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I Am posting this pre-colonial history of Maharlika for your comments. I got this from the internet.

I want some comments particularly from the Filipinos. The article seems to say the 10 Datus and the Code of Kalantiaw is a myth? Here is the article.. quite long but interesting. Pre Colonial Period THE DIM CENTURIES prior to Magellan's arrival in 1521 were formerly unknown to historians. It is only in recent years that history's frontiers have been explored by both historians and archaeologists. By means of intensive researchers in ancient Asian records and by new archaeological discoveries at various sites in the Philippine prehistory. First Man in the Philippines. According to recent archaeological findings, man is ancient in the Philippines. He first came about 2500,000 B.C. during the Ice Age or Middle Pleistocene Period, by way of the land bridges which linked the archipelago with Asia. He was a cousin of the "Java Man," "Peking Man," and other earliest men in Asia. Professor H. Otley Beyer, eminent American authority on Philippine archaeology and anthropology, called him the "Dawn Man", for he appeared in the Philippines at the dawn of time.. Brawny and thickly-haired, the "Dawn Man", had no knowledge of agriculture. He lived by means of gathering wild edible plants, by fishing, and hunting. It is probable that he reached the Philippines while hunting. At that time the boars, deer, giant and pygmy elephants, rhinoceros, and other Pleistocene animals roamed in the country. Fossil relics of these ancient animals have been found in Pangasinan and Cagayan Valley. In the course of unrecorded time the "Dawn Man" vanished, without leaving a trace. Until the present time his skeletal remains or artifacts have not yet been discovered by archaeologists. So far the oldest human fossil found in the Philippines is the skull cap of a "Stone-Age Filipino", about 22,000 years old. This human skull cap was discovered by Dr. Robert B. Fox, American anthropologist of the National Museum, inside Tabon Cave Palawan, on May 28, 1962. This human relic was called the "Tabon Man". The Coming of the Negritos. Ages after the disappearance of the "Dawn Man", the Negritos from the Asian mainland peopled the Philippines. They came about 25,000 years ago walking dry-shod through Malay Peninsula. Borneo, and the land bridges. Centuries after their arrival, the huge glaciers of ice melted and the increased volume of water raised the level of the seas and submerged the land bridges. The Philippines was thus cut off from the Asian mainland. The Negritos lived permanently in the archipelago and

They wandered in the forests and lived by hunting. and flat noses.C. fishing. Their clothing was made from beaten bark and decorated with fine designs. Because of their black color and short stature. being skilled in the use of the bow and arrow. It is said that two waves of Indonesia migration reached the Philippines. they had bows and arrows. Their implements consisted of polished stone axes. and darker in color. they were a tall people. spears. For weapons. They are below five feet in height. arts. the second wave about 1000 B. The Indonesians who came in the first migratory wave were tall in stature. they were among they were among the world's best archers. The Indonesians.the dog.C. Ati. writing. The Negritos were a primitive people with a culture belonging to the Old Stone Age (Paleolithic). bulkier in body. or Ita. literature. Their other occupations were hunting and fishing. They practised dry agriculture and raised upland rice. They possessed the crudest kind of religion which was a belief in fetishes. and chisels. shields. hence they developed no government. being the first immigrants to reach the Philippines by sea. and blowguns (sumpit). The Indonesian culture was more advanced than that of the Negritos it belonged to the New Stone Age (Neolithic). The Negritos are among the smallest peoples on earth. They cooked their food in bamboo tubes. They had no pottery and never cooked their food. and other food crops. built above the ground or on top of trees. They had no community in life. They wore little clothing. However. who belonged to the Mongoloid race with Caucasian affinities. They made fire by rubbing two dry sticks together to give them warmth. Unlike the Negritos. another Asian people migrated to the Philippines. They were the maritime Indonesians. Those in the second migratory wave were shorter in height. with black skin. and gathering wild fruits and roots. for they knew nothing of pottery. adzes. First Sea-Immigrants. taro (gabi). Their homes were temporary sheds made of jungle leaves and branches of trees. The first wave came about 3000 B. with height ranging from 5 feet 6 inches to 6 feet 2 inches.became the first inhabitants. They came in boats. . and light in complexion. and sciences. After the submergence of the land bridges. The Indonesians lived in grass-covered homes with wooden frames. They had one domesticated animal . slender in physique. In the Philippines they are known as Aeta. they were called Negritos (little black people) by the Spanish colonizers.. dark kinky hair round black eyes.

