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Table of Contents

1.0. Introduction to Apparel Industry ....................................................................................... 8


1.1. Performance of Indian Apparel Industry .......................................................................................... 8 1.2. Some Interesting Facts ..................................................................................................................... 9 1.3. Quotas, Tariffs and the End of the Multi-Fibre Arrangement .......................................................... 9

2.0. Apparel Industry Departments ........................................................................................... 9


2.1. MERCHANDISING............................................................................................................................ 10 2.1.1. A Merchandisers key responsibility......................................................................................... 10 2.2. Sampling Department .................................................................................................................... 11 2.2.1. Types of Samples in Sampling Dept......................................................................................... 11 2.3. FABRIC SOURCING .......................................................................................................................... 11 2.4. PURCHASING DEPARTMENT ........................................................................................................... 11 2.5. FABRIC AUDIT DEPARTMENT.......................................................................................................... 11 2.6. ACCESSORY STORES DEPARTMENT ................................................................................................ 12 2.7. PLANNING DEPARTMENT ............................................................................................................... 12 2.8. LABORATORY DEPARTMENT .......................................................................................................... 12 2.9. MACHINE MAINTENANCE .............................................................................................................. 12 2.9.1. The function of PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE .......................................................................... 13 2.10. CUTTING ROOM............................................................................................................................ 13 2.11. Production Department ............................................................................................................... 13 2.12. IED DEPARTMENT ......................................................................................................................... 14 2.13. EMBROIDERY DEPARTMENT ........................................................................................................ 14 2.14. WASHING DEPARTMENT .............................................................................................................. 14 2.15. QUALITY ASSURANCE DEPARTMENT ............................................................................................ 14 2.16. FINISHING DEPARTMENT ............................................................................................................. 15

3.0. What is Quality? ................................................................................................................. 16


3.1. Answers for Quality from Different Peoples .................................................................................. 16 3.2. Meaning of Quality ......................................................................................................................... 16 3.2.1. Expectations of Quality............................................................................................................ 16 3.3. Definitions of Quality...................................................................................................................... 16

3.3.1. Holistic Perspective ................................................................................................................. 16 3.3.2. Product Perspective................................................................................................................. 17 3.3.3. Producer Perspective (Manufacturer Perspective) ................................................................. 17 3.3.4. Customer Perspective ............................................................................................................. 17 3.3.5. Value based perspective.......................................................................................................... 19

4.0. Dimensions of Quality......................................................................................................... 20


4.1. Performance ................................................................................................................................... 20 4.2. Features .......................................................................................................................................... 20 4.3. Reliability ........................................................................................................................................ 20 4.4. Conformance .................................................................................................................................. 21 4.5. Durability & Serviceability .............................................................................................................. 21 4.6. Aesthetics & Perceived Quality ...................................................................................................... 21

5.0. Quality Related Terms and Definitions ............................................................................ 22


5.1. Quality related terminology ........................................................................................................... 22 5.2. Introduction to Quality Assurance ................................................................................................. 23 5.2.1. The Textile Industry Complex .................................................................................................. 23 5.2.2. Textile quality Assurance ......................................................................................................... 24 5.2.3. Quality Control ........................................................................................................................ 26

6.0. Quality Standards and Quality Grade .............................................................................. 29


6.1. Standards Introduction ................................................................................................................ 29 6.1.1. Standards Definition by ISO .................................................................................................. 29 6.1.2. Standardization ....................................................................................................................... 29 6.1.3. Developing Standards .............................................................................................................. 30 6.1.4. Benefits of Standards .............................................................................................................. 30 6.1.5. Levels of Standards .................................................................................................................. 30 6.2. Types of Standards ......................................................................................................................... 31 6.3. Other types of Standards in the Industry ....................................................................................... 31 6.3.1. Company Standards................................................................................................................. 31 6.3.2. Industry Standards .................................................................................................................. 32 6.3.3. Voluntary Standards ................................................................................................................ 32 6.4. International Standards .................................................................................................................. 32

6.5. APPLICATION OF STANDARDS TO TEXTILE INDUSTRY .................................................................... 33 6.5.1. Purpose of standards & specification ...................................................................................... 33 6.5.2. Focus of Company towards Quality Standard ......................................................................... 33 6.5.3. Construction Standards ........................................................................................................... 35 6.5.4. Special Consumer needs.......................................................................................................... 36 6.5.5. Appearance of the finished product........................................................................................ 36 6.5.6. Packaging ................................................................................................................................. 36

7.0. Different Textile and Apparel Standards ......................................................................... 37


7.1. Sources of Standards ...................................................................................................................... 37 7.2. American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists (AATCC).................................................. 37 7.2.1. About AATCC ........................................................................................................................... 37 7.3. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) ...................................................................... 38 7.3.1. ASTM Committees ................................................................................................................... 38 7.3.2. ASTM Standards ...................................................................................................................... 38 7.4. American Society for Quality (ASQ)................................................................................................ 39 7.4.1. The ASQ code of Ethics ............................................................................................................ 39 7.5. American Apparel and Footwear Association (AAFA) .................................................................... 40 7.5.1. AAFA Committees and Divisions ............................................................................................. 40 7.6. TC2 Textile / Clothing Technology Corp .......................................................................................... 41 7.7. American National Standards Institute (ANSI) ............................................................................... 41 7.8. ISO International Organization for Standardization .................................................................... 41 7.8.1. Need for ISO ............................................................................................................................ 41 7.8.2. ISO 9000 Series Standards ....................................................................................................... 41 7.8.3. How does the series work? ..................................................................................................... 42 7.8.4. Elements of ISO 9000 Standards ............................................................................................. 43 7.8.5. Who is using ISO 9000? ........................................................................................................... 43 7.8.6. What does being registered to ISO 9001, 9002 or 9003 mean? ............................................. 43 7.8.7. Advantages of Implementing or registering to these standards ............................................. 43

8.0. Quality Specification ........................................................................................................... 45


8.1. Two important elements in Specifications ..................................................................................... 45 8.1.1. Minimums................................................................................................................................ 45 8.1.2. Tolerances ............................................................................................................................... 45 3

8.2. Key element in Specification .......................................................................................................... 45 8.3. Types of Specification ..................................................................................................................... 46 8.3.1. Open Specification................................................................................................................... 46 8.3.2. Closed specification ................................................................................................................. 46 8.4. Types of specifications used by various industries......................................................................... 46 8.4.1. Target Specification: ................................................................................................................ 46 8.4.2. Functional specifications ......................................................................................................... 47 8.4.3. Product specification ............................................................................................................... 47 8.4.4. Materials Specification ............................................................................................................ 47 8.4.5. Process specification ............................................................................................................... 47 8.4.6. Inspection specifications ......................................................................................................... 47 8.4.7. Test specifications ................................................................................................................... 47 8.4.8. Acceptance Specifications ....................................................................................................... 48 8.4.9. Installation Specifications ........................................................................................................ 48 8.4.10. Use Specifications .................................................................................................................. 48 8.4.11. Maintenance Specifications .................................................................................................. 48 8.4.12. Disposal Specifications .......................................................................................................... 48 8.4.13. Procurement Specifications................................................................................................... 48 8.5. Tolerances ...................................................................................................................................... 49

9.0. Fabric Inspection Systems .................................................................................................. 50


9.1. Inspection Loop: ............................................................................................................................. 50 9.2. Fabric Inspection Machine ............................................................................................................. 51 9.3. General Inspection Procedures ...................................................................................................... 51 9.4. 4 Point System ............................................................................................................................. 52 9.5. 10-Point System.............................................................................................................................. 55 9.6. Correlation between Fabric Quality and Apparel Quality .............................................................. 55

10.0. Sewing Threads: ................................................................................................................ 57


10.1. Properties of Sewing Thread ........................................................................................................ 57

11.0. Zippers ............................................................................................................................... 59


11.1. Avoiding Zipper Problems ............................................................................................................ 59

12.0. BUTTONS, BUCKLES AND SNAP FASTENERS....................................................... 64

12.1. Buttons ......................................................................................................................................... 64 12.2. Buckles .......................................................................................................................................... 64 12.3. Snap Fasteners ............................................................................................................................. 64

13.0. TRIMS TESTING............................................................................................................. 65


13.1. Testing of Fusible Interlining ........................................................................................................ 65 13.2. Testing of Zippers ......................................................................................................................... 65 13.2.1. Zipper Strength Tests ............................................................................................................ 66 13.3. Elastic Waistband Testing ............................................................................................................. 67 13.3.1. Fit for the labeled Size ........................................................................................................... 68 13.3.2. Resistance to Degradation, Accelerated Aging Method ....................................................... 68 13.4. Sewing Thread Testing ................................................................................................................. 68 13.5. Buttons Testing............................................................................................................................. 70

14.0. Procedures practiced for Quality Control and Assurance (Cutting) ........................... 71
14.1. Introduction In-Process Inspection ........................................................................................... 71 14.2. In-Process inspection - Spreading defects.................................................................................... 72 14.3. Pattern Defects Marker making Defects ................................................................................... 72 14.4. Cutting Defects ............................................................................................................................. 73 14.5. Glossary of Cutting room defects ................................................................................................. 74

