The completion of this Internal Assessment would not have been possible without the help of the Almighty God, who gave me the strength and health to complete the assignment. Also my family and friends played a major role in assisting me in obtaining the necessary research data for the project. And last but definitely not the least my wonderful sociology teacher Mrs. Candice Pooran, who aided her students’ with well prepared tutorials and guided us every step of the way. I am extremely thankful.

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This study is based on the labeling theory which was created and developed by Frank Tannenbaum and Howard S. Becker; in this research we will look at “the extent to which labels or stigmas negatively impacts on juvenile behavior in Secondary Schools in Sangre Grande”. According to Sociology Themes and Perspectives; labeling is a process of social reaction by the “social audience,” (stereotyping) the people in society, judging and accordingly defining (labeling) someone’s behavior as deviant or otherwise. Labeling theory, consequently, suggests that deviance is caused by the deviant’s behaviour being labeled as morally inferior, the deviants internalizing the label and finally the deviant’s acts in accordance to that specific label. In other words it can be said that the social audience is responsible for forming positive sanctions [reward] or negative sanctions [punishment] whereby creating or diminishing deviants in society.
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3. 4. 172 words OBJECTIVES OF INTERNAL ASSESSMENTS Page | 3 . and to prove that each individual is more than capable of conforming to accepted rules so that deviance and criminal activities are reduced in schools. and family.As students acquire labels such as ‘delinquents’. colleagues. The aim of this Internal Assessment is to determine the following: 1. other than resulting to deviants acts to solve their problems. To come up with solutions in an attempt to eradicate labeling in today’s school population. To observe the factors which explain the circumstances where certain acts are tolerated and classified as deviant. and are subsequently rejected by peers. To get a clear understanding of whether or not labeling divides a society and how so. and ‘vandals’. To allow persons to identify other ways to deal with a negative situation. 2. members. they may be under heavy scrutiny or stigmatized and are often suspended or expelled from schools or forced into the juvenile penal systems resulting in the individuals becoming worst off than they were with more enthusiasm to commit grave acts of deviance.

To determine what motivates students to commit acts of deviance in schools (juveniles). To observe if deviant acts are committed only by persons of a particular. 3. ethnic group. that certain deviant acts are sanctioned as opposed to others. To establish. 2. 123 words LITERATURE REVIEW Page | 4 .In an effort to thoroughly evaluate the statement of problem. gender. [Dysfunctional families] 4. “the extent to which labels or stigmas negatively impacts on juvenile behavior in Secondary Schools in Sangre Grande”. religion and social class etc. The extent to which the family unit can be held responsible for producing deviants as they are the primary unit of socialization. age category. It is obligatory to ensure that there is a clear detailed plan of action which is to be taken in order to make certain this study is accurate and consists of pertinent information for the study to be deemed successful. The Internal Assessment will be encompassing the following objectives: 1.

psychologists. crime) as well as informal violations of socials norms (e.g. there is a distinctive link between labeling and deviant behaviour. ‘deviance is in the eye of the beholder. The Sociology of deviance: an introduction. information was extracted from numerous articles. Merton goes further and states that anomie is the state in which social goals and the legitimate means to achieve them do not correspond.” In other words. He postulated that an individual’s response to societal expectations and the means by which the individual pursued those goals were useful to understanding deviance. From a sociological context deviance is described as actions or behavior that violates cultural norms including formally-enacted rules (e. From this point of view. deviant behavior is behavior that people so label. how they change over time and how they are enforced. It is the purview of sociologists. deviance is not a quality of the act the person commits. Where Durkheim states that anomie is the confounding of social norms. books and internet sources in an effort to select appropriate coherent data that supports the study. psychiatrists and criminologist to study how these norms are created.g. Boston: Little Brown. which emerged in the 1960’s he states that “Social groups create deviance by making rules whose infraction constitutes deviance.” The deviant is one to whom that label has been successfully applied. According to the research data. Albert Cohen’s Subcultural Theory. 1 To support the aforementioned Howard Becker’s book Outsiders.’ Another theorist noted was Robert K Merton: he discussed deviance in terms of goals and means as part of his strain/anomie theory. opposed Merton’s views that the motivation for deviant behavior arises out of 1 Definition taken from JD Douglas and FC Waksler FC. 1982 Page | 5 . with that said it can be concluded that deviant behavior is created by the pressures society places on individual to conforms to accepted norms. but rather a consequence of the application of rules and sanctions to the “offender.In conducting research for this study. rejecting folkways and mores)... and by applying those rules to particular people and labeling them as outsiders. what would be considered deviance in one instance is not in another.

