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NAME : YIN ZHENG DAO NRIC : 910902-02-5059 GROUP : 10M7 STUDENT ID : 2009628992 TITLE : Investigating human breathing DATE : 22nd September 2010 LECTURER : MR. MANOHARAN
The average VC in a young adult male is approximately 4. the strength of the respiratory muscles. Care must be taken to avoid any leakage of air around the edge of the mouthpiece and it is best to perform the maneuver with less than maximum force. Although physiologic respiration is necessary to sustain cellular respiration and thus life in animals. inhales as deeply as possible. and the distensibility of the lungs and rib cage are the major factors which affect VC.6 L. simple diffusion sufficient for gas exchange: every cell is constantly bathed in the external environment. although the lungs must be emptied as completely 4 . When measuring VC. complex multicellular animals such as humas have a much greater distance between the environment and their innermost cells. Vital capacity (VC) is the maximum amount of air a person can exhale after filling his lungs to the maximum extent possible. the processes are distinct: cellular respiration takes place in individual cells of the animal. Introduction Respiration is defined as the transport of oxygen from the outside air to the cells within tissues and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction. carbon dioxide and ATP which is used as energy. thus. holding a spirometer with mouthpiece attached. a respiratory system is needed for effective gas exchange.1 L. and in the young adult female about 3. and exhales all of the air through the spirometer. significant variance from thses values might be observed. with only a short distance for gases to flow across. the subject occludes the nasal airway by pinching the nose. while physiologic respiration concerns the bulk flow and transport of metabolites between the organism and the external environment. After setting the needle at the ‘O’ mark. In contrast. In unicellular organisms. the position of his body during the measurement. which refers to cellular respiration: the metabolic process by which an organism obtains energy by reacting oxygen with glucose to give water. The respiratory system works in concert with a circulatory system to carry gases to and from the tissues. The anatomical build of the subject. the subject should sit as straight as possible.Problem Statement How does the lung capacity differ before and after exercise? Objectives To determine lung capacity. This is in contrast to the biochemical definition of respiration.
Tidal volume (TV) is the amount of air inspired and expired during a single normal breath. In a young adult male. 4 . Its value is usually assumed to be 1200 cc for a young adult male and 900 cc for a young adult female. just like the measurement procedures as mentioned before. Among young adult males of average size. The subject sits with his nose pinched and the mouthpiece positioned lossely between his lips while he takes several quiet breathes without exhaling through the spirometer. The IRV is calculated by adding the average values for TV and ERV and subtracting the total from the measured VC (IRV = VC – [TV + ERV]. When a regular breathing pattern is established. places the spirometer mouthpiece loosely between his lips. The recording position is the same as for cital capacity in the preceding exercise. Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV) is the amount of air that can be inhaled in excess of normal inspiration during quiet breathing. TV is normally about 500 cc. the subject exhales normally. Residual Volume (RV) is defined as the amount of air remaining in the lungs after maximum forced expiration and it cannot be measured using the spirometer. The subject should rest quietly for 5 minutes before making the tidal volume measurement. Total Lung Capacity (TLC) is the maximum volume of air that the lungs can hold when distended to the greatest possible extent. The largest volume of gas exhaled in a single trial will be the subject’s VC. Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV) is the maximum amount of air that can be expelled from the lungs by exhaling forcefully after the end of a normal tidal expiration. The diameter of the spirometer mouthpiece is too small to inhale through comfortably. Its value is calculated by adding the values of VC and RV. the subject exhales five normal successive normal breaths into the spirometer. Finally. Inspiratory Capacity (IC) is the maximum amount of air that can be inhaled by subtracting ERV from VC (IC = VC – ERV). ERV averages about 1100 cc in the young adult male. Record the meter reading for the total of five breahts and divide by 5 to calculate the average tidal volume at rest. After a regular breathing pattern is established. and breathes ‘normally’ through the corner of his mouth for several breaths. It is necessary to exhale with moderate force to activate the spirometer mechanism. The vales shown on the spirometer gauge are recorded and readings are repeated to get the average. then seals his lips around the mouthpiece and forcefully expires as much of the remaining air as possible into the spirometer. The values shown on the spirometer gauge are recorded.as possible. The procedure for measuring ERV is similar to that for tidal volume. The subject pinches his nose. this volume is approximately 3000 cc.
000cc. Deep inhalation was then carried out. subject.000–7. Measuring vital capacity (VC) at rest 1. It is small. interchangeable mouthpiece.Spiropet A spiropet is used to measure lung capacity without using water. The mouthpiece was set between lips when the lungs of the subject was full. holding the spirometer with the mouthpiece attached to it. and easy to handle and offers a broad measurement range of 1. it can be adjusted by moving the upper outer ring to right or left. The subject sat as straight as possible. 3. stretching the body upward in the process. 5. lightweight. Apparatus Spiropet. 4 .Figure 1 . The end of the mouthpiece was set to the nozzle of the spiropet. Hypothesis The tidal volume and vital capacity of an individual increases after exercise. 2. The spiropet was then held by one hand and the indicator point set to be at zero. If the indicator does not point at zero. Procedures A. Materials Tissue paper. 4.