15.0. Inspection procedures in Sewing Room .......................................................................... 77


15.1. What to Inspect during Sewing? .................................................................................................. 77 15.2. Sewing Defects ............................................................................................................................. 79 15.4. Seaming Defects ........................................................................................................................... 80 15.5. Assembly Defects ......................................................................................................................... 81 15.6. Glossary of sewing room defects ................................................................................................. 82

16.0. Procedures practiced for Quality Control and Assurance in Fusing Operation ........ 85
16.1. Interlinings .................................................................................................................................... 85 16.1.1. Functions of interlinings ........................................................................................................ 86 16.2. Fusing Technology ........................................................................................................................ 86 16.2.1. Base cloths ............................................................................................................................. 86 16.2.2. Resins ..................................................................................................................................... 87 16.2.3. Coating Systems .................................................................................................................... 87

16.2.4. Machinery and Equipment .................................................................................................... 88 16.3. The Control of Quality .................................................................................................................. 89 16.3.1. Temperature.......................................................................................................................... 89 16.3.2. Time ....................................................................................................................................... 89 16.3.3. Pressure ................................................................................................................................. 90 16.3.4. Peel- Strength test ................................................................................................................. 90 16.3.5. Dry clean and /or wash.......................................................................................................... 90 16.4. Problems associated with the use of the fusible interlinings....................................................... 90 16.4.1. Boardiness ............................................................................................................................. 90 16.4.2. Bubbling ................................................................................................................................. 91 16.4.3. Color Change ......................................................................................................................... 91 16.4.4. Delamination ......................................................................................................................... 91 16.4.5. Shrinkage ............................................................................................................................... 91 16.4.6. Strike back ............................................................................................................................. 91 16.4.7. Strike Through ....................................................................................................................... 91

17.0. Final Inspection ................................................................................................................. 92


17.1. Measurements for mens L/S dress shirts. ................................................................................... 93 17.3. Some possible defects in garments with diagrams ...................................................................... 93 17.4. Not readily apparent defects........................................................................................................ 97

18.0. How much to Inspect? ...................................................................................................... 98


18.1. No Inspection ............................................................................................................................... 98 18.2.100 % Inspection ........................................................................................................................... 98 18.3. Spot Checking ............................................................................................................................... 98 18.4. Arbitrary Sampling ........................................................................................................................ 99 18.5. Statistical Sampling....................................................................................................................... 99 18.6. Acceptable Quality Level (AQL) .................................................................................................. 100 18.6.1. What is AQL? ....................................................................................................................... 101 18.6.2. Brief History of AQL and Acceptance sampling ................................................................... 101 18.6.3. How do the Acceptance Sampling Plans Work? .................................................................. 102 18.6.4. How to ensure success at AQL based inspections? ............................................................. 103 18.6.5. What AQL is not? ................................................................................................................. 103 18.7. Sampling Plan Production System: .......................................................................................... 104 6

18.7.1. Continuous Sampling Plan CSP 1 ................................................................................... 104 18.8. Average Outgoing Quality Level (AOQL) .................................................................................... 104

19.0. Procedures practiced for quality control and assurance (Finishing) ......................... 105
19.1. Quality / workmanship standards in general ............................................................................. 105 19.2. Glossary of finishing department defects .................................................................................. 107

20.0. Different Stages of Samples and their requirements ................................................... 108


20.1. Development samples or enquiry samples ................................................................................ 108 20.2. Salesmen samples or promotional samples ............................................................................... 108 20.3. Photo samples or fit samples ..................................................................................................... 109 20.4. Counter samples or reference samples or approval samples .................................................... 109 20.5. Wash test samples...................................................................................................................... 110 20.6. Pre-production samples ............................................................................................................. 110 20.7. Production samples .................................................................................................................... 110 20.8. Shipment samples ...................................................................................................................... 110

21.0. Product Zones Zoning defects and Appearance ....................................................... 111


21.1. Product Zones ............................................................................................................................. 111

22.0. Packaging ......................................................................................................................... 113


22.1. Apparel Packing Merchandise ................................................................................................. 113 22.2. Diagram for Packaging a shirt ..................................................................................................... 114

1.0. Introduction to Apparel Industry


Apparel is one of the basic necessities of human civilization along with food, water and shelter. The Apparel Industry reflects peoples lifestyles and shows their social and economic status. The Apparel and Textile industry is Indias second largest industry after IT Industry. At present, it is amongst the fastest growing industry segment and is also the second largest foreign exchange earner for the country. The apparel industry accounts for 26% of all Indian exports. The Indian government has targeted the apparel and textiles industry segments to reach $50 billion by the year 2015. One of the most interesting features of the apparel industry is that, it migrates from high cost nations to the low cost nations. The growth of the domestic demand for clothing in India is linked with the success of the retailing sector. India presently has entered the second phase of growth and is witnessing a massive rise in the domestic demand. This is primarily due to the rise in the standard of living caused by the rise in the middle-income groups. In our present economic world of demand and supply, price and quality are the key factors, which determine the success of any business. The key element here though, is the cost of labor. India and China have a comparative advantage in this industry though, their vast labor forces and the relatively low cost of labor. Since, India and China have the advantage of making textiles and so fabric costs are lower than in other countries, they have become the Apparel sourcing choice for many international companies. Sourcing choices arise from profitability. This includes considering costs, such as, buying factors of production, like land, buildings and machines versus factors affecting revenues, including pricing, marketing, and distribution. The issues of labor, material, shipping costs and tariffs structure also affect the sourcing choices. Since, apparel production is a labor-intensive activity, wage rates are also a major factor in sourcing decisions. This gives immediate competitive advantage to producers in countries like India and China to export to more developed and high cost countries like the United States and the European Union. 1.1. Performance of Indian Apparel Industry As the worlds second largest producer of textile and garments, Indias garment exports totaled US$ 10.17 billion during the year 2008-09, giving it an enviable market share of 2.99%. The Americas, EU, much of Asia and Middle East are Indias clients. The industry proudly supports 7 million people as part of its workforce, and aims to double this figure by 2011-12; even today it is the second largest provider of employment in the country.
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For every INR 100,000 invested in the industry, an average of 7 additional jobs created. The Apparel Sector alone contributes to 8% of Indias total exports with exports recording a 1% growth over last year. By the year 2011-12, India expects to record a 15% growth in quantity and 20% growth in values In RMG exports, India, today, ranks 6th in the world, with a 2.6% world market share and robust 11% growth

1.2. Some Interesting Facts The largest producer of JUTE The 2nd Largest producer of Cotton yarn The 2nd largest producer of cellulosic fibre / yarn The 2nd largest producer of Silk The 3rd largest producer of raw cotton The 4th largest producer of synthetic fibre/yarn 1.3. Quotas, Tariffs and the End of the Multi-Fibre Arrangement On 1 January, 2005, the quota restraints of the Multi-Fibre Arrangement (MFA) expired, finally bringing to an end four decades of restrictions on trade in textiles and garments among World Trade Organization (WTO) members. Trade in these products is now governed by normal WTO rules.

2.0. Apparel Industry Departments


MERCHANDISING SAMPLING DEPARTMENT FABRIC SOURCING PURCHASING DEPARTMENT FABRIC AUDIT DEPARTMENT ACCESSORY STORES DEPARTMENT PLANNING DEPARTMENT LABORATORY DEPARTMENT MACHINE MAINTENANCE CAD ROOM CUTTING ROOM PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT IED DEPARTMENT EMBROIDERY DEPARTMENT WASHING DEPARTMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE DEPARTMENT FINISHING DEPARTMENT

Process Sequence of Apparel Manufacturing

Design / Sketch

Pattern Design

Sample Making

Production Pattern

Cutting

Spreading

Marker Making

Grading

Sorting/ Bundling

Sewing/ Assembling

Inspection

Pressing/ Finishing

Despatch

Packing

Final Inspection

2.1. MERCHANDISING Merchandising is a process through which products are planned, developed, executed and presented to the buyer. It includes directing and overseeing the development of product line from start to finish. Marketing and merchandising department -A team of merchandisers and marketers work together under a profit controls head. Merchandisers handle the foreign buyers. The teams are made according to the buyers being handled. 2.1.1. A Merchandisers key responsibility Product Development Market and product Analysis Selling the concept Booking orders Confirming Deliveries Designing and Sampling Costing Raw Material Flow Monitoring Production Follow Ups Payments Follows

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2.2. Sampling Department In any export house, the sampling department is one of the most important departments and it plays a vital in the uplifting of a unit. Sampling department directly co-ordinates with the merchandising and production department. Sampling is done to see how the product will look like when produced in bulk and to check whether there are any discrepancies in the pattern are made according to the buyers specification. Sampling is the product development stage. It is a process by which a small number of garments are made so as to match the buyer requirement and to get approval from the buyer so as to start off the production. It is different from bulk production as here each tailor is multi skilled. This department makes samples on the basis of specifications and requirements sent by the buyer in the tech pack 2.2.1. Types of Samples in Sampling Dept. Proto Sample: Fit Sample: Pilot Run Sample: Pre Production Sample: Pre Size set Size Set Shipment Sample Sales Sample 2.3. FABRIC SOURCING Fabric sourcing department is basically engaged in determining how and where its merchandise i.e fabric will be obtained. It works in co-ordination with the merchandising department and looks after the delivery of the required goods within the scheduled time and cost. A fabric sourcer must have knowledge about all varieties of fabric in order to execute their function effectively. 2.4. PURCHASING DEPARTMENT The purchasing department is similar to the sourcing department but the main difference is that the sourcing department works for sourcing the fabrics alone while the purchasing department works for sourcing the accessories and trims. However, the working procedure is the same 2.5. FABRIC AUDIT DEPARTMENT The main objectives of this department are: Analysis of defects in the fabric by various methods. Selection of fabric according to AQL
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Inspection is done basically on the following grounds: 100% shade segregation is done. 100% width segregation is done. 15% fabric inspection is done for defects. 10 15% shrinkage test for light weight fabrics and mostly 100% for heavy weight fabrics. The fabric is checked in full width form only. The quantity is checked, whether the mentioned length of the roll is correct or not.