” 322 words RESEARCH DESIGN Page | 6 . Success is replaced with an alternative to gain prestige in the eyes of their peers. Many delinquent/deviant acts are not always undertaken for financial gain but are nonutilitarian and malicious. He notes that deviant/delinquent acts are not always undertaken as an individual response to frustration but rather as a collective response. He sees the cause of much delinquency as status frustration. middle class measuring rod. “Lower class boy.the frustration of failing to achieve success by legitimate means. These are the values of the lower working class. delinquent subculture n which such boys are socialized.

Time consuming. Tenth Edition Page | 7 . Some of the advantages and disadvantages of using a questionnaire are as follows: Advantages: 1. In investigating. A great volume of information can be obtained from it 3. Its structure allows it to be easily analyzed 4. this entailed the use of questionnaires. In order to collect information. The use of primary and secondary data was incorporated in this study. a qualitative approach was utilized as a large sample was not required. books sociology websites and articles. 164 words 2 Definition taken from Oxford Pocket English Dictionary. Not costly to produce Disadvantages: 1. 2. Can be misinterpreted by respondents and they may produce fictitious answers. It is confidential 2. A total of 40 forty questionnaires were distributed to random persons from each of the secondary schools in Sangre Grande. “the extent to which labels or stigmas negatively impacts on juvenile behavior in Secondary Schools in Sangre Grande”. This was done so that the respondent’s responses would vary as they all are encapsulated in different environments with similar yet varied norms and expectations.Research is defined as the systematic study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions2. a data collection instrument and strategies had to be employed.

a sampling frame is a means of defining the population of interest. ethnicities. eight questionnaires were randomly distributed to candidate of each of the schools. A sampling frame was utilized to study the desired portion of the population. and genders. To achieve this. Stratified random sample was incorporated. This method was chosen because it allowed for a broad variety of responses as the respondents would be of varies age groups. 120 words Page | 8 .SAMPLE A sample can be defined as a small part or quantity intended to show what the whole is like. a total of forty questionnaires distributed in the five Secondary Schools in Sangre Grande.

open-ended questions. they are very easy to code but they often simplify issues too much. They are very useful in getting persons to express complicated ideas and feelings but on the other hand they are very difficult to code.DATA COLLECTION INSTRUMENT The data collection instrument utilized for this study was the questionnaire. 114 words QUESTIONNAIRE Page | 9 . They do not allow persons to reply in detail. The questionnaire contained two types of questions. thus possibility exists the response is bias. that is left entirely up to the respondent. it guides the respondent to answer in a particular way. The other type of questions was close-ended. these are much simpler and they offer the respondents a limited choice of answers. which provides no choice or guidance as to what the answer is.

as such you are not required to insert your name as a means of protecting your identity.You are kindly asked to provide truthful answers to the questions below. What ethnic group do you belong to? African Chinese West Indian Caucasian Mixed □ □ □ □ □ Page | 10 . What gender are you? Male□ Female□ 2. To what religious sect do you belong? 3. All the information provided will be kept strictly confidential. Please state the name of your school in the line provided. What age category do you fall under? 12-14 □ 15-17 □ 18-20 □ Over 20 □ 6. Which form are you in? Form 1 □ Form 2 □ Form 3 □ Form4 to 6 □ 5. 1. ____________________________________________________ 4.