Exhalation of all of the air was carried out strongly at one go. C.6. When a regular breathing pattern is established. Steps 1 to 4 of experiment B were repeated for this step. then sealed his lips around the mouthpiece and forcefully expired as much of the remaining air as possible into the spiropet. TV and ERV obtained from experiments A. B and C. 3. 2. D. 4. The experiment was repeated for another two times and an average reading was obtained. 3. the subject exhaled normally. The meter reading for the total of five breathes were taken and divided by 5 to obtain the average value of TV at rest. Measuring tidal volume (TV) at rest The spiropet mouthpiece was placed loosely between the lips of the subject. The subject exhales five successive normal breaths into the spiropet. After exhaling.Measuring inspiratory reserve volume (IRV). residual volume (RV) and total lung capacity (TLC) at rest Based on values of VC. inspiratory capacity (IC). 4 . The largest volume of gas exhaled in a single trial will be taken as the subject’s VC value. Measuring expiratory reserve volume (ERV) at rest 1. 7. 1. 2. The experiment is repeated another 2 times. The subject then breathed normally through the corner of his mouth or initiate several breaths. B. the values for IRV. IC and TLC can be calculated respectively based on the following formulas : 1. the measurement was read on the spiropet gauge.
Once the subject starts panting. cc Total for five breaths 2000 Average reading = 400 4 . the water drops and saliva condensed in the inside of the spiropet were wiped using tissue paper so that it remains clean for the next usage. Measuring VC after physical exercise A form of exercise was carried out by running up and down the staircase for about 15 times. 3. 1. Result Vital capacity (VC). As RV is not measurable. steps 5 and 6 were repeated immediately. E. steps 7 to 9 were repeated immediately.Vital capacity (VC) at rest Tidal volume (TV). 2. At the end of the experiment. 1. it was assumed that RV for males is 1200cc and that of female is 900cc. 2. cc Trial 1 3800 Trial 2 3700 Trial 3 3900 Highest value of VC 3900 Table 1. Once the subject starts panting.2.1. F. Measuring VC after physical exercise A form of exerting exercise was carried out by running up and down the staircase for about 15 times.
Expiratory reserve volume(ERV) at rest Components of lung volume Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) = VC . inspiratory capacity (IC).1.1800 = 2100 Assumed RV = 1200 for males = 900 for females Total lung capacity (TLC) = VC + RV 3900 + 12= = 5100 Table 4. cc Trial 1 1800 Trial 2 1800 Trial 3 1800 Average reading = 1800 Table 3.1 -Tidal volume (TV) after exercise 4 .Tidal volume (TV) at rest Expiratory reserve volume (ERV).Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV).1.(1800 + 400) = 1700 3900 .1. cc Total for five breaths 2400 Average reading = 480 Table 6.Table 2.1.Vital capacity (VC) after exercise Tidal volume (TC). residual volume (RV) and total lung capacity (TLC) at rest Vital capacity (VC). cc Trial 1 4200 Trial 2 4200 Trial 3 4100 Highest value of VC 4200 Table 5.(TV + ERV) Inspiratory capacity (IC) = VC .ERV Residual volume (RV) Reading (cc) 3000 .
1 meanwhile shows the tidal volume (TV) of subject at rest. Table 5. giving a lower than expected reading of 2100 cc. The TLC value is normally around 6000cc . Inspiratory capacity (IC) on the other hand is the maximum amount of air that can be inhaled from the normal end expiratory level. another few components of lung volume can be calculated. The value obtained in this experiment. Finally. This results is parallel with what were being expected and can be explained using some biological principles. which is the maximum volume of air that lungs can hold when distended to the greatest possible extent. The level of carbon dioxide in blood plays the most important role in controlling out breathing rate. Being light weight and small size. it is also a dry spirometer which measures the lung capacity without using water. it can be assumed for to be 1200cc for a young adult male and 900cc for a female. the addition of VC and RV gives the total lung capacity (TLC). TV and ERV values. The inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) is the amount of air that can be inhaled in excess of normal inspiration during quiet breathing. That way. 3700cc and 3900 cc being the highest VC value. and is 1700cc.1 and 6.Discussion Evaluation of Data The changes in lung volume during breathing processes are investigated using the spirometer. A spiropet is a precision instrument with broad measurement range. the setup time and mess associated with spirometry is prevented. a spiropet is used to measure the lung capacity. It has some advantages over the conventional tank-type spirometer which gives simplicity to the way of handling it during the procedures. Comparing those values to the ones in Table 1. Table 3. though is 5100cc.1 shows the vital capacity (VC) of the subject at rest. Five consecutive readings and a total of 2000cc and thus. ranging from 1000cc to 7000cc. In the course of an exercise. The three readings obtained are 3800cc.1 and 1. Table 1.1 gives the expiratory reserve volume (ERV) of subject. an average TV value of 400cc . Table 2. As residual volume cannot be measured. Then.1 shows the VC and TV values after physical exercise which are 4200cc and 480cc respectively. Based of the VC.2. the impulses from the cortex of the brain which consciously recognizes movement stimulates the respiratory centre in medulla oblongata. it also be said that exercise increases the vital capacity and tidal volume of an individual. In this investigation. calculated by subtracting ERV from VC. respiratory muscles are stimulated and the rate and 4 .