2.6. ACCESSORY STORES DEPARTMENT The stores receives the raw materials in-house and after this they will have to do the sampling process and then they have to make a list of the tests that are supposed to be carried out for that particular accessories and then they send this to the laboratory. The lists of accessories and tests that are generally tested are as follows, Button breaking test Colored laces and tapes are tested for color fastness Color fastness test for elastics Lining fabrics for their dimensional stability 2.7. PLANNING DEPARTMENT Planning department has a vital role to play in the approval of the order helps the merchants to determine the costing of a particular style tell the merchants if the company is capable of producing the particular style in the given span of time Helps them to know the capacity of the production floor. 2.8. LABORATORY DEPARTMENT The laboratory in the factory is equipped with all the necessary devices and instruments that are required for the testing of both the fabric and the accessory items. But, there are several tests which the buyer prescribes for which the machineries are not available in the factory for such tests the factory does not have the right machineries so they send such fabrics or accessories, which requires some other tests to the external laboratories which are authorized ones with the buyers and the merchants approval. 2.9. MACHINE MAINTENANCE Apart from having quality system and the best practices, machine maintenance is also a very important are to get quality products. Unacceptable quality of products often results ill-maintained machines.
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Breakdown and preventive maintenance is primarily aimed toward reduced downtime and increased life respectively. Proper machine maintenance is also necessary to avoid casualties at the floor.

2.9.1. The function of PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE Care of the fittings Adjusting settings Oil changing Graph maintenance Outward/inward reports Needle weekly reports. Machine configuration chart History card Needle log cards. 2.10. CUTTING ROOM Cutting department receives the order for cutting a garment style from the production manager. Cutting order is an authorization by the production manager to cut a given amount of styles, from the spreads. It comes in form of a package file that carries the following details: Sampling average, weight of garment (base fabric consumption only), and other trims averages. Measurement sheet Design worksheet of the garment Purchase order Fabric requisition sheet CAD mini marker Marker planning- length of lay etc., size ratio and colors in which the patterns are to be cut. 2.11. Production Department The production floor does production in two types, Pilot Production Bulk Production The production floor will receive the details like, the style or the garment, number of operators required, the batch for which the style has to be installed, any extra kinds of machines that are to be used for the particular style, target for each day Breakup of the production quantity.

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The production managers help the planning department during planning or allocating a particular line for the style by telling them the capacity of the line and also telling them about the skills of the operators. 2.12. IED DEPARTMENT The IED department has to work with many other departments as this department gives the entire idea of the garment construction and the thread and trims consumption criteria, operators skill level categorization and other related aspects, hence they play a vital role in determining the cost of producing a single piece of the garment and they also calculate the cost of the factory for that particular style of garment The IED department helps the planning department to know the time required for the production of that particular style of the garment by calculating the SAM value 2.13. EMBROIDERY DEPARTMENT The embroidery section is a department which comes into picture only when the particular style demands. The embroidery section receives the garments from the sewing floor or from the cutting department and then they start their embroidery process. 2.14. WASHING DEPARTMENT Once the garment has been finished with all the operations then they are sent to the washing department for the washing or finishing that has to be done for that particular style according to the buyers specifications and hence it plays a vital role in the final feel and the texture of the garment which has to match the specifications of the buyer 100%. There are different types of washing procedures involved and they are classified as follows, Normal wash/ water wash / dip and dry, Softener wash, Desize wash, Enzyme wash, Stone enzyme wash, Rubber ball wash, Denim wash, Bleach wash, Tinting/ T- staining 2.15. QUALITY ASSURANCE DEPARTMENT Quality is the major criteria for any product and the same rule applied even to garment industries also. In order to maintain quality the quality assurance departments has split up their job into different stages of manufacturing and there are classified into four major groups which are as follows. Pre-production audit: Cutting audit:
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Sewing audit: End line audit: 2.16. FINISHING DEPARTMENT The finishing department is the department which comes after all the departments and it plays an equally important role in the final appearance of the garment. This department includes majorly of the following steps, Trimming Inspection Semi pressing Pressing Tagging section Packing Solid Packing In this method of packing, the carton box will include garments of single colour and same size. For example, 20 shirts of a similar colour say navy blue and the size say S will be put in one carton box. Ratio Packing In this method the carton box includes garments of same colour but of different sizes according to the ratio. For example, S: M: L: XL = 5: 7: 7: 5. Mixed Packing In this method the carton box includes garments of different colours but of same size or garments with different colours and different sizes in a particular ratio form. After the packing is done the garments are kept in the stores until the buyer sends the buyer QC for the inspection purpose before delivering them and once the QC arrives checking will be carried according to the AQL level and then it will be decided if the garments has to be accepted or rejected.

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3.0. What is Quality?


Quality is unusually slippery and difficult to come in grips with and therefore, someone has said, Quality is something I know when I see it. Quality is essential character; nature; an ingredient or distinguishing attribute; property, a character trait, superiority of kind, degree of grade or excellence. Quality is a complex concept. No single definition addresses all the dimensions, areas of impact and concerns relating to quality. The term quality is used in many ways for many reasons. 3.1. Answers for Quality from Different Peoples Quality means different things to different people. The answer from different people may be 1. The best money can buy 2. Meeting a specification or conformance to specifications 3. Craftsmanship 4. The degree of excellence 3.2. Meaning of Quality Quality can also mean meeting or exceeding customer expectations all the time. The key here is to know accurately customer expectations on a continuing basis because unless you know customer expectations how can you meet or exceed them? 3.2.1. Expectations of Quality The expectations of Quality and the ability to distinguish various quality characteristics also vary from one group of customers to another. Generally more educated and sophisticated customers, the expectations of the quality will be more specific. JOHN RABBITT defines quality as the ability to exceed a customers expectations while maintaining a cost competitive market position 3.3. Definitions of Quality. The quality can be defined based on the following perspectives A. Holistic Perspective B. Product Perspective C. Producer Perspective (Manufacturer Perspective) D. Customer Perspective E. Value based Perspective. 3.3.1. Holistic Perspective Websters dictionary (1977) defines quality as that which belongs to something and makes or helps to make it what it is; characteristic element; any character or

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characteristic which may make an object good or bad; the degree of excellence which a thing possesses. This definition helps us to look at quality from a holistic perspective and implies that even if quality is not the same for all things; it is still inherent in all objects and actions. 3.3.2. Product Perspective A product quality is represented by total set of precise and measurable characteristics or components of a finished product. Differences in product quality can be attributed to differences in components or characteristics. Consider the following example to understand quality based on product perspective more clearly. Two measures can be used to characterize the quality of the woven fabrics o (1) Weight in GSM or oz/yd2 o (2) Yarns / inch in warp and filling. These characteristics of the weight and count are linked to the yarn and weaving costs, but do not necessarily imply better products. Clearly these common measures of quality are not necessarily directly related to consumer satisfaction 3.3.3. Producer Perspective (Manufacturer Perspective) From a producer or manufacture perspective, quality is defined as consistent conformance to specifications and standards. When a product meets a companys standards and specifications, it has achieved the desired quality level. The desired level may be high, low or medium or at any point in between the extremes of continuum. The producer oriented definition of quality addresses a companys ability to produce products that consistently meet predetermined criteria and can be sold in the market at full price. Products that meet this level of quality are assumed to produce greater profit and income for the company This does not address consumer expectations. 3.3.4. Customer Perspective From a customer perspective quality depends on the dimensions of a product or service that are of important to that user. A user based definition of quality simply means that the quality is whatever the customer says or wants which goes back to meeting or exceeding customers requirements and expectations. This perspective recognizes the primary role of the customer in determining whether a product or service meets or exceeds expectations. However, quality is not in steady state; from a customers perspective, quality reflects an ever
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changing market place and satisfies the ever changing needs of the customer in that market. One challenge of examining the quality from the customers perspective is understanding and incorporating the characteristics that the customer finds desirable at a price that is acceptable. Hence a company needs a good understanding of the wants of the immediate consumer and the ultimate consumer. This focus on customers and their satisfaction is a basic underlying principle of total quality management (TQM). Several definitions of TQM exist. All focus on the integrated, continuous improvement process that involves everyone in the organization. In TQM, all the companys actions are directed towards producing a quality product for the target market, satisfying the target market, and meeting the companys business objectives. Customer Satisfaction

Cost

Value

Quality

Benefit s

Losses

Satisfaction of requirements

Satisfaction of Business Objectives Business Objectives vs. Customer Satisfaction (Satisfying business objectives forms the foundation for customer satisfaction)
The Deming Cycle

One of the first individuals to recognize the need to focus on quality in production and product development was W.Edwards Deming (1982), who maintained that quality is the responsibility of the management. Demings management principles include adopting a philosophy of improving products and services, remaining competitive, staying in business, and providing jobs. The Deming Cycle links the production, target markets and business objectives, is a five step approach.

