‡ To understand the principles of creature/living thing classification

o to describe the characters of fungi, the species of fungi, the role of fungi in life on the basis of observation, literature analysis.

± To describe the general characters of phylums of Fungi Kingdom. ± To explain the principles of Fungi Classification. ± To draw the structure of body carp of fungi of all groups/ categories( especially Penicillium)

± To contrast all groups/categories of fungi based on their morphology characters. ± To explain the mode of fungi reproduction from all groups. ± To contrast vegetatif spores and generatif spores from all groups.

± To make a chart of the fungi life cycle of all groups (especially Penicillium) ± To make a report that is consist of the species of fungi in the environment surrounding (it must be completed with photos/pictures) ± To present the data of fungi role in life).

± To make food fermentation by using certain fungi.

‡ ‡ to make fungi preparates of all categories to draw the anatomy of Zygomycota , Ascomycota and Basidiomycota on the basis of observation and references, to draw the morphology and anatomy of Chytridiomycota on the basis of references to describe the characters of Fungi based on the observation of all preparates and references . to explain the principles of Fungi Classification to draw the structure of body carp of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡

Tata cara membuat preparat fungi
‡ « ‡ « ‡ «

Anatomy fungi
‡ Chytridiomycota : « ‡ Zygomycota : hifa«, sporangiophora«, spora«, rhizoid«, ‡ Ascomycota : multisel : tubuh buah«, hifa bersekat«., unisel : pseudohifa/kuncup«, konidispora«, ascus«, ascospora«, ‡ Basidiomycota : multisel : tubuh buah«, hifa bersekat«, basidium«, basidiospora«,

Ciri-ciri Fungi
‡ Dinding sel/hifa ; KHITIN ‡ Organisasi sel : unisel, multisel ‡ Multisel : hifa coenocytic/aseptate hyphae, hifa bersekat/septate hyphae ‡ Jalinan hifa : mycelium. Ada mycelium vegetatif (nutrisi), ada mycelium generatif (membentuk spora) ‡ Fungi parasit : membentuk haustorium ‡ Membran sel : eukarya ‡ Nutrisi : heterotrofik : saprofitik, parasitik, mutualistik. Perolehan nutrisi : absorptif ‡ Spora : spora aseksual atau spora seksual

Ciri-ciri Fungi
‡ Spora aseksual : zoospora, sporangiospora, konidiospora, ‡ Spora seksual : zigospora, askospora, basidiospora ‡ Kotak spora : zoosporangium, sporangium, zigosporangium, askus, basidium ‡ Habitat : akuatik, terrestrial, gurun (dalam bentuk lichens), batu karang, puncak gunung salju

Ciri-ciri fungi
‡ Reproduksi aseksual : tunas, fragmentasi hyphae, sporangiospora, konidiospora ‡ Reproduksi seksual : syngami (plasmogami dilanjutkan dengan karyogami) ‡ Prinsip klasifikasi fungi : cara reproduksi seksual meliputi : Chytridiomycota, Zygomycota, Ascomycota, Basidiomycota

‡ Bagaimana anda membedakan aseptate hyphae dengan septate hyphae? ‡ Apakah yang dimaksud haustorium? ‡ Bagaimanakah cara anggota fungi mendapatkan nutrisi yang diperlukan?

‡ Apa yang dimaksud singami? ‡ bagaimana cara reproduksi aseksual fungi? ‡ Bagaimanakah cara reproduksi seksual fungi? ‡ Bagaimanakah cara para ahli mikologi menyusun klasifikasi fungi?

zoosporangium Hifa senositik

1. Generally, the chytridiomycota are typically unicellular, or primitive chains of cells, and attached to a food substrate by tapering rhizoids. Tapering = lonjong

2. Sexual reproduction is by the fusion of male and female motile gametes, the product being a resting spore. Asexual reproduction is by cytoplasmic cleavage in a sporangium, producing motile zoospores. 3. Many chytrids are saprobes, however some are pathogens of plants, animals and even fungi.

