Table of Contents

1.0. Introduction to Apparel Industry ....................................................................................... 8
1.1. Performance of Indian Apparel Industry .......................................................................................... 8 1.2. Some Interesting Facts ..................................................................................................................... 9 1.3. Quotas, Tariffs and the End of the Multi-Fibre Arrangement .......................................................... 9

2.0. Apparel Industry Departments ........................................................................................... 9
2.1. MERCHANDISING............................................................................................................................ 10 2.1.1. A Merchandisers key responsibility......................................................................................... 10 2.2. Sampling Department .................................................................................................................... 11 2.2.1. Types of Samples in Sampling Dept......................................................................................... 11 2.3. FABRIC SOURCING .......................................................................................................................... 11 2.4. PURCHASING DEPARTMENT ........................................................................................................... 11 2.5. FABRIC AUDIT DEPARTMENT.......................................................................................................... 11 2.6. ACCESSORY STORES DEPARTMENT ................................................................................................ 12 2.7. PLANNING DEPARTMENT ............................................................................................................... 12 2.8. LABORATORY DEPARTMENT .......................................................................................................... 12 2.9. MACHINE MAINTENANCE .............................................................................................................. 12 2.9.1. The function of PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE .......................................................................... 13 2.10. CUTTING ROOM............................................................................................................................ 13 2.11. Production Department ............................................................................................................... 13 2.12. IED DEPARTMENT ......................................................................................................................... 14 2.13. EMBROIDERY DEPARTMENT ........................................................................................................ 14 2.14. WASHING DEPARTMENT .............................................................................................................. 14 2.15. QUALITY ASSURANCE DEPARTMENT ............................................................................................ 14 2.16. FINISHING DEPARTMENT ............................................................................................................. 15

3.0. What is Quality? ................................................................................................................. 16
3.1. Answers for Quality from Different Peoples .................................................................................. 16 3.2. Meaning of Quality ......................................................................................................................... 16 3.2.1. Expectations of Quality............................................................................................................ 16 3.3. Definitions of Quality...................................................................................................................... 16

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3.3.1. Holistic Perspective ................................................................................................................. 16 3.3.2. Product Perspective................................................................................................................. 17 3.3.3. Producer Perspective (Manufacturer Perspective) ................................................................. 17 3.3.4. Customer Perspective ............................................................................................................. 17 3.3.5. Value based perspective.......................................................................................................... 19

4.0. Dimensions of Quality......................................................................................................... 20
4.1. Performance ................................................................................................................................... 20 4.2. Features .......................................................................................................................................... 20 4.3. Reliability ........................................................................................................................................ 20 4.4. Conformance .................................................................................................................................. 21 4.5. Durability & Serviceability .............................................................................................................. 21 4.6. Aesthetics & Perceived Quality ...................................................................................................... 21

5.0. Quality Related Terms and Definitions ............................................................................ 22
5.1. Quality related terminology ........................................................................................................... 22 5.2. Introduction to Quality Assurance ................................................................................................. 23 5.2.1. The Textile Industry Complex .................................................................................................. 23 5.2.2. Textile quality Assurance ......................................................................................................... 24 5.2.3. Quality Control ........................................................................................................................ 26

6.0. Quality Standards and Quality Grade .............................................................................. 29
6.1. Standards – Introduction ................................................................................................................ 29 6.1.1. Standards – Definition by ISO .................................................................................................. 29 6.1.2. Standardization ....................................................................................................................... 29 6.1.3. Developing Standards .............................................................................................................. 30 6.1.4. Benefits of Standards .............................................................................................................. 30 6.1.5. Levels of Standards .................................................................................................................. 30 6.2. Types of Standards ......................................................................................................................... 31 6.3. Other types of Standards in the Industry ....................................................................................... 31 6.3.1. Company Standards................................................................................................................. 31 6.3.2. Industry Standards .................................................................................................................. 32 6.3.3. Voluntary Standards ................................................................................................................ 32 6.4. International Standards .................................................................................................................. 32

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6.5. APPLICATION OF STANDARDS TO TEXTILE INDUSTRY .................................................................... 33 6.5.1. Purpose of standards & specification ...................................................................................... 33 6.5.2. Focus of Company towards Quality Standard ......................................................................... 33 6.5.3. Construction Standards ........................................................................................................... 35 6.5.4. Special Consumer needs.......................................................................................................... 36 6.5.5. Appearance of the finished product........................................................................................ 36 6.5.6. Packaging ................................................................................................................................. 36

7.0. Different Textile and Apparel Standards ......................................................................... 37
7.1. Sources of Standards ...................................................................................................................... 37 7.2. American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists (AATCC).................................................. 37 7.2.1. About AATCC ........................................................................................................................... 37 7.3. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) ...................................................................... 38 7.3.1. ASTM Committees ................................................................................................................... 38 7.3.2. ASTM Standards ...................................................................................................................... 38 7.4. American Society for Quality (ASQ)................................................................................................ 39 7.4.1. The ASQ code of Ethics ............................................................................................................ 39 7.5. American Apparel and Footwear Association (AAFA) .................................................................... 40 7.5.1. AAFA Committees and Divisions ............................................................................................. 40 7.6. TC2 Textile / Clothing Technology Corp .......................................................................................... 41 7.7. American National Standards Institute (ANSI) ............................................................................... 41 7.8. ISO – International Organization for Standardization .................................................................... 41 7.8.1. Need for ISO ............................................................................................................................ 41 7.8.2. ISO 9000 Series Standards ....................................................................................................... 41 7.8.3. How does the series work? ..................................................................................................... 42 7.8.4. Elements of ISO 9000 Standards ............................................................................................. 43 7.8.5. Who is using ISO 9000? ........................................................................................................... 43 7.8.6. What does being registered to ISO 9001, 9002 or 9003 mean? ............................................. 43 7.8.7. Advantages of Implementing or registering to these standards ............................................. 43

8.0. Quality Specification ........................................................................................................... 45
8.1. Two important elements in Specifications ..................................................................................... 45 8.1.1. Minimums................................................................................................................................ 45 8.1.2. Tolerances ............................................................................................................................... 45 3

.......................................................................... 47 8........ 47 8.......................4................... Key element in Specification .............. Process specification ................................................2....................... 48 8.......................................0... Properties of Sewing Thread ........8..................................................................... 48 8.8.........................................6......... 48 8.................................................................................... 51 9.... Procurement Specifications........................ General Inspection Procedures .............4.................................... Tolerances ... 48 8............................... Types of Specification ........................... Acceptance Specifications ........................................................4.. 47 8...............................................................................1.............................. 57 10........................................ 46 8............................4......................... 48 8..............11...........7........4....................... Functional specifications .........................................................................................................4....................................................... Avoiding Zipper Problems .....................................................0.... 47 8..................4..................................... Correlation between Fabric Quality and Apparel Quality .................................................................... BUCKLES AND SNAP FASTENERS................ 51 9.......4...............................13.4.......1.......................... Test specifications ................. Sewing Threads: ................................. Installation Specifications ...........................................10......5............................................ Maintenance Specifications .............................................3.... Fabric Inspection Systems ............................................ Disposal Specifications .. Fabric Inspection Machine ............... 47 8.... Inspection Loop: .............................................. Use Specifications .......................................... 59 11.............3...........................................3...........................................................5....... Product specification .............. 52 9...........1.... 50 9...........................4....................................4................................................................. 4 – Point System .....5..............1....................................... 46 8............4.............................................................................................2..... 55 10............................................................4................................... 57 11.....................................4............ 55 9............................................ 59 12.................................0........... Open Specification............2................................................................................................................................. 49 9............................... 45 8...0.....1.................................12........ Closed specification .... Zippers ......................................6.......... Target Specification: ............... 50 9................................ Materials Specification ................................................4...................................................................................................................... 48 8...................3............................................................................................... Inspection specifications ................................................................................ Types of specifications used by various industries......................................... 64 4 ...................................... BUTTONS........ 46 8.........................3...2............... 47 8........ 46 8. 10-Point System........................................................... 46 8...............................................4......................................9.................................................

.......................................... In-Process inspection .. 68 13..............................1............................................... Fusing Technology ....... 86 16........... 74 15............................................ 85 16...............................................................................................2.... 77 15.................. 67 13.............................. 80 15....................................................................................................... 73 14........................................................... Elastic Waistband Testing ...... Sewing Defects ... Inspection procedures in Sewing Room ................2...............................2...........................................................................................................................................................1..3............................. 64 12......... Testing of Fusible Interlining .1....................................... Introduction – In-Process Inspection ............ 68 13.............................................................................................................................................. 85 16... 81 15..................0...................................... 87 16........................................... Glossary of Cutting room defects ........ 77 15..................................................................................1....................................................1............................. Glossary of sewing room defects ....Spreading defects...0..................................................1......................... Base cloths ..0................... Buttons Testing...................................... TRIMS TESTING.. Buckles ........1................................. Assembly Defects ............................................................................................................ Accelerated Aging Method ..............................................2............................ 86 16..................2.......................................................................................................................1...... Sewing Thread Testing ..................................... 64 12..........................................................................2....................................3................... Fit for the labeled Size .................6....................... 71 14................................................................................................................................................................................ 87 5 ........ Zipper Strength Tests ... 72 14.............................................................. Buttons ........1...3............................... Interlinings ............................................... 66 13..................... Cutting Defects ..................2................................... 72 14.................. Resistance to Degradation............. Pattern Defects – Marker making Defects ..................................5................3..........................................4...........................................................4........1..... 82 16......................................... 65 13..... 64 13..... 68 13......................... 65 13................................................................... Seaming Defects .................................... 65 13. Procedures practiced for Quality Control and Assurance (Cutting) ........................... 86 16..0.............................. Coating Systems ........................................................................2.............................5...3........................12.......................................... 71 14.....2... Testing of Zippers ..................5. 70 14..............................4. Resins ............................................................................. Snap Fasteners ...................... Functions of interlinings ......................... What to Inspect during Sewing? ..............2............................................................... 79 15...................3......................................... Procedures practiced for Quality Control and Assurance in Fusing Operation .........................................2.....

.................................. Time ........0..............................5............................................. 91 16............... What AQL is not? .... 89 16.......................4........ Color Change .....................................6.... 89 16............ Boardiness .3............................................................................ Statistical Sampling. 104 6 .................................................................. Some possible defects in garments with diagrams ...................... 91 16..............2...........1........6.........2...........................4...................4...... Brief History of AQL and Acceptance sampling .... Pressure ................................. No Inspection ................................. 100 18............................................3....................................3..............................................................................................3................ Measurements for men’s L/S dress shirts......................................................................................................5...4.......................................................... Problems associated with the use of the fusible interlinings.3........6.......... 88 16......................................................... Strike back .................. 91 17.....4................. 103 18.................................... 91 16.......................................................... Bubbling ....................................................................................................................16.................................. Arbitrary Sampling ........................................2......................................................................................... Sampling Plan – Production System: ................................................... 91 16................................................................................................................4................ The Control of Quality ................................... 101 18..... 99 18........5... How to ensure success at AQL based inspections? ................3.............................................3............5.4............... How do the Acceptance Sampling Plans Work? ........................................4................... 101 18..... 93 17............ How much to Inspect? ........ Shrinkage .. 90 16..... Spot Checking ...........4.................... 98 18....................................... Delamination ................................................................. 102 18....................4........................................ Dry clean and /or wash....... Strike Through ...................................................................7......................... 97 18...2........................ 99 18...............................1.3......... 103 18..... 98 18...................1............................. Final Inspection .......4.... 90 16.................................6....................100 % Inspection ..............................................................................4.................................... What is AQL? .. 98 18... 90 16................ 90 16............................4... 98 18...........................................................................3....................... Machinery and Equipment ..........6..............................................................................2.................................. 92 17........................................4.............................................................................................................. Temperature........................................................................................... .1....................................................................... 91 16........................................0...6...............................................................................................3...........................3.....7.............Strength test ................................................................................ Peel........................................ 93 17...... Acceptable Quality Level (AQL) ..........................................................6. 89 16.................1....................................... Not readily apparent defects................................................. 90 16...........................................................................

.. 107 20........................... 105 19...........0................. 109 20.................. 114 7 ......... Shipment samples ...............................0................................ 110 20.2.............................................7........................................ 110 20... Product Zones – Zoning defects and Appearance .......... 110 21.... 109 20......................... Wash test samples..18... 113 22................................2..........................8.............................. Salesmen samples or promotional samples ..........................2.. Glossary of finishing department defects .............................................................................3........ Pre-production samples ..................... Average Outgoing Quality Level (AOQL) ........................1.... 113 22..............................................................5......................... Photo samples or fit samples ....... Development samples or enquiry samples ..............................................................4............................................................ Counter samples or reference samples or approval samples .........................................................................................................................................................................................................0...... 111 21.................................. Continuous Sampling Plan – CSP – 1 ....... 111 22....................................1.................... Procedures practiced for quality control and assurance (Finishing) ..................................7.................................... Apparel – Packing Merchandise ......... 108 20.................................... 108 20........... 105 19.................0.......1............................ Packaging ..................................................................... Product Zones ..................................................6.................................................................................................................. 104 19..............1...................................................... Diagram for Packaging a shirt ............................... 108 20..................8............................................. Different Stages of Samples and their requirements ........ 110 20........ 104 18.......1...................................................... Quality / workmanship standards in general ........ Production samples ......

One of the most interesting features of the apparel industry is that. India and China have a comparative advantage in this industry though.0. India‟s garment exports totaled US$ 10. which determine the success of any business. • The industry proudly supports 7 million people as part of its workforce. India presently has entered the second phase of growth and is witnessing a massive rise in the domestic demand. marketing. such as. At present. India and China have the advantage of making textiles and so fabric costs are lower than in other countries. shipping costs and tariffs structure also affect the sourcing choices. including pricing. water and shelter. they have become the Apparel sourcing choice for many international companies. apparel production is a labor-intensive activity. 1.1. 8 . it is amongst the fastest growing industry segment and is also the second largest foreign exchange earner for the country. Performance of Indian Apparel Industry • As the world’s second largest producer of textile and garments. This gives immediate competitive advantage to producers in countries like India and China to export to more developed and high cost countries like the United States and the European Union. and aims to double this figure by 2011-12. material. Sourcing choices arise from profitability.99%. The growth of the domestic demand for clothing in India is linked with the success of the retailing sector. their vast labor forces and the relatively low cost of labor. This includes considering costs. The apparel industry accounts for 26% of all Indian exports.17 billion during the year 2008-09. Since. and distribution. price and quality are the key factors. In our present economic world of demand and supply. The Apparel Industry reflects people‟s lifestyles and shows their social and economic status. The issues of labor. EU. much of Asia and Middle East are India’s clients. buying factors of production. is the cost of labor.1. giving it an enviable market share of 2. The key element here though. The Indian government has targeted the apparel and textiles industry segments to reach $50 billion by the year 2015. wage rates are also a major factor in sourcing decisions. Introduction to Apparel Industry Apparel is one of the basic necessities of human civilization along with food. Since. The Apparel and Textile industry is India‟s second largest industry after IT Industry. it migrates from high cost nations to the low cost nations. even today it is the second largest provider of employment in the country. This is primarily due to the rise in the standard of living caused by the rise in the middle-income groups. buildings and machines versus factors affecting revenues. • The Americas. like land.

The Apparel Sector alone contributes to 8% of India’s total exports with exports recording a 1% growth over last year.000 invested in the industry. • Trade in these products is now governed by normal WTO rules. an average of 7 additional jobs created. Apparel Industry Departments • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • MERCHANDISING SAMPLING DEPARTMENT FABRIC SOURCING PURCHASING DEPARTMENT FABRIC AUDIT DEPARTMENT ACCESSORY STORES DEPARTMENT PLANNING DEPARTMENT LABORATORY DEPARTMENT MACHINE MAINTENANCE CAD ROOM CUTTING ROOM PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT IED DEPARTMENT EMBROIDERY DEPARTMENT WASHING DEPARTMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE DEPARTMENT FINISHING DEPARTMENT Process Sequence of Apparel Manufacturing 9 . ranks 6th in the world.0.• • • • For every INR 100. Some Interesting Facts • The largest producer of JUTE • The 2nd Largest producer of Cotton yarn • The 2nd largest producer of cellulosic fibre / yarn • The 2nd largest producer of Silk • The 3rd largest producer of raw cotton • The 4th largest producer of synthetic fibre/yarn 1. Quotas.2. India. Tariffs and the End of the Multi-Fibre Arrangement • On 1 January. 2.3. today. India expects to record a 15% growth in quantity and 20% growth in values In RMG exports. finally bringing to an end four decades of restrictions on trade in textiles and garments among World Trade Organization (WTO) members. 2005. By the year 2011-12.6% world market share and robust 11% growth 1. the quota restraints of the Multi-Fibre Arrangement (MFA) expired. with a 2.

Design / Sketch Pattern Design Sample Making Production Pattern Cutting Spreading Marker Making Grading Sorting/ Bundling Sewing/ Assembling Inspection Pressing/ Finishing Despatch Packing Final Inspection 2. developed. 2. • Marketing and merchandising department -A team of merchandisers and marketers work together under a profit controls head. executed and presented to the buyer. MERCHANDISING • Merchandising is a process through which products are planned.1.1. • Merchandisers handle the foreign buyers. A Merchandisers key responsibility • Product Development • Market and product Analysis • Selling the concept • Booking orders • Confirming Deliveries • Designing and Sampling • Costing • Raw Material • Flow Monitoring • Production Follow Ups • Payments Follows 10 .1. The teams are made according to the buyers being handled. • It includes directing and overseeing the development of product line from start to finish.

Types of Samples in Sampling Dept. • Sampling department directly co-ordinates with the merchandising and production department. the working procedure is the same 2. – Selection of fabric according to AQL 11 . • A fabric sourcer must have knowledge about all varieties of fabric in order to execute their function effectively. FABRIC SOURCING • Fabric sourcing department is basically engaged in determining how and where its merchandise i.1. • Proto Sample: • Fit Sample: • Pilot Run Sample: • Pre Production Sample: • Pre Size set • Size Set • Shipment Sample • Sales Sample 2. Sampling Department • In any export house.4. PURCHASING DEPARTMENT • The purchasing department is similar to the sourcing department but the main difference is that the sourcing department works for sourcing the fabrics alone while the purchasing department works for sourcing the accessories and trims. This department makes samples on the basis of specifications and requirements sent by the buyer in the tech pack 2. However.2. • It is different from bulk production as here each tailor is multi skilled. • It works in co-ordination with the merchandising department and looks after the delivery of the required goods within the scheduled time and cost. • Sampling is the product development stage.3.2. 2.5.2. FABRIC AUDIT DEPARTMENT • The main objectives of this department are: – Analysis of defects in the fabric by various methods.e fabric will be obtained. It is a process by which a small number of garments are made so as to match the buyer requirement and to get approval from the buyer so as to start off the production. the sampling department is one of the most important departments and it plays a vital in the uplifting of a unit. • Sampling is done to see how the product will look like when produced in bulk and to check whether there are any discrepancies in the pattern are made according to the buyer‟s specification.