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The Deming Cycle 5 Step Approach (1). Conduct consumer research. Use results in the planning the product (2). Produce the product. (3). Check the product. (4). Market the product. (5). Analyze the product.

Check

DO

The Deming Cycle

Act

Plan

Analyze

Many companies follow these steps as they develop, produce, market and evaluate or analyze their products. Communication within the company and with the customers is vital for survival in the market. 3.3.5. Value based perspective A value based definition of quality takes into consideration cost or price of a product or service. Form a value based approach, quality products are those that perform at acceptable prices or conform at acceptable costs. The question from the customers view point is what is the value of this product or service to us? How valuable is a given product or service?

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4.0. Dimensions of Quality


The characteristics or conditions those are important to quality need to be established. Garvin has identified eight dimensions related to quality. They are (1).Performance (2).Features (3).Reliability (4).Conformance (5).Durability (6).Serviceability (7).Aesthetics (8).Perceived Quality 4.1. Performance Performance is based on the primary operating characteristics of a product. Examples A rain coat should be a water repellent, A mosquito net should not allow mosquito to enter inside. A pen should be writeable 4.2. Features Features of a product are those secondary characteristics that supplement a product basic functioning. Examples - baby clothing should be dressing ease, softness, durability, safety 4.3. Reliability Reliability refers to the probability of products malfunctioning or failing within a specified period of time. We depend on, demand, and expect reliable products. It takes a long time for a company to build up a reputation for reliability, and only a short time to be branded as "unreliable" after shipping a flawed product. Reliability is "quality changing over time Reliability is a major economic factor in determining a product's success Sometimes equipment failure can have a major impact on human safety and/or health. Automobiles, planes, life support equipment, and power generating plants are a few examples. Some failures have serious social consequences and this should be taken into account when planning reliability studies

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4.4. Conformance Conformance refers to the degree or extent to which a products design and operating characteristics meet pre-established standards. 4.5. Durability & Serviceability Durability means the length of time a product will last or product life. Serviceability refers to the speed, courtesy, competence and ease of repair of a product. 4.6. Aesthetics & Perceived Quality Aesthetics refers to how a product looks feels, sounds, tastes or smells. Perceived Quality refers to what consumers perceive to be the quality of a product based on image, advertising, and brand name reputation

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5.0. Quality Related Terms and Definitions


What is Quality? Quality is also the reflection of the customers opinion of the value they see in your product compared to that of your competitors. In other words quality is whatever the customer says it is or the customer it is or the customer is the final judge of quality. Quality Definition by ISO Quality is defined by ISO (International Standards Organization) as the the totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs

5.1. Quality related terminology Here is some quality related terminology taken from an American National Standard ANSI/ASQC A3 Quality systems terminology

Quality Management

Quality System Quality Assurance

Quality Plan

Quality Policy Statistical Quality Control

Quality Control

Inspection

Testing

Quality Management: Aspect of all the overall management function that determines and implements the quality policy Quality System: The organizational structure, responsibilities, procedures, processes, and resources for implementing quality management Quality Plan: A document setting out the specify quality practices, resources, and activities relevant to a particular product, service, contract, or a project.
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Quality Policy: The overall intentions and directions of an organisation as regards quality as formally expressed by top management Quality Assurance: All those planned or systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that a product or service will satisfy given requirements for quality. Quality Control: The operational techniques and activities required to fulfill the requirements for quality Statistical Quality Control: The application of statistical techniques to the control of quality. Inspection: Activities such as measuring, examining, testing, gauging, one or more characteristics of a product or service, and comparing these with the specified requirements to determine conformity. Testing: A means of determining the capability of an item to meet specified requirements by subjecting the item to a set of physical, chemical, environmental,or operating actions and conditions. 5.2. Introduction to Quality Assurance Quality Assurance: All those planned or systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that a product or service will satisfy given requirements for quality. 5.2.1. The Textile Industry Complex The textile industry complex indicates suppliers of Raw material and processed materials, Sewn product manufacturers, Wholesalers, and Retailers. 5.2.1.1. Raw Materials Raw materials include the unprocessed components used to produce a product. Raw materials include fibres, yarns, dyes, finishing chemicals and other materials as plastics and metals that are processed into buttons, zippers and other items that are used to produce finished goods. 5.2.1.2. Sewn product manufacturers Sewn product manufacturers make apparel, furnishings and industrial products. These manufacturers often incorporate other activities such as fusing and dyeing, into the production process.
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They may sell their products to wholesalers or directly to consumers.

Fibres & Yarns Dyes & Pigments Fabrics Closures, Trims and Support Materials

Producer of Products
Manufacturers Contractors

Wholesalers Retailers (Store and non-store formats)

Consumers of Products

Producers of Materials

Distribution of Products

5.2.1.3. Retailers Retailers present merchandise to the consumers via stores, catalogs, websites, TV, direct sales, and other venues. Many manufacturers and retailers have off-shore production facilities or work with contractors who produce goods 5.2.1.4. Consumers Consumers are the individuals who use or wear finished textile products. Consumers include consumers, companies, such as sewn product manufacturers who buy fabric and other materials, and retailers who buy quantities of identical products for sale to the consumer. 5.2.2. Textile quality Assurance Textile quality assurance is the process of designing, producing, evaluating, and assessing the products to determine that they meet the desired quality level for a companys target market. It is based on the knowledge of Textiles Design Merchandising Production Consumer behaviour Product and process evaluation Marketing Statistics

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5.2.2.1. Phases of Quality Assurance Inspection Before/after Production


Inspection and Corrective Action during Production

Quality built Into the Process

Acceptance Sampling

Process Control

Continuous Improvement

The least Progressive

The most Progressive

5.2.2.2. Some issues facing the quality profession How to define quality from the customers perspective? Keeping up with the constant increases in the level of quality of todays goods and services. The particular difficulties encountered in managing service quality. How does the organization identify the quality dimensions that are most important to its customers? Being able to avoid the costs of poor quality products and services. Being able to deal with the shift in balance of power to consumers from producers through globalization. Recognizing that customer loyalty is increasingly based on quality. Getting leaner by achieving higher levels of productivity. 5.2.2.3. Internal and External Benefits of Quality
Internal Benefits

External Benefits

Reduces costs Increases dependability Increases speed Boosts moral Increases customer retention Increases profit

Customer gets correct product or service Correct specifications Appropriate intangibles Customer satisfaction Customer retention

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5.2.3. Quality Control Quality control (QC) includes the activities from the suppliers, through production, and to the customers. Incoming materials are examined to make sure they meet the appropriate specifications. The qualities of partially completed products are analyzed to determine if production processes are functioning properly. Finished goods and services are studied to determine if they meet customer expectations 5.2.3.1. QC throughout Production Systems Inputs
Raw Materials, Parts and Supplies
Quality of Inputs

Conversion
Production Process
Quality of partially completed products

Outputs
Products and Services
Quality of outputs

5.2.3.2. QUALITY CONTROL ASPECTS OF GARMENT EXPORTS There are a number of factors on which quality fitness of garment industry is based such as Performance, Reliability, Durability, Visual and Perceived quality of the garment Quality needs to be defined in terms of a particular framework of cost. 5.2.3.3. Costs of Quality Failure Defects are not free; someone makes them and gets paid for the privilege Cost of Internal Failure Cost of External Failure Scrapped materials, goods and Warranty and servicing services costs Rework/ retest Product liability / Litigation Reduced capacity/ yield/ increased Complaints and their downtime administration Rescheduling Loss of customer goodwill Service delays Inconvenience to other Disruption to the service process. customers Focus is on troubleshooting not improvement
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5.2.3.4. The Economic Costs of Quality COST OF PREVENTION Quality planning Design of quality system Staff quality training and development Preventative maintenance Supplier development training Administering quality procedures (e.g. ISO 9001) Time spent problem - solving, improving process Measurement of customer satisfaction during process

COST OF APPRAISAL Testing and Inspection of supplier goods and services Testing and Inspection of internal service processes Measurement of customer satisfaction after process Quality Audits

5.2.3.5. Points to note down for quality in garment manufacturing system Here some of main fabric properties that are taken into consideration for garment manufacturing for export basis: Overall look of the garment. Right formation of the garment. Feel and fall of the garment. Physical properties. Colour fastness of the garment. Finishing properties Presentation of the final produced garment. 5.2.3.6. Basic Thumb Rules for Garment Manufacturers & Exporters 1. Quality has to be taken care by the exporter, excuses are not entertained in international market for negligence for low quality garments, new or existing exporters for both it is mandatory to use design, technology and quality as major up gradation tools. 2. Apart from superior quality of the garment, its pricing, packaging, delivery, etc has to be also taken care of. 3. The garment shown in the catalogue should match with the final garment delivered. 4. It is important to perform according to the promises given to the buyer, or else it creates very bad impression and results in loss of business and reputation. 5. In international market, quality reassurance is required at every point. 6. Proper documentation and high standard labels on the garment are also important aspects as these things also create good impression.
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7. Timely delivery of garments is as important as its quality. 8. If your competitor has the better quality of garment in same pricing, it is better to also enhance your garment quality. 9. Before entering into international market, garment exporters have to carefully frame out the quality standards, or else if anything goes wrong it could harm the organization. And after that strictly follow it. 10. The garment quality should match the samples shown during taking the orders. 11. The garment exporters should know to negotiate a premium price after quality assurance is done.

