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E03421 MAZILAH BINTI A RAHMAN 1. Introduction
In early 90s, a general concept in term of operation and planning of power systems was proposed and widely discussed since then. The Flexible Alternating-Current Transmission Systems (FACTS), incorporating a wide range of possibilities for better utilization. Improvement of voltage and current limits on the power electronics devices leads to a fast development of FACTS in the last decade. FACTS are defined by the IEEE as “AC transmission systems incorporating power electronics-based and other static controllers to enhance controllability and increase power transfer capability. And among the proposed FACTS devices, possibly the Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC) has given the best results in terms of performance and flexibility. It can have various roles in the operation and control of power systems, such as scheduling power flow; decreasing unsymmetrical components; reducing net loss; providing voltage support; limiting short-circuit currents; mitigating sub-synchronous resonance (SSR); damping the power oscillation; and enhancing transient stability. Research on control strategies for TCSC can be traced back to 1966 when Kimbark  analysed the improvement in transient stability of power systems by using switched series capacitors. This was a very simple control; the maximum amount of compensation was inserted at the same time that the faulted line was switched out. Ramarao et al. proposed an optimal control of the capacitance. Pontryagin’s maximum principle was used to obtain bang-bang control. It was one of the earliest closed-loop control systems for series compensation.
variable series capacitive reactance. It is a one-port circuit in series with transmission line; it uses natural commutation; its switching frequency is low; it contains insignificant energy storage and has no DC-port. Insertion of a capacitive reactance in series with the line’s inherent inductive reactance lowers the total, effective impedance of the line and thus virtually reduces its length. As a result, both angular and voltage stability gets improved. Furthermore, in contrast to capacitors switched by circuit breakers, TCSC will be more effective because thyristors can offer flexible adjustment, and more advanced control theories can be easily applied.
II. Characteristics and Problems
In this chapter, we will be discussing about some characteristics of TCSC that have been discussed all over the region for about 20 years ago. These chapter have been summarized and we could see clearly some part of the character and the problem occurs within it. Two major characteristic of TCSC that will be discussed below is sub-synchronous resonance that would appear in the generator oscillation and transient voltage stability controlling.
(i) Sub-synchronous Resonance (SSR)
SSR has gained its name from the fact that the frequency of interest happen to lie in a region below the synchronous frequency of the network. The main concern in SSR studies is a significant oscillatory electromagnetic torque developed on the generator rotor and the possibility of shaft damage from torsional stresses . As in general, any device that controls or responds rapidly to power or speed variations in the sub-synchronous frequency range is a potential source for excitation of oscillations . Simulations of the IEEE First Benchmark Model  show that even without a fault, sub-synchronous oscillations appear in that system. They just take more time to develop. In other words, the occurrence of a fault may speed up the process (Torque Amplification), while the possibility of SSR is mainly due to the nature of the combined mechanical-electrical system. The eigenvalue results for the first benchmark model show that the thyristor switching can have a significant effect on system stability and that the effect varies with the firing angle . The papers on the inclusion of the TCSC in SSR studies are centered on two field installations, Western Area Power Administration’s Kayenta site [8,9], and Bonneville Power Administration’s Slatt substation [10,11]. The Kayenta system was analyzed with time-domain simulation of a detailed model of the AC system, a machine and TCSC with controls . While for the Slatt system, the effect of the TCSC was evaluate by measuring the electrical damping torque as a function of machine rotor speed. Analog and digital simulators modeled the AC system, machine and TCSC controls.
2. TCSC in Power Transmission System
Fig. 1 Simple Diagram of TCSC
I. Circuit and Function
Figure 1 shows the simple diagram of TCSC. This structure is modeled as
X = X 0 + ∆X ∆X = f ( ∆ω g ) . ∆ X is the capacitive reactance.