– The fabric is checked in full width form only. – 15% fabric inspection is done for defects. ACCESSORY STORES DEPARTMENT • The stores receives the raw materials in-house and after this they will have to do the sampling process and then they have to make a list of the tests that are supposed to be carried out for that particular accessories and then they send this to the laboratory. 2. • Unacceptable quality of products often results ill-maintained machines.8. whether the mentioned length of the roll is correct or not. MACHINE MAINTENANCE • Apart from having quality system and the best practices. which requires some other tests to the external laboratories which are authorized ones with the buyers and the merchant‟s approval. • The lists of accessories and tests that are generally tested are as follows.  Button breaking test  Colored laces and tapes are tested for color fastness  Color fastness test for elastics  Lining fabrics for their dimensional stability 2. 2. – 100% width segregation is done.• Inspection is done basically on the following grounds: – 100% shade segregation is done. LABORATORY DEPARTMENT • The laboratory in the factory is equipped with all the necessary devices and instruments that are required for the testing of both the fabric and the accessory items. – 10 – 15% shrinkage test for light weight fabrics and mostly 100% for heavy weight fabrics. there are several tests which the buyer prescribes for which the machineries are not available in the factory for such tests the factory does not have the right machineries so they send such fabrics or accessories.‟ machine maintenance‟ is also a very important are to get „quality‟ products. 12 .9. • But. PLANNING DEPARTMENT • Planning department has a vital role to play – in the approval of the order – helps the merchants to determine the costing of a particular style – tell the merchants if the company is capable of producing the particular style in the given span of time – Helps them to know the capacity of the production floor. 2.6. – The quantity is checked.7.

size ratio and colors in which the patterns are to be cut. 13 .10. – the batch for which the style has to be installed. – any extra kinds of machines that are to be used for the particular style. 2.length of lay etc. – Pilot Production – Bulk Production • The production floor will receive the details like. Production Department • The production floor does production in two types. • Machine configuration chart • History card • Needle log cards. – target for each day – Breakup of the production quantity.9. 2. – number of operators required. from the spreads. Cutting order is an authorization by the production manager to cut a given amount of styles.11.. • It comes in form of a package file that carries the following details: • Sampling average.1. • Measurement sheet • Design worksheet of the garment • Purchase order • Fabric requisition sheet • CAD mini marker • Marker planning. CUTTING ROOM • Cutting department receives the order for cutting a garment style from the production manager. 2.• • Breakdown and preventive maintenance is primarily aimed toward reduced downtime and increased life respectively. – the style or the garment. Proper machine maintenance is also necessary to avoid casualties at the floor. weight of garment (base fabric consumption only). The function of PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE • Care of the fittings • Adjusting settings • Oil changing • Graph maintenance • Outward/inward reports • Needle weekly reports. and other trims averages.

• There are different types of washing procedures involved and they are classified as follows. Softener wash. 2. Enzyme wash. EMBROIDERY DEPARTMENT • The embroidery section is a department which comes into picture only when the particular style demands. QUALITY ASSURANCE DEPARTMENT • Quality is the major criteria for any product and the same rule applied even to garment industries also. • In order to maintain quality the quality assurance departments has split up their job into different stages of manufacturing and there are classified into four major groups which are as follows.staining 2. Desize wash.15.14. Tinting/ T. • The embroidery section receives the garments from the sewing floor or from the cutting department and then they start their embroidery process. Bleach wash.13.– The production managers help the planning department during planning or allocating a particular line for the style by telling them the capacity of the line and also telling them about the skills of the operators.12. – Pre-production audit: – Cutting audit: 14 . – operators skill level categorization – and other related aspects. – Normal wash/ water wash / dip and dry. IED DEPARTMENT • The IED department has to work with many other departments as this department gives the entire idea – of the garment construction – and the thread and trims consumption criteria. hence they play a vital role in determining the cost of producing a single piece of the garment and they also calculate the cost of the factory for that particular style of garment • The IED department helps the planning department to know the time required for the production of that particular style of the garment by calculating the SAM value 2. Stone enzyme wash. 2. WASHING DEPARTMENT • Once the garment has been finished with all the operations then they are sent to the washing department for the washing or finishing that has to be done for that particular style according to the buyers specifications and hence it plays a vital role in the final feel and the texture of the garment which has to match the specifications of the buyer 100%. Rubber ball wash. Denim wash.

15 . the carton box will include garments of single colour and same size. • For example.– Sewing audit: – End – line audit: 2. FINISHING DEPARTMENT • The finishing department is the department which comes after all the departments and it plays an equally important role in the final appearance of the garment. – Trimming – Inspection – Semi – pressing – Pressing – Tagging section – Packing • Solid Packing • In this method of packing. After the packing is done the garments are kept in the stores until the buyer sends the buyer QC for the inspection purpose before delivering them and once the QC arrives checking will be carried according to the AQL level and then it will be decided if the garments has to be accepted or rejected. • Ratio Packing • In this method the carton box includes garments of same colour but of different sizes according to the ratio.16. S: M: L: XL = 5: 7: 7: 5. 20 shirts of a similar colour say navy blue and the size say S will be put in one carton box. • This department includes majorly of the following steps. • Mixed Packing • In this method the carton box includes garments of different colours but of same size or garments with different colours and different sizes in a particular ratio form. • For example.

0. Holistic Perspective Webster‟s dictionary (1977) defines quality as “ that which belongs to something and makes or helps to make it what it is.1. degree of grade or excellence. superiority of kind. Customer Perspective E. property. someone has said.3. Answers for Quality from Different Peoples Quality means different things to different people. Generally more educated and sophisticated customers. The term quality is used in many ways for many reasons. Definitions of Quality.1. The best money can buy 2. areas of impact and concerns relating to quality. 3. Value based Perspective.3. 3. Meaning of Quality Quality can also mean meeting or exceeding customer expectations all the time. No single definition addresses all the dimensions. What is Quality? Quality is unusually slippery and difficult to come in grips with and therefore. JOHN RABBITT defines quality as “the ability to exceed a customer‟s expectations while maintaining a cost competitive market position” 3. any character or 16 . a character trait. Producer Perspective (Manufacturer Perspective) D. The answer from different people may be 1. Product Perspective C. characteristic element. Expectations of Quality The expectations of Quality and the ability to distinguish various quality characteristics also vary from one group of customers to another. The key here is to know accurately customer expectations on a continuing basis because unless you know customer expectations how can you meet or exceed them? 3. Quality is a complex concept. nature. The degree of excellence 3.3. “Quality is something I know when I see it”. The quality can be defined based on the following perspectives A.2. Meeting a specification or conformance to specifications 3. an ingredient or distinguishing attribute. the expectations of the quality will be more specific. Holistic Perspective B. Craftsmanship 4.1.2. Quality is essential character.

quality is not in steady state.” This definition helps us to look at quality from a holistic perspective and implies that even if quality is not the same for all things. Clearly these common measures of quality are not necessarily directly related to consumer satisfaction 3.3. The producer oriented definition of quality addresses a company‟s ability to produce products that consistently meet predetermined criteria and can be sold in the market at full price. it has achieved the desired quality level. Product Perspective A product quality is represented by total set of precise and measurable characteristics or components of a finished product. Consider the following example to understand quality based on product perspective more clearly. Two measures can be used to characterize the quality of the woven fabrics o (1) Weight in GSM or oz/yd2 o (2) Yarns / inch in warp and filling.characteristic which may make an object good or bad. These characteristics of the weight and count are linked to the yarn and weaving costs. A user based definition of quality simply means that the quality is whatever the customer says or wants – which goes back to meeting or exceeding customers‟ requirements and expectations. from a customer‟s perspective. Products that meet this level of quality are assumed to produce greater profit and income for the company This does not address consumer expectations. 3. the degree of excellence which a thing possesses. it is still inherent in all objects and actions. Producer Perspective (Manufacturer Perspective) From a producer or manufacture perspective.3.3. The desired level may be high. Differences in product quality can be attributed to differences in components or characteristics. This perspective recognizes the primary role of the customer in determining whether a product or service meets or exceeds expectations. Customer Perspective From a customer perspective quality depends on the dimensions of a product or service that are of important to that user.2. but do not necessarily imply better products.4. When a product meets a company‟s standards and specifications. low or medium or at any point in between the extremes of continuum. However.3. quality reflects an ever 17 . quality is defined as consistent conformance to specifications and standards. 3.

Edwards Deming (1982). who maintained that quality is the responsibility of the management. 18 . Several definitions of TQM exist. all the company‟s actions are directed towards producing a quality product for the target market. Deming‟s management principles include adopting a philosophy of improving products and services. All focus on the integrated. is a five step approach. and providing jobs. Hence a company needs a good understanding of the wants of the immediate consumer and the ultimate consumer. One challenge of examining the quality from the customer‟s perspective is understanding and incorporating the characteristics that the customer finds desirable at a price that is acceptable. Customer Satisfaction Cost Value Quality Benefit s Losses Satisfaction of requirements Satisfaction of Business Objectives Business Objectives vs. The Deming Cycle links the production. staying in business. continuous improvement process that involves everyone in the organization. In TQM. remaining competitive.changing market place and satisfies the ever changing needs of the customer in that market. Customer Satisfaction (Satisfying business objectives forms the foundation for customer satisfaction) The Deming Cycle One of the first individuals to recognize the need to focus on quality in production and product development was W. and meeting the company‟s business objectives. target markets and business objectives. This focus on customers and their satisfaction is a basic underlying principle of total quality management (TQM). satisfying the target market.

(3).3. (5).5.The Deming Cycle – 5 Step Approach      (1).  The question from the customer‟s view point is what is the value of this product or service to us?  How valuable is a given product or service? 19 . 3. (4). Communication within the company and with the customers is vital for survival in the market. Check the product.  Form a value based approach. Value based perspective  A value based definition of quality takes into consideration cost or price of a product or service. Market the product. Conduct consumer research. produce. Analyze the product. quality products are those that perform at acceptable prices or conform at acceptable costs. Produce the product. Check DO The Deming Cycle Act Plan Analyze Many companies follow these steps as they develop. market and evaluate or analyze their products. Use results in the planning the product (2).

0. life support equipment. Examples . It takes a long time for a company to build up a reputation for reliability. Dimensions of Quality The characteristics or conditions those are important to quality need to be established. Reliability Reliability refers to the probability of product‟s malfunctioning or failing within a specified period of time. softness. They are (1). We depend on.Durability (6). demand.1. A pen should be writeable 4. Reliability is "quality changing over time“ Reliability is a major economic factor in determining a product's success Sometimes equipment failure can have a major impact on human safety and/or health.Perceived Quality 4.Serviceability (7). safety 4.Aesthetics (8).baby clothing should be dressing ease.Reliability (4).4. and expect reliable products. Examples A rain coat should be a water repellent.2.Performance (2). and only a short time to be branded as "unreliable" after shipping a flawed product. and power generating plants are a few examples. Automobiles. Features Features of a product are those secondary characteristics that supplement a product basic functioning.3.Conformance (5). Some failures have serious social consequences and this should be taken into account when planning reliability studies 20 . A mosquito net should not allow mosquito to enter inside. Garvin has identified eight dimensions related to quality. Performance Performance is based on the primary operating characteristics of a product. planes.Features (3). durability.

tastes or smells.4. Durability & Serviceability Durability means the length of time a product will last or product life. and brand name reputation 21 . courtesy. Conformance Conformance refers to the degree or extent to which a product‟s design and operating characteristics meet pre-established standards. sounds. Perceived Quality refers to what consumers perceive to be the quality of a product based on image.6. 4.4. advertising. competence and ease of repair of a product. Serviceability refers to the speed.5. Aesthetics & Perceived Quality Aesthetics refers to how a product looks feels. 4.

1. processes. In other words quality is whatever the customer says it is or the customer it is or the customer is the final judge of quality.0. Quality Definition by ISO Quality is defined by ISO (International Standards Organization) as the “the totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs” 5. 22 . contract. responsibilities. Quality Related Terms and Definitions What is Quality? Quality is also the reflection of the customers‟ opinion of the value they see in your product compared to that of your competitor‟s. procedures. resources. service.5. and resources for implementing quality management Quality Plan: A document setting out the specify quality practices. and activities relevant to a particular product. Quality related terminology Here is some quality related terminology taken from an American National Standard “ANSI/ASQC A3 Quality systems terminology” Quality Management Quality System Quality Assurance Quality Plan Quality Policy Statistical Quality Control Quality Control Inspection Testing Quality Management: Aspect of all the overall management function that determines and implements the quality policy Quality System: The organizational structure. or a project.

Quality Policy: The overall intentions and directions of an organisation as regards quality as formally expressed by top management Quality Assurance: All those planned or systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that a product or service will satisfy given requirements for quality.1. Testing: A means of determining the capability of an item to meet specified requirements by subjecting the item to a set of physical. Raw materials include fibres. Sewn product manufacturers. Raw Materials Raw materials include the unprocessed components used to produce a product.2. yarns. furnishings and industrial products. 23 . gauging. one or more characteristics of a product or service. testing.1.1. 5. finishing chemicals and other materials as plastics and metals that are processed into buttons.2. dyes. examining. Wholesalers. environmental. and comparing these with the specified requirements to determine conformity. 5. Inspection: Activities such as measuring. 5. into the production process.1. The Textile Industry Complex The textile industry complex indicates suppliers of Raw material and processed materials. Introduction to Quality Assurance Quality Assurance: All those planned or systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that a product or service will satisfy given requirements for quality. Quality Control: The operational techniques and activities required to fulfill the requirements for quality Statistical Quality Control: The application of statistical techniques to the control of quality. 5. Sewn product manufacturers Sewn product manufacturers make apparel.or operating actions and conditions.2.2. zippers and other items that are used to produce finished goods. These manufacturers often incorporate other activities such as fusing and dyeing. and Retailers. chemical.2.

1.3. Consumers include consumers. Retailers Retailers present merchandise to the consumers via stores. Consumers Consumers are the individuals who use or wear finished textile products.2. websites. such as sewn product manufacturers who buy fabric and other materials.1. companies. evaluating.2. and other venues. direct sales.2. It is based on the knowledge of Textiles Design Merchandising Production Consumer behaviour Product and process evaluation Marketing Statistics 24 . producing. Textile quality Assurance Textile quality assurance is the process of designing. and retailers who buy quantities of identical products for sale to the consumer.They may sell their products to wholesalers or directly to consumers. •Fibres & Yarns •Dyes & Pigments •Fabrics •Closures. Many manufacturers and retailers have off-shore production facilities or work with contractors who produce goods 5. TV.2. catalogs.4. Trims and Support Materials Producer of Products •Manufacturers •Contractors •Wholesalers •Retailers (Store and non-store formats) Consumers of Products Producers of Materials Distribution of Products 5. and assessing the products to determine that they meet the desired quality level for a company‟s target market. 5.

3.5.2.  The particular difficulties encountered in managing service quality.1.2. Internal and External Benefits of Quality Internal Benefits External Benefits Reduces costs Increases dependability Increases speed Boosts moral Increases customer retention Increases profit Customer gets correct product or service Correct specifications Appropriate intangibles Customer satisfaction Customer retention 25 . 5.2. Some issues facing the quality profession  How to define quality from the customer‟s perspective?  Keeping up with the constant increases in the level of quality of today‟s goods and services.2.2.2.2.  Being able to deal with the shift in balance of power to consumers from producers through globalization.  Getting „leaner‟ by achieving higher levels of productivity.  How does the organization identify the quality dimensions that are most important to its customers?  Being able to avoid the costs of poor quality products and services.  Recognizing that customer loyalty is increasingly based on quality. Phases of Quality Assurance Inspection Before/after Production Inspection and Corrective Action during Production Quality built Into the Process Acceptance Sampling Process Control Continuous Improvement The least Progressive The most Progressive 5.

through production. Finished goods and services are studied to determine if they meet customer expectations 5. 5. Visual and Perceived quality of the garment Quality needs to be defined in terms of a particular framework of cost. someone makes them and gets paid for the privilege” Cost of Internal Failure Cost of External Failure  Scrapped materials. Costs of Quality Failure Defects are not free. QUALITY CONTROL ASPECTS OF GARMENT EXPORTS There are a number of factors on which quality fitness of garment industry is based such as – Performance. Quality Control Quality control (QC) includes the activities from the suppliers. QC throughout Production Systems Inputs Raw Materials. Durability.2.2.2. and to the customers.3.1.5. goods and  Warranty and servicing services costs  Rework/ retest  Product liability / Litigation  Reduced capacity/ yield/ increased  Complaints and their downtime administration  Rescheduling  Loss of customer goodwill  Service delays  Inconvenience to other  Disruption to the service process. Incoming materials are examined to make sure they meet the appropriate specifications.2. The qualities of partially completed products are analyzed to determine if production processes are functioning properly.3. customers  Focus is on troubleshooting not improvement 26 .3.3. Reliability.2.3. Parts and Supplies Quality of Inputs Conversion Production Process Quality of partially completed products Outputs Products and Services Quality of outputs 5.

Proper documentation and high standard labels on the garment are also important aspects as these things also create good impression. Physical properties.2. 5. Quality has to be taken care by the exporter. 27 . technology and quality as major up gradation tools. 2. 4. packaging. excuses are not entertained in international market for negligence for low quality garments. etc has to be also taken care of.2.6.5.g. Feel and fall of the garment.5. delivery. The garment shown in the catalogue should match with the final garment delivered.3. improving process  Measurement of customer satisfaction during process COST OF APPRAISAL  Testing and Inspection of supplier goods and services  Testing and Inspection of internal service processes  Measurement of customer satisfaction after process  Quality Audits 5.2. Colour fastness of the garment. its pricing. Apart from superior quality of the garment. The Economic Costs of Quality COST OF PREVENTION  Quality planning  Design of quality system  Staff quality training and development  Preventative maintenance  Supplier development training  Administering quality procedures (e. Points to note down for quality in garment manufacturing system Here some of main fabric properties that are taken into consideration for garment manufacturing for export basis: Overall look of the garment. Right formation of the garment. It is important to perform according to the promises given to the buyer.3. or else it creates very bad impression and results in loss of business and reputation.solving. In international market. ISO 9001)  Time spent problem .3.4. 3. quality reassurance is required at every point. 5. Basic Thumb Rules for Garment Manufacturers & Exporters 1. 6. new or existing exporters for both it is mandatory to use design. Finishing properties Presentation of the final produced garment.

28 . or else if anything goes wrong it could harm the organization. If your competitor has the better quality of garment in same pricing. 9. Before entering into international market. it is better to also enhance your garment quality.7. garment exporters have to carefully frame out the quality standards. 11. Timely delivery of garments is as important as its quality. The garment quality should match the samples shown during taking the orders. And after that strictly follow it. 10. The garment exporters should know to negotiate a premium price after quality assurance is done. 8.

d) A level of excellence. value. 29 . 6.2. extent. criterion set for usage or practice. regarded as a measure of adequacy. or they may incorporate very specific numerical descriptions.0. characteristics and performance for a firm‟s products. products. content. in a series of memos from various individuals within the company or in an unwritten form. the model or example commonly or generally accepted or adhered to. b) Something established for use as a rule or basis of comparison in measuring or judging capacity. Standards – Introduction We have all come across the term “standard” or “standards” in reference to quality control. Standards are “set of characteristics or procedures that provide a basis for resource and production decisions”. standards are documented agreements containing technical specifications or other precise criteria to be used consistently as rules. to ensure that materials. or definitions of characteristics. Standardization involves a series of actions by a group of individuals who work toward a specific goal. detailed written quality assurance manual. quality. including the sizes or size range.6. Expectations may exist in a written and organized form. and performance. Standardization Standardization is the process of developing and applying rules for a consistent and uniform approach to a specific activity for the benefit and with the cooperation of all concerned. Companies that are committed to quality are far more likely to have complied their expectations in an organized. 6. Standards are commonly agreed upon aids for communication and trade. quantity. custom or general consent as a model or example to be followed.1. guidelines. c) The type. attainment. but what exactly is a standard and who makes the standards? A standard may be defined as a) Something that is established by the authority. appearance aspects. These expectations may be stated in general terms. etc. 6. features or style components. These expectations describe various factors. etc. Standards – Definition by ISO According to ISO. Standards are used to define the quality level.1.1. materials. Quality Standards and Quality Grade Many companies have established sets of expectations for the products they produce or sell. processes and services are fit for their purpose.1.

cars run.3. Levels of Standards There are various levels of standards Company Standards: . Some of the benefits of standards are Standards facilitate communication and prevent misunderstanding. buildings stand. and performance. consumer. a company. Civilization or industrial progress as we know it today would have been impossible without the order standards create.1. The government standards generally tend to be related to safety or well-being of the people.These are standards either developed by the government or developed by other organizations and adopted by the government. Full consensus standards:.These standards are typically developed by a trade association or professional society. development. government agencies and consumers. These standards may be those developed by the company itself or developed by some other organizations and adopted by the company as it own standards. especially. Developing Standards Standards are developed with the cooperation of producers.These standards are useful to the company‟s design.5. 6. academia. For example.These are the standards developed by the representatives of all sectors. tape recorders record. manufacturers. or another area of interest. Standards make parts interchangeability possible and as a result mass production is possible Standards can be used in marketing strategy to promote purchase of products that meet nationally recognized requirements. government. Clothes fit and do not fade or fall apart in just one laundering or dry-cleaning. design.4. because a need is perceived within an industry.1. Industry Standards:. Often a standard reflects one company‟s interest that has been broadened to reflect a wider range of applications. Government Standards:. purchasing. and quality control departments. when conformance is backed by a certification program Standards reduce cost and save money. 30 . who have an interest in use of these standards either as a producer or consumer. American Chemical Society has for many years maintained specifications for chemical reagents. Standards are evaluated and revised many times before they are acceptable to all groups 6. Benefits of Standards The benefits of standards literally surround us.6. suppliers. and planes fly because each is made to conform to some technical standards for material. production.1. such as industry.

systems or services into groups based on the similar characteristics such as origin. product. Terminology: A document comprising definitions of terms. Classification: A systematic arrangement of materials. installing and operating equipment. and selecting.1. They often are given as numerical requirements with appropriate units and within reasonable limits. Guides suggest approaches. Specifications: A precise statement of set of requirements to be satisfied by a material. increase awareness of available techniques and provide information regarding evaluation and standardization. Guide: A series of options or instructions that do not recommend a specific course of action.3.3. 31 . 6. They include statistical procedures. or use.6. composition. offer guidance for a procedure. characteristics. or service that indicates the procedures for determining whether each of the requirements is satisfied. and evaluation of one or more qualities. abbreviations. Company Standards A company standard reflects a consensus among employees for products or services provided. or properties of a material.2. measurement. system. system or service that produces a test result. Types of Standards ASTM develops six types of full-consensus standards  Test methods  Specifications  Practices  Terminology  Guides  Classifications Test methods: A definite procedure for identification. and explanations of symbols. writing statements on precision. Practices: A definite procedure for performing one or more specific operations or functions that does not produce a test result. descriptions of terms. properties. These are not down-graded tests. products. Other types of Standards in the Industry • A Company Standard • Industry Standards • Voluntary Standards • Mandatory Standards 6. product.