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6.0. Quality Standards and Quality Grade


Many companies have established sets of expectations for the products they produce or sell. These expectations describe various factors, including the sizes or size range, features or style components, appearance aspects, materials, and performance. Expectations may exist in a written and organized form, in a series of memos from various individuals within the company or in an unwritten form. These expectations may be stated in general terms, or they may incorporate very specific numerical descriptions. Companies that are committed to quality are far more likely to have complied their expectations in an organized, detailed written quality assurance manual. 6.1. Standards Introduction We have all come across the term standard or standards in reference to quality control, but what exactly is a standard and who makes the standards? A standard may be defined as a) Something that is established by the authority, custom or general consent as a model or example to be followed; b) Something established for use as a rule or basis of comparison in measuring or judging capacity, quantity, content, extent, value, quality, etc. c) The type, the model or example commonly or generally accepted or adhered to; criterion set for usage or practice; d) A level of excellence, attainment, etc. regarded as a measure of adequacy. Standards are commonly agreed upon aids for communication and trade. Standards are set of characteristics or procedures that provide a basis for resource and production decisions. Standards are used to define the quality level, characteristics and performance for a firms products. 6.1.1. Standards Definition by ISO According to ISO, standards are documented agreements containing technical specifications or other precise criteria to be used consistently as rules, guidelines, or definitions of characteristics, to ensure that materials, products, processes and services are fit for their purpose. 6.1.2. Standardization Standardization is the process of developing and applying rules for a consistent and uniform approach to a specific activity for the benefit and with the cooperation of all concerned. Standardization involves a series of actions by a group of individuals who work toward a specific goal.
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6.1.3. Developing Standards Standards are developed with the cooperation of producers, suppliers, manufacturers, government agencies and consumers, because a need is perceived within an industry, a company, or another area of interest. Often a standard reflects one companys interest that has been broadened to reflect a wider range of applications. Standards are evaluated and revised many times before they are acceptable to all groups 6.1.4. Benefits of Standards The benefits of standards literally surround us. Clothes fit and do not fade or fall apart in just one laundering or dry-cleaning, buildings stand, cars run, tape recorders record, and planes fly because each is made to conform to some technical standards for material, design, and performance. Civilization or industrial progress as we know it today would have been impossible without the order standards create. Some of the benefits of standards are Standards facilitate communication and prevent misunderstanding. Standards make parts interchangeability possible and as a result mass production is possible Standards can be used in marketing strategy to promote purchase of products that meet nationally recognized requirements, especially, when conformance is backed by a certification program Standards reduce cost and save money. 6.1.5. Levels of Standards There are various levels of standards Company Standards: - These standards are useful to the companys design, development, production, purchasing, and quality control departments. These standards may be those developed by the company itself or developed by some other organizations and adopted by the company as it own standards. Industry Standards:- These standards are typically developed by a trade association or professional society. For example, American Chemical Society has for many years maintained specifications for chemical reagents. Government Standards:- These are standards either developed by the government or developed by other organizations and adopted by the government. The government standards generally tend to be related to safety or well-being of the people. Full consensus standards:- These are the standards developed by the representatives of all sectors, such as industry, consumer, government, academia, who have an interest in use of these standards either as a producer or consumer.

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6.2. Types of Standards ASTM develops six types of full-consensus standards Test methods Specifications Practices Terminology Guides Classifications Test methods: A definite procedure for identification, measurement, and evaluation of one or more qualities, characteristics, or properties of a material, product, system or service that produces a test result. Specifications: A precise statement of set of requirements to be satisfied by a material, product, system, or service that indicates the procedures for determining whether each of the requirements is satisfied. They often are given as numerical requirements with appropriate units and within reasonable limits. Practices: A definite procedure for performing one or more specific operations or functions that does not produce a test result. These are not down-graded tests. They include statistical procedures, writing statements on precision, and selecting, installing and operating equipment. Terminology: A document comprising definitions of terms, descriptions of terms, and explanations of symbols, abbreviations. Guide: A series of options or instructions that do not recommend a specific course of action. Guides suggest approaches, offer guidance for a procedure, increase awareness of available techniques and provide information regarding evaluation and standardization. Classification: A systematic arrangement of materials, products, systems or services into groups based on the similar characteristics such as origin, composition, properties, or use. 6.3. Other types of Standards in the Industry A Company Standard Industry Standards Voluntary Standards Mandatory Standards 6.3.1. Company Standards A company standard reflects a consensus among employees for products or services provided.

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Company standards are used throughout the company in product development, production, purchasing and quality assurance. Company standards describe general characteristics or features of a product or service or they describe a required level of performance. 6.3.2. Industry Standards Industry standards reflects consensus among many companies in an industry or among individual members of a profession. Industry standards are not common in the textile industry in terms of product performance. Very few industry wide standards exist for performance of materials, in spite of what vendors may indicate. Standards are much more common in terms of materials. There are several standard types on the market, so that companies can buy the type and quality needed for their products 6.3.3. Voluntary Standards Voluntary Standards allow individuals or companies to determine on their own whether to adopt standard. ASTM standards are examples of voluntary standards. No organization or group forces adoption of these standards. However voluntary standards may become incorporated into laws, regulations or contracts. 6.3.4. Mandatory Standards With mandatory standards, adoption is required, generally by a law or regulation. Most mandatory standards relate to safety or health issues. For example, with textile products, childrens sleepwear has to meet mandatory standards in terms of its minimal burning behaviour. 6.4. International Standards Since standards have become so important to many industries worldwide, standards are used internationally to facilitate trade and technology transfer among nations. International standards describe a situation in which majority of the products or services conform to the same standard regardless of where a product was produced or service was performed. International standards exist for many industries including o Information Processing o Banking o Energy production o Communication & o Textiles
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Often standards that are widely used by one country involved in international trade become part of the international standards simply because they are widely used in many parts of the world. More than 150 countries are involved in developing international standards. Some of the national standards organization that work with ISO are o Japanese Industrial Standards Committee (JISC) o The Standards Council of Canada (SCC), o American National Standards Institute (ANSI), o Standards New Zealand (SNZ) o British Standards Institute (BSI) Many standards relate to the textile industry. 6.5. APPLICATION OF STANDARDS TO TEXTILE INDUSTRY Introduction of Standards in business Standards reflect business objectives that deal with meeting target market needs and expectations. Standards must exist when communicating among producers, suppliers, vendors, retailers and consumers. Standards guide product development, materials selection, prototype analysis and refinement, production and finishing, labeling, packaging, shipping, and other activities within a company. Uses of NATIONAL & INTERNATIONAL standards for business National standards address labeling and supplying information for consumers at point of purchase. International standards relate to information necessary to do business. International standards relate to information necessary to do business in a global market. ISO 9000 standards are one example. 6.5.1. Purpose of standards & specification The purpose of standards and specifications is to incorporate the desired quality into the products based on those documents and requirements. One does not write or develop quality standards, but appropriate aspects of quality are incorporated into standards and specifications as they are developed. Quality cannot be added to the products after production, so quality standards enforced at that stage merely separate first quality merchandise from second quality merchandise 6.5.2. Focus of Company towards Quality Standard Company should focus on identifying the factors that contribute to a quality product and on incorporating standards that address those concerns.
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A company needs to examine each element of its product and relate those elements to consumer expectations and satisfaction. Many divisions of the company will be involved in the process of developing and continuously examining and refining company standards.

Marketing

Provides feedback from the customers and may seek out information from consumers. Analyses the requirements and capabilities related to equipment, skills and training costs, and quantity Examines product requirements in terms of materials, products and customer expectations

Production Merchandising

These information are integrated to form the standards related to the product line A company is likely to develop standards for Size based on its basic blocks for patterns, Grading rules used in developing the size range for each style Expectations for fit Performance of materials used in the product line Basic elements regarding product construction Special needs of the user Appearance of the finished products Packaging 6.5.2.1. Product Size Product size is based on basic pattern blocks. The basic block is the starting point for developing the pattern for specific style. It is the block and the grading rules used to change the size of that determine the dimension of the finished product. A consumer may discover that one company basic block fits her/his figure better than another companys basic block. Many companies have developed dimensions that are acceptable for each size. The dimensions incorporate a plus / minus tolerance or range overlaps into adjacent sizes
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6.5.2.2. Product Fit In terms of product fit, companies may develop standards that describe a loose or tight fit. Fit standards must be consistent so that the products fit in a constant and consistent manner. Some companies may combine some aspects of fit with those of appearance. (Ex. A company may have a standard that all the side seams are perpendicular to the floor) Thus requirements for pattern, fit, and construction should address meeting this standard. 6.5.2.3. Performance of Materials and Products Performance of materials and products may be addressed by standards. In some companies only materials performance is addressed. This practice assumes that if materials meet the standard, then the products will also meet the standard. o Materials performance may focus on o requirements for care o Ability to be spread o Cut o Sewn & Finished in the production facility o Durability o Comfort o Appearance retention 6.5.2.4. Some common terms included in Standards Terms which are commonly used by the consumers may be included in the standards. o Care may be described as easy care, machine washable and dryable, or dry cleanable. o Durability requirements may use terms such as strong, abrasion resistance, pill resistant, and long wearing. 6.5.3. Construction Standards Construction standards may address how components are assembled. Standards might be listed as Shirts always have a separate collar stand, Hems are circular (Side seams are produced first, then garment is hemmed) Elastic are stitch in place All shirts have seven button fronts Construction standards do not describe the specific steps in production, but they address expectations for product characteristics and performance for consumers

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6.5.4. Special Consumer needs Special consumer needs may be addressed in company standards. Companies that produce buttons for mens shirt may focus on producing buttons that do not crack when subjected to pressure, heat, and seam in commercial laundry presses. Companies that produce childrens wear may focus on incorporating features that enable children to dress themselves. 6.5.5. Appearance of the finished product Company standards may also address the appearance of the finished product. Standards may be as simple as o Stating that fabric and thread colors match o Hems do not roll Product appearance is one of the very first characteristics that attracts the attention of the consumer, appearance should address those characteristics that consumer may consider in assessing products. 6.5.6. Packaging Packaging is another area that standards may address. Many companies have packaging standards that minimize environmental impact. In addition, bar code labeling is commonplace. Standards of location of bar codes information incorporated in the bar codes are important.