(ii) Transient voltage stabilizing control
The inserted series capacitor will also affects the reactive power distribution in the interconnected power system. Thus, paper  suggests that TCSC be used to enhance voltage stability. In a transient voltage stability analysis, TCSC is operated in a big range for a long period, which is very different from small signal voltage stability. And this means that the
TCSC comprised of a series capacitor bank, shunted by a Thyristor Controlled Reactor (TCR), to provide a smoothly
W. pp. vol.”. Christl.” IEEE Trans. M. 2. B. 1. we proposed a 3-machine and 9-Bus System Transient Stability Study Model simulated by MATLAB friendly technical programming as study-case system. vol 7.”. 4. Pilotto. W. July 1994. For a result. pp. 18. pp. Hedin et al. 1. amplitude of frequency deviation is becoming large. pp. 5. I. April 1994. IEEE Trans. 1970. Aug-Sept. fault current. R. On Power Apparatus and Syst. Paris. 2 3-Machine and 9-Bus System Transient Stability Study Model (MATLAB). There are also two major characteristic of TCSC and that are the existing of sub-synchronous resonance in generator oscillation controller and TCSC as transient voltage stabilizing controller.A Edris et al.operation limits of a TCSC must be well considered. “ A Study of TCSC Controller Design for Power System Stability Improvement. Lasseter. we will see frequency deviation comparison for both studies. pp. 9. The comparison of eigenvalue in the system also been studied. such as availability of the measurement and the burden of calculation. Jan 1997. Oct. 1997  L. PAS-89. March 1999. “ Overview of Control Schemes for TCSC to Enhance the Stability of Power Systems”. Christl et al. The difference of the improvement mode is according to TCSC installation location in the study-system.1. The result is the best installation for TCSC is near generator which is colce to the fault generator.system case. Further studies shows that TCSC will prevent the system becoming stepped out only if relatively simple weighting matrix been operated. MATLAB. no. It has considered the application of TCSC for closed-loop control of power flow in both constant power and constant angle modes of operation. relatively simple controllers are used in the installed TCSC [13. no.”. Power Apparatus Syst. The research procedures are divided into two cases. Transmission and Distribution. Then. E. The results of the small-signal investigations in this section have thus shown that in both modes of operation. 4. Sept/Oct.: “Dynamis Response of a TCSC “. Fig. Cigre 14/37/38-05. 1977. The analysis is done first with the model and the result are simulated by MATLAB. IEEE Proc. vol. IEEE Trans. The results indicate that the power flow controller (TCSC) operation has an important influence on both the small signal and transient stability characteristic of the system． References  A.G. no 4. 1966. On Power Delivery. The result has been simulated by using MATLAB programming. after the model were inserted with TCSC. The result of the system model for non-TCSC control is that we can see after the fault. 1992  S. vol.14]. London. Conference on Thyristor and variable static equipment for Ac and DC Transmission. on Power Systems. 12. 14.K. Larsen.”. the system becoming stepped-out. Power Delivery. vol. 975-984  IEEE Committee Report. pp. IEEE Trans. Nov.. “Proposed Terms and Definitions for Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS)”. IEEE Trans. 1996. IEEE Trans. pp. we used 3-Machine and 9-Bus System as transient stability study model. A.. Liang. “Readers Guide to Sub-synchronous Resonance”. C. D. pp. On Power Delivery. 475-484  X.: “Advanced Series Compensation (ASC) with Thyristor Controlled Impedance. S. Ping and et al. A. Fig. no. C. .12. vol. 2 shows a MATLAB diagram of the study. Del Rosso. 1565-1572  S. “Comparing the Voltage Control Capabilities of Present and Future VAR Compensating Techniques in Transmission System.: “Improvement of System Stability by Switched Series Capacitors”. the closed-loop power flow controller has an increasing influence on the damping of the system’s electromechanical oscillations as its time is made shorter. D. Zhou. no. vol. no. Conclusion This paper has addresses a quick overview of thyristor controlled series capacitor as one the best proposed devices in FACTS family and its applications in power transmission system.: “Improvement of Power System Transient Stability using Optimal Control: Bang-bang Control of Reactance”. (5/6). Damsky. 1991  N. vol. Nyati et al. Hammad. 9. A. Bowler.: “Effectiveness of TCSC in Enhancing Power System Dynamics: An Analog Simulator Study. Generation. 1609-1615  N. 11. R. no. Jan. Dobson. non-linear control model. Discussions For two major characteristic that have been discussed above. Nillson: “Benefits of TCSC “.”. “Determination of needed FACTS Controllers That Increase Asset Utility of Power System. V. no. Power Apparatus Syst. 1018-1027  E.H. Jalali. And for both characteristic. 2003. N. IEEE Trans. and Reitan. In this case. On Power Delivery. Canizares. Dona.364-371  Kimbark. “First Benchmark Model for Computer Simulation of Sub-synchronous Resonance.2. (2). E. 180-188  Ramarao.”. IEEE Trans. 3. On Power System. on Power Delivery. 96. 150-157  IEEE Commitee Report. pp 125-134. W. the stability level of the system is improved by TCSC. For other practical reasons. Cigre Paper 14/37/38-04.: “Power System Studies and Modeling for the Kayenta 230KV Substation Advanced Series Compesation. Paris 1992 A. There are also other characteristics regarding TCSC and it’s such as power damping oscillation. IEEE Interl. dynamic characteristic etc. IEEE Trans. vol. S. 1487-1496 3. Then. the friendly user of technical computing have been used as study-system case. J. pp. Feb 1992. PAS-85. IEEE Trans. that are study system with non-TCSC control and with TCSC control. no.
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