What do you think motivates an individual to commit a deviant act? Status frustration Peer Pressure Immaturity A desire for material possessions To get attention/recognition □ □ □ □ □ Page | 11 . Have you ever seen someone committing a deviant act? Yes□ No□ 11. To which social class do you belong? Upper Class□ Middle Class□ Lower Class□ Neutral□ 8. What does the word deviant mean to you? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ ___ 9.7. If your answer was yes for the question above. Have you ever committed a deviant act? Yes□ No□ 10. what action did you take? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ ___ 12.

Within recent times can you average the percentage of defacement of school property? 18. Do you believe that deviant acts are ways of demonstrated by persons as a means of getting attention? Yes □ No □ 19. Which group of persons do you believe display the most deviant behavior? Toddlers □ Young adults □ Grown adults □ 17. Do you believe that some deviant acts are at times sanctioned or tolerated by some. In your view. What are some of the penalties for the defacements of school property and are they regularly enforced? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ Page | 12 . are any of the reasons listed above justifiable for such actions? Yes□ No□ 14. which make it difficult to penalize the problem in schools? Yes□ No□ 15.13. Do you believe that as a high school student the expectations from society are too high? Yes □ No □ 16.

or pay attention to them. because they have some form of drug addiction or gambling problem encourages deviant behavior? Yes □ No □ 21. Do you think that by including more curricular activities in the school syllabus will better channel the attention of persons to more productive use of time? Yes□ No□ Page | 13 . Do you have any suggestions for remedying the problem of deviant behavior amongst your peers. if so what are they? Yes □ No □ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ ____ 22. Would you say that parents who neglect to provide adequately for their children. Do you believe that defacement of school property namely graffiti is as sense of artistic expressions? Yes □ No □ 23._______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ ____ 20.

Do you think that individuals.24. Chantel Herbert PRRESENTATION OF DATA Page | 14 . I am extremely grateful and certain that the information given will be of great use to me. Yours truly. are most likely to become deviants? Yes□ No □ Thank you very much for your kind cooperation. Are you of the opinion that the breakdown of family life is the main contributor for the number of deviants present in today’s schools/society? Yes□ No□ 25. who come from poor broken homes.

Figure 1 Bar chart displaying the gender percentage of respondents who have committed deviant acts. Thirty one persons said yes which total 77% and nine persons said no which accounted for 23% Page | 15 . – – MALE FEMALE Fig 2: Displays a pie chart of the responses to question nineteen (19) which asked if deviant’s acts are ways demonstrated by persons as a means of getting attention.

Page | 16 . according to the responses of respondents. for the month of April over a period of four years in three selected schools. Fig 4: Exhibits a line graph of the number of recorded deviant acts committed.Fig 3: Cluster cone diagram portrays the age group percentage of respondents who have been involved in deviant acts. Fig 5: Demonstrates some of the major motivations for committing acts of deviants.

showing the penalties for the defacement of school property and other acts of deviance. Fig.Fig 6: Shows the percentage of respondent who believe that the breakdown of family life (dysfunctional families) is responsible for the number of deviants present in today’s school society. 7: Displays a table. Page | 17 .

of the consequences of deviant behavior. Repair of pay for what was damaged or stolen Suspension Expulsion Community service Educate others who have not yet committed acts of deviance.SCHOOL PENALTIES Detention SUGGESTED PENALTIES BY RESPONDENTS. Corporal Punishment ANALYSIS OF DATA From the data collected during my research both primary and secondary information were referenced. in an attempt to achieve the desired outcome of this study which aim it is to Page | 18 . Loss of the privilege of extracurricular activities and opportunity to attend field trips.