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7.0. Different Textile and Apparel Standards


7.1. Sources of Standards In an industry with so many segments and interests, communicating quality requirements and supplying goods of the appropriate quality level are difficult. Professional and trade organizations have developed to educate members and enhance communication among industry segments. Organizations Several organizations which are available for quality standards o identify and define terms, o develop consistent practices within the field for describing and evaluating materials and process, o encourage fair trade practices, o Develop technological advances to remain competitive in the world market and promote the textile industry. Major organizations for Quality Standards a) American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists (AATCC) b) American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) c) American Society for Quality (ASQ) d) American Apparel and Footwear Association (AAFA) e) TC2 Textile / Clothing Technology Corp f) American National Standards Institute (ANSI) g) International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 7.2. American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists (AATCC) Introduction AATCC is the worlds leading not-for-profit association serving textile professionals since 1921.AATCC is headquartered in Research Triangle Park, N.C., USA, providing test method development, quality control materials, and professional networking for thousands of members in 60 countries throughout the world. 7.2.1. About AATCC The American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists (AATCC) was founded by Dr. Louis Olney of the Lowell Textile School in 1921. AATCC is the world's leading not-for-profit professional association for the textile design, materials, processing, and testing industries. Members of AATCC are employees of textile, apparel, and home goods manufacturers; dye and chemical manufacturers; testing laboratories; consumer and retail organizations; state and federal government agencies; and colleges and universities. AATCC has thousands of individual and corporate members in more than 60 countries world wide. AATCC develops internationally recognized standard test methods used by the industry, governments, researchers, and others.
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It develops procedures to assess the characteristics of materials and their performance in the areas of o Wet processing, o Dyeing o Care o Biological properties & o Other related factors These procedures are sometimes described as wet tests because liquids, such as water and other solvents are used in preparing specimens or in the procedure. AATCC standards and test methods are developed by research committees after extensive investigation and inter laboratory comparisons. Development or extensive revision of a procedure reflects several years of work. Test methods are approved by three level hierarchies before they are published in the Technical Manual. A test method is reviewed annually for its first three years of existence. After that it is reviewed every five years and reaffirmed, revised or withdrawn 7.3. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Introduction ASTM International, formerly known as the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), is a globally recognized leader in the development and delivery of international voluntary consensus standards. Today, some 12,000 ASTM standards are used around the world to improve product quality, enhance safety, facilitate market access and trade, and build consumer confidence. ASTM is one of the oldest professional organizations in United States. ASTM was established in 1898. ASTM consists of more than 130 technical committees, is international in scope and supports the work of National Institute of Standards and Technology. 7.3.1. ASTM Committees ASTM Committee D-13 focuses on textiles; other committees focus on other materials or products, such as leather and building materials. ASTM procedures are used to identify physical characteristics and assess performance related to physical-mechanical procedures. These procedures are often referred to as dry procedures because the materials are most often tested in the dry state. ASTM also works with industry, government, and others interested in developing uniform standards. 7.3.2. ASTM Standards ASTM standards are full consensus standards. This means that a standard result when a full of all concerned parties is met. Proposed standards and revisions are voted on by ASTM voting members.
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Once the standard has been approved, it is included in the Annual Book of Standards. All interested individuals participate in the development and/or use of the standard. ASTM requires that all standards be reviewed by committee every five years, so that each standard reflects current practices within industry. Standards are used voluntarily and are not legally binding unless they became incorporated in laws or regulations or are cited in contracts ASTM has no certificate program, but standards sometimes are used in certifying products. Products may carry labels indicating that a product was certified following an ASTM procedure. This means that a standard ASTM procedure was followed and that the product met or exceeded a minimum level of performance established by another group completely separate from ASTM 7.4. American Society for Quality (ASQ) The American Society for Quality (ASQ) is an organisation of professionals who work to improve the quality of manufactured goods services and related factors. ASQ has developed a professional code of ethics to guide professional practices. ASQ has technical committees and a certification program for professionals. The society publishes a newsletter, On Q, ten times a year; Quality progress, a monthly journal that includes articles on quality methods and issues; several journals that examine technical, theoretical, and practical issues related to quality; and books related to quality issues. 7.4.1. The ASQ code of Ethics Fundamental Principles ASQ requires it members and certification holders to conduct themselves ethically by Being honest and impartial in serving the public, their employers, customers and clients Striving to increase the competence and prestige of quality profession, and Using their knowledge and skill for enhancement of human welfare. Members and certification holders are required to observe the tenets sets forth below. Relation with the public o Article 1 : Hold paramount the safety, health and welfare of the public in the performance of their professional duties Relation with Employers and Clients o Article 2 : Perform Services only in their areas of competence o Article 3 : Continue their professional development throughout their careers and provide opportunities for the professional and ethical development of others
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o Article 4 : Act in a professional manner in dealings with ASQ staff and each employer, customer, or client o Article 5 : Act as faithful agents or trustees and avoid conflict of interest and the appearance of conflicts of interest Relation with Peers o Article 6 : Build their professional reputation on the merit of their services and not to compete unfairly with others o Article 7 : Assure that credit for the work of the others is given to those to whom it is due 7.5. American Apparel and Footwear Association (AAFA) The American Apparel & Footwear Association (AAFA) is the national trade association representing apparel, footwear and other sewn products companies, and their suppliers, which compete in the global market. 7.5.1. AAFA Committees and Divisions AAFA members actively serve on some 14 committees, subcommittees, councils and divisions. The Committees are classified under the following Headings Government, Trade and Regulatory Issues: Management Issues: Divisions and Specialty Markets: Technology Issues: Government, Trade and Regulatory Issues: Government Relations Committee Brand Protection Council Government Contracts Committee Social Responsibility Committee Environmental Committee Product Safety Council Management Issues: Financial Management Committee Human Resources Leadership Council Supplier Resource Committee Divisions and Specialty Markets: Footwear Division Intimate Apparel Council Technology Issues: Information Systems Committee Supply Chain & Product Innovation Committee
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7.6. TC2 Textile / Clothing Technology Corp TC2 was established in 1981 as a coalition of leaders in the U.S textile and apparel industry, Labour unions and government organizations. TC2 focuses on improving the sewn products industry to make it more productive, competitive and cost effective. It works with manufacturers to develop new processes, equipment, and implementation procedures 7.7. American National Standards Institute (ANSI) The American National Standards Institute, which is a federation of many organizations, agencies, and groups, coordinates all national voluntary agencies that develop standards. It has an accredited certificate program. Certification attests that products has been tested and meet specified requirements. These requirements are usually based on minimum performance characteristics and often relate to such health and safety issues as strength of structural steel components used in bridges and buildings. Many ASTM procedures have been approved by the ANSI, and this is the indicated in the designation of the test method. 7.8. ISO International Organization for Standardization International Organization for Standardization is a worldwide federation of national standards bodies from some 100 countries, one from each country. ISO is a non governmental organization established in 1947. The mission of ISO is to promote the development of standardization and related activities in the world with view to facilitating the international exchange of goods and services, and to developing cooperation in the sphere of intellectual, scientific, technological and economic activity. 7.8.1. Need for ISO The existence of non-harmonized standards for similar technologies in different countries or regions can contribute to so called technical barriers to trade. Export oriented industries have always felt the need to agree on world standards to help international trade. This was the origin of the establishment of ISO. International Standardization is now well established for very many technologies in such diverse field as information processing and communications, textiles, packaging, distribution of goods, energy production and utilization, ship building, banking and financial services. 7.8.2. ISO 9000 Series Standards The ISO 9000 series is a set of five individual, but related, international standards on quality management and quality assurance.
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They are generic not specific to any particular products. They can be used in the manufacturing and service industries

ISO 9000

Quality Management and Quality Assurance Standards Guidelines for Selection and Use Quality Systems Model for Quality Assurance in Design, Development, Production, Installation, and Servicing Quality Systems Model for Quality Assurance in Production, Installation and Servicing

ISO 9001

ISO 9002

ISO 9003

Quality Systems Model for Quality Assurance in Final Inspection and Test
Quality Management and Quality System Elements Guidelines

ISO 9004

These standards were developed with the goal of effectively documenting the quality system elements to be implemented in order to maintain an effective quality system in a company. These standards seek to ensure that a company has in place necessary organization, commitment and systems to consistently meet defined quality and performance standards. It is important to recognize that these standards do not set or define quality levels; the setting of the quality levels or performance standards is very much up to the company, depending on the needs of the market place and the requirements of its customers.