3. International standards describe a situation in which majority of the products or services conform to the same standard regardless of where a product was produced or service was performed. International standards exist for many industries including o Information Processing o Banking o Energy production o Communication & o Textiles 32 .3. International Standards Since standards have become so important to many industries worldwide. in spite of what vendors may indicate.3.Company standards are used throughout the company in product development. Standards are much more common in terms of materials. Voluntary Standards Voluntary Standards allow individuals or companies to determine on their own whether to adopt standard.3. production. children‟s sleepwear has to meet mandatory standards in terms of its minimal burning behaviour. purchasing and quality assurance. No organization or group forces adoption of these standards. Most mandatory standards relate to safety or health issues.4. 6. There are several standard types on the market. Very few industry wide standards exist for performance of materials. ASTM standards are examples of voluntary standards. with textile products. 6. so that companies can buy the type and quality needed for their products 6.2. adoption is required. generally by a law or regulation. regulations or contracts. standards are used internationally to facilitate trade and technology transfer among nations. Industry standards are not common in the textile industry in terms of product performance. For example. Company standards describe general characteristics or features of a product or service or they describe a required level of performance. However voluntary standards may become incorporated into laws. Mandatory Standards With mandatory standards. 6.4. Industry Standards Industry standards reflects consensus among many companies in an industry or among individual members of a profession.

so quality standards enforced at that stage merely separate first quality merchandise from second quality merchandise 6. production and finishing.5. packaging.1. Focus of Company towards Quality Standard Company should focus on identifying the factors that contribute to a quality product and on incorporating standards that address those concerns. 33 . o American National Standards Institute (ANSI). shipping. vendors. APPLICATION OF STANDARDS TO TEXTILE INDUSTRY Introduction of Standards in business Standards reflect business objectives that deal with meeting target market needs and expectations. International standards relate to information necessary to do business in a global market. but appropriate aspects of quality are incorporated into standards and specifications as they are developed. 6. 6. prototype analysis and refinement. Quality cannot be added to the products after production.5.Often standards that are widely used by one country involved in international trade become part of the international standards simply because they are widely used in many parts of the world. More than 150 countries are involved in developing international standards. Uses of NATIONAL & INTERNATIONAL standards for business National standards address labeling and supplying information for consumers at point of purchase. o Standards New Zealand (SNZ) o British Standards Institute (BSI) Many standards relate to the textile industry. and other activities within a company. One does not write or develop quality standards. Standards must exist when communicating among producers.2. Purpose of standards & specification The purpose of standards and specifications is to incorporate the desired quality into the products based on those documents and requirements. Standards guide product development.5. retailers and consumers. Some of the national standards organization that work with ISO are o Japanese Industrial Standards Committee (JISC) o The Standards Council of Canada (SCC). materials selection. ISO 9000 standards are one example. International standards relate to information necessary to do business. suppliers. labeling.

1. skills and training costs. The dimensions incorporate a plus / minus tolerance or range overlaps into adjacent sizes 34 . • Grading rules used in developing the size range for each style • Expectations for fit • Performance of materials used in the product line • Basic elements regarding product construction • Special needs of the user • Appearance of the finished products • Packaging 6.2.A company needs to examine each element of its product and relate those elements to consumer expectations and satisfaction. and quantity • Examines product requirements in terms of materials. Marketing • Provides feedback from the customers and may seek out information from consumers. Many divisions of the company will be involved in the process of developing and continuously examining and refining company standards. It is the block and the grading rules used to change the size of that determine the dimension of the finished product. Product Size Product size is based on basic pattern blocks. The basic block is the starting point for developing the pattern for specific style. products and customer expectations Production Merchandising These information are integrated to form the standards related to the product line A company is likely to develop standards for • Size based on its basic blocks for patterns. • Analyses the requirements and capabilities related to equipment. Many companies have developed dimensions that are acceptable for each size.5. A consumer may discover that one company basic block fits her/his figure better than another company‟s basic block.

Fit standards must be consistent so that the products fit in a constant and consistent manner. o Durability requirements may use terms such as strong. Hems are circular (Side seams are produced first. machine washable and dryable. but they address expectations for product characteristics and performance for consumers 35 .2. Construction Standards Construction standards may address how components are assembled. pill resistant.2.5. or dry cleanable.5.5. Some companies may combine some aspects of fit with those of appearance. o Materials performance may focus on o requirements for care o Ability to be spread o Cut o Sewn & Finished in the production facility o Durability o Comfort o Appearance retention 6.4. o Care may be described as easy care. then garment is hemmed) Elastic are stitch in place All shirts have seven button fronts Construction standards do not describe the specific steps in production. fit. In some companies only materials performance is addressed. abrasion resistance. Standards might be listed as Shirts always have a separate collar stand.2. and construction should address meeting this standard.3. then the products will also meet the standard. Some common terms included in Standards Terms which are commonly used by the consumers may be included in the standards. 6. Product Fit In terms of product fit. companies may develop standards that describe a loose or tight fit. and long wearing. Performance of Materials and Products Performance of materials and products may be addressed by standards.5.3. (Ex. 6.2. This practice assumes that if materials meet the standard.6. A company may have a standard that all the side seams are perpendicular to the floor) Thus requirements for pattern.

5. and seam in commercial laundry presses. Packaging Packaging is another area that standards may address.5. Many companies have packaging standards that minimize environmental impact. Special Consumer needs Special consumer needs may be addressed in company standards. heat. bar code labeling is commonplace. 6. 36 . Standards of location of bar codes information incorporated in the bar codes are important. Companies that produce children‟s wear may focus on incorporating features that enable children to dress themselves.5. Companies that produce buttons for men‟s shirt may focus on producing buttons that do not crack when subjected to pressure. Standards may be as simple as o Stating that fabric and thread colors match o Hems do not roll Product appearance is one of the very first characteristics that attracts the attention of the consumer. In addition.4. Appearance of the finished product Company standards may also address the appearance of the finished product. appearance should address those characteristics that consumer may consider in assessing products. 6.5.6.6.

1. Organizations Several organizations which are available for quality standards o identify and define terms. o Develop technological advances to remain competitive in the world market and promote the textile industry. Major organizations for Quality Standards a) American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists (AATCC) b) American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) c) American Society for Quality (ASQ) d) American Apparel and Footwear Association (AAFA) e) TC2 Textile / Clothing Technology Corp f) American National Standards Institute (ANSI) g) International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 7. 7. Members of AATCC are employees of textile. apparel. American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists (AATCC) Introduction AATCC is the world‟s leading not-for-profit association serving textile professionals since 1921. Sources of Standards In an industry with so many segments and interests. consumer and retail organizations.2.2. researchers. 37 . governments. providing test method development.C. quality control materials. and professional networking for thousands of members in 60 countries throughout the world. and others.1.AATCC is headquartered in Research Triangle Park. Professional and trade organizations have developed to educate members and enhance communication among industry segments.. Different Textile and Apparel Standards 7. state and federal government agencies. o encourage fair trade practices. N.0. processing. Louis Olney of the Lowell Textile School in 1921. and testing industries. AATCC is the world's leading not-for-profit professional association for the textile design. and colleges and universities. AATCC develops internationally recognized standard test methods used by the industry. AATCC has thousands of individual and corporate members in more than 60 countries world wide. testing laboratories. dye and chemical manufacturers. USA. communicating quality requirements and supplying goods of the appropriate quality level are difficult.7. and home goods manufacturers. o develop consistent practices within the field for describing and evaluating materials and process. About AATCC The American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists (AATCC) was founded by Dr. materials.

enhance safety.It develops procedures to assess the characteristics of materials and their performance in the areas of o Wet processing. 7. is a globally recognized leader in the development and delivery of international voluntary consensus standards. facilitate market access and trade. ASTM procedures are used to identify physical characteristics and assess performance related to physical-mechanical procedures. other committees focus on other materials or products. ASTM was established in 1898. These procedures are often referred to as dry procedures because the materials are most often tested in the dry state. A test method is reviewed annually for its first three years of existence.000 ASTM standards are used around the world to improve product quality. ASTM Committees ASTM Committee D-13 focuses on textiles.2. government. ASTM Standards ASTM standards are full consensus standards.3. Development or extensive revision of a procedure reflects several years of work.3. is international in scope and supports the work of National Institute of Standards and Technology. such as leather and building materials. Test methods are approved by three level hierarchies before they are published in the Technical Manual. o Dyeing o Care o Biological properties & o Other related factors These procedures are sometimes described as wet tests because liquids. Today. AATCC standards and test methods are developed by research committees after extensive investigation and inter laboratory comparisons. Proposed standards and revisions are voted on by ASTM voting members. such as water and other solvents are used in preparing specimens or in the procedure. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Introduction ASTM International. some 12. revised or withdrawn 7. formerly known as the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM).3. ASTM also works with industry. and others interested in developing uniform standards. ASTM is one of the oldest professional organizations in United States. 7. and build consumer confidence. After that it is reviewed every five years and reaffirmed.1. This means that a standard result when a full of all concerned parties is met. ASTM consists of more than 130 technical committees. 38 .

a monthly journal that includes articles on quality methods and issues. ASTM requires that all standards be reviewed by committee every five years.4. so that each standard reflects current practices within industry. ASQ has developed a professional code of ethics to guide professional practices. ASQ has technical committees and a certification program for professionals. The society publishes a newsletter. and books related to quality issues. and practical issues related to quality. All interested individuals participate in the development and/or use of the standard. Quality progress.1. but standards sometimes are used in certifying products. On Q. American Society for Quality (ASQ) The American Society for Quality (ASQ) is an organisation of professionals who work to improve the quality of manufactured goods services and related factors. their employers. 7. Members and certification holders are required to observe the tenets sets forth below. theoretical. health and welfare of the public in the performance of their professional duties Relation with Employers and Clients o Article 2 : Perform Services only in their areas of competence o Article 3 : Continue their professional development throughout their careers and provide opportunities for the professional and ethical development of others 39 . The ASQ code of Ethics • Fundamental Principles ASQ requires it members and certification holders to conduct themselves ethically by Being honest and impartial in serving the public. several journals that examine technical. Standards are used voluntarily and are not legally binding unless they became incorporated in laws or regulations or are cited in contracts ASTM has no certificate program.Once the standard has been approved. This means that a standard ASTM procedure was followed and that the product met or exceeded a minimum level of performance established by another group completely separate from ASTM 7. Products may carry labels indicating that a product was certified following an ASTM procedure. ten times a year. it is included in the Annual Book of Standards. Relation with the public o Article 1 : Hold paramount the safety. customers and clients Striving to increase the competence and prestige of quality profession. and Using their knowledge and skill for enhancement of human welfare.4.

o Article 4 : Act in a professional manner in dealings with ASQ staff and each employer. footwear and other sewn products companies. councils and divisions. customer.5. subcommittees. 7. The Committees are classified under the following Headings Government. which compete in the global market. Trade and Regulatory Issues: Management Issues: Divisions and Specialty Markets: Technology Issues: Government.1. or client o Article 5 : Act as faithful agents or trustees and avoid conflict of interest and the appearance of conflicts of interest Relation with Peers o Article 6 : Build their professional reputation on the merit of their services and not to compete unfairly with others o Article 7 : Assure that credit for the work of the others is given to those to whom it is due 7. American Apparel and Footwear Association (AAFA) The American Apparel & Footwear Association (AAFA) is the national trade association representing apparel. and their suppliers. AAFA Committees and Divisions AAFA members actively serve on some 14 committees. Trade and Regulatory Issues:  Government Relations Committee  Brand Protection Council  Government Contracts Committee  Social Responsibility Committee  Environmental Committee  Product Safety Council Management Issues:  Financial Management Committee  Human Resources Leadership Council  Supplier Resource Committee Divisions and Specialty Markets:  Footwear Division  Intimate Apparel Council Technology Issues:  Information Systems Committee  Supply Chain & Product Innovation Committee 40 .5.

but related. which is a federation of many organizations. 7. International Standardization is now well established for very many technologies in such diverse field as information processing and communications. TC2 focuses on improving the sewn products industry to make it more productive. and to developing cooperation in the sphere of intellectual.7. agencies. TC2 Textile / Clothing Technology Corp TC2 was established in 1981 as a coalition of leaders in the U.8. 7. packaging. Need for ISO The existence of non-harmonized standards for similar technologies in different countries or regions can contribute to so called “technical barriers to trade”.  These requirements are usually based on minimum performance characteristics and often relate to such health and safety issues as strength of structural steel components used in bridges and buildings. competitive and cost effective. Certification attests that products has been tested and meet specified requirements.1. ISO 9000 Series Standards The ISO 9000 series is a set of five individual. The mission of ISO is to promote the development of standardization and related activities in the world with view to facilitating the international exchange of goods and services. Export oriented industries have always felt the need to agree on world standards to help international trade.  It has an accredited certificate program. 7. ship building.S textile and apparel industry. 41 . coordinates all national voluntary agencies that develop standards. ISO – International Organization for Standardization International Organization for Standardization is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies from some 100 countries.  Many ASTM procedures have been approved by the ANSI. American National Standards Institute (ANSI)  The American National Standards Institute. scientific. technological and economic activity. equipment. It works with manufacturers to develop new processes.8. This was the origin of the establishment of ISO.6. international standards on quality management and quality assurance.7. banking and financial services. and this is the indicated in the designation of the test method. energy production and utilization. and implementation procedures 7. Labour unions and government organizations.8. ISO is a non governmental organization established in 1947. distribution of goods. textiles. and groups.2. one from each country.

9002. Installation and Servicing ISO 9001 ISO 9002 ISO 9003 • Quality Systems – Model for Quality Assurance in Final Inspection and Test • Quality Management and Quality System Elements – Guidelines ISO 9004 • • • These standards were developed with the goal of effectively documenting the quality system elements to be implemented in order to maintain an effective quality system in a company. Production. manufacturing. 9002. commitment and systems to consistently meet defined quality and performance standards. ISO 9001. and it covers 20 elements of company operations. How does the series work? ISO 9000 is the road map for the series.3. Installation. 7. 9003 and 9004. They can be used in the manufacturing and service industries ISO 9000 • Quality Management and Quality Assurance Standards – Guidelines for Selection and Use • Quality Systems – Model for Quality Assurance in Design. ISO 9001 is the most comprehensive covering design. and Servicing • Quality Systems – Model for Quality Assurance in Production.8. the setting of the quality levels or performance standards is very much up to the company. It is important to recognize that these standards do not set or define quality levels. and servicing systems. Development. These standards seek to ensure that a company has in place necessary organization. 42 .They are generic not specific to any particular products. depending on the needs of the market place and the requirements of its customers. Its purpose is to provide the user with the guidelines for selection and use of ISO 9001. installation. and 9003 are actually successive subsets of each other.

Inspection and Testing 11. Management responsibility 2. 9002 or 9003. it forces all the employees to review the current practices in a variety of areas of the company operations 43 . Customer-supplied product 8. One doesn‟t have to be a multinational corporation to benefit from implementing these standards. Control of quality audits 17.8.5. Both large and small companies with international businesses perceive the ISO 9000 series as a route to open markets and improved competitiveness. and ISO 9003 covers only final product inspection and test. letterheads. Corrective and preventive action 15. Control of Inspection. preservation and delivery 16. Statistical Techniques 7. Servicing 20. 7. Who is using ISO 9000? Corporations around the world have been building and continue to build their quality systems around these standards.8. Quality System 3. 9002 or 9003 means having an accredited independent third party conduct. 7. 9002 or 9003 mean? Being registered to ISO 9001. Elements of ISO 9000 Standards 1. and other publicity materials. packaging. Design Control 5. What does being registered to ISO 9001. an on-site audit of your company‟s operation against the requirements of the appropriate standard. your company will receive a registration certificate that identifies your quality system as being in compliance with ISO 9001.8. and test equipment 12. 7.8. Documents and data control 6. Control of nonconforming product 14. Process Control 10. Handling. storage. Advantages of Implementing or registering to these standards These standards can be used as a vital management tool to improve quality and productivity and save costs. Inspection and test status 13. As company beings to implement ISO 9000 standard. Training 19. measuring.6. Product identification and traceability 9.ISO 9002 covers production and installation. You may publicize your registration and use the third party registrar‟s certification mark on your advertising.4.7. Internal quality audits 18. but not on your products. Upon successful completion of this audit. Purchasing 7. Contract Review 4.

resulting in reduced variability. As a company goes through registration process quality and productivity improves. It generates greater awareness of quality at various levels and across functions within a company. Being registered to ISO 9000 standards offers worldwide credibility as a company having good quality system in place 44 . and a competitive advantage. It helps identify opportunities for reducing errors and improving quality and productivity.and improve them as an effort is made to comply with the requirement of the standard. Being registered to ISO 9000 Standard will result in reduction in multiple audits / assessments as customers are increasingly accepting supplier quality system registration / certification from an accredited third party. ISO 9000 registration can be used as a marketing tool. It forces consistency in procedures and practices and thereby brings discipline in operations. which is the key to process improvement.

1. or process must be identified in detail in the specification. appearance. Requirements  Requirements indicate that these expectations are nonnegotiable. Key element in Specification  The final key element in specifications is the inclusion of procedures for analysis and evaluation. or in other words. as plus/minus value such as X + Y. not all the specs include tolerances 8. Tolerances are included when a range is acceptable.  Tolerances may be listed in several ways. 8.8. or service that indicates the procedures for determining whether each of the requirements is satisfied.1. The result is an unacceptable product. quality. 8. test method.1. specific terms and numerical values with the measurement units are listed so that it is clear what issues are considered important.  Specifications describe requirements. However. product. Several key elements have to be emphasized in this definition.0.2. 45 . system.  Establishing minimums can be very difficult task because it is these values that encompass performance.  The expectations for performance. as range from X to Y. or condition is expressly defined. and quality of the product. Tolerances  A tolerance describes the range of acceptable values. it describes allowable deviations from specified values. even though no single specification is outside the acceptable limit. Minimums  A minimum is the least or low acceptable value for any given parameter or dimension.  Requirements must be met for the specifications to be satisfied.2. Two important elements in Specifications  The numbers used in writing specs address two important elements in Specifications : (1) MINIMUMS & (2) TOLERANCES 8.  A major problem with tolerances is that they can accumulate or stack up in a product. Quality Specification Specifications: A specification or spec is a precise statement of a set of requirements to be satisfied by a material. or as a minimum with any value greater than the value listed is being acceptable. The procedure. In other words.1.