This provided the necessary statistics and facts to assist me with the accomplishment of my objectives which were all efficiently met. The percentage total of all schools showed that 67% of boys are responsible for deviant’s acts while 33% of girls committed deviant acts. Fig 1’s presentation looked at the percentage of males to females who committed deviant acts in the five sample schools. coming out of this analysis it can be said that the male gender is more susceptible to deviant behavior. 137 words FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS AND… Page | 19 . tables. bar charts and other visual presentation instruments.determine “the extent to which labels or stigmas negatively impacts on juvenile behavior in Secondary Schools in Sangre Grande” key questions were extracted from the data collection instrument and was analyzed using line graphs. pie charts.

Objective 1: To determine what motives persons have for committing acts of deviance in schools (juveniles). ethnic group. The reason for that being that they claimed to be under peer pressure. Objective 2: To observe if deviant acts are committed only by persons of a particular. It is evidenced that vast majority of persons who have committed acts of deviance were males with the age group of 18-20 years. 4. because 2. and come from broken homes. status frustration and simply to defile and show disrespect and disregard for the school environment.1. persons are motivated to commit acts of deviance in school. and religion or social class. religions and social classes. Objective 4: To establish. if certain deviant acts are sanctioned as opposed to others. certain acts of deviance are sanctioned as opposed to others and that clearly supported Howard Becker’s view that “deviance is in the eye of the beholder. Objective 3: The extent to which the family unit is responsible for producing deviants as they are the primary unit of socialization. gender. age category.It was discovered that. what is interesting is that the acts can be seen as a means of expressing one’s frustration about societal norms which tend to put too much pressure on adolescents.” Research have shown that deviant behaviour have long been a problem plaguing the school populations. [Dysfunctional families] 87% of respondents agree with the fact that when children are poorly socialized and live in an environment not conducive to productive learning where fine examples are set. but were of various ethnic groups. In this study it was uncovered that. 3. mainly as a result of peer pressure. The number/percentage of males who responded to the questionnaire was an alarming 67%. Responders Page | 20 . they tend to take all their suppressed attitudes and feelings of negativity into the school environment plaguing others with their disease.

Hence. 364 words BIBLIOGRAPHY Page | 21 . CONCLUSION Pen ultimately. and this leads persons to self fulfillment of their label and they turn to a life of deviance which further leads to a life f crime. All of the aims and objectives of this study was achieved and gave the researcher great insight into the topic of research. the Howard Becker’s labeling theory strongly supports the statement. it can be said that deviant behaviour is heavily influenced by labeling.were not afraid to voice their dissatisfaction with the penal system which they view as a cover for the real issues plaguing society. individuals tends to live up to the labels that are given to them.

2010. Sociology Themes and Perspectives. Howard S. 89 words Page | 22 .”  JSTOR Journals. ET. April 15th. 2010  Outsiders: Studies in the Sociology of Deviance. Michael Haralambos. Vol.” Labeling and Delinquency. Steve Chapman. Mike S. Delinquency. Belmont: Wadsworth Group. 2003. Martin Holborn and Robin Heald.  CAPE  Siegel. 2002. 2004. 2001. Al.  Caribbean Sociology Introductory Readings. Christine Barrow and Rhonda Reddock. March 1st 1997  Crime and deviance with theory and method: As/A-level Sociology. 38 p171.  Sociology for Caribbean Students. Becker. Nasser Mustapha.  Adams. San Diego. Academic Search Premier. Larry J.

TALLY CHART Page | 23 .

the total amount of questionnaires that was distributed was that of 40.Table illustrating the tabulated results of the Questionnaire. Page | 24 .

4 - - - - - 0 0 4 5 - - - - - - 4 - 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 40 40 33 21 30 - 7 19 10 - - - 8 0 - 2 9 10 - - 14 21 - A variety of responses - 100% walked away/turned a blind eye - - 14 12 0 40 9 0 5 - The majority Page | 25 .Questi on 1 2 3 YE S - NO - MAL E 27 - FEMAL E 13 - A 8 - B 9 - C 8 - D 7 3 6 3 6 1 1 5 - OTHER 8 The names of five different schools were given.

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