7.8.3. How does the series work? ISO 9000 is the road map for the series. Its purpose is to provide the user with the guidelines for selection and use of ISO 9001, 9002, 9003 and 9004. ISO 9001,9002, and 9003 are actually successive subsets of each other. ISO 9001 is the most comprehensive covering design, manufacturing, installation, and servicing systems, and it covers 20 elements of company operations.
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ISO 9002 covers production and installation, and ISO 9003 covers only final product inspection and test. 7.8.4. Elements of ISO 9000 Standards 1. Management responsibility 2. Quality System 3. Contract Review 4. Design Control 5. Documents and data control 6. Purchasing 7. Customer-supplied product 8. Product identification and traceability 9. Process Control 10. Inspection and Testing 11. Control of Inspection, measuring, and test equipment

12. Inspection and test status 13. Control of nonconforming product 14. Corrective and preventive action 15. Handling, storage, packaging, preservation and delivery 16. Control of quality audits 17. Internal quality audits 18. Training 19. Servicing 20. Statistical Techniques

7.8.5. Who is using ISO 9000? Corporations around the world have been building and continue to build their quality systems around these standards. Both large and small companies with international businesses perceive the ISO 9000 series as a route to open markets and improved competitiveness. One doesnt have to be a multinational corporation to benefit from implementing these standards. 7.8.6. What does being registered to ISO 9001, 9002 or 9003 mean? Being registered to ISO 9001, 9002 or 9003 means having an accredited independent third party conduct, an on-site audit of your companys operation against the requirements of the appropriate standard. Upon successful completion of this audit, your company will receive a registration certificate that identifies your quality system as being in compliance with ISO 9001, 9002 or 9003. You may publicize your registration and use the third party registrars certification mark on your advertising, letterheads, and other publicity materials, but not on your products. 7.8.7. Advantages of Implementing or registering to these standards These standards can be used as a vital management tool to improve quality and productivity and save costs. As company beings to implement ISO 9000 standard, it forces all the employees to review the current practices in a variety of areas of the company operations
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and improve them as an effort is made to comply with the requirement of the standard. It forces consistency in procedures and practices and thereby brings discipline in operations, resulting in reduced variability, which is the key to process improvement. It generates greater awareness of quality at various levels and across functions within a company. It helps identify opportunities for reducing errors and improving quality and productivity. As a company goes through registration process quality and productivity improves. ISO 9000 registration can be used as a marketing tool, and a competitive advantage. Being registered to ISO 9000 Standard will result in reduction in multiple audits / assessments as customers are increasingly accepting supplier quality system registration / certification from an accredited third party. Being registered to ISO 9000 standards offers worldwide credibility as a company having good quality system in place

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8.0. Quality Specification


Specifications: A specification or spec is a precise statement of a set of requirements to be satisfied by a material, product, system, or service that indicates the procedures for determining whether each of the requirements is satisfied. Several key elements have to be emphasized in this definition. Requirements Requirements indicate that these expectations are nonnegotiable. Requirements must be met for the specifications to be satisfied. Specifications describe requirements. In other words, specific terms and numerical values with the measurement units are listed so that it is clear what issues are considered important. The expectations for performance, quality, or condition is expressly defined. 8.1. Two important elements in Specifications The numbers used in writing specs address two important elements in Specifications : (1) MINIMUMS & (2) TOLERANCES 8.1.1. Minimums A minimum is the least or low acceptable value for any given parameter or dimension. Establishing minimums can be very difficult task because it is these values that encompass performance, appearance, and quality of the product. 8.1.2. Tolerances A tolerance describes the range of acceptable values, or in other words, it describes allowable deviations from specified values. Tolerances may be listed in several ways; as range from X to Y, as plus/minus value such as X + Y, or as a minimum with any value greater than the value listed is being acceptable. A major problem with tolerances is that they can accumulate or stack up in a product. The result is an unacceptable product, even though no single specification is outside the acceptable limit. Tolerances are included when a range is acceptable. However, not all the specs include tolerances 8.2. Key element in Specification The final key element in specifications is the inclusion of procedures for analysis and evaluation. The procedure, test method, or process must be identified in detail in the specification.

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In terms of materials performance, this detailed procedure usually refers to a standard test method, such as those developed by ASTM or AATCC. In terms of other aspects, such as product dimensions, diagrams and detailed explanations or procedures may be included. Identification of procedures is critical, because they ultimately measure whether the product conforms to specifications and is acceptable to the company and its target. 8.3. Types of Specification Companies develop specifications for a product or a material as An open or Closed specification. 8.3.1. Open Specification An open specification allows for consideration of multiple vendors and includes a description of character and/or performance desired in the product or material to be purchased. An open specification describes what is wanted and leaves the field open to any supplier who can meet the requirements specified. Open specifications can include general information or very specific information regarding fabric mass, resistance to fading, or whatever performance and design features are required. Open specifications are used to locate appropriate materials that would satisfy the target market 8.3.2. Closed specification A closed specification specifies the exact material, component, or product by the manufacturer or vendor and includes style numbers, trade names, or other specific identifiers. All producers or vendors except for the one specified are restricted in submitting a bid. Closed specifications are used for the production purposes, pricing and for items that must incorporate specific materials. 8.4. Types of specifications used by various industries Some of these are having little relation to textile products. Others may be of interest when dealing with specific textile products. 8.4.1. Target Specification: Target specifications relate to the understanding the companys focus in terms of the product type, price point, and target market needs and expectations. Target specifications for textile products may be stated in nebulous terms in the companys mission and philosophy statement. For example, a company describes its mission as we provide high fashion, upscale furnishings for discriminating consumer incorporates some general aspects related to their market and types of products produced.
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8.4.2. Functional specifications Functional specifications for textile products relate to performance requirements. Understanding customer expectations for products will assist in developing the functional specifications. Several laws and regulations incorporate functional specifications that must be met. For example, functional requirements for flammability are defined by the federal law for mattresses and mattress pads. 8.4.3. Product specification Product specification includes elements related to production: seam and stich type, equipment to be used for each operation, and the aspects related to quality. This would include a description of each seam, the thread to be used, seam type, stitch type, stitch density, and the precision of matching required for the plaids and when seams meet. For example, what is the acceptable precision when arms-eye and sleeve seams meet at the underarm 8.4.4. Materials Specification Materials Specification for textile products combines identification of the characteristics of each material (its type, quality characteristics, description, and condition) with the function or performance aspects. For materials, this would focus on how the materials, not the product, react to various conditions of use. Functional specifications need to focus on the product. 8.4.5. Process specification Process specification addresses all processes, including pattern and marker making, spreading and cutting, sewing, finishing, packaging and shipment. Product specifications should address the issues related to product quality. For example, specifications for packaging might address the number of items to be placed in a box and the kind of labels needed on the exterior of the box. These criteria are important for large companies that operate from distribution centers because of the space available, conveyor belt size restrictions for moving merchandise, and in tracking merchandise deliveries. 8.4.6. Inspection specifications Inspection specifications include in-process inspection, final inspection, or acceptable inspection. These specifications, will describe how and when to inspect products. 8.4.7. Test specifications Test specifications may be combined with functional and materials specifications. Test specifications describe the procedures to follow in evaluating the process or the product before, during, or after production.

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Testing done before production focuses on the materials their character and performance. Testing done during the production focuses on the processes, often during the finishing step 8.4.8. Acceptance Specifications Acceptance Specifications describe the frequency, type and the location of the defects that will be acceptable in the finished product. Acceptance specifications often address aspects relate to the appearance, performance, labeling, and packaging. 8.4.9. Installation Specifications Installation Specifications most often relate to the installation of the contract and home furnishings and industrial products. It is the detail instructions necessary for installing products on site ready for use. Probably prepared by the design or product development and engineering divisions. 8.4.10. Use Specifications Use specifications include information and special instructions that users will need to enable them to use the product in its intended manner. Probably prepared by marketing with assistance from the design and engineering divisions. 8.4.11. Maintenance Specifications Maintenance specifications gives in details the procedures to be followed to ensure that the product receives correct maintenance at required intervals. Probably prepared by the design and marketing divisions 8.4.12. Disposal Specifications Identifies any special requirements in terms of disposal of the product. May be included with the recyclable products. Probably prepared by the design and engineering divisions 8.4.13. Procurement Specifications Provide a total picture of the what, where, when and how expected of the product so that prospective suppliers know what is expected of them. Used by buying organizations to procure relatively complex products that must meet variety of requirements related to materials, functional, inspection, test and acceptance areas. Probably developed by design, product development, and engineering divisions.

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8.5. Tolerances Tolerances identify the acceptable range of variation from a specification. When reviewing specs for products, tolerances are more likely to be listed as ranges of behaviour than as minimums, as was the situation with the materials. If dimensions for any given size are too far above or below the specifications, the product is outside that size and does not meet customer expectations. Thus, if dimensions differ too much, a garment will no longer fit within the dimensions that define a size. In addition, the function of a product or component may be critical to its target market. Components are the products pieces that are sewn together or otherwise attached and treated as one piece in a later production stage, such as collars, cuffs, sleeves, and plackets. If a product or a component of a product exceeds the acceptable range, it may no longer function. For example, buttons and buttonholes must match within a narrow range or the closed placket will not line up with the correct button hole, and the product will hang in a distracting or uncomfortable manner.