Morfologi dan anatomi Chytridiomycota
‡ 1. 2. 3. 4. Morfologi : Unisel hifa coenocytic Dinding sel khitin Dalam periode kehidupan ada fase sel bergerak (motile cell) berupa zoospore dan gamet (1 flagellum) 5. Zoosporangium : zoospora

‡ Fisiologi : nutrisi : pencernaan ekstraseluler, absorpsi, yang saprofitik di tanah : zat makanan mengalami metabolisme secara aerobik, yang hidup di dalam usus ruminansia : anaerobik ‡ Fungi primitif : nenek moyang fungi terrestrial ‡ Peranan :Saprofit : Chytridium confervae di tanah, Neocallimastix frontalis di usus ruminansia. Patogen: Olpidium brassicae pada akar tanaman liar dan akar tanaman pangan ‡ Habitat : akuatik (fresh water), tanah lembab

Figure A. Four small colonies of Rhizophlyctis rosea on a piece of Cellophane buried in moist soil for 5 days. The central, globose thallus (body) of each colony has been dislodged, leaving the finely branched rhizoids within the Cellophane. Dislodge = dikeluarkan; finely = halus

Figure B. Catenaria anguillulae in agar culture. The fungus grows in a hypha-like form, with rhizoids (arrowheads) and chains of swellings (sporangia) in which the zoospores are produced. The generic name Catenaria stems from the latin term "catenulate" (in chains).

Figure C. Part of a grass root, cleared by treatment with strong alkali then stained with trypan blue to reveal large sporangia (sp) of Olpidium brassicae within the root cells. At maturity the sporangia release zoospores through exit tubes (et). Several zoospore cysts (cy) can be seen on the root.

Figure E. Zoospores of Blastocladiella emersonii viewed by phase-contrast microscopy. The spores are about 2.5 micrometres diameter and contain a prominent nucleus (n), a nuclear cap in which the ribosomes are aggregated (nc), a large mitochondrion (m) near the base of the flagellum (flag), and lipid side bodies (lip). The front end of the cell is a sac-like region containing vacuoles.

Figure F. Transmission electron micrograph of zoospore of Blastocladiella. In addition to the structures mentioned above, the image shows the flagellar motor aparatus (kinetosome, K), Gamma bodies of unknown function (G), and double membranes (DM) that are continuous with the membrane of the nucleus and nuclear cap in regions marked "1". [Figures E and F supplied by MS Fuller, from Reichle & Fuller, 1967]

1. accumulation of zoospores at specific sites by sensing gradients of attractants or repellents (zoospore taxis); 2. settling and orientation on the host surface, perhaps by recognition of specific host surface components; 3. adhesion and encystment, involving the release of adhesins and production of a cyst wall; 4. germination with a fixed orientation, from an apparently predetermined point.

1. Chytridiomycota membentuk zoospora seperti halnya protista. Mengapa digolongkan ke dalam kingdom fungi? 2. Bagaimana anda membedakan flagel chytrid dengan flagel protista? 3. Sebutkan dua perbedaan chytrid dengan fungi terrestrial. 4. Bagaimana cara anda memastikan bahwa memang benar chytrid lebih primitif dibandingkan fungi terrestrial?

5. Bagaimanakah cara chytrid mendapatkan bahan makanan? 6. Bagaimanakah cara chytrid memperbanyak diri? 7. Apakah peran chytrid dalam kehidupan?

Karakteristik Zygomycota
‡ Morfologi : hifa koenositik, haploid, miselium, sporangiofor, sporangium, sporangiospora, zygosporangium (dinding tebal-hitam), zygospora (awal diploid lalu meiosis menjadi haploid, istirahat (dorman), undifferentiated hyphae, stolon, rhizoid ‡ Fisiologi : nutrisi absorptif, saprofitik, mutualistik ‡ Reproduksi : aseksual dan seksual

Karakteristik Zygomycota
‡ Habitat : terrestrial : saprofit di tanah, makanan atau sisa tumbuhan dan hewan, bersimbiose dengan akar tanaman ‡ Peranan : saprofitik, mutualistik membentuk mikoriza (mycorrhiza) tipe endomycorhizza. ‡ Endomycorhizza :

Karakteristik zygomycota

The trade-mark of the family Mucoraceae, as recognized until very recently, is a swollen extension of the sporangiophore called a columella, which protrudes like a balloon into the sporangium (left).

Each sporangium contains hundreds of non-motile, asexual spores (SEM - left) within a delicate outer membrane called a peridium. Delicate = lembut

Perkembangbiakan Rhizopus sp

Jenis hifa dan pertumbuhan hifa

Figure 7: Pair of progametangia of different mating strains: "+" and "-" grow towards each other. Migration of nuclei will occur in the tips of both progametangia where gametangia will form.

Figure 8: Septa are laid down at the apex of the progametangia to form isogametangia. The outside, larger cells are the suspensors that support the gametangia.