Those who came in this migratory wave were the alphabet-using Malays. Kapampangans. bur were hardy and supple. Culturally. dark brown eyes. to 13th century. they were already expert navigators. who wrote: "The Malays indeed were the Phoenicians of the East. The first wave came from 200 B. with straight black hair. Bicolanos. including the system of irrigation.D. and apparently made even longer hauls than the Semitic mariners. the Malays were more advanced than the Negritos and the Indonesians. arts. sciences. sumpits (blowguns). Kalingas.R. writing. pottery and weaving. The seafaring Malays also navigated the vast stretches of the uncharted Pacific. and carabaos). fowls. In the course of their exodus to the Pacific world. glass. They came in three main migratory waves. Their weapons consisted of bows and arrows. beads. the domestication of animals (dogs. spears. the manufacture of metal tools and weapons. Ilongots. The Malays.Exodus of the Malays to the Pacific World. They had brown complexion.C. Although they had no compass and other nautical devices. The Muslim Malays were in this migratory wave and they introduced Islam into the Philippines.D. They were medium in height and slender in physique. shields and armors made of animal hide and . and colored stones. They introduced into the Philippines both lowland and highland methods of rice cultivation. as far south as Africa and Madagascar. and other headhunting tribes in northern Luzon. for they possessed the Iron Age culture. krises (swords). and flat noses. Their unchronicled and unsung maritime exploits impressed the British Orientalist A. and customs). the Malays belonged to the brown race. The third and last wave came from the 14th to 16th century A. law. Cowen. and other Christian Filipinos. the ancestors of the Visayans. Malayan Immigration to the Philippines. their oceanic elbowroom giving them more scope than the coasts of the Mediterranean and the Red Sea. to 100A. They wore dresses of woven fabrics and ornamented themselves with jewels of gold. The Malays who came in this wave were the headhunting Malays. Daring and liberty-loving. the ancient Malays reached the Philippines.D. Tagalogs. daggers. pearls. They tattooed their bodies and chewed betelnuts. discovering and colonizing new islands. Ilocanos. they made long voyages. and the Malayan heritage (government. The second wave arrived from 100 A. religion. steering their sailboats by the position of the stars at night and by the direction of the sea winds by day. Long before the time of Columbus and Magellan." The prehistoric Malays were the first discoveries and colonizers of the Pacific world. bolos. the ancestors of the Bontoks.

The purchase price consisted of one gold saduk (native hat) for Marikudo and a long gold necklace for Maniwantiwan.. Legends and Hoaxes about the Malay Settlers. One of Aklan. In Sinugbahan. The legends surrounding the settling of the Philippines by Malay migrants are notably celebrated in the ati-atihan festival and perpetrated by hoaxers in the fraudulent documents containing the Maragtas chronicle and the Code of Kalantiaw. Marikudo and the Atis went to the hills where their descendants still remain. Robertson then published an English translation of the penal code. in 1914. led by their Ati king Marikudo and his wife Maniwantiwan. He based it on folk customs and legends. a Visayan public official and poet. . Monteclaro. The Maragtas goes on to describe the formation of a confederation of barangays ("Madya-as") led by one Datu Sumakwel. Panay's fascinating festivals to this day is the ati-atihan. James E. who passed on a code of laws for the community.D. After the party. Panay. was also previously accepted by historians and lawyers. But it has been proven to be a fraud. a code of laws said to have been promulgated by Datu Kalantiaw of Aklan in 1433. a colorful mardi gras celebrating the legendary purchase of Panay's lowlands. largely transmitted by oral tradition. The fictitious story also alleges the expansion of the Malay datus to other parts of the Visayas and Luzon. and Filipino scholars came to accept the code as a deliberate hoax. It is held in Kalibo annually during the feast day of Santo Niño in January. re-enacting the ancient legend of the welcome held by the Atis for the Malay colonizers. Robertson. it has become obvious that the Maragtas is only the imaginary creation of Pedro A. including the present authors. Director of the Philippine Library and Museum. The Code of Kalantiaw was contained in a set of documents sold by Jose E. with bodies painted in black and wearing bizarre masks. The Code of Kalantiaw. The sale was sealed by a pact of friendship between the Atis and the Bornean Malays and a merry party when the Atis performed their native songs and dances.hardwood. and the Malay datus settled the lowlands. Marco. Although previously accepted by some historians. to Dr. a collector and author from Negros Occidental. and lantakas (bronze cannons). According to one legend. in Iloilo in 1907. ten datus and their families left the kingdom of Borneo and the cruel reign of sultan Makatunaw to seek their freedom and new homes across the seas. at around 1250 A. they negotiated the sale of Panay's lowlands from the Negrito dwellers. sing and dance in the streets. The riotous participants.