Target specifications for textile products may be stated in nebulous terms in the company‟s mission and philosophy statement. such as product dimensions. this detailed procedure usually refers to a standard test method. diagrams and detailed explanations or procedures may be included.4.3. upscale furnishings for discriminating consumer” incorporates some general aspects related to their market and types of products produced. All producers or vendors except for the one specified are restricted in submitting a bid.3. Closed specification A closed specification specifies the exact material. or other specific identifiers. Target Specification: Target specifications relate to the understanding the company‟s focus in terms of the product type. In terms of materials performance. or whatever performance and design features are required. a company describes its mission as “we provide high fashion. such as those developed by ASTM or AATCC. 46 . For example. and target market needs and expectations. or product by the manufacturer or vendor and includes style numbers. 8. 8. pricing and for items that must incorporate specific materials. because they ultimately measure whether the product conforms to specifications and is acceptable to the company and its target.4.  In terms of other aspects. An open specification describes what is wanted and leaves the field open to any supplier who can meet the requirements specified. component. 8. Open specifications can include general information or very specific information regarding fabric mass. Open specifications are used to locate appropriate materials that would satisfy the target market 8.1. 8. trade names. Open Specification An open specification allows for consideration of multiple vendors and includes a description of character and/or performance desired in the product or material to be purchased. Types of Specification Companies develop specifications for a product or a material as  An open or  Closed specification.2. Others may be of interest when dealing with specific textile products.3.1. price point. Types of specifications used by various industries Some of these are having little relation to textile products. resistance to fading. Closed specifications are used for the production purposes. Identification of procedures is critical.

and in tracking merchandise deliveries. Test specifications Test specifications may be combined with functional and materials specifications. Functional specifications need to focus on the product. conveyor belt size restrictions for moving merchandise. This would include a description of each seam. not the product.4. Understanding customer expectations for products will assist in developing the functional specifications. functional requirements for flammability are defined by the federal law for mattresses and mattress pads. Product specification Product specification includes elements related to production: seam and stich type. stitch density. These criteria are important for large companies that operate from distribution centers because of the space available. will describe how and when to inspect products. spreading and cutting. specifications for packaging might address the number of items to be placed in a box and the kind of labels needed on the exterior of the box. react to various conditions of use.4. quality characteristics.6.4. or acceptable inspection.3. final inspection.4.4.4. including pattern and marker making. 47 . this would focus on how the materials. equipment to be used for each operation. For example.8. finishing. or after production.7. Process specification Process specification addresses all processes. 8. Test specifications describe the procedures to follow in evaluating the process or the product before. stitch type. description. 8. packaging and shipment. and the precision of matching required for the plaids and when seams meet. For materials. and condition) with the function or performance aspects. 8. sewing. For example. seam type. Product specifications should address the issues related to product quality. Inspection specifications Inspection specifications include in-process inspection.4. during.5. what is the acceptable precision when arms-eye and sleeve seams meet at the underarm 8. Several laws and regulations incorporate functional specifications that must be met. Functional specifications Functional specifications for textile products relate to performance requirements. Materials Specification Materials Specification for textile products combines identification of the characteristics of each material (its type. and the aspects related to quality. 8. These specifications. For example.2. the thread to be used.

Testing done during the production focuses on the processes.Testing done before production focuses on the materials – their character and performance. Use Specifications Use specifications include information and special instructions that users will need to enable them to use the product in its intended manner. Probably prepared by the design and engineering divisions 8. Maintenance Specifications Maintenance specifications gives in details the procedures to be followed to ensure that the product receives correct maintenance at required intervals. functional. often during the finishing step 8.9. when and how expected of the product so that prospective suppliers know what is expected of them. inspection. Probably prepared by the design and marketing divisions 8. Installation Specifications Installation Specifications most often relate to the installation of the contract and home furnishings and industrial products. May be included with the recyclable products.11.4.4. test and acceptance areas.13. 8. 8. Acceptance Specifications Acceptance Specifications describe the frequency. where. Probably prepared by the design or product development and engineering divisions. It is the detail instructions necessary for installing products on site ready for use. Acceptance specifications often address aspects relate to the appearance. 48 .4. Procurement Specifications Provide a total picture of the what. Probably developed by design.4.12.10.4. and engineering divisions. performance. product development.8. labeling. Disposal Specifications Identifies any special requirements in terms of disposal of the product. type and the location of the defects that will be acceptable in the finished product. and packaging. Used by buying organizations to procure relatively complex products that must meet variety of requirements related to materials.4. Probably prepared by marketing with assistance from the design and engineering divisions. 8.

cuffs. and the product will hang in a distracting or uncomfortable manner. buttons and buttonholes must match within a narrow range or the closed placket will not line up with the correct button hole. a garment will no longer fit within the dimensions that define a size. as was the situation with the materials. If a product or a component of a product exceeds the acceptable range. When reviewing specs for products. if dimensions differ too much. Tolerances Tolerances identify the acceptable range of variation from a specification. 49 . such as collars. If dimensions for any given size are too far above or below the specifications. In addition. sleeves. the function of a product or component may be critical to its target market. Thus. it may no longer function.8. Components are the products pieces that are sewn together or otherwise attached and treated as one piece in a later production stage. For example.5. tolerances are more likely to be listed as ranges of behaviour than as minimums. the product is outside that size and does not meet customer expectations. and plackets.

ultimately resulting in the correction of the problem. feedback of this information to the appropriate people. 50 . Fabric Inspection Systems Inspection Inspection in reference to the apparel industry can be defined as the visual examination or review of raw materials (such as fabric. Inspectio n Correctio n of the defects Detection of Defects Deternminatio n of causes of defects Feedback of these defects to appropriate personnel Inspection Loop The inspection is divided into the following three sections 1). or requirements. Raw Material Inspection. 3). 2). 9. to say nothing of customers returns and dissatisfaction due to poor quality. sewing threads. as well as measuring the garments to check if they meet the required measurements.9. Inspection Loop: For inspection to be effective. buttons.0. Final Inspection. The main objective of inspection is the detection of the defects and nonconformance‟s as early as possible in the manufacturing process so that time and money are not wasted later on in either correcting the defect or writing off defective garments. The principle involved in inspection is the early detection of defects. the entire inspection loop is shown below must be completed. otherwise extra cost in garment manufacturing may be incurred due to either the loss of the material or time.1.). trims etc. specifications. zippers. In-process Inspection. partially finished components of the garments and completely finished garments in relation to some standards. it should be inspected to determine its acceptability from a quality viewpoint. and determination of the cause. Raw Material Inspection – Fabric Inspection After fabric is received.

Defects in the fabric can be seen easily and readily with these machines. A spreader will be able to concentrate on spreading more quickly without having to worry about inspecting the fabric. Regardless of what practice is followed. 9. Either way the fabric is inspected prior to spreading will remove the burden of the quality responsibility from those performing the spreading and cutting operations. make pattern changes less often. A cutter‟s productivity would increase because the defects are already marked. Such machines are also equipped to accurately measure the length of each roll of the fabric as well as monitor the width of the fabric. fashion garment manufacturers frequently change their patterns and therefore do not use the same markers again and again. Therefore the Variation in the width would result in the higher cost of manufacturing for such companies. Fabric Inspection Machine Fabric inspection is usually done on fabric inspection machines. the defects marked and the patterns cut around the defects so as not to include them in the finished garment. marked and recorded in the inspection form.3. 9. the important point is that the fabric should be inspected before cutting. as the inspector has a very good view of the fabric and the fabric does not need to be reversed to detect defects. These machines are designed so that rolls of the fabric can be mounted behind the inspection table under adequate light and rerolled as they leave the table. On the other hand. so variation in fabric width may not be as much of a problem for them as for the manufacturers of basic garments.Some garment manufacturers rely on the fabric suppliers to perform the fabric inspection and mark fabric defects. Also the profit margin for the basic garment manufacturers is usually lower than the fashion garment manufacturers. 51 .2. General Inspection Procedures 1. and therefore. maximum fabric utilization is vital for basic garment manufacturing companies. The defects are located. and perhaps use tight markers resulting in greater fabric utilization. The inspection machines are either power driven or the inspector pulls the fabric over the inspection table. In many small companies spreading and cutting is done by the same personnel and fabric is inspected as it is being spread on a table for cutting. Fabric inspection is done in suitable and safe environment with enough ventilation and proper lighting. The width of the fabric is very critical to the cost of the manufacturing but it may be even more critical to the manufacturers of basic garments such as men‟s and boy‟s underwear who frequently reuse the markers.

All defects must be flagged during inspection 11. the 4-point system and 10-point system are used most widely. weight. 9. 3. Fabric flaws or defects are assigned point values based on the following. 4 – Point System 10 – Point System Graniteville “78” system Dallas System. 9. is widely used by producers of apparel fabrics and by the department of Defense in United States and is endorsed by the AAMA as well as the American Society for Quality Control (ASQC). Approved standard of bulk dye lot must be available before starting inspection for assessing colour. 3. 5. 2. also called the American Apparel Manufacturers‟ Association (AAMA) point grading system for determining fabric quality. Fabric passing through the frame must be between 45-60 degree angles to inspector and must be done on appropriate Cool White light 2 F96 fluorescent bulbs above viewing area. If yard dyed or printed fabrics are being inspected the repeat measurement must be done from beginning. This way of fabric inspection is neither effective nor efficient. Fabric width must be checked from selvage to selvage against standard. 1. 10. All fabric inspection must be done when 80% of good or lot is received. 4. Standard approved bulk dye lot standards for all approved lots must be available prior to inspection. either on a slanting inspection table or on a horizontal table. Fabric speed on inspection machine must not be more than 15 yards per minute. finish and visual appearance. middle and end of selected rolls. However. 5. middle and end of each roll must be evaluated and documented. Shade continuity within a roll by checking shade variation between centre and selvage and the beginning. 6. In India and many other countries fabric inspection many times is carried out manually. Textile Distribution Institute (National Federation of Textiles-1955) System 4 – Point System revised.2. 6. 4 – Point System The 4 – Point System. The length of each roll inspected must be compared to length as mentioned on supplier ticketed tag and any deviation must be documented and reported to mill for additional replacement to avoid shortage. Back light can be used as and when needed. 7. some time with light under it or some time without it. 52 . There are various fabric inspection systems. construction. 12. 8. hand.4. Textiles like knits must be evaluated for weight against standard approved weight. 4. as listed below.

4 points when representing slubs may affect no more than 4 inches of defect. acceptance / rejection criteria of 40 points / square yard may be alright for fabric for men‟s casual trousers and sports shirts. 2. this drawback can be overcome. For example.Length of the defect in fabric. A defect point in a 4 – Point system is not a consistent unit of measure. being lost in the fabrication or escaping scoring in the finished garment. The fabric is graded regardless of the end product. 4 points represent 60 inches of continuous defect. a manufacturer may decide to use different point values for first and second quality fabrics (or acceptable / rejection criteria) depending on the end item being manufactured. The following points are worthy of note: 1. Different types of fabrics have different point levels of acceptability. fabric quality is assessed on the basis of the number of defect points per 100 square yards of fabric. This system is not sensitive to the width of the fabric being inspected. For example. The maximum number of defect points to be counted against any one linear yard is 4 points. However. For example. whereas in the second case. Therefore Points per 100 Square yards = Total points scored in the roll X 3600_______ Fabric width in inches X total yards inspected. However. a garment may use more or less than 40 points per 100 square yards as an acceptance criteria. a point represents 15 inches of defect. 3. 4. Overall. and normally those fabric rolls containing more than 40 points per 100 square yard are considered as “seconds”. There is no provision for the very influential factor 53 . These levels of acceptability are usually established by the mutual agreement between the buyer and the seller. but when representing a full width of defect in a 60-inch wide fabric. There are defects accepted inconspicuous areas of the first quality garments and rejected when found in conspicuous areas. a point represents 1 inch or less. but the same may not be adequate for fabric for men‟s suits. The 4 – point system makes no provision for the probability of minor defects causing seconds or minor defects falling out on the cutting table. In the first case. either warp or weft wise direction Up to 3 inches Over 3 inches up to 6 Inches Over 6 inches up to 9 inches Over 9 inches Holes and openings (Large Dimensions) 1 inch or less Over 1 Inch Points allotted 1 2 3 4 2 4 The total defect points per 100 square yard are calculated.

l. Chafe – An area where the fabric has been damaged by abrasion or friction. Bar – Filling wise thick place. m. j. Float – A thread that extend unwoven over the threads of the opposite set with which it should normally be interlaced. Coarse End Or Pick – A warp or weft yarn having larger diameter or more plies than normally used in the fabric.5. o. g. Missing End – A warp wise streak causing the improper spacing of the warp across the fabric. beaded. Fuzz Balls – Loose fibers originated from within the fabric that have formed balls and is woven into the fabric. Fine End – A warp yarn having smaller diameter or less plies than normally used in the fabric. Double Pick – An extra pick dragged into shed with the correct pick for a portion of the width of the fabric n. Hard Size – An excessive quantity of size material. Broken End – A warp yarn missing for a portion of its length d. Fly – loose fibers not originating from the fabric or foreign mater that have been woven into the fabric. No industry standards or acceptable limits exist for shortage in number of yards on roll of fabric. End Out – A warp end missing from the entire length of the cloth. 54 . h. k. Kink (Snarl) – A short length of yarn spontaneously doubled on itself. i. c. There is no standard sampling plans used in the industry for the inspection of the fabric or piece goods. tight. Misspick – A pick woven in the wrong order with respect to the weave or colour pattern. b. raged etc. Defects which must be scored includes: a. e. Flat – Two or more threads weaved as one and not meant to be a feature of the weave. Bad Selvedge – Loose. thin place. 6. f. p. coarse yarn or fine yarn.

5. Maximum defects allotted /yard = 10.6. r. u. The subject point system can be used consistently. Smash – An area where the fabric been ruptured by breakage of large number of ends. Length of the defects Warp defects Up to 1” 1” to 5” 5” to 10” 10” to 36” Weft defects Up to 1” 1” to 5” 5” to ½ Width More than ½ Width For width less than 50” First Quality = Total Defect Points < Total Yards inspected Points allotted 1 3 5 10 1 3 5 10 Otherwise it is second Quality For more than 50” width First Quality = Total Defects X 1. 10-Point System Under this system. and economically as an 55 .q. Otherwise it is second quality. Reed Mark -. Tight end or pick v. 9. t.1 Points < Total Yards Inspected. and poor quality fabric results in excess cost of apparel manufacturing.A warp wise streak caused by damage reed. Torn Selvedge 9. Mixed Yarn – Yarn that differs from that used in normal. fabric defects are assigned point values based on the following. s. effectively. Correlation between Fabric Quality and Apparel Quality Various studies have shown that there is a direct correlation between fabric quality and apparel quality. Temple Mark – Disturbance of the appearance at the temple region.

The weighting of the defects as 1. While inspecting fabric for obvious defects. this weakness is not disabling. 56 . one should note any extreme variations in the hand. however. The greatest weakness of this point system is difficulty in evaluating seriousness. The quality grade obtained by this system bears a measureable relation to garment quality. due to subtle factors like lighting and background color in the area where shade matching is being done.3 & 4 points defects is sound.2. This variation could be in the roll of the fabric or from roll to roll. Using proper precautions. Comparing the shades of two colors of two pieces of fabric (such as from roll to roll or between a standard piece of fabric and a roll of a fabric) is called shade matching.index of fabric quality. nap. The general use of this grading system will provide profitable to the seller and the buyer alike. shade matching can be difficult. or the ability of the individual who is doing the shade matching to perceive shades of color. Also any noticeable variation in the shade of a fabric should be recorded. The shade matching process sounds fairly simple. or nay other such surface finish characteristics if they will be detrimental.

10.0. Sewing Threads:
The necessity of the good sewing thread is evident because of the following (1). During sewing process in a high speed lock stitch machine, the thread is subjected to complex kinematic and dynamitic conditions. The speed at which it passes through the needle eye can reach 140-165 km / hour and at the moment at which the thread is caught by the sewing hook, the speed reaches 2000m/sec. While moving at such high speeds, the thread is subjected to friction from a number of guides, from the needle eye, from the fabric being sewn, from the bobbin case assembly, and from the bottom thread. At the same time, the thread is subjected to many stresses, all of which take place very quickly and at high speed. These effects acts on the sewing thread repeatedly and for a fairly prolonged period of time, since a length of the thread, before being incorporated in a stitch, may pass more than 30 times through the fabric, the needle eye, and the bobbin case mechanism. Such a severe working condition with the heat generated in the needle can reduce the initial strength of a thread by as much as 60% and this is one of the causes of increased breakage in the needle thread during high speed sewing. Therefore the sewing thread should be checked and tested for following characteristics. 1. Construction Yarn count, yarn ply, number of twists, twist balance, yarn strength (tenacity), yarn elongation. 2. Sewability At least three sewing thread packages from a lot should be used for at least 100 yards of sewing under normal conditions and a record kept for running performance. A good quality sewing thread should be able to produce uniform consistent stitches in the chosen sewing material at the highest machine speed under normal conditions. In addition, actually using at least three packages of sewing thread from each lot will give a very good indication of the following properties of sewing thread. 10.1. Properties of Sewing Thread 1. Imperfections Sewing threads should be free from slubs, knots or any such defects. Otherwise, there will be excessive stoppage on the sewing machine, resulting in the lower sewing efficiency. 2. Finish Thread finish is basically a lubricant applied to a sewing thread so that the thread will slip easily and smooth through the eye of the sewing machine needle and through various thread – handling parts of a sewing machine. This finish
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varies from 3 to 15% of the weight of the thread. The amount of finish must be consistent from package to package and from lot to lot; otherwise, sewing quality and efficiency will be lost completely. 3. Color Color of a sewing thread (including white) should match that of either he original or the standard sample and should not vary too much within a lot or shipment of sewing thread. Also, the color should not bleed in washing and or dry cleaning and fade in sunlight. 4. Package Density Package density of the sewing thread should be consistent from package to package within a shipment or lot and from shipment to shipment. If package density varies too much, sewing machine operators will have to adjust the tension frequently, resulting in lower productivity. 5. Winding Winding of the sewing thread on packages should be uniform; otherwise, it may result in excessive thread breakages, again causing lower efficiency. 6. Yardage Length of the sewing thread on each package should be at least the specified amount or within certain tolerance, such as + 2% of the labeled length.

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11.0. Zippers:
Zippers should be checked for the following. 1. Dimensions Check for the correct width of the tape. If it isn‟t correct, the machine will run off. Measure overall length with the zipper closed from extreme ends of metal. Tape extensions should be as specified. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Top and bottom stops be fastened securely Zipper tape should be of uniform in color if that is important Zipper should not cause wrinkling or puckering after it is sewn in to the garment Can a zipper be washed or dry cleaned? Will it fade? Will the slide deform under pressing or ironing? Check the force it takes to pull open the zipper (sideways) Pull tab should be affixed firmly to the slider body Slider should ride freely but must not be so free that it is loose on the chain Check also to be sure the slider locks securely.

11.1. Avoiding Zipper Problems Most zipper failures in garments are the result of - Improper installation methods in the sewing - Questionable garment design or construction - Incorrect product application - Factory and / or retail customer abuse. As a mechanically operational device, a zipper is the most sophisticated component in the garment, and thus is acutely vulnerable to human error. This is especially true in factories that use continuous zipper chain and perform the gapping, bottom stopping, and slidering operations in-house Slider Direction The slider direction must run in a specific direction. On metal chain, the points of the teeth face towards the open end of the zipper. Correct direction is more difficult to determine with the plastic chai, but in both cases, arrows are usually printed on the tapes that point towards top, open end. Right Side Up On plastic coil and extruded tooth chain, the slider should be mounted, with the pull tab on the same side as the printing on the tapes. Some of coil zipper is not symmetrical, therefore making slider mounting obvious. Side to side orientation is not critical with metal or molded chain.

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flangelock. brass. to match similarly treated textiles. fliplock and atuolock. 60 . Also. The use of fully cured chain with semi-cured textile will result in tape degradation when the assembly is subjected to a final cure. A resin treatment option is available for permanent press or low shrink applications. at some sacrifice of strength.Stabilization Most zippers tapes contain some percentage of cotton. will subject the tape to double treatment. The process consists of applying a material to the chain which. resulting in degradation of the cotton yarns. Resin treated chain is available in either a semi cured or fully cured state. Selecting the proper combination is best left to application lab of the zipper supplier. and nickel-silver. the use of resin treated chain in a garment that receives resin treatment as an assembly. Materials vary from light weight plastic through the family of metals such as Zinc. Slider action covers a spectrum from nonlock. when cured with a specified temperature/time relationship. camlock. which are commonly referred to as stabilization. will impart synthetic qualities to the cotton. steel. Slider and Chain Combinations Every zipper manufacturer has a large stable of slider and chain available for most applications. or cotton blend yarns in order to provide a dense anti-sleazy construction. pinlock.