there will be a significant variation in them. One possible source is during the usage of the spiropet. the inside should be cleaned with tissue paper once in every five measurements. The spiropet should actually be kept horizontal by holding it firmly with one hand.depth of ventilation are also increased. we can come to a conclusion that exercises increases the vital capacity and tidal volume of the subject. 4 . water drops and saliva might condense on the inside of the spiropet causing a lost in accuracy. To avoid this error. The difference in way of breathing out when taking measurements of components of lung volume using the spiropet could also affect the accuracy of the experiment. The measurements of TC and ERV are repeated after exercising so as to investigate the lung capacity at rest and after physical exercise. Hence. Though having said that. Besides that. The leakage of air around the edge of the mouthpiece might have also caused the exhaled air to escape to the surrounding instead of entering the spiropet. it is always better to perform moderate force during the experiment. Other factors include age. making them contract harder and more frequently resulting is the increase in vital capity and tidal volume of lungs. Comparing results of other subjects. Exhalation with too little force will not be enough to activate the spiropet mechanism. In this experiment. the subject should set the mouth carefully and tighly between his lips so as to avoid any leakage of air. the vanes cannot revolve evenly and readings obtained will not be of high accuracy. A fall in pH level is then detected by chemoreceptors which in turn. Sources of Errors and Ways to Overcome Them / Safety Precautions Some errors in the experiment will cause the result to be less accurate. Spiropet may not have been kept still when used. Finally. the inspiratory centre sends nerve impulses to the intercostals muscles and diaphragm. Based on the results. causing an increase in their contraction rates. causing a lower reading while too much force may affect the accuracy of readings as well. Consequently. send impulses to the inspiratory centre. the frequency of exercise is not the only factor affecting the lung capacity of an individual. The demand for oxygen by working muscles increases and more carbon dioxide is produced and transported in the blood. The subject’s fingers might have also accidentally covered up a few of the small holes which are at the side of the upper body of the instrument. Thus. the spiropet is only wiped at the end of the experiment.
References ℜ ℜ Ann Fullick. That is why the values will show slight variation as the other factors are not kept constant except the age. One of the limitations in this experiment is the genetics of the subject which is a factor which cannot be controlled. health condition. 2009) C J Clegg. Conclusion Vital capacity and tidal volume of an individual increases after exercise. Edexcel Biology for A2. Before conducting the experiment. Pearson Education Limited. gender. Long hair should be tied up as well so that disturbances while conducting the experiment would not take place. Genetics affect the lung capacity of an individual. (Harlow. (London. 2009) 4 . Air holes of the instrument should not be blocked. The base of the spirometer is a moisture trap and should be wiped using tissue paper only. Further works Apart from that. Edexcel A2 Biology. the hypothesis is accepted.body size. the information on the genetic make-up of each individual is unknown. fully-covered shoes should be worn in order to avoid any spillage of any solution on our feet. This leads to variation in the results obtained by different individuals as different subjects. Thus. • To investigate the effect of body size on lung capacity. environment. further investigation can also be carried out to such as : • To investigate the effect of age on lung capacity. Zero error is another possible error that should be avoided when rotating the spiropet dial until the needle is aligned with the ‘O’ mark by calibrating with the eyes level perpendicular to the calibrated scale. As for safety precautions. Suitable precautions should be taken when using the spiropet as it is a precision instrument and is of a high costs. genetics and others. Hodder Education.
biologycorner. accessed 26th September 2010 http://en.ℜ http://en. accessed 26th September 2010 http://www. accessed 26th September 2010 ℜ ℜ ℜ ℜ 4 . accessed 26th September 2010 http://www. accessed 26th September 2010 http://www.org/spirom1.com/worksheets/lungcapacity.nlhep.html.wikipedia.wikihow.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lung_volumes.org/wiki/Human_lung.html.com/Increase-Your-Lung-Capacity.
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