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Parking Brake Service Brake
± Hydraulic
‡ Disc Brakes ‡ Drum Brakes ‡ Dual System

± Antilock Brake System (ABS)

Brake System Principles  Kinetic Energy  Mass  Weight  Speed  Inertia and Momentum .

Typical System .

Brake System ‡ Drum Brake ‡ Disk Brake .

. You control the grasping power. the clamps come together on the disk. forcing it to stop spinning and causing your vehicle to slow down and eventually stop. When you pull on the brake. The disk.Introduction ‡ DISC BRAKES consist of two pads that grasp a rotating disk. or rotor. connects to the wheels by an axle.

Modern-style disc brakes. 1955 Citroën DS . 1953 Jaguar C-Type racing car 3. UK factory in 1902 and used successfully on Lanchester cars. The first caliper-type automobile disc brake was patented by Frederick William Lanchester in his Birmingham. 1949 Crosley Hotshot 2.History ‡ Disc-style brakes development and use began in England in the 1890s. 1. ‡ It took another half century for his innovation to be widely adopted.

Disc brakes offer better stopping performance than comparable drum brakes. 1965 Rambler Marlin . Disc brakes were most popular on sports cars when they were first introduced. including resistance to brake fade. Discs have now become the more common form in most passenger vehicles.4. since these vehicles are more demanding about brake performance. . 1956 Triumph TR3 5. Ford Thunderbird and so on .

A cross-drilled disc on a modern motorcycle .

but others are hollowed out with fins or vanes joining together the disc's two contact surfaces.Discs ‡ The design of the disc varies somewhat. . where shallow channels are machined into the disc to aid in removing dust and gas. ‡ This "ventilated" disc design helps to dissipate the generated heat and is commonly used on the moreheavily-loaded front discs. ‡ Discs may also be slotted. Some are simply solid cast iron.

. drilled or slotted discs still have a positive effect in wet conditions because the holes or slots prevent a film of water building up between the disc and the pads. so peak brake force can be raised without more risk of brakinginduced steering or jackknife on articulated vehicles. ‡ One reason is the disc's lack of self-assist makes brake force much more predictable.‡ Some discs are both drilled and slotted. On the road.

so brakes are used harder than on lighter vehicles.‡ Another is disk brakes fade less when hot. and drum brake fade can occur in a single stop. A mountain bike disc brake . and in a heavy vehicle air and rolling drag and engine braking are small parts of total braking force.

A railroad bogie and disc brakes .

Uses of Disc Brakes ‡ Disc brakes are often on the front (and sometimes on the rear) wheels of cars ‡ Do the real work of braking ‡ Unlike drum brakes. do not self-energize .

Materials ‡ Different materials have different coefficients of friction ‡ Pad material can be chosen for performance or to create a balance between performance and durability .

.Materials Continued ‡ Asbestos brakes were used for years because of their extremely high friction coefficient. but advances in science has shown that it is a cancer causing substance.

. cracking. When the disc's friction area is at a substantially higher temperature than the inner portion (hat) the thermal expansion of the friction area is greater than the inner portion and warping occurs.Disc damage modes ‡ Discs are usually damaged in one of four ways: warping. Warping ‡ Warping is often caused by excessive heat. scarring. or excessive rusting.

Brake discs being polished after scarring occurred .Scarring ‡ Scarring (US: Scoring) can occur if brake pads are not changed promptly when they reach the end of their service life and are considered worn out.

Rusting ‡ The discs are commonly made from cast iron and a certain amount of what is known as "surface rust" is normal. . which may develop small cracks around edges of holes drilled near the edge of the disc due to the disc's uneven rate of expansion in severe duty environments.Cracking ‡ Cracking is limited mostly to drilled discs.

Brake squeal ‡ Sometimes a loud noise or high pitch squeal occurs when the brakes are applied.Components Pistons and cylinders ‡ The most common caliper design uses a single hydraulically actuated piston within a cylinder. . especially the pads and discs (known as force-coupled excitation). Most brake squeal is produced by vibration (resonance instability) of the brake components. although high performance brakes use as many as twelve.

This material is known as "brake dust" and a fair amount of it usually deposits itself on the braking system and the surrounding wheel.Brake judder ‡ Brake judder is usually perceived by the driver as minor to severe vibrations transferred through the chassis during braking. ‡ Two distinct subgroups: hot (or thermal). small amounts of material are gradually ground off the brake pads. Brake dust ‡ When braking force is applied. . or cold judder.


Parts of Braking System Brake Pedal force input to system from driver Design gives a Mechanical Advantage Master Cylinder converts force to pressure Pressure is used to move brake pads into place Brake Pads provide friction force when in contact with rotor Works to slow or stop vehicle Brake pads ‡ The brake pads are designed for high friction with brake pad material embedded in the disc in the process of bedding while wearing evenly. .

The pistons are usually made of aluminum or chrome-plated steel. slows vehicle Vents help provide cooling to brake .Caliper holds pads and squeezes them against rotor Calipers ‡ The brake caliper is the assembly which houses the brake pads and pistons. Rotor spins with wheel When used in conjunction with brake pads. There are two types of calipers: floating or fixed.

Caliper Types There are 2 types of Calipers ‡ Fixed  Calipers are disc brakes that use a caliper that is FIXED in position and does not slide. They have pistons on both sides of the disc. There may be 2 or 4 pistons per caliper ‡ Floating  Much more common  Single Piston  Easier to work with  On inboard side of caliper .

Fixed Caliper Motorcycles and some import trucks and cars use this type Similar to bicycle brakes .

Sliding Caliper ‡ Applies pressure to two pads on opposite sides of rotor ‡ Caliper  Sliding  Fixed ‡ Friction Material exposed to air .

Fixed Caliper  Applies two pistons to opposite sides of rotor  Caliper stays stationary  Disc Brakes require higher hydraulic pressure .

causing second pad to contact rotor .Caliper Operation Caliper Brake Fluid 1 Pads 2 3 Rotor Step 1: Force is applied to by driver to the master cylinder Step 2: Pressure from the master cylinder causes one brake pad to contact rotor Step 3: The caliper then self-centers.


‡ In a disc brake. ‡ A moving car has a certain amount of kinetic energy. Most car disc brakes are vented. and the force is transmitted hydraulically instead of through a cable. the brake pads squeeze the rotor instead of the wheel. . Friction between the pads and the disc slows the disc down. Brakes convert the kinetic energy to heat generated by the friction between the pads and the disc. and the brakes have to remove this energy from the car in order to stop it.

between the two sides of the disc.‡ Vented disc brakes have a set of vanes. . that pumps air through the disc to provide cooling.

.Vented Rotors Vented Rotors have Fins in the spaces between their machined surfaces. These spaces allow air to pass through. which helps carry heat away.

and have no cooling fins .Nonvented Rotor Non Vented Rotors are used on smaller vehicles.


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