61 . A misadjusted holder can cause ratcheting if the lock release malfunction or clam shelled sliders and chain damage if the pull clamp does not release after threading. Shear This is the act of attempting to shift one half of the chain with respect to the other half after the slider is mounted. It occurs when an operator tries to adjust the waistband alignment without first removing the slider. Excessive tension or shock loading of zipper chain during processing can affect dimensions and cause latent shrinkage Running more than one manufacturers‟ chain simultaneously can result in accidental mixing of components. and lifts the lock out of the path of the chain during slider threading. or is totally missing will allow the chain to open behind the slider. A crushed slider usually occurs in the pressing buck of the garment factory or in industry laundering. finishing. and applying a new stop. Long term storage at elevated temperatures can cause some tape yarn deterioration. Slider holder This device holds the slider by the pull tab. and at industrial laundries when operator wants to open the garments fast. as in opening a clam. and usually results in permanent damage. This condition can sometimes be repaired in the factory by pulling the slider down thus rehealing the chain. A stop that is not tightly clinched over the zipper teeth. this action does the damage. Slider Distortion A slider is “clam shelled” when the top and bottom have been spread apart.Handling and Processing Zipper Zipper chain should be stored at a moderate temperature and humidity. especially with resin treatment. Retail users can ratchet a slider by not fully opening the zipper when putting on or removing the garment. Ratcheting This is the act of forcing the slider down the chain by pulling the two open halves apart. This condition can be caused by sticking slider holder or by an overzealous consumer trying to move a stuck slider with a pair of pliers. Although some sliders are designed to ratchet. and with positive locking sliders the chain is destroyed. Ratcheting occurs in the sewing room. degrade the teeth. Bottom Stop The primary function of the bottom stop is to prevent accidental opening of the closed end of the chain. or as deliberate act to allow return of an unwanted item.

Hump Hump is a roller coaster effect of either the zipper chain or garment at the sew line. Hump after washing or dry cleaning is the result of the excessive differential shrinkage between the garment and zipper. A garment panel attached too close to teeth will interfere with the slider and get caught inside. A humpy garment is usually caused by the over tensioning the zipper during sewing. Contrary to poor opinion.Sewing The major cause of zipper failure is poor sewing. resulting in zipper hump. and using blunt. A humpy zipper is usually caused by the operator over tensioning the garment panel during sewing. Low stitch count can lead to tape sleaziness. large diameter needles will cause heating and melting during sewing because of the high density tight weave inherent in zipper tapes. causes localized high stresses and curvature which can eventually lead to erratic slider action and tape failure. 62 . this condition is usually the result of excessive garment textile shrinkage. causing disastrous zipper failure. or excessive foot pressure. or clam shelled sliders. The best policy is to remove the knives entirely. or use a positive edge guide. Attempting to free the slider can cause garment and chain damage. or feeding the assembly with the chain down in engagement with the feed dog. A sew line that is not parallel to the chain or wanders. Fly Serging The outer edge of zipper tape can be accidentally cut during right fly serging knives. Hump after washing or dry cleaning is the result of excessive foot pressure. Improper thread trimming will cause interference with slider action when the loose ends become caught.

Popping A zipper that opens in one spot has been “popped”. This can be caused by very high localized force, but is usually the result of folding the zipper back upon itself while under cross wise load. Most metal and extruded or molded plastic chain is almost impossible to “pop”. Coil zipper “pop” more readily, but can be “healed” by running the slider down and back up. Waist band and Hook/Eye Closures The hook and bar, snap, hook and eye, and button closures used at the top of the zipper opening are intended to absorb all the crosswise stress when closed. Mislocated or poorly attached closures will subject the zipper teeth to very high stresses at the top. Garments that are sized small, or retail customers that purchase undersized items, promote failure because these closures are usually left open and the slider is used to keel the opening closed. Bar tacks Bar tacks serve the function of protecting the bottom stop from excessive load in fly operations. A missing bar tack, or one set too low, could result in a bottom stop failure at the retail level. Design Problems Many potential zipper problems can be avoided at the garment design level. Some of the more common errors are; Opening too short, causing bottom stop failure, such as in hip hugger jeans Wrong side zipper not designed for stress Wrong type zipper Installation across a heavy fell seam, causing popping and slider snagging Insufficient fly piece reinforcement Improper sew line position, either too near the outer tape edge or the teeth. Lack of bar tacks at the bottom, as previously mentioned.

Zippers problems that do not fall within the scope of this bulletin are best diagnosed by calling in the supplier. Some manufacturers supply a free application lab service that will analyze a new design or construction prior to production.

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12.0. BUTTONS, BUCKLES AND SNAP FASTENERS
12.1. Buttons Buttons should have large, clean sew holes that are free from flash and will not cut the thread. Holes must be located properly in relation to the edge of the button. Buttons should be uniform thickness. The color or shade of the buttons should be within a certain visual tolerance. Buttons should be able to withstand laundering, dry cleaning, and pressing without any changes such as cracks, melting of surface (scorch), and change in color or shade.

12.2. Buckles Buckles should be checked for any visual defects such as sharp, burred edges. If a buckle is cloth or vinyl covered, there should not be an appropriate difference in the buckle and garment materials. 12.3. Snap Fasteners The attaching machinery should locate the snap fasteners accurately and at proper pressure. Components parts should be checked to close tolerances and free from dirt and other foreign substances so that they will feed rapidly through the hopper and permit uniform and troublefree assembly. Hardness and workability of metal are important factors also and are controlled carefully by quality suppliers. If the metal is too hard, the parts will be formed poorly and may crack; if it is too soft, the closure will be weak.

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13.0. TRIMS TESTING
Fusible Interlinings Zippers Elastic Waist band Sewing threads Buttons Snap Fasteners 13.1. Testing of Fusible Interlining The purpose of fusible interlinings is to give shape or form and improve the aesthetics of a garment. There is no better way to test fusible interlining other than to actually fuse the interlining with the end-item fabric and evaluate such samples before starting mass production. Therefore, at least three 30 X 30 cm (12 X 12 in.) pieces of end-item fabric cut and fused to the 23 X 23 cm (9 X 9 in.) pieces of fusible interlining at the recommended time, temperature, and pressure. Then these specimens are checked for compatibility, shrinkage and bond strength. Compatibility means that the fusible interlining material should provide good drapability, bulk, and support without altering the natural hand of the end item (shell) fabric. Shrinkage can be measured by placing gauge marks on the interlinings and shell fabrics before fusing and measuring the distance between these gauge marks after fusing. Any significant shrinkage in the fusible interlining fabric would result in a noticeable bubbled appearance on the right side of the shell/interlining assembly. Bond strength can be determined by using the standard method of testing bonded and laminated apparel fabrics. 13.2. Testing of Zippers Zippers can be tested using any one or more of the following ASTM test methods Durability of finish of zippers to laundering Colorfastness of zippers to dry cleaning Colorfastness of zippers to light Colorfastness of zippers to crocking Colorfastness of zippers to laundering Durability of finish of zippers to dry cleaning Resistance of zippers to salt spray (fog) Measuring zipper dimensions Strength tests of zippers Operability of zippers

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cleaning with multi-fibre fabric. The exposed specimens are then visually evaluated for any sign of corrosion and tested for ease of operation and crosswise strength.The durability of the finish of the zippers to laundering is evaluated by laundering the test specimen in a Launderometer. The specimen is then evaluated visually for any exposed base metal compared to a new zipper or compared to a sample illustrating an acceptable degree of coating loss. and therefore this test applies only to metal zippers. Such deterioration in a zipper can be evaluated by subjecting the zipper to a slat spray test. more than one may be needed for a complete evaluation. Since the tests are interrelated. No one test determines the suitability of a zipper for a specific end use.2. 1. Zipper Strength Tests The usefulness of a zipper in service can be evaluated by the following strength tests. but the zipper is air-dried rather than hot pressed. Crosswise Strength – The ability of a zipper chain to withstand lateral stress is measured by loading to destruction a 1 in. The color fastness of the zippers to laundering is tested by subjecting the zipper with a multi-fibre test fabric to home laundering according to the intended care instructions of the garments on which this particular zipper would be used. The alteration in shade of the zipper tape and degree of staining of multi-fibre test fabric is evaluated by the AATCC gray scale for staining and color change or the chromatic transference scale. plastic/nylon zippers do not corrode. The durability of the finish in the zippers to dry cleaning is tested by subjecting the zipper to the dry cleaning. as in AATCC test method 86. The dry cleaned specimen is compared with the original specimen and any change in the color of the specimen or staining of the multi-fibre fabric is then assessed using AATCC grey scale for color change or the chromatic transference scale. Zipper strength is usually tested in the following areas. 13.1. Zippers dimensions should be measured in certain ways so that they can be communicated effectively. 66 . The effect of the test on zipper coating is evaluated by noting the loss of coating on the zipper chain or components or both The color fastness of zippers to dry cleaning is tested by subjecting the zipper tape to commercial dry. and results are compared with the ease of operation and crosswise strength of the original specimens. section of the specimen in the tensile testing machine. a zipper will not operate smoothly and its crosswise strength may be reduced. Of course. slat spray testing. Sometimes due to corrosion. In this test method. specimens are subjected to slat spray [5% salt solution at 33 0 to 360 C for 24 hours continuously] as directed by ASTM method D 2059.

Resistance to cushioned compression of sliders – The lower plateau of compression tester is cushioned with a neoprene pad. the operability of zipper is tested and compared to the operability of the original zipper. 8. with a special fixture. Scoop pull-off – The gripping strength of a scoop around the bead is determined by pulling a single scoop from the bead at right angles to the stringer using a tensile testing machine with a specially designed fixture. The operability of zippers are tested by pulling the slider with a force indicator (such as pull gauge) along the zipper chain alternately in the opening and closing directions and the force required to maintain each movement is recorded. the force is applied through the slider pull and back plane of the slider. Elastic Waistband Testing There are two properties of an elastic waistband that need testing. the force is applied to the mouth of the slider. Then.2.3. The specimen is also examined for any other effects such as breaking of deformation of the lug or any other part of the assembly. 3. The force required to move the slider on the chain is a measure of the ease with which the zipper will operate in end use applications. Resistance to twist of pull and slider – In this method. losing elasticity) due to laundering. the twist resistance of a pull and slider assembly against a torsional force applied to the pull of the zipper is evaluated. Resistance to degradation (becoming loose. A fixture is used with a torque wrench to apply a specified twisting force to a slider pull. 6. 4. The amount of permanent twist imparted to the slider pull or other permanent damage or deformation are noted. Holding strength of stops – The ability of stops to perform their intended purpose is determined through the use of five different methods that simulate the important stresses encountered in the end use of zippers. an alternative method. i. The specimen is laid on the pad and a load is applied. 13. tensile load is applied to the slider pull to determine how much force is required to pull off the slider pull. Scoop slippage – The ability of a scoop to resist longitudinal movement along the bead of the tape is determined with a tensile testing machine fitted with a specially designed fixture 5. Slider deflection & recovery – There are two procedures for determining the resistance of slider planes of zippers to an opening or spreading force. In the other. 67 . 7. In one procedure. Fit for labeled size ii. Resistance to pull-off slider pull – In this test.

13. This test method outlines the procedure for testing the following properties of sewing threads.).1. measure the distance between the gauge marks and express that as a percentage of the original distance between the gauge marks 25 cm (10 in. The procedure for measuring sewing thread diameter by thickness gauge is as follows: 68 . single end Twist and twist balance Yarn number.3. The diameter of the thread is determined either with the thickness gauge or optically. Seam appearance can be adversely affected when the diameter of a thread is large enough to displace fabric yarn and results in a puckered seam. 3. such as needle‟s eye and tension disks.3. Take three specimens of the elastic that would be used for a waistband. stretch the specimen 50% and keep them in that stretched condition for 24 hours. Then subject them to accelerated aging [expose them to 149 0C for 2 hour in a circulated air oven]. This testing can be done on a tensile testing machine. let the specimens cool down to room temperature. After aging. or other decorative applications. Any shrinkage is unacceptable because it will result in tight fit. Usually any growth over 7% or 8% is not acceptable. Mark them in such a way that the distance between the marks is 25 cm (10 in.13. Fit for the labeled Size This property can be tested by stretching the waistband about 5 cm more than the hip dimension for the labeled size (to stimulate the condition that exists when putting on the garment) and bringing back the waistband to the waist dimension for the labeled size and measuring the force it takes to keep the waistband stretched at that particular dimension. Sewing performance can be influenced because thread is required to pass through restrictions. Use a – sign to indicate shrinkage and a + sign to indicate growth in the distance between the gauge marks.2. 13. Diameter – Knowledge of thread diameter is important because diameter can affect sewing performance and seam appearance. Sewing thread diameter is also a consideration when selecting sewing threads for embroidery. Then. Sewing Thread Testing There is an ASTM test method for sewing threads. contrast stitching. Diameter Length per thread holder Strength and elongation Shrinkage. Accelerated Aging Method 1. 2.). Then the similar garments must be wear tested and the numerical value of the force required must be correlated with the actual comfort during wear. The final results are expressed as the average of the three specimens. Allow them to relax for 10 min. Then.4. Resistance to Degradation.

taking care not to disturb the twists. the stitch and seam type and number of stitches per inch. Both the ends of one piece are secured in one clamp of the testing machine so that the length of the loop is about one-half the gauge length.001 in. One end of the second loop is passed through the loop formed by the first piece of the sewing thread. Twist and twist balance – For determining twist level in the sewing thread. The loop strength of a thread bears a direct relationship to stitch strength and hence to seam strength. by a single strand method (ASTM D-2256). Length per thread holder – The length of the sewing thread on a thread holder is measured in meters or yards while being removed from the thread holder. positioning the ends of the threads so that they are 10 cm (4 69 . Strength and Elongation – Strength and elongation of sewing threads are determined by the same way as the strength and elongation of yarn. A conditioned single end of thread is measured under a prescribed tensioning force before and after exposure to boiling water for ½ hour or dry heat 1520 + 30 C for 1 hour. thus adversely affecting seam appearance. the ASTM test methods cited in [88-89] can be used. Single End – Shrinkage of sewing thread is important because shrinkage can cause puckering of a seam.4. The optical method for measuring sewing thread diameter is not recommended because it has difficulty determining the exact boundaries of threads having hairy fibres on the surface. Measure the thickness to the nearest 0. the machine is started. the ultimate elongation of a seam is dependent on the material stitched. In this method. Shrinkage. and both ends of the second piece are clamped in the other clamp of the testing machine. under 3. The change in the length is expressed as a percentage of the length before exposure. Loop elongation is an indication of the degree to which seam. In a loop strength and elongation test. are observed and noted.psi) pressure at 10 points along the thread and calculate the average as diameter of the sewing thread. The determination of twist balance is important in predicting the snarling tendency of the thread during actual sewing operations. can be stretched without a thread breaking. under stress. about a meter (yard) of conditioned thread from a holder is withdrawn in the same manner as that in which it is delivered to the sewing machine and formed into a loop. The loop length and elongation of a sewing thread are a measure of the thread‟s ability to contribute to seam performance.Draw the thread from the side of the sewing thread holder. Besides loop elongation. each specimen consists of two pieces of yarn taken from one package or end. when the loop breaks. Place four strands of the thread side by side on the anvil and approximately midway between the sides of the pressure foot of the thickness gauge.0025 cm under 240gm/cm2 (0. and the load and elongation.

in. The twist balance is reported in terms of the complete rotations that the loop makes. 70 . the class A button being the most durable. B1 through B3 depending upon the impact resistance.) apart at the top of the loop.5. After the mans impact the button. Buttons Testing Durability of the buttons can be tested by an impact test. The buttons are classified as class A. cracking. Yarn Number – The yarn number of the sewing threads can be determined by the ASTM test methods 13. the button is removed from a testing device and visually examined using 5x Magnifying glass for breakage. or chipping. Individual buttons are placed on a surface centered under a tube through which a preselected mans falls from a preselected height. The practice is used for acceptance testing of buttons.

this means inspection at various points in the entire manufacturing process from spreading to pressing / finishing. o bundling . The operators (workers) and supervisors are constantly reminded that the company has a specific quality level to meet. o cutting. Types of Defects and their possible solutions. Decrease in labor costs due to decrease in repair rates. The idea behind the in process inspection is to inspect or check the quality of component parts close to the manufacturing a possible and thereby identify the source of quality problems as early in the manufacturing process as possible. just by the very presence of the inspectors in their section on a daily basis. Introduction – In-Process Inspection In-process inspection means the inspection of parts before they are assembled into a complete product. - 14.1. In apparel manufacturing. quality should be “manufactured into” a garment at every step and checked repeatedly during production. instead. 2. Because each worker realize that his/her work is subjected to being inspected at any time throughout the day the quality of work produced by workers will improve c.14. o ticketing o quality parameters and formats ) Quality Specs. This type of inspection can be performed by either quality control inspectors or individual operators themselves after they perform their respective operations. o (Marker making. The day is long past when apparel manufacturers can depend solely on 100% final inspection at the end of a production line. b. o spreading. In – process inspection is also called as during production or du-pro inspection A well run in-process inspection program will result in the following two advantages. These advantages are generally derived from the fact that due to in-process inspection a. 1. The data obtained can be effectively analyzed and utilized by the production supervisors and plant manager in correcting problems or improving quality. This will minimize the need for later repairs and rework. 71 . The quality cannot be “inspected into” a garment after it has been made. Reduction of major “surprises” from the customers due to bad quality. Procedures practiced for Quality Control and Assurance (Cutting) Process of Inspection. Each production operation performed correctly makes for a smooth running plant with low operating costs.0. Poor quality at any stage in production compounds itself and can be expected to increase total cost.

As a result. Static can be eliminated by either increasing the humidity in the cutting room or using static eliminators.2.Spreading defects Various factors that affect the spreading process are . face up. Bowing is the distortion of filling yarn from a straight line across the width of the fabric. Patterns not all facing in the same direction on a one way fabric 5.3. Pattern Parts Missing Correct number of parts for all sizes not included by the marker maker.. Static in the fabric may cause a distorted spread. Also the garment component containing such a defect will tend to twist or distort in laundering or dry-cleaning.Narrow fabric . Line definitions poor (e. chalk.14. Cut components from a slack spread will tend to be oversized. as required. A slack spread possesses excess length within the stipulated end of the spread. Some more possible spreading defects are . resulting in slackness and tightness in the ply that will lead to undersized components.Parts not correctly labeled in the marker. not all the plies are spread face down. .Ply alignment . Mixed parts. 3. 2. 14. leading to inaccurate cutting.Plies not all facing in the correct direction. therefore.g.Bowing . Patterns not facing in the correct direction on napped fabrics 4. Plies not spread accurately one above another ready for cutting. resulting in incompletely cut pattern sections. In-Process inspection . a marriage of wrong-sized parts. Pattern Defects – Marker making Defects 1. a garment may not drape or fit properly 6. The greater the variation in width or length alignment. .Splicing. A tight spread will contract after cutting. perforated lay not fully powdered). Patterns not aligned with respect to the grain line of the fabric. 72 .Ply Tension or Slackness . Splicing is the overlapping of two ends of fabric in a ply. A short or insufficient overlap will result in incompletely cut pattern sections and a long overlap will result in waste.Not enough plies to cover the quantity of garments required. the greater the waste in the precision cutting because the ends and sides must be trimmed to the narrowest and shortest plies. indistinctly printed line. This would cause unbalanced stresses in fabric. resulting in smaller and skimpier components than what should be. too thick.Mismatching of checks. or face to face. That is.

