Hawking God Created Integers | Geometry | Physics & Mathematics

GOD CREATED THE INTEGERS

T H E MATHEMATICAL BREAKTHROUGHS THAT CHANGED HISTORY EDITED, WITH COMMENTARY, BY

STEPHEN HAWKING

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RUNNING PRESS
PHILADELPHIA • LONDON

CONTENTS Introduction xiii EUCLID (C. Books I and II Measurement of a Circle The Sand Reckoner The Methods 119 126/168 194 200 • 209 • ' . (leading up to the Pythagorean Theorem) Book V: The Eudoxian Theory of Proportion—Definitions & Propositions Book VII: Elementary Number Theory—Definitions & Propositions Book IX: Proposition 20: The Infinitude of Prime Numbers Book IX: Proposition 36: Even Perfect Numbers Book X: Commensurable and Incommensurable Magnitudes 01 07 25 63 101 102 104 ARCHIMEDES (287BC-212BC) His Life and Work Selections from The Works ofArchimedes On the Sphere and Cylinder. 200-284) His Life and Work Selections from Diophantus of Alexandria.246 255 265 . A Study in the History of Greek Algebra Book II Problems 8-35 • • Book III Problems 5-21 '' Book V Problems 1-29 IX 241 . and Proposition 47. Postulates. DlOPHANTUS (C.-325BC-265BC) His Life and Work Selections from Euclid's Elements Book I: Basic Geometry—Definitions. Common Notions.

' 599 Section IV Congruences of the Second Degree 625 X .CONTENTS REN£ DESCARTES (1596-1650) His Life and Work The Geometry of Rene Descartes 285 292 ISAAC NEWTON (1642-1727) His Life and Work Selections from Principia On First and Last Ratios of Quantities 365 374 LEONHARD EULER (1707-1783) His Life and Work On the sums of series of reciprocals (De summis serierum reciprocarum) The Seven Bridges of Konigsberg Proof that Every Integer is A Sum of Four Squares 383 393 400 407 PIERRE SIMON LAPLACE (1749-1827) His Life and Work A Philosophical Essay on Probabilities 411 418 JEAN BAPTISTE JOSEPH FOURIER (1768-1830) His Life and Work Selection from The Analytical Theory of Heat Chapter III: Propagation of Heat in an Infinite Rectangular Solid (The Fourier series) 519 528 CARL FRIEDRICH GAUSS (1777-1855) His Life and Work 591 Selections from Disquisitiones Arithmeticae (Arithmetic Disquisitions) Section III Residues of Powers .

4 Lessons 3-4 on differential calculus Lessons 21-24 on the integral 671 679 NIKOLAI IVANOVICH LOBACHEVSKY (1792-1856) His Life and Work Geometrical Researches on the Theory of Parallels 813 820 JANOS BOLYAI (1802-1860) ' His Life and Work The Science of Absolute Space 743 750 EVARISTE GALOIS (1811-1832) His Life and Work On the conditions that an equation be soluble by radicals Of the primitive equations which are soluble by radicals On Groups and Equations and Abelian Integrals 797 807 820 828 GEORGE BOOLE (1815-1864) His Life and Work An Investigation of the laws of Thought 835 842 BERNHARD RIEMANN (1826-1866) His Life and Work On the Representability of a Function by Means of a Trigonometric Series (Ueber die Darstellbarkeit eine Function durch einer trigonometrische Reihe) On the Hypotheses which lie at the'Bases of Geometry (Ueber 979 ! 992 1031 die Hypothesen. vol. series 2.CONTENTS AUGUSTIN-LOUIS CAUCHY "(1789-1857) His Life and Work Selections from Oeuvres completes dAugustin Cauchy Resume des lecons donnees a l'E\cole Royale Polytechnique sur le calcul 663 infinitesimal (1823). welche der Geometrie zu Grunde liegen) XI .

Area) Preliminaries and Integral .CONTENTS On the Number of Prime Numbers Less than a Given Quantity (Ueber die Anzahl der Primzahlen unter einer gegebenen Grosse) 1042 KARL WEIERSTRASS (1815-1897) His Life and Work Selected Chapters on the Theory of Functions. 1207 1212 KURT GODEL (1906-1978) His Life and Work On Formally Undecidable Propositions of Principia and Related Systems Mathematica 1555 1263 ALAN TURING (1912-1954) His Life and Work Proceedings of the London Mathematical Society 1285 1293 On computable numbers with an application to the Entscheidungsproblem. XII . Longeur. Berlin 1857 1053 § 7 Gleichmassige Stetigkeit (Uniform Continuity) 1060 RICHARD DEDEKIND (1831-1916) His Life and Work Essays on the Theory of Numbers 1067 1072 GEORG CANTOR (1848-1918) His Life and Work Selections from Contributions to the Founding of the Theory ofTransfinite Numbers Articles I and II 1131 1137 HENRI LEBESGUE (1875-1941) His Life and Work Selections from Integrale. Length. Aire (Intergral. Lecture Given in Berlin in 1886. with the Inaugural Academic Speech.

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