . it has settled from the initial (rough) choice of 1 to approximately 0. Because this is the “true” measurement error variance. By the 50th iteration. In the first simulation we fixed the measurement variance at R = ( 0.5 50 30 40 Iteration Figure 3-1. An Introduction to the Kalman Filter 13 The Simulations To begin with. We could have generated the individual measurements within the filter loop. we randomly chose a scalar constant x = – 0. The first simulation: R = ( 0. we mentioned that the choice was not critical as long as P 0 ≠ 0 because the filter would eventually converge.0002 (Volts2).Welch & Bishop. We then simulated 50 distinct measurements z k that had error normally distributed around zero with a standard deviation of 0. The true value of the random constant x = – 0. Voltage UNC-Chapel Hill. same measurement noise) so that comparisons between simulations with different parameters would be more meaningful.4 -0.1 ) 2 = 0. we would expect the “best” performance in terms of balancing responsiveness and estimate variance. 10 20 When considering the choice for P 0 above.e. 2006 . the noisy measurements by the cross marks.

0001 ) so it was very “quick” to believe the noisy measurements. R = 0. Second simulation: R = 1 .006 0.e. In Figure 3-3 and Figure 34 below we can see what happens when R is increased or decreased by a factor of 100 respectively.01 0. After 50 iterations.2 -0. The filter is slower to respond to the measurements. In section 1 under the topic “Filter Parameters and Tuning” we briefly discussed changing or “tuning” the parameters Q and R to obtain different filter performance. TR 95-041. our initial (rough) error covariance P k choice of 1 has settled to about 0.3 -0.0002 (Volts2).004 0.4 -0. resulting in reduced estimate variance.e. In Figure 3-4 the filter was told that the measurement variance was 100 times smaller (i.002 10 20 30 Iteration 40 50 - Figure 3-2.008 (Voltage)2 0. R = 1 ) so it was “slower” to believe the measurements.Welch & Bishop. 2006 .5 10 20 30 40 50 Figure 3-3. Voltage UNC-Chapel Hill. In Figure 3-3 the filter was told that the measurement variance was 100 times greater (i. July 24. -0. An Introduction to the Kalman Filter 14 0.

In Figure 3-3 in particular the Kalman “filtering” is evident as the estimate appears considerably smoother than the noisy measurements. TR 95-041.Welch & Bishop. The filter responds to measurements quickly.0001 .5 10 20 30 40 50 Figure 3-4. Third simulation: R = 0.3 -0. increasing the estimate variance. While the estimation of a constant is relatively straight-forward. July 24.4 -0. 2006 . it clearly demonstrates the workings of the Kalman filter. Voltage UNC-Chapel Hill.2 -0. An Introduction to the Kalman Filter 15 -0.

Julier. Hwang.uk/~siju/work/publications/ACC95_pr. Also see Simon Julier's home page at http://www.zip. Also see: “A New Approach for Filtering Nonlinear Systems” by S. Seattle. 2nd Edition. MA. Available from http://www. and P. 35-45 (March 1960). J. John Wiley & Sons. Available from http://www. 1986. John Wiley & Sons.ox. Inc.ox. 1970. 1993. O. 1979. Academic Press. Gelb. H. An Introduction to the Kalman Filter 16 References Brown92 Gelb74 Grewal93 Jacobs93 Julier96 Brown. pp.ac.ac. Stochastic Models. NJ USA. July 24. R. Simon and Jeffrey Uhlman. Inc. Inc. and Angus P. Y.ac.” Robotics Research Group. Estimation. Jacobs. Grewal. Julier. Durrant-Whyte. W. A. Kalman60 Kalman. Prentice Hall. L. C. Second Edition.robots. “A General Method of Approximating Nonlinear Transformations of Probability Distributions. July 1970.zip. Kalman Filtering Theory and Practice. pp. Lewis86 Maybeck79 Sorenson70 UNC-Chapel Hill. R. Pages:1628-1632. 63-68. Oxford University Press. and Control.robots. 1960. University of Oxford [cited 14 November 1995]. Andrews (1993).robots. R. TR 95-041. Introduction to Control Theory. 2006 . vol. Cambridge. Uhlmann. J. Applied Optimal Estimation.. MIT Press. and H. 7. 1992. Mohinder S. Optimal Estimation with an Introduction to Stochastic Control Theory.ox. G.” Transaction of the ASME—Journal of Basic Engineering. Upper Saddle River. Lewis. Maybeck. Peter S. Richard.Welch & Bishop.” IEEE Spectrum. Proceedings of the 1995 American Control Conference. K.uk/~siju/. Volume 1. Washington. 1974.uk/~siju/work/publications/Unscented. “A New Approach to Linear Filtering and Prediction Problems. E. Introduction to Random Signals and Applied Kalman Filtering. Sorenson. F. “Least-Squares estimation: from Gauss to Kalman. Department of Engineering Science.

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