Fusion occurs due to heat created by excessively high speed of cutting or by friction of a dull knife. however 73 . Cutting Defects Cutting quality is a prerequisite for quality in a finished product. ripped or pulled yarns etc. The amount of fraying depends on fabric construction and finish. Marker too wide – Garment parts at the edge of the lay are cut with bits missing 10. keep knives sharp. indistinct. Skimpy marking – Either the marker did not use the outside edge of the pattern or the pattern was moved or swung after partial marking to squeeze the pattern into a smaller space in the interest of fabric economy. 9. how smooth or rough the cut surface is. this is desirable to prevent fraying. Frayed Edges May impede cutting time by clogging the knife action and / or mar the fabric with the rips or pulled yarns. Single edge fusion Consists of a single ply whose cut yarn ends are fused to form a hard brittle rim on the cut edge.4. check knife speed. cut work quality affects the ease and cost with which construction is accomplished. ragged or serrated edges This is the result of the poor cutting. and lubricate cutting blade. Improper cutting tools or dull knives cause excessive fraying in a pattern as section is cut. In addition. Such edges will impede sewing and / or diminish sewing quality. Generous marking – A combination of points 7 and 8 results in the components being sewn together with puckering or pleating. or dullness. Sometimes. Such a condition is caused by faulty knife edges such as burrs. the pattern is worn around the edges and should be replaced. 3. shade differences between cut fabric pieces within a bundle. place wax paper between fabric plies. The quality of work leaving the cutting room is determined by how true the cut fabric parts are to the pattern. Notches and drill marks omitted.7. chips. size. Not enough knife clearance allowance 11. placement and sequence alignment of notches and drill holes. 2. Adjacent plies in a block are fused together. material or fabric defects in cut fabric parts. 14. Ply to ply fusion More common and troublesome. such as under. 4.or overcut. To prevent fusion. In addition various factors in cutting that can affect the subsequent quality should be checked. Alternatively. Fuzzy. Mismatched checks and stripes 12. which makes if difficult for the sewing machine operator to pick up a single ply quickly. The defects that may arise in the cutting are 1. or misplaced. 8.

In such cases. pleating and a general uneconomical yardage waste.. it is necessary to drill holes with a marking fluid. Notches Notch size refers to the depth of the notch. but should be easily removable after processing or in case of an error. Drilling The drill hole may be too large or too small in diameter. 02. poor control of cutting machine with cutter‟s notching tool stroking diagonally instead of vertically. Such marks should last long enough so that further processing can be finished without difficulty. 14. Check notch placement against mating pieces. After a cut. Misplacement of a notch may be due to an improper spread marker. 5. If the notches are too small. Sometimes fabric properties are such that the slight movement of yarns in a fabric would close a drill hole. Spreading and Cutting room defects) S. neck openings. Pattern Precision Misshape or distortion of the pattern perimeter as cut. incorrect marker in that notches for mating parts do not coincide. check markers before cutting. The drill used for such purpose is hollow and carries marking fluid (ink) that is deposited at the drill point on the fabric as the needle is withdrawn. Marker. sewing operators may have difficulty locating them quickly. inseams and waist measurements etc. openings. In addition. Distorted Grading: Unbalanced patterns which would cause twisted seams. bottom.No Defect Description Pattern Grading Defects 01 Grade not conforming to Finished product not measuring to specified Specification Measurements dimensions and component parts not fitting in relationship to notches. To assure precision in a pattern. 74 . If the depth of the notch is too great.hardness and brittleness are undesirable it they impede sewing manipulation or may result in seams uncomfortable to the consumer. a drill may become too hot due to high speed or wrong size. Glossary of Cutting room defects (Pattern. Whether it is under-or overcut is due to poor manual control of cutting machine and poor lines on the marker. puckering. 6. and middle plies against the pattern. the notch may show after a garment is sewn. side seams. neck bands. causing the plies to fuse together at the drill hole. 7. The drill must stroke vertically to the table for uniform placement throughout the bundle. use tensionless spreading. resulting in decreased efficiency. and seams such as armholes.5. Quality control in stitching may be a problem if notches are not aligned. or allow time for fabric to relax. check the top. sleeve heads.

07. wrong bundles or Bundle Members causing mixed sizes and/or shades. 17. 04. 15. Pattern moved after partially marked to fit into space. 16. Improper Matching of Face of Not spread face down. face up or face to face Material as required Cutting Defects Marker or Perforator Not stapled or stenciled on lay to catch both edges causing parts to miss in cutting. Mismatching Plaids: Material spread too loose or too tight causing plaid lines to run diagonally or bow. pleating and a general mismatching of component parts. 11. 06. 09. Parts in lay will be short or material wasted. 08. Misdirected Napping: Air pockets not removed. Pieces not Symmetrical Will not sew together without puckering or pleating. Mismatched Plaids Marker did not block component parts to match. 75 . Notches and Punch Marks: Left out. Lines: puckering. 05. Skimpy marking Marker did not use outside perimeter of pattern. not clearly marked or misplaced. Too tight or too loose distorting dimensions of garment. Misdirected Napping Patterns not marked in same direction on napped fabrics Spreading Defects Uneven Spreading: Front edge of lay is not even. resulting in front or back edge of marker not catching all plies. or marked on. causing twisting. Marking Defects Shaded Parts: All component pans not included in same section. 14. Narrow Material Bolts or rolls of material too narrow to cover marker width Missed Sectional Breaks: Sectional marker breaks too long or too short. 13. Not Marked by Directional Bias will not fit together. Napped material reversed in spreading. 12. 18.03. Marker Too Wide Parts will not catch in the lay causing skimpy garments or requiring recuts Marker Too Narrow Results in wasted material. Perforated stencil not powdered. notches and punch marks Misplaced Piece Rate Tickets Attached to. or inked sufficiently to show distinct lines. 19 20. 10. causing parts not to fit in sewing or distorting dimensions of garments. Improper Tension Cloth spread too tight or too loose.

23. Drill marks misplaced. not perpendicular. Oil Spots Equipment improperly oiled or cleaned. omitted or wrong side drill used. Opening Slits Cut under above to the side or at incorrect angle. Thermo ply or Pin Ticket Improperly placed or marked marking: Mixed Plies Results in mixed shades 76 . not legible or marked on wrong side. 30. Stains Ink stains from stamping or pin ticket machines. 25. Improper Knife Sharpening Causing ragged. 22.21. 29. too shallow or omitted. 26. Letting knife lean. 27 28. too light. bleeding through. Improper Cutting Not following marker lines resulting in distorted parts. too deep. Not cut through ·entire bundle or omitted. Drill Marks 24. 31. causing top and bottom ply to be of different sizes. Knife or Scissors Cut Piece damaged by over run in cutting previous piece Shade Marking Defects Pencil or Machine marking Too dark. Notches Misplaced. frayed or fused edges on bundles.

Button sew. section. Upper Fronts: Baste neck. Material spread. Button hole. Marker lay made according to cutting ticket. Turn and press (shape). 11. as opposed to the inspector literally selecting work at each operator‟s work station. 7. Set Pocket. Assemble completed bundles of parts. Buttonhole. and controlling troublesome or key operations. 13. trim points. Cut parts delivered to plant 6. stich lining to bands. Hem bands. Trim and baste.0. Bind Sleeve. with a quality standard established to limit the amount of bad work permitted and a provision for operators to re inspect and repair entire bundles should this limit be exceeded. What to Inspect during Sewing? Manufacturing process flow chart for men‟s dress shirts is given below. ply number. Quarter-mark band. 77 . 3. Turn band ends. in process inspection can be established at various inspection points in sewing operations. Button Sew. Centre Pleat. Under fronts: Baste neck. 14. Machine knife cut 4. Die cutting small parts 5. Yokes: Label. Inspection procedures in Sewing Room Introduction In process inspection in the sewing involves the inspection of work from each operator. Set flap. and /or shade. Top stitch bands. Sew. Set Pocket.15. Crease Front. a complete manufacturing process chart should be made. Collar department: Fuse stays. Attach yoke backs. Set Flap. Hem button stay. 15. 8. any size. Since the inspections can often be performed for two or more operations at the same time. 10.1. run cuff. such as the importance of operations. Tack binding. First. clearly identifying the production or manufacturing steps for each type of garment made. trim tops. 1. Sleeves: Piece binding. top stitch. The decision on where to place the inspection stations will be influenced by various factors. Marker lay checked 100% 2. Backs: Pleat. Crease Front. Shape cuff top stitch. Button hole. Button Sew. Marker and material delivered to spreading operation. Cuff department: Hem cuff. run collar tops. 9. Backs 12. Band collar.

78 . Join shoulder seam 16. join side and underarm seams (Side fell) 18. 19. Inspection stations should provide a uniform work load for each inspector and should minimize the elapsed time between the completion of an operation and its inspection. hem shirt. and fold. Cuff attach. Pack The inspection points or stations should be carefully selected so that the operations to be checked are neither covered by later operations. nor necessitate ripping good work to repair a defect. run collar. Join collar to shirt 17.1 2 3 5 4 6 7 8 9 10 11 1 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 9 19 9 20 9 15. 20. Set sleeve. press. trim threads. Button shirt.

too thin a thread. needle heat. Skipped Stitches. particularly on thicker sheer fabrics. Feed damage. every fourth bundle is inspected and no operation ever goes longer than 4 hours without being inspected. Studies have shown that usually 15-20% of the operators in any plant will cause 65% to 80% of the defects. Knowledge of the factors that create problems in a particular operation helps to determine the specific dimension or characteristic to be maintained. damaged throat plate. 4. needle heat. 15. Each inspector should be clearly told what to look for while inspecting various operations. the thoroughness of inspection is more important than the quantity inspected. There should be a written quality specification for each job in the manufacturing process. picked threads. operator working un rhythmically. improper alignment of feed and foot. 2. It is advisable to plan on having enough inspectors so that. As with all the inspection activities. caused by wrong size or type of the needle. Most inspections in the in process check points can be performed rapidly without sacrificing the accuracy. from incorrect type of teeth. blunt needle. illustrating how they are supposed to appear after completion. excessive pressure by foot. arising from too thick a thread for needle. Thread breaks. or when machining over transverse seams. Wherever possible sketches of the garment parts should be included.2. ruptured threads or other damage to the fabric. 79 . and quite large units of inspection should be expected of inspectors each day. on the average. excessive machine speed. Sewing Defects 1.Each operator should be told what standard of work is acceptable and what is not. or machine feeding difficulty. 3. The inspectors must be allowed with enough time to inspect in greater detail when necessary and to carefully explain the quality problems to the supervisors. Dimensions and tolerances for critical points must be included. Needle damage are evidenced by holes. The daily volume of the garments produced should decide the numbers of inspectors and not the number of operators. from the hook irregularly failing to pick up the loop of thread from a needle‟s eye owing to a number of causes. or too tight tensions. There is no standard amount of inspection that will provide the right balance between the quality and costs for all types of garments and production methods.

Too many give rise to jamming and rapture of fabric threads. slippage of weave threads occur. Operator causes machine to snatch and does not allow machine to control fabric. because subsequent rows do not cover the first row of stitching. Wrong stitch density. 2. 7. Incorrect or uneven width of inlay.5. and other machine parts. incorrect needle. an extreme form of seam pucker. Staggered stitch. incorrectly adjusted timing. 1. caused by bad tension. or tight tensions. In extreme cases. Pleated seams. arising from bad handling by operator. the seams burst open. misaligned notches. or incorrect handling.4. 11. not following a mark. Improperly formed stitches. and too great a pressure. arising from too loose a tension or too large a stitch. 8. raw edges show. sharp feeds. 12. Seam grin. caused by improper alignment of fabric parts. Broken stitches. mismatched notches. 13. 4. Irregular or incorrect shape of the sewing line (sometimes called run-offs) in top stitching. too few to grinning or weak seams 10. Seam pucker. because of incorrect handling by the operator. arising from the wrong stitch type. or notches are exposed. a badly formed joint in the seam where the second line of the stitch runs over the first and cracks it. 6. arising from lack of or badly set guide. or use of the wrong stitch type. incorrectly set guide. and allowing one ply to creep against another. 3. Uneven stitch density. Insecure back stitching. Seaming Defects Seaming defects are usually caused by the errors arising from the interaction of the operator and the machine in the handling of the garment. ill fitting machine components. Twisted seam leading to irregular puckering or the garment parts not hanging correctly when worn. from faulty feed motion. 80 . too tight tensions. where operator failed to ease fullness evenly 9. Oil spots or stains. 15. incorrectly adjusted folder.

Wrong shade of thread used. Lining too full. 8. hooks and eyes. bar tacks. Wrong seam or stitch type used. 15. or sewing not following the mark. 9. careless operator. Parts. Mismatched check or stripes 6. parts omitted in cutting. hooks and bars. where transverse seams do not match (e. (e. zips).g. or when the whole garment is assembled inside out. tapes. Assembly Defects Assembly defects are perhaps caused by errors arising in marking and cutting. 10. or a combination of these.5. where part is sewn with the face side opposite from specification. inside leg seams at the fork of the trousers) 7. Mismatched seam. pads in relation to the shoulder. Garment parts shaded owing to being mixed after cutting 81 .. sleeve in relation to the armhole. top stitching. Extraneous part caught in seam. showing bubbles and fullness. caused by bad work flow. Finished components not correct to size or shape or not symmetrical 2. twisted. for example.. showing below the bottom of the garment. an unrelated piece showing through the seam. 1. perhaps when the part cut for one side of the garment is sewn in the other. Components or features wrongly positioned or misaligned arising from incorrect marking. shrinking or stretching fabric. or not securely caught on inside. components. incorrect seam widths. zips. pockets. inaccurate marking or cutting. buttons. pockets. 7. arising from incorrect patterns. as well as sewing operations in the sewing room. Blind stitching showing on the face side.5.g. collar in relation to the under collar or the neck. too tight. Garment parts cockling. incorrectly pleated and so on. pleated. arising from improperly adjusted bender. 5. twisted. 4. cockling. 3. too tight. 6. Interlining incorrectly positioned. 11. 8. wrongly printed work tickets. Finished garment not to size. button holes. fixtures omitted. Reversed garment part. twisted. closures. too full.

03. 09 Thread Breaks Wrong thread application.No Defect Description 01 Scissors or Knife Cut Self-explanatory 02. Needle Chew Caused by use of wrong or blunt needle or machine feeding difficulty 04. sewing machine malfunction. Irregular Gauge of Stitching Not using correct sewing machine or using single needle machine where a multiple needle machine is required 13. 06.6. b) Needle puncture. 10. Wrong Shade of Thread Either caused by basic purchasing error. Parts in one.way fabrics in wrong direction. Spots or Stains Normally the result of a defective machine or a dirty work area. Sometime results from poor selection of type of seam for fabric used or purpose of seam in garment. Incorrect Material Shading Where components do not match exactly as to shade 05. Open Seams Incorrect folder or poor operator technique. Puckered Seams An irregular seam surface usually caused by a) Inherent fabric characteristic. Machine sewing parts too large or small for fabric or seam desired irregularly cut patterns or fabric irregularities and operator feeding fabric faster than normal feeding action of the machine. 11. 14. c) Machine feed slippage or d) incorrect machine application 08 Pleated Seams Caused by incorrect machine attachments. 12. defective thread. 82 . Tear Usually the result of excessive strain or snagging on the manufacturing machinery. 15. Run Off Operator not following marking or not using mechanical aids such as edge guides to assure uniform stitching. Glossary of sewing room defects S. Loose Threads Can be caused either by malformed stitching or poor trimming techniques 07. 10 Insecure Backstitching Original stitch row not covered with second seam. such as pockets. manufacturing defect by thread supplier or operator selecting wrong color from thread bin.9. Mismatched trimming. usually only small parts.

Finished Components Not Could be caused by faulty pattern. 18. Broken Stitches Often times the fault of wrong type of stitch for specific seam construction. 36. Uncut Buttonhole Where knife failed to cut button-hole United Stitch Where tying stitches on automatic machines fail to secure. Management error in selection-or operating personnel failing to follow specifications Loose Thread Tension Tensions not adjusted correctly by operator Tight Thread Tension Tensions not adjusted correctly by operator Wrong Stitches per Inch Normally caused by operators who lengthen stitch to increase machine speed Skipped Stitch Caused by machine malfunction or excessive needle heat due to friction. inattentive operator. 20. Uneven Edge Where stitching not straight or improperly formed in creasing machine Ragged Edges Usually occurs where knives on automatic button-hole machines do not dip smoothly. Excessive Fullness Caused where piece surface not smoothed prior to stitching. 26. 34. 28. cutting. where part cut for one side of garment sewn in other. previous operations in stitching or by indifferent operator attention to the specified tolerance. 17. 30. 35. 32. 22. Wrong Seam or Stitch Type 21. 23. 29. 27. Could be caused by excessive tightness in machine tensions Closures Omitted Normally an oversight by operators or failure by inspectors Closures Misplaced. wrong work Garment tickets or poor inspection Twisted Seam Caused by improper alignment of fabric pieces. measuring to Tolerances previous operations in stitching or by indifferent operator attention to the specified tolerance Dimensions out of Tolerance Could be caused by faulty pattern. 33.15. 24. Omission of Any Part of Poor work flow. cutting. 19. 16. . Inattention or inexperience by operating personnel or improper alignment with gauges. Hole Damage caused by faulty machine or related equipment Faulty Gauging Where operator has not sewn seam to specified Margin 83 25. 31. uneven tension or pull on plies being stitched Pieces Not Aligned Pieces sewn together not matched to each other Reversed pieces Where piece is sewn with face side opposite from specification. Notches Exposed Poor operator technique and execution in not covering notch with seam.

38.do not line up or cross specified point Where bar tack or brad not in proper location Caused by operator speeding up machine too rapidly or by holding back or pushing fabric through machine in variance with correct machine feed Failure of operator to replace a dull needle Where a component of part of a garment been caught in an unrelated operation.37. 39. Misaligned Closure Misplaced Component Misaligned Seam Mislocated Reinforcement Uneven Stitch 42. 43. 41. 84 . Needle Pick Caught Place Closure components do not line up Where part not positioned according to specifications Where seams . 40.

The performance testing of interlinings as well as the control of variables in the fusing of interlinings are of utmost importance.1. and adhesives with different properties. enhance comfort or enclose interior parts for aesthetic or performance reasons. support. Fusible interlinings incorporate a bonding agent that is heat. linings. These materials (Interlinings. lightweight interlining. 85 . Although they contribute to the overall quality of the finished product. and an understanding of compatibility factors. Nylon provides a stiff. Often many types of support materials are combined in one product because each material has a different function. producers of interlinings may create new fabrications. As styling needs change. or steam activated. The heavier the weight. Where resiliency is needed. These materials must be compatible with the fashion fabric. the processes to be used. they may not be visible at point of sale. weight. and care of the finished product. These materials come in variety of different types. are made from many different materials. Many different types are available and influence the aesthetics. the hand and drape of the fabric can be altered by the selection of the interlinings. help maintain a product‟s appearance. Light weight interlinings produce a softer hand. and method of application need to be specified. and may have different application methods and care requirements. 16. fabric weight. resilient. cost. fabrication method. Handling and sewability are the other two important factors to consider. reinforce and improve performance. pressure. Several types of bonding agents can be applied in a pattern to or all over the back of the interlining. Interlinings Interlinings or interfacings are sewn or fused to specific areas of the product to shape. There is nothing much that can be done visually on interlinings. Procedures practiced for Quality Control and Assurance in Fusing Operation. For example. and other support materials) provide a foundation for product shape. Interlinings that are easy to sew and handle have lower production costs that those of that require more effort and attention to detail. the more support provided to the fashion fabric. comfort. Selection of interlinings with the appropriate properties for the fabric and the style requires knowledge of the available products.16. Fibre content.0. For products were soft hand is important. The soft unstructured look that was popular during the 1990s did not mean interlinings were omitted. performance. cotton and rayon may be preferred. support areas subjected to stress. Interlinings can be fused to the fashion fabric quickly and inexpensively. wool and hair fibres are preferred. their characteristics were modified to produce a softer hand and better drape ability.