Figure 9: Plasmogamy occurs following fusion of the gametangia. Karyogamyimmediately follows to form a multinucleate zygote.

Figure 10: The zygote will form a thick, pitted wall around itself to form the zygospore. Further development will not develop until after it has gone through a period of dormancy.

1. Jika anda menemukan anggota fungi di lingkungan anda, bagaimanakah cara anda mengidentifikasi bahwa jamur tersebut merupakan anggota phylum Zygomycota? 2. Bagaimanakah cara anggota phylum Zygomycota mendapatkan makanan dan mencernanya? 3. Bagaimanakah cara anggota phylum Zygomycota bereproduksi? 4. Sebutkan tiga contoh fungi anggota phylum Zygomycota?

Karakteristik Ascomycota


Bud scar. Scar = bekas luka

‡ Jika anda menemukan suatu jenis jamur di lingkungan anda, bagaimanakah cara anda memastikan bahwa jamur yang anda temukan tersebut termasuk Ascomycota? ‡ Bagaimanakah cara Ascomycota berkembangbiak? ‡ Apakah peran Ascomycota dalam kehidupan? ‡ Sebutkan empat jenis Ascomycota.

Rings of Hygrocybe fruitbodies and zones of lush grass growth caused by this fungus. Lush = subur, lebat

Fruitbodies of Hygrocybe from non-killing fairy rings

Schematic of a typical basidiocarp, the dipoid reproductive structure of a basidiomycete, showing fruiting body, hymenium and basidia.


Scanning electron micrograph of basidia on the gills of a toadstool. Note that each basidium produces four stalks (sterigmata) and the basidiospores develop on the ends of these stalks. [Image courtesy of Dr C. Jeffree]

Clamp connections at the septa of a basidiomycota hypha

Diagram to show the role of clamp connections in maintaining a dikaryon [From JW Deacon, 1997, Modern Mycology, Blackwell Science]

‡ Jika anda menemukan suatu jenis jamur di lingkungan anda, bagaimanakah cara anda memastikan bahwa jamur yang anda temukan tersebut termasuk Basidiomycota? ‡ Bagaimanakah cara Basidiomycota berkembangbiak? ‡ Apakah peran Basidiomycota dalam kehidupan? ‡ Sebutkan empat jenis Basidiomycota.

Types of mycorrhiza
‡ Mycorrhizas are commonly divided into ectomycorrhizas and endomycorrhizas. The two groups are differentiated by the fact that the hyphae of ectomycorrhizal fungi do not penetrate individual cells within the root, while the hyphae of endomycorrhizal fungi penetrate the cell wall and invaginate the cell membrane.

Arbuscular mycorrhizal wheat

Ectomycorrhizal beech

Figure A (above) shows a cross-section of the outer part of the protocorm of an orchid, Neottia, stained to reveal the masses of fungal hyphae (arrowheads). Figure B shows part of a section at much higher magnification. The cells of the orchid are filled with coils of fungal hyphae but, significantly, the plant cells are

The image above shows part of a clover root from the Pentland Hills near Edinburgh, naturally infected by an AM fungus. There was no evidence of fungal infection until the root tissues were cleared with strong alkali and then stained with trypan blue to reveal the fungus. The site of penetration is shown at top right, where the fungus produced a pre-penetration swelling (appressorium, ap), then it grew between the root cells and formed finely branched arbuscules (arb) and swollen vesicles (v). The arbuscules are thought to be sites of nutrient exchange the fungus obtains sugars from the plant, and the plant obtains mineral nutrients (e.g. phosphorus) that the fungus absorbs from the soil. Vesicles are thought to be used for storage. Root hairs (rh) are also labelled.

The image below shows a single arbuscule with its repeated dichotomous branching inside a root cell. The plant cell remains alive, because its membrane extends to encase all the branches of the fungus. Strictly speaking, therefore, the fungus is always outside of the cell, surrounded by the cell membrane. Feeding relationships of this type, in which a fungus produces special nutrient-absorbing structures within the host cells, are termed biotrophic. For further details see Biotrophic plant pathogens.

Lichens have been described as "dual organisms" because they are symbiotic associations between two (or sometimes more) entirely different types of microorganism a fungus (termed the mycobiont) a green alga or a cyanobacterium (termed the photobiont).