as opposed to Malayan civilization. The early relations between the Philippines and the Indian empires of Sri-Vijaya and Majapahit were commercial and cultural. Early Relations with India. The sarong ( skirt ) and potong (turban) of the pre-Spanish Filipinos and the embroidered shawls of the present-day Muslim Filipino women reveal Indian influences. Moreover. Celebes. Otley Beyer to explain the early settlement of the Philippines has been challenged by such scholars as Robert B. the early Filipinos had developed a distinctly Filipino. the Filipinos had already established a propensity for intermarriage with the assimilation of multiple races and cultures. Fox and F. The term Bathala (supreme god of the ancient Tagalog) originated from the Sanskrit Bhattara Guru. Whether one accepts the migration theory or not. Java. It seems doubtful that early immigrants came in a fixed period of time and with a definite destination. According to the other viewpoint. Polynesia and other Pacific islands came from the Philippines. Philippines prehistory is far too complex to be explained by "waves" of migration. comparative studies of Pacific cultures show that some of the inhabitants of Micronesia. it appears that out of the interracial mixture of the early settlers .Challenge to the Migration Theory. Among such words are dala . The ancient Filipino alphabet originated from India. About 25% of the words in the Tagalog language are Sanskrit terms. According to these scholars. For example. the early Filipinos carried on trade with Borneo. not political. The Brahmanistic elements in ancient Filipino religion and the names of their gods and mythological heroes were of Indian origin. The early contact between India and the Philippines was decidedly indirect via Malaysia. Nor can archaeological and ethnographic data. Prior to the arrival of the Europeans. India's Cultural Influences. As a free and independent people.indigenous tribes or Asian latecomers . and other countries of Southeast Asia. The impact of Indian civilization on the Philippines profoundly affected the culture of the Filipinos. Landa Jocano. they received India's cultural influences. by the time the Spaniards came to the Philippines.was born the Filipino people. The migration theory offered by H. the early Filipinos were not passive recipients of cultures but also active transmitters and synthethizers of them. meaning "the highest of the gods". show that each "wave" of immigrants was really a distinct racial and cultural group. Sumatra. Birth of the Filipino People. And through Sri-Vijaya and Majapahit.

(2) before marriage. and in their use of brass." . a musical instrument in southern Philippines. about 5% of the blood in Filipino veins in Indian. diwa (thought). Many Filipino customs are of Indian origin. The Maranao epic Darangan is Indian in plot and characterization. puri (honor).(fishnet). The tale of the Ifugao legendary hero. Greatman "Do all the good you can. Finally. who obtained water from the rock with his arrow. resembles the story of Ahalya in the Hindu epic Ramayana. Because of their lineage. and (4) when a childless couple goes on a pilgrimage to a holy shrine. bronze. Another Indian influence is seen in the decorative art and metal work of the early Filipinos. who was turned into stone. and a fatalistic outlook on life. is similar to Arjuna's adventure in Mahabharata. is of Indian origin. The Agusan legend of a man named Manubo Ango. Balituk. and tin. Filipino literature and folklore show the impress of India. (3) when the guests throw rice on the bride and groom after the wedding. a groom gives a dowry to the bride's parents and renders domestic services to his future in-laws. believing that the god of shrine will grant their prayer for fertility. To all people you can. another Hindu epic. asawa (spouse). copper. lakambini (princess). and wika (language). indifference to pain. Among them are the following: (1) placing a sampaguita flower garland around the neck of a visitor upon his arrival and departure as a symbol of hospitality and friendship. In everyway you can. The boat-lute. the Filipinos possess dignity of bearing.

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