1. Fusing Technology The term fusing technology is concerned with: . Base cloths The Base cloth. Interlinings help form and maintain the hand. Aesthetics Appropriately chosen interlinings provide the foundation for the shape and hand of the garments and the stability to maintain the same appearance through use. stiffness or softness of materials used in a garment. They are frequently used under the embroidery to stabilize fabrics for better-executed stitching. Manufacturers may select certain types of interlinings to facilitate handling and improve the sewability of the fabrics and garment parts.1.Resins .Machinery and Equipment . care. sprayed.2. One designer‟s interpretation of a soft silhouette may be interpreted as limp by another designer. 16.2. also called the substrate is an interlining material on which the thermoplastic resin is coated. and (2). 16. and storage. A firm with high quality standards may determine that shrinkage of either the interlining or shell fabric is unacceptable. Interlinings are available in a variety of different hands and must be analyzed with the shell fabric when determining the best combination.16. To produce and retain the desired aesthetic appearance. other firms may allow tolerances for shrinkage if both the shell and interlining shrink the same amount. durability and resiliency of the shell fabric.1. and they must be adaptable to the equipment used in the plant.Control of Quality. Functions of interlinings Interlinings serve mainly for two major functions (1). Selecting the appropriate interlining is not a simple task because many considerations must be taken in account. stability. Interlinings must be compatible with piece goods and other materials used in the style. To improve garment performance. or printed. Interlinings may be used to reduce raveling and provide stability for the sewing process. Interlinings that enhance the hand of the shell fabric and create the desired aesthetic characteristics for a garment component may be preferred choice.Coating systems . Base cloths are produced in a variety 86 . Hand refers to the drape. Performance Interlining performance may be evaluated from two different perspectives: performance during production and performance in the finished garment. Aesthetic standards are often subjective and vary by designer.Base cloths .

on cooling it solidifies again. forming a bond between the two fabrics. the final cost of the garment is influenced by the type and amount of the fusibles used in its construction. Resins These are the materials applied to the base cloth and when subjected to heat and pressure they become the sole bonding agent between the top cloth and the interlining. 87 . but large variety of thermoplastic resins including polyamides. and these factors have to be considered when evaluating the use of the specific fusibles. A coating system is basically concerned with flexibility and uniformity. There are many coating methods in use.3.2. Through the application of pressure. In addition. the net melts and leaves a minute dot pattern on the substrate. During heating. or change with heat. Handle and bulk Shape retention Shrinkage control Crease recovery Appearance in wear Appearance after dry-cleaning or washing Durability. Scatter coating: This method uses electronically controlled scattering heads to deposit the resin on to the moving substrate. the resin is printed onto the substrate by a roller engraved with small indentations which hold the resin powder.of woven.dot printing: In this process. 16. Performed: The resin is heat-processed to form a net which is then laminated onto the base cloth by heat and pressure. Today no naturally occurring resins are used for interlinings. Irrespective of the construction and fibres used. is the basis of all fusible interlinings in its cold state the resin is not adhesive and only becomes viscous when heated. Thermo plasticity. the base cloth influences the following characteristics in the finished garment. Dry. some of the more commonly used ones being. polyester and PVC.woven forms from natural or synthetic fibres and each type has a specific application. Coating Systems Coating is the process whereby the thermoplastic resin is applied to the substrate material. 16. the heated resin penetrates into the top cloth. knitted and non.2.2.

Continuous – fusing 16.4.1. repetitive type of operation. There is also wide choice of manual or mechanical loading and take off systems for use with these presses. This is likely to cause serious problems with lamination and handling. Flat bed (3). floor-standing machines. Most of the older types of steam presses are not fitted with timers and programme controls. Flat bed press These are purpose built fusing machines available in a wide variety of types from small table models to large. which enables a factory to equip itself with the right machines for each job. Even when fitted with heated bucks. with top buck raised or lowered to open or close the press. 16.2. which restricts the machine‟s use to the fusing of small parts.4.2. thus leaving the time element completely dependent on the operator. Steam press Regular steam presses with shaped bucks are designed for fusing but are used for this purpose by many factories that cannot. The pressure applied over the full buck area is uneven. and the three basic types are (1). these machines have number of serious limitations for general use. steam presses do not have the complete range of the operating characteristics necessary for correct fusing. Basically this type of press consists of padded top and bottom bucks with heating elements in one or both of the bucks. When the resin has been originally activated by steam heat. or will not invest in the correct equipment.2.16. - All in all.2. One of these has a carousel action which automatically moves the assembly from the loading position of the operator through the fusing and cooling process and returns the fused components to the operator for unloading. Steam (2). There are many types of special purpose flat bed presses which are built to suit a particular. Machinery and Equipment The mechanical medium required for fusing is a press. the same thing can happen again when garments are pressed during production. The bottom buck is static.4. While fusible with certain types of resins can be fused on steam presses. steam presses are usually unable to reach the heat levels required by most resins. Flat bed presses can have single or double trays which move horizontally to feed work into and extract it from the machine. There are large ranges of flat-bed presses available for different purposes. 88 .

3.1.2. transporting the assembly for fusing through all the processes on a powered conveyor belt. to take-off area at the opposite end of the machine. Fusing is known to be a labour intensive operation and in the past few years there have been some major developments which are substantially reduce the manual labour content. The applied heat generated by the machine can be checked by simple and practical method involving the use of the thermal test papers. Return Feed: This machine has a belt system which returns the fused components to the same end of the machine at which they are loaded. which react to temperature by changing the colour of the segment with the matching temperature rating. Peel Strength (5). Time (3). 16.3. The upper belt transports the unit through the fusing processes and the lower belt returns the fused unit to its starting point. Temperature There is a limited range of temperatures effective for each resin. These are narrow strips of paper calibrated in increments of 20 C. For flat bed presses this is the time between the closing and the opening of the 89 .2. Some factors which influence fusing quality are (1).3. Time The only time element of any value in fusing is when the assemblies are actually being heated. 16.16.4.3. There are two conveyor belt systems in general use. The Control of Quality Relatively speaking. This enables the operator to load and unload from the same position. Pressure (4). 16. This system is used where production levels require one set of operators for loading and another set for unloading. via the fusing and cooling areas. Continuous – fusing press These machines all operate on the same principle. Dry Clean and / or wash. fusible interlinings are precision products and it is essential that they are fused on the correct equipment and under strict control. Temperature (2). - Continuous fusing presses are also available for special purpose such as the fusing of trouser and skirt waistbands or other narrow components which can be fused in continuous tape form. End to End Feed: The parts are conveyed from the loading area at one end of the machine.

a clear optical pattern will result which would indicate the areas where there are pressure variations.bucks. 16. 16. a stiff hand is produced.4. The force required to separate them can be measured on a instrument called a tensometer.4. and the application of excessive heat and/or pressure. or more simply with a good spring balance. Boardiness It is a problem related to the inappropriate selection of adhesives used on fusible interlinings. This can be the result of over-fusing.3. Serious variations of adhesion need the attention of skilled technicians. too much adhesive. the force required to pull them apart is compared to a standard for that particular cloth and fusible. 16.5. After cooling. One garment in each cloth and fusible combination should be tested at least once every two weeks. 16. One of the simplest is to fuse a large piece of cloth with an identically sized piece of fusible.1. Peel. In both the cases.Strength test This test checks the strength of the bond between the top cloth and the interlining.An intimate contact is effected between the top cloth and the interlining . 16. If resins liquefy and run together to form a resin coating instead of being retained in a sintered or dotted manner.3. This is a problem when the interlining distorts the shape of the microfiber fabrics. There are many methods of verifying whether pressure is being exerted equally over the pressure surfaces of the machine.4.3. Dry clean and /or wash It is recommended that production garments should be subjected to the appropriate cleaning methods on a regular basis. Problems associated with the use of the fusible interlinings. for continuous machines it is the time when the assemblies are actually in heating zones of the machine. the fused assembly should be carefully separated.3. The test is usually performed on a fused strip about 70cm X 5cm with the length on the warp of the cloth.There is a controlled and even penetration of resin points into the fibres of the top cloth. 90 .The heat transfer is optimum . In some cases the interlining fibres will remain on the cloth and in others the fibres of the cloth will be pulled out by the fusible. Pressure During fusing it is necessary to apply equal pressure all over the component in order to ensure that: .

becomes embedded in the interlining substrate instead of the shell fabric. differential shrinkage. and boardiness. because it migrates toward heat. Shrinkage Shrinkage may cause performance problems if one garment part shrinks because of application of fusible interlining and adjoining pieces do not shrink. too high a fusing temperature. 91 . or too long a fusing time.5.16. This is the common problem with microfiber fabrics because of the construction and weight. This is a common problem with jacket fronts and facings. With proper testing the amount of potential shrinkage of the shell fabric and interlining can be determined and adjustments made in patterns. not enough cooling time. poor bonding. It can affect both cost and quality of fusing.4. 16. bulkier. bubbling. conveyor. lightweight. uneven temperatures or pressure.4.4.4.4. or incompatibility of the resin and the shell fabric. The shell fabric may appear to be bubbled. non absorbent fabrics than with heavier. or cause puckered surfaces of shell fabric.7. poor strength. This is a greater problem with sheer. Strike through is the cause of many other problems such as color change. which prevents an effective bond between the two materials. Delamination may be the result of underfusing. Bubbling Bubbling occurs when the face fabric or interlining becomes puckered from delamination. 16. and inconsistent use of the resin. Delamination Delamination is the loss of bond between the interlining and the shell fabric. Resin.6. overfusing. It may be caused by too much pressure. Color Change This may be temporary or permanent discoloration caused by the high temperatures and resins used in the fusing process. Strike Through Strike through is the penetration of resin through to the face of the shell fabric. Often the high temperature needed for fusing causes the fabric to shrink. This may make accurate seaming impossible.3. Strike back Strike back is the penetration of the resin through the interlining substrate. or shuttle tray.2. 16. It may be the result of too much resin for the type of fabric and interlining fabrication or too much pressure. 16. differential shrinkage.4. It causes resin to stick to the fusing press. create puckered seams. Certain types of dyes may change color with the application of high temperature.4. more absorbent ones. 16.

For example such a list is shown for men‟s dress shirts in the below table.).Quality Specifications for Men’s Dress Shirts. no puckering or fullness. No shade difference within a shirt from part to part (panel to panel). Buttons and Properly spaced. skipped or broken stitches. no puckering. Buttonholes properly Buttonholes sewed. or raw edges. or raw edges. checks or patterns should match the sleeve (+1/8 in. Stitching 1/16 in. plaids. or raw edges. and live modeling if necessary (again to see if the garments properly fit the labeled sizes). Side Seams Stripes. no puckering. Collar Both points same length (+1/8 in. Final Inspection . Located so stripes. skipped or broken stitches. 3. plaids. no puckering. no cut stitches. form fitting (putting garments on the proper-size mannequins to see if they properly fit the labeled sizes). plaids.0. Uniformly stitched.17. Pocket Top of the pocket horizontal.). 5. In any case. If it is done after garments are packed. including a table of finished measurements. from edge. Location Inspect for 1. 6.). then proper size and style markings on the package can also be checked. Final Inspection Final inspection consists of inspecting finished garments from the consumer‟s point of view. Should lay flat. or raw edges. checks. Yoke and Pleats (if any) properly placed. Final inspection may occur before or after garments are packed in polybags and boxes. or raw edges. or patterns match (+1/8 in. Cuff 8. no puckering. Uniformly stitched. Clean of all loose thread.). size measurement. No oil/dirt stains. Stripes. Uniformly stitched. Corners securely tacked. Should lay flat. Stripes. skipped or broken stitches. Should lay flat 4. 7. Shoulder skipped or broken stitches. Uniformly stitched. Uniformly stitched. plaids. no puckering. no puckering. there should be a list of points to be checked in a garment. Plaids. No broke buttons. checks. or pattern should match on both points. Free of any fabric defect. Hems Uniformly stitched. Stripes.). 2. or raw edges. skipped or broken stitches. or patterns should match (+1/8 in. skipped or broken stitches. Finished appearance 92 . checks or patterns should match (+1/8 in.

Some possible defects in garments with diagrams Left side is off grain to the seam 93 .1.3. Measurements for men’s L/S dress shirts. 17.17.

Poor Stitching : Loops pulled to one side Poor Collar: Collar is not smooth and there are tucks where the collar and lapels join together. Zipper is unattractive because facing does not cover it completely Plaids do not match at the seam 94 .

Armhole seam is unattractive because gathers caught in seam Hem is unattractive because gathers and stitching show on the outside Unattractive seam because of puckering Pocket opening is too loose 95 .

Material is caught in armhole seam Opening is uneven at the bottom Top button hole is too large for the button Pocket Opening is too loose 96 .

17. and so on by putting them on appropriate mannequins is called “form fitting. it will be useless from a customer‟s point of view. fit drape. unless it fits properly. Poor cutting and inaccurate sewing can result in poor or not fit at all. Not readily apparent defects Control of proper size is extremely important because no matter how well a garment is made. 97 .” whereas the checking those items by having someone try them on is called “live modeling”.4. Checking garment for size. look right. Fit is dependent on pattern shape. and feel right for their intended sizes. look right. appearance. Control of garment dimensions will not guarantee that the garments will fit right. and dimension as well as proper grain. proportion. Form fitting and live modeling will contribute significantly toward assuring that the garments in question fit right. and feel right.

especially when the inspection is done by human inspectors. The direct cost of 100% inspection will generally be higher than that of any other inspection alternative. 18. generally 100% inspection does not guarantee detection of all defects. 98 . but the immediate decision is that the lot is not acceptable. but for each unit individually. before an accept / reject or pass /fail decision can be made. it may be passed on by a review board or committee or it may be inspected 100% (100% inspection of a rejected lot is also called “screening”). However. the needless waste of the labour. Spot Checking This represents an attempt at a compromise between no inspection at all and 100% inspection and consists of inspecting random shipments. little or nothing is known about a material. In case the material is defective. such a loss could have been avoided. goodwill is invaluable. this is also not an acceptable alternative. 100% inspection is the inspection of every unit of a product. machine time. How much to Inspect? The purpose of inspection is to make a sound judgment on the disposition of a material or product. Loss of goodwill will result in the loss of repeat business. this alternative is not acceptable. Either way. how big or small a part? How many pieces out of a shipment? The following alternatives will help answer this fundamental question.3. 100% inspection is usually not 100% effective. No inspection also means that next to nothing may be known about the product and no one will be aware of any defects until that product is in the hands of the customer. Therefore. of course.100 % Inspection This is other extreme of no inspection. The obvious advantage of 100% inspection is that it gives the better idea of the product quality than any other inspection alternative. whether to accept it or reject it.0. no one knows until the material is in critical demand. However. This procedure. The accept / reject decision is not made for entire lot of the shipment. and in long run. 18. 18. based on the results of inspecting a unit for the quality characteristic concerned. If the defective product was detected before it reaches the customer. What is done with a rejected lot may be a matter of negotiation between a buyer and a seller. This situation increases cost. and rework and so on can be avoided.18.2. No Inspection If no inspection is done. If the defective material is detected before it is put in process.1. a fundamental question must be answered: How much should be inspected? The entire shipment or lot? Only a part of it? If so. Needless to say. cost is increased and loss of goodwill created. Then the customer may return it for a refund or may decide never to buy that product again.

The most popular and widely used plan under this alternative is called 10% sampling. 18. Small shipments or lots are not under inspected. Most important. based on the inspection results of that certain percent of the shipment. Although this alternative is better than the previous three alternatives. it still has some drawbacks.5. but at least.4. inspecting the samples for defects. Still it has certain disadvantages. the users of arbitrary sampling have little idea of the risk inherent in their procedure. which is also sometimes referred to simply as random sampling or random sampling inspection. Let us look at the some terms and definitions used in conjunction with statistical sampling. and that is statistical sampling. 10% is too small a sample to be representative. This means that regardless of the size of a shipment. but it is only partially effective since many shipments are accepted without inspection. they will have some idea about product or material quality. The inspection alternative also provides a comparison between 100% inspection and no inspection at all. depending on the importance of the product and apparent product quality Statistical sampling. whereas for other shipments or lots. products at various stages of manufacture. this is also not a practical alternative. a certain percent of a shipment is inspected and an accept / reject or pass / fail decision regarding that shipment is made. However. Statistical sampling has the advantage of flexibility with regard to the amount of inspection to be performed at any given point of time. Also. means taking a sample of units from a lot or shipment of product. Statistical Sampling Statistical sampling is known as acceptance sampling. Therefore. there is a better way to gather such information. and making a decision as to whether the lot is acceptable or not based on the quality of the sample. certain risks (chances) or making a wrong decision exist. 10% of the shipment is inspected and the results are used as the basis for a decision regarding the entire shipment. 18. as with any sampling. Arbitrary Sampling Under this alternative. the risks of making wrong decision (such as accepting a defective lot or rejecting a good lot) are known controllable. The definitions of these terms are taken from the Sampling Procedures and 99 .stops some defective material from entering production or some defective products from reaching customers. Too often. Large shipments or lots are not over inspected. This is usually the most economical means for determining product quality. and finished products as well as outgoing shipments. Statistical sampling is equally applicable to incoming inspections of shipments of raw materials or partially finished products. For some shipments or lots. it may be too large.

Lot or Batch: The term lot or batch shall mean “inspection lot” or „inspection batch”. Acceptable Quality Level (AQL) AQL is one of the most frequently used terms when it comes to quality in the apparel export industry. its origin and how to prepare an organization to meet the prescribed AQL level.g. All of us know that inspection is the tool that is used for assessing the conformance of the merchandise to the agreed specifications or the requirements. 18.). shipment. Sample: A sample consists of one or more units of a product drawn from a lot or batch.4. the units of the sample being selected at random without regard to their quality.6. etc. This is mainly due to following reasons: It is costly. The number of units of a product in the sample is the sample size. an American apparel importer requested me to provide inputs to him and his sourcing office in India on what AQL actually was? What was the logic behind it and how to use it effectively? I realized that AQL in its true sense remains little understood among the large number of executives working in the apparel industry. assuming that they know what AQL signifies. Original inspection is the first inspection of a particular quantity of a product. Though inspection is important and it gives us an idea about the acceptance level of a product. ANSI / ASQC Z1. The international designation for this standard is ISO 2859. it may not be possible to carry out 100% inspection of all the units in a particular shipment or a lot. and may differ from a collection of units designated as lot or batch for other purposes (e. But when a few years ago. production. a collection of units of a product from which a sample is to be drawn and inspected to determine conformance with the acceptability criteria. In this article we shall look at fundamental concept of AQL. as distinguished from the inspection of a product that has been resubmitted after prior rejection. Process Average: The process average is the average per cent defective of a product submitted by the supplier for original inspection. Everyone in the industry uses this term quite liberally. As most of the acceptance decisions of the apparel shipments for the export market are made on the basis of AQL based sampling plans. that is. 100 . Lot or Batch Size: The lot or batch size is the number of units of a product in a lot or batch.Tables for Inspection by Attributes. it is important that all concerned in the industry at least have a basic idea about what is AQL. Percent Defective: Percent Defective = number of defective units X 100 Number of units inspected .