‡ The "body" of a lichen is termed the thallus, and its general shape enables us to group lichens into four broad categories. ‡ Foliose lichens have a flat, leaf-like structure (Figures AB below). ‡ Fruticose lichens have an erect or pendulous, bushy structure (Figure C, below). ‡ Squamulose lichens have a thallus consisting of minute, scale-like squamules (Figures D-E below) ‡ Crustose lichens produce a flat crust on or beneath rock or tree surfaces (Figures F-G, below).

Foliose lichens. (A) Parmelia physodes, growing on the twigs of a shrub. The lobes, about 1 cm diameter, are silvery-grey above, black below. (B) Peltigera polydactyla, growing on soil. The lobes are semi-erect, 1-2 cm diameter, and have brown fungal fruiting bodies (ascocarps) at their tips (see later). In this case the lichen thallus is grey because it has dried, but it rapidly becomes bluish-green when rewetted.

Fruticose and squamulose lichens. (C) Usnea comosa, growing on a wooden post. This lichen has a branched, filamentous thallus which hangs down from the point of attachment. (D) Cladonia pyxidata, growing on peaty soil. This lichen has a scale-like squamulose structure (arrowhead) but also produces erect stalked cups termed podetia. (E) Cladonia coccifera, similar to C. pyxidata but the rims of the podetia bear many conspicuous red ascocarps.

Crustose lichens. (F) A patchwork of lichens on a rock surface, including several colonies of the green-coloured Rhizocarpon geographicum and the white Lecidia species. (G) Lecanora muralis (also known as Squamaria muralis) growing on a wall. The thallus has a pale green colour with small lobes at the margin but the centre is crustaceous. Also present are many pale brown ascocarps

The lichen partnership

The single-celled green alga, Trebouxia

The lichen partnership
‡ the filamentous green algal genus Trentepohlia ‡ About 10% of lichens have cyanobacteria (e.g. Nostoc) as the main or only photosynthetic partner ‡ some lichens that contain green algae can also have cyanobacteria in special wart-like structures on the lichen surface. These structures are termed cephalodia. They are found in about 3-4% of lichen species and their role is probably to exploit the nitrogen-fixing ability of cyanobacteria.

‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ CORTEX PHOTOSYNTHETIC ZONE MEDULLA LOWER CORTEX RHIZINAE the fungal hyphae can produce short branches that penetrate through the algal wall to serve as nutrient-absorbing haustoria.

Figures J, K. Structure of the common foliose lichen Xanthoria parietina, which grows on many types of surface, including concrete, roofs of buildings, and rocks subjected to sea spray. The lichen thallus (J) has foliose lobes at the margin (see top of Figure J) but much of the surface is covered with bright orange apothecia about 35 mm diameter (arrowheads). The orange colour of this lichen is due to production of the pigment parietin at the lichen surface. (K) Cross section of one of the marginal lobes, viewed by phase-contrast microscopy. The photosynthetic zone (p) is seen as a distinct band of green algal cells. Above this band is the cortex (c) consisting of densely packed fungal cells . The surface of the cortex is pigmented because the cell walls are impregnated with parietin. The lower part of the thallus consists of a medulla (m) with conspicuous air pockets (a), and a thin lower cortex (lc). Like many foliose lichens, Xanthoria produces rhizinae (r) that penetrate into crevices and help to anchor the lichen to a surface. The pigmentation near the tip of the rhizina is due to production of a purplered pigment by the hyphal cells in this region.

Figure I. Structure of the lichen Peltigera polydactyla. In cross section (left) the lichen thallus is seen to consist of an upper cortex (c) of tightly packed fungal cells resembling a tissue. This is seen at higher magnification in the centre image. Beneath the cortex is a medulla (m) of more typical fungal hyphae (seen at higher magnification in the right-hand image). The photosynthetic cells (a cyanobacterium in this case) are seen as a green-coloured band beneath the cortex. The lichen also has a lower cortex, beneath the medulla, but it is not seen in this section.

Physiology of lichens
‡ The mycobiont has two principal roles in the lichen symbiosis: to protect the photobiont from exposure to intense sunlight and desiccation to absorb mineral nutrients from the underlying surface or from minute traces of atmospheric contaminants.

‡ The photobiont also has two roles: to synthesise organic nutrients from carbon dioxide in the case of cyanobacteria, to produce ammonium (and then organic nitrogen compounds) from N2 gas, by nitrogen fixation. In some ecosystems such as desert soils, tundra heaths, and Douglas-fir forests of the Pacific Northwest of the USA, lichens can provide the major input of nitrogen which supports other forms of life.

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