S. which can tell us about the reliability of this technique. If every bullet was tested in advance. on the other hand. Having known that 100% inspection may not be the best thing to do. Process Average means the average percentage of defective products (percent defective) in the lots submitted for the first inspections. US Government issued the standard for sampling procedure and tables for inspection called MIL-STD-105D in 1963.100% inspection is seldom 100% accurate and dependable. military for the testing of bullets during World War II. 18. the sample would represent the quality level of the lot and based on this the acceptance decision can be made. "The AQL is the maximum per cent defective that for the purpose of sampling inspection can be considered satisfactory as a process average. Assume a true percent defective level of six lots of garments is 2. It may be impractical and not desirable as it leads to excessive handling of goods which results in goods losing their freshness. 18. the next question is if not 100%.2 respectively the process average will become 2.1.7.3.4 in Feb 1995. Acceptance sampling is a scientific technique and it also tells us the probability of making a wrong judgment while using it. with potentially disastrous results.8 and 2." In layman's language this means. What is AQL? As Pradip V. Since the acceptance decisions are important commercial decisions. no bullets would be left to ship. it is important to have a reliable and scientific method of arriving at such decision and one should be aware of the extent of risk involved in such decisions. Based on the extensive work by the American military during and past World War II.5% defective. If. 2. malfunctions might occur in the field of battle. This was further modified in 1989 as MIL-STD 105 E and re-designated as ANSI/ ASQC Z 1. when a buyer specifies a particular AQL for sampling inspection. Acceptance sampling plans help in distinguishing between the acceptable and the unacceptable lots. 2.2. The first option is arbitrary and it does not have any scientific basis.how much to inspect? There are two options available. Acceptance Sampling is the middle of the road approach between 100% inspection and no inspection. most of the shipments will be accepted. 2.6. 2. The basic assumption here is if the proportionate sample is randomly drawn from a lot. For all the 101 .4. Brief History of AQL and Acceptance sampling Acceptance sampling is an important field of statistical quality control that was popularized by Dodge and Roming and originally applied by the U.6. The first option is to decide a fixed proportion of the lots that will be inspected to arrive at the acceptance decision of the whole lot or the second option is to use Acceptance Sampling procedure to arrive at a sampling plan for given AQL and make an acceptance decision. none were tested. Mehta describes. it is an indication that as long as the percentage of defective garments in the shipments (lots) supplied by a manufacturer is lower than the AQL.6.

it must lead to 100% reliable results.practical purposes MIL STD 105D and ANSI/ASQC Z 1.3. Though garment industry generally uses normal level on inspection. ideally speaking. For the purpose of acceptance sampling inspection in the garment industry. If the defective pieces are less than allowed number the lot is accepted and if the number of defective pieces is greater than allowed the lot is rejected. The acceptance decisions based on AQL based inspections contain two kinds of risks as detailed below: 102 . However. the standards also provide from reduced and tightened inspections based on the past performance of the supplier. In single sample based on AQL table you randomly draw a sample consisting of specified number of garments from a lot. In other words.4 are almost similar. most buyers refer to the tables from either of these standards. a few buyers also use double sampling procedure. The sample plan also provides the number maximum allowed defective pieces.6. Table: Acceptable Quality Level 18. One may say that as the acceptance sampling is scientific. But this is not possible. How do the Acceptance Sampling Plans Work? The apparel industry mainly uses single sampling plans for the acceptance decisions. as the acceptance decision is made only on the basis of small sample drawn from the lot and it carries a risk of making a wrong judgment. it must always lead to acceptance of lots containing lower defective level than AQL and must reject all the lots that contain more defective products than AQL.

6. Assuming your process average is lower than the AQL level. What AQL is not? Having known what is AQL? How does it work? How to succeed in AQL based inspections? It is equally important to now. In such case. all the pieces in a sample drawn from the lot are inspected to arrive at percent defective level of respective lots. A guarantee that all shipments passed as per AQL plan will definitely contain lower percent defective than the specified AQL. If an organization does this for about 300 consecutive lots and calculates the average of the per cent defective of all lots inspected. but the AQL used by buyer for final inspection is 2. 3. what AQL is not: 1. 18. Ensure that your average percent defective level is below the AQL prescribed by your buyer. What does this mean? It means the true percent defective level of the lots submitted for AQL based inspection must be less than the AQL. How to ensure success at AQL based inspections? The answer to this question is very simple but difficult to achieve. Let us assume that the average rate of defective garments in a manufacturer's shipment is 6%.5.6. if not eliminating. For this purpose an organization has to measure its current average percent defective level (process average). you need to work towards.5. In case process coverage remains higher than the AQL level the chances of your shipments failing to pass AQL based inspection are higher depending on the process average. There is also no guarantee that lots with higher percentage defective will not pass on AQL based inspection. An indicator of the quality level achieved by a manufacturer.4.0 does not mean that supplier has a right to send up to 4% defective merchandise to customer /buyer. The Customer's risk: The chance of accepting a bad lot that contains more defective than the largest proportion of defects that a consumer is willing to accept a very small percentage of the time. as indicated below. It is also known as Lot Tolerance Percent Defective (LTPD) or represented as RQL (Rejecting Quality level).5. reducing the generation of defect level at source so that the process average becomes lower than the AQL level. it would give a good idea of the 'process average'. 103 . 2. A permit to ship defective goods to the tune of agreed AQL level: AQL 4. This can be achieved by conducting sampling inspections of the lots before the inspection by the customer. and then there can a very minimal chance (generally less than 5-10%) of your shipment getting rejected. 18. Producer's risk: The chance of rejecting a good lot that contains equal or less percent defective than AQL. 2. If your process average is greater than AQL level. It is possible that the manufacturer may resort to 100% inspection of the merchandise to weed out the defective garments so that the shipment can pass the final inspection by the buyer at AQL 2.1.

Sampling Plan – Production System: The above sampling plans are suitable for the bundle system or group system of production. one must decide level of AOQL and fraction to be inspected. 1 out of 20 pieces (5%). 18.1.S.7. 18.7. 1 out of 10 pieces (10%). that is. Then the inspection has to be restricted to a fraction of the pieces produced. To select C. The statistical sampling plan applicable for continuous production called continuous sampling. or the number of successive pieces you want to find acceptable before discontinuing the inspection of all pieces. 1 out of 5 pieces (20%).18. All the defective pieces should be either repaired or replaced with good pieces. AOQL of 3% means that in long run the average percent defective of outgoing product will not be more than 3. etc. 100% inspection 104 . These are not suitable for continuous production system or unit production system. that is.0% defective. Average Outgoing Quality Level (AOQL) It means the maximum possible value of average percent defective in the outgoing product or shipments. This can be done by inspecting “n” pieces in succession. Continuous Sampling Plan – CSP – 1 In the beginning all the pieces until “X” pieces found acceptable are to be inspected.8.g. E.P-1 Plan.

wrinkles. The quality of pressing operation can be measured by evaluating the following: 1. D. Stitches / Inch – All operations must meet SPI (Stitched per inch) requirement designated in the product specification and/or standard speed and stitch chart. Uneven seams – Leg. Procedures practiced for quality control and assurance (Finishing) The basic objective of finishing must be quality and appearance. E. Intermediate operations may have 105 . etc. Flattened nap or surface 5. Open seams – No open or raw seams allowed except on hems where up to 5/8” allowed. Garments not thoroughly dried. Pockets not smooth 11. Cracked stitches – All seams must withstand stress reasonably expected in wearing without breaking stitches. Water spots / stains 3. wrinkle. Skips on decorative top-stitching allowed on non. Broken zippers. 19.1. Creases not correctly formed 7. Two or fewer skips allowed on lock stitch provided skips are non-consecutive. B. Fabric of finished garment not smooth. or other seams designed to meet evenly must be no more than ¼‟ from meeting evenly.free. Gloss and/or change in color (original shade) 4. 6.reveling seams if not obvious on face of garment. Burned or scorched garments 2. Garments not correctly molded. shine 12. Edges wavy and stretched or thick and cockling 9. Appearance is the basis of most consumers‟ judgment on whether or not to purchase a garment.0. C. creases. Lining showing pleats. buttons. and showing its proper appearance 8. sleeve cuff. the pressure under which the garments are pressed and the time of the length for which those garments are pressed and the time of length for which those garments are pressed. Skipped Stitches – No skips allowed on chain stitch or raveling stitch unless skip will be covered by a subsequent operation. Shrinkage due to heat and moisture Also it is very important to continuously monitor the temperature (surface temperature of the press).19. Quality / workmanship standards in general A. either in detail or total silhouette 13. 10. More than two skips are allowed on lock stitch provided seam will be covered by a subsequent operation.

H. Exception: Foot or hand area of footed or handi. P. those operations which will be seamed over or covered by a subsequent operation) threads will be specified on In-process quality specifications for that operations a. Turn Ends – Defect on finished seam if appearance or secureness is affected. curled. Crooked.larger tolerances provided measurement. c. incorrect. Smocking – Ends not caught securely such that subsequent operations will fail to secure. Unclipped Threads and Long ends – On intermediate operations (i. Broken Needle – Any broken needle left in the garment. Stitching not to cover logo in any manner. M. One needle cut allowed provided no hole or run develops when subject to normal wearing stress. J. appearance. puckered. missing. L. subsequent F. shaded or defective so as to affect appearance of finished garment. Stud must match socket within ¼”. Allowed on outside if matching thread is used and tail is less than ¼” d. Strictly Enforced. Two or more allowed if meets run or hole criteria and only needle cut appears in finished seam. Trim – Missing or obviously pieced. Hems – Defective if excessively curled puckered. (Exception: Holes confirmed by gripper or embroidery). insecurely attached. or operations are not affected by failing to meet evenly + tolerance. Finished seams 3/8” allowable if texturized polyester thread is used. One skip on securing stitch or obvious skips on decorative thread affecting appearance. No raw egde inside wider than ¼”. N. K. Fasteners – Missing. Snaps. Labels – Defect if crocked. O. b. or seriously puckered. G. Needle and Feed cuts – No feed cuts allowed unless cut will be cut off or completely covered by a subsequent operation. 3/8‟‟ allowed unless thread contrasts with garment and creates poor appearance.e. pleated seams – Finished garment appearance or serviceability must not be adversely affected. or excessive bite. I. Automatic operations such as buttonhole or bar tack. loose or misaligned. Otherwise none allowed outside if contrasting and visible to the consumer.cuff garments may not have a thread tail exposed on finished seams in excess of 3/8”. 106 . Raw Edge. pleated. Untrimmed – No raw edge allowed on outside finished seams. Greater tolerance allowed only if appearance is not seriously affected. Incorrect design.

Flys Self-explanatory. fullness or twisting of a seam or garment surface Garments not Thoroughly Resulting in excessive wrinkling of garment. Dried: Improper Pressing Over Often produces a tear or unsightly impression on the Zippers or Other Closures face of the garment Pockets or Linings not Causing wrinkles or ridges to appear on the surface Pressed Correctly of the garment Pressing Producing a Shine Usually caused by excessive heat or incorrect type of in Fabric pressing surface Folding Defects Garment not Folded to Self-explanatory. snips or mechanical trimmers Seam Tears Frequently caused by the turning equipment used to reverse garments in finishing Soil Caused by oil. grease or dirt. not Closed. tissue or other specified packaging Proper materials materials omitted Pins or Folds in Garment Pins in wrong location or folds not correctly aligned Incorrect for package Garments not Buttoned. Scorched Garments Inadequate Pressing Excessive heat or pressure resulting in poor pleating. Streaks Marking caused by some types of turn boards or defectively finished trimmings Pressing Defects Pressing Omitted. Often times originating from a dirty work area or machinery not properly cleaned.2. Incorrect number of Pins: Label not Showing Garment not positioned in package to show label on top surface 107 .19. Glossary of finishing department defects Defect Description Trimming defects Thread not Trimmed or Self-explanatory. Burned or Self-explanatory. specifications Garment not Folded with Cardboard. Threads not Trimmed to Specified Length Cuts or Nicks Caused by indifferent handling of scissors.

even the buyer is not so confident of some enquiries.2. quality standards and price level. then also we will have to send these samples. We may have to spend too much on these samples. If the buyer is having 7 salesmen in his office. Development samples or enquiry samples When we work with some buyers continuously. they will bring orders to us. merchandiser has to advise sampling department suitably. Some times. Buyers may like to see the garments in a new fabric.1. by showing these samples. they may need samples in different fabrics to choose from. If they want to develop new style in new fabric. Also as the samples are to be made according to the buyers‟ price ranges and quality levels. These samples should be sent so that they would attract the buyers. buyer may need samples. They are Salesmen samples or promotional samples Proto samples or fit samples Counter samples or reference samples or approval samples Wash test samples Photo samples Fashion show samples Pre-production samples Production samples Shipment samples 20. Salesmen samples or promotional samples Some buyer needs these samples for getting the orders from their customers. Whenever they have enquiries.20. 108 . 20. Also we will have to send samples to the newly contacted buyers to show our workmanship. For one enquiry. The salesmen will book the orders from their customers. this sampling department will work under the supervision of merchandising department. There are different types of samples used in the apparel industry. Buyer will place the order to us accumulating the quantities. But the merchandiser is the person who is interacting with the buyers regarding samples and other requirements. then the buyer will ask us to make 7 samples in each style. we will have to keep on sending samples to them very often. product range. Different Stages of Samples and their requirements There may be a separate sampling department in a company. So it is better for a company to have a separate sampling department so that they can create new styles in new fabrics to impress the buyers. if our samples are good and attractive at reasonable prices. But these samples are inevitably important to develop business.0.

style and fit. it is better to discuss about the cost of these samples with the buyer before proceeding for sampling. unsuitable colours. we may get orders for all 5 styles.If we have sent samples for 5 styles. These samples may be needed for local advertisement or buyer‟s promotional occasions. Counter samples or reference samples or approval samples These samples are to be made in actual fabrics with actual trims.3. We might have spent more money. Or it may be due to local business recession or competition or unsuitable prices. We can not expect to get the full cost from the buyer. He too can not help us in this regard. In any case. Some times. buyer may need samples in any one colour and swatches (fabric bits) in other colours. packing box. etc. But as we don‟t get orders. 20. Expected sales may not be possible. So it is important to strictly adhere to these measurements. etc. Buyers will ask us to make the photo samples according to the intended model‟s body fit. we may not get order for even a single style. improper measurements. These samples are needed to check the measurements. Any way. for the styles which we don‟t get orders. Buyer may ask these samples to send either from production or before starting production. due to poor quality. Some buyers may need these samples if they want to print the photos of garments on photo inlays. unmatched prints or embroidery. the buyers will have to pay more compensation to the advertising agencies and models. for making these samples. Some genuine buyers will agree for this. we have to make these salesmen samples perfectly with sincere interest to get orders. hang tag. These samples should be strictly as per the specifications in the order sheets. Hence we can ask the buyer to accept 2 or 3 times of garment price as the sampling cost. Normally the sampling will cost us approximately 3 to 5 times of the garment price.  20. So the buyers will need these samples strictly on time. To avoid this embarrassing situation. we can not blame the buyer. 109 . The buyers will arrange the photo shoot session. 3 styles or 1 style. Photo samples or fit samples These samples are to be made after getting the order sheets. Of course these samples will help us for our business. If they don‟t get samples on time. etc. by spending huge money to the advertising agencies. time. some times. If the order is for 3 colours. of salesmen samples. the samples will be worn by the highly paid models. We have to get the approval for these samples from the buyer before starting production. So they can be made in available similar fabrics but in the actual measurements and specifications.4.

They should be sent in actual packing with all labels. And even if we get some comments from buyers. Some times. They will represent that the production will be like these samples. 20. If we expect any comments in these samples.8. Wash test samples If these samples are sent before starting production and if we get some remarks or comments on these samples. We have to get only „OK‟ from the buyer. Some times. measurements. So these samples are very important. etc. If these samples are rejected due to some complaints. Production samples These samples are to be sent before shipment to get the buyer‟s confirmation for shipment. Some buyer will mention that the order sheets subject to the approval of counter samples. making. Hence these samples are needed to be perfect in all manners. 20. So these samples are to be sent with more and more care. etc. buyer may comment on fabric.After getting the approval. But some buyers will need us to send these samples from production before shipment. then we will not have any excuse and we will be in real trouble. the approved samples should be followed in production. these samples may be considered as „shipment samples‟. Pre-production samples These samples are almost like approval samples. (Generally these samples will not be tested by buyer for anything. 20. 110 . In this case. Then only we can ship the goods and we can be sure of getting payment. tags. We have to follow his comments carefully in production. Buyer may check these samples for everything or anything. We should not get any remark or comment. Shipment samples These samples are to be sent after shipment. we can correct them in production. they may do wash test also. They have to be made in actual production fabric with actual bulk trims. we can save ourselves by saying that these samples were sent from the left over garments after the shipment.7.6. 20. hence there might be some mistakes.5. it is better to inform the buyer during sending these samples).

or appearance defects are allowed in Zone 1 (the neckline. cuffs.16 cm (+ 1/16 inch). such as I. If a shirt does not meet all requirements for this zone. and guidelines are defined accordingly. A definition of each zone or priority area should be included in specifications because terminology and designators for zones are not standard within industry. are assigned to the next zone in terms of priority. and center front placket area). Thus. In addition to defining the zones. but remain visible. 2 & 3 or Roman numerals.16 cm (+ 1/16 inch). are assigned lower zone priorities. For example.1. the company recognizes that some parts of a product are more crucial in terms of appearance than the other parts. Zone 1 Areas with extremely high visibility that is likely to be viewed from a close distance at the time of purchase or receipt. The company may further state that in Zone 1.to-face conversation with someone or those areas most likely to be seen when using the product. an absence of thread ends. such as under the arms. or zone. Product zones that are more visible to the customers are more crucial in maintaining higher levels of quality. For upholstery furniture. the shirt has to meet specifications and is not acceptable. construction. acceptance or rejection of the defective product is prioritized by the area. Each product has specific zones that are more important than others. and collar points within + 0. these areas would include backs. 111 . Cosmetic flaws located in these zones would be considered major and would be cause for the rejection of the product. 21. of specified length are required.21. B & C for their Zones. the crotch. Areas not as likely to be seen. Areas that are rarely seen by others. many companies also identify types of defects that would be unacceptable in each area. in which it occurs. II & III to describe the product zones and another company might use letters such as A. Zone 1for one company might be the part with the greater demands for appearance. Product Zones Explanation of Zones When a construction flaw or defect occurs in a product. a button and buttonhole match within + 0. Those parts or zones that are more visible are of greater importance than the other parts that are less visible. such as 1. and inside for apparel and areas under the seat cushions and bottom of the upholstered furniture. one company might use numbers. Product Zones – Zoning defects and Appearance In product zoning. Typically.0. a company may state that no fabric. the areas of the garment closest to face are of greater importance for apparel. zones of highest priority are those areas most likely to be viewed during face. while another company might use Zone C to describe similar requirements. armrests and cushions. For example in men‟s dress shirts.

color. Flaws occurring in this zone would be evaluated product by product based upon the intended use of the garment. but could be visible on occasion. 112 . and intended end use of the product to determine acceptability. Cosmetic flaws in this zone are more acceptable than in any other location on the garment.Zone 2 Areas that are not visibly dominant. but are visible in normal use. Cosmetic flaws would be evaluated based upon the size of the defect. Zone 3 Areas normally hidden in everyday use.

The minimum case quantity is 4 selling units per master shipping carton . whereas the packaging specs describes the materials that should be used and the manner in which the garment should be folded. You may request a decrease in the quantity by 9. In addition. and presented to the customer or the ultimate consumer. (2).0.Do not ship merchandise on hangers or in hanger packs. packaging indicates how many products will be shipped together in the same box or container and the kind of labeling or product information that is to be attached to the outside of the individual product packages and on boxes. . you can reduce the standard carton by no more than 6 inches. 22.Merchandise must be bulk placed without multiple units boxing or bagging inside of the master shipping carton. Bar-coding is essential in such circumstances.Each Master Shipping Carton must contain only one SKU (Stock Keeping Unit). If you are unable to fill a standard master shipping carton with one SKU. if you have a request for 20 units and the carton will hold 26 units. (1). Packaging standards describe general aspects of how the product is packaged. . and the carton holds only 26. thus making the carton dimension 22 in. bands. you may choose one of the two options. Companies that ship from a distribution centre have very specific requirements for packaging because of their automation systems and the number of items that are processed on a daily basis.The merchandise inside the Master Shipping Carton must not be tied together in bundles with string. even though each individual product meets or exceeds the minimum product specs. ribbons. and include them in a subsequent order. cartons. Another example would be a request for 35 units. etc. For example. or other containers. supported. The buyer will not accept any Master Shipping Carton that contains multiple SKUs. X 6 in.22. Packaging Packaging is the manner in which a product is prepared for transportation. or manipulated when packaged. (minimum carton dimension). Quantity Adjustment Discuss order quantity adjustments with inventory control.The buyer encourages its vendors to send full cartons.1. 113 . blocked. Apparel – Packing Merchandise . . X 10 in. Suppliers who do not meet packaging specs may find orders refused. Reduced Carton Size (Preferred) If a shipment is small and a full case of one size and style is not possible. shipped. you may request increasing the quantity by 6 more units to make a full carton. .

22. flat and smooth with the sleeves extended. 114 . Diagram for Packaging a shirt Lay item front down.2.

however pins of any sort are unacceptable The tail of the shirt must be tightened around the folding template. The shirt tail is then tucked in between the sleeve fold and the sleeve cuffs 115 . Shirt must be folded neatly. Clips can be used to secure shirt in position. extend slightly beyond the top of the shoulders and taper in on each side. bulkiness smoothed out by hand.Sleeves must be folded flat and smooth with cuffs placed even with the shoulders at top of the package.

Seal and label with stock number and country of origin 116 .Place folded item in an appropriately sized polybag.

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