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9.0. Fabric Inspection Systems


Inspection Inspection in reference to the apparel industry can be defined as the visual examination or review of raw materials (such as fabric, buttons, zippers, sewing threads, trims etc,), partially finished components of the garments and completely finished garments in relation to some standards, specifications, or requirements, as well as measuring the garments to check if they meet the required measurements. The principle involved in inspection is the early detection of defects, feedback of this information to the appropriate people, and determination of the cause, ultimately resulting in the correction of the problem. The main objective of inspection is the detection of the defects and nonconformances as early as possible in the manufacturing process so that time and money are not wasted later on in either correcting the defect or writing off defective garments. 9.1. Inspection Loop: For inspection to be effective, the entire inspection loop is shown below must be completed. Inspectio n Correctio n of the defects Detection of Defects

Deternminatio n of causes of defects

Feedback of these defects to appropriate personnel

Inspection Loop The inspection is divided into the following three sections 1). Raw Material Inspection. 2). In-process Inspection. 3). Final Inspection. Raw Material Inspection Fabric Inspection After fabric is received, it should be inspected to determine its acceptability from a quality viewpoint; otherwise extra cost in garment manufacturing may be incurred due to either the loss of the material or time, to say nothing of customers returns and dissatisfaction due to poor quality.
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Some garment manufacturers rely on the fabric suppliers to perform the fabric inspection and mark fabric defects. Either way the fabric is inspected prior to spreading will remove the burden of the quality responsibility from those performing the spreading and cutting operations. A spreader will be able to concentrate on spreading more quickly without having to worry about inspecting the fabric. A cutters productivity would increase because the defects are already marked. In many small companies spreading and cutting is done by the same personnel and fabric is inspected as it is being spread on a table for cutting. Regardless of what practice is followed, the important point is that the fabric should be inspected before cutting, the defects marked and the patterns cut around the defects so as not to include them in the finished garment. 9.2. Fabric Inspection Machine Fabric inspection is usually done on fabric inspection machines. These machines are designed so that rolls of the fabric can be mounted behind the inspection table under adequate light and rerolled as they leave the table. Defects in the fabric can be seen easily and readily with these machines, as the inspector has a very good view of the fabric and the fabric does not need to be reversed to detect defects. The inspection machines are either power driven or the inspector pulls the fabric over the inspection table. The defects are located, marked and recorded in the inspection form. Such machines are also equipped to accurately measure the length of each roll of the fabric as well as monitor the width of the fabric. The width of the fabric is very critical to the cost of the manufacturing but it may be even more critical to the manufacturers of basic garments such as mens and boys underwear who frequently reuse the markers, make pattern changes less often, and perhaps use tight markers resulting in greater fabric utilization. Therefore the Variation in the width would result in the higher cost of manufacturing for such companies. On the other hand, fashion garment manufacturers frequently change their patterns and therefore do not use the same markers again and again, so variation in fabric width may not be as much of a problem for them as for the manufacturers of basic garments. Also the profit margin for the basic garment manufacturers is usually lower than the fashion garment manufacturers, and therefore, maximum fabric utilization is vital for basic garment manufacturing companies. 9.3. General Inspection Procedures 1. Fabric inspection is done in suitable and safe environment with enough ventilation and proper lighting.

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2. Fabric passing through the frame must be between 45-60 degree angles to inspector and must be done on appropriate Cool White light 2 F96 fluorescent bulbs above viewing area. Back light can be used as and when needed. 3. Fabric speed on inspection machine must not be more than 15 yards per minute. 4. All fabric inspection must be done when 80% of good or lot is received. 5. Standard approved bulk dye lot standards for all approved lots must be available prior to inspection. 6. Approved standard of bulk dye lot must be available before starting inspection for assessing colour, hand, weight, construction, finish and visual appearance. 7. Shade continuity within a roll by checking shade variation between centre and selvage and the beginning, middle and end of each roll must be evaluated and documented. 8. Textiles like knits must be evaluated for weight against standard approved weight. 9. Fabric width must be checked from selvage to selvage against standard. 10. All defects must be flagged during inspection 11. The length of each roll inspected must be compared to length as mentioned on supplier ticketed tag and any deviation must be documented and reported to mill for additional replacement to avoid shortage. 12. If yard dyed or printed fabrics are being inspected the repeat measurement must be done from beginning, middle and end of selected rolls. In India and many other countries fabric inspection many times is carried out manually, either on a slanting inspection table or on a horizontal table, some time with light under it or some time without it. This way of fabric inspection is neither effective nor efficient. There are various fabric inspection systems, as listed below. However, the 4-point system and 10-point system are used most widely. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 4 Point System 10 Point System Graniteville 78 system Dallas System. Textile Distribution Institute (National Federation of Textiles-1955) System 4 Point System revised.

9.4. 4 Point System The 4 Point System, also called the American Apparel Manufacturers Association (AAMA) point grading system for determining fabric quality, is widely used by producers of apparel fabrics and by the department of Defense in United States and is endorsed by the AAMA as well as the American Society for Quality Control (ASQC). Fabric flaws or defects are assigned point values based on the following.
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Length of the defect in fabric, either warp or weft wise direction Up to 3 inches Over 3 inches up to 6 Inches Over 6 inches up to 9 inches Over 9 inches Holes and openings (Large Dimensions) 1 inch or less Over 1 Inch

Points allotted 1 2 3 4 2 4

The total defect points per 100 square yard are calculated, and normally those fabric rolls containing more than 40 points per 100 square yard are considered as seconds. However, a garment may use more or less than 40 points per 100 square yards as an acceptance criteria. Therefore Points per 100 Square yards

Total points scored in the roll X 3600_______ Fabric width in inches X total yards inspected.

The following points are worthy of note: 1. The maximum number of defect points to be counted against any one linear yard is 4 points. Overall, fabric quality is assessed on the basis of the number of defect points per 100 square yards of fabric. 2. The fabric is graded regardless of the end product. However, this drawback can be overcome. For example, a manufacturer may decide to use different point values for first and second quality fabrics (or acceptable / rejection criteria) depending on the end item being manufactured. For example, acceptance / rejection criteria of 40 points / square yard may be alright for fabric for mens casual trousers and sports shirts, but the same may not be adequate for fabric for mens suits. Different types of fabrics have different point levels of acceptability. These levels of acceptability are usually established by the mutual agreement between the buyer and the seller. 3. A defect point in a 4 Point system is not a consistent unit of measure. For example, 4 points when representing slubs may affect no more than 4 inches of defect, but when representing a full width of defect in a 60-inch wide fabric, 4 points represent 60 inches of continuous defect. In the first case, a point represents 1 inch or less, whereas in the second case, a point represents 15 inches of defect. This system is not sensitive to the width of the fabric being inspected. 4. The 4 point system makes no provision for the probability of minor defects causing seconds or minor defects falling out on the cutting table, being lost in the fabrication or escaping scoring in the finished garment. There are defects accepted inconspicuous areas of the first quality garments and rejected when found in conspicuous areas. There is no provision for the very influential factor

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5. There is no standard sampling plans used in the industry for the inspection of the fabric or piece goods. 6. No industry standards or acceptable limits exist for shortage in number of yards on roll of fabric. Defects which must be scored includes: a. Bar Filling wise thick place, thin place, coarse yarn or fine yarn. b. Bad Selvedge Loose, tight, beaded, raged etc. c. Broken End A warp yarn missing for a portion of its length d. Chafe An area where the fabric has been damaged by abrasion or friction. e. Coarse End Or Pick A warp or weft yarn having larger diameter or more plies than normally used in the fabric. f. End Out A warp end missing from the entire length of the cloth. g. Fine End A warp yarn having smaller diameter or less plies than normally used in the fabric. h. Flat Two or more threads weaved as one and not meant to be a feature of the weave. i. Float A thread that extend unwoven over the threads of the opposite set with which it should normally be interlaced. Fly loose fibers not originating from the fabric or foreign mater that have been woven into the fabric.

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k. Fuzz Balls Loose fibers originated from within the fabric that have formed balls and is woven into the fabric. l. Hard Size An excessive quantity of size material.

m. Double Pick An extra pick dragged into shed with the correct pick for a portion of the width of the fabric n. Kink (Snarl) A short length of yarn spontaneously doubled on itself. o. Misspick A pick woven in the wrong order with respect to the weave or colour pattern. p. Missing End A warp wise streak causing the improper spacing of the warp across the fabric.
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q. Mixed Yarn Yarn that differs from that used in normal. r. Reed Mark -- A warp wise streak caused by damage reed. s. Smash An area where the fabric been ruptured by breakage of large number of ends. t. Temple Mark Disturbance of the appearance at the temple region. u. Tight end or pick v. Torn Selvedge 9.5. 10-Point System Under this system, fabric defects are assigned point values based on the following. Length of the defects Warp defects Up to 1 1 to 5 5 to 10 10 to 36 Weft defects Up to 1 1 to 5 5 to Width More than Width For width less than 50 First Quality = Total Defect Points < Total Yards inspected Points allotted 1 3 5 10 1 3 5 10

Otherwise it is second Quality For more than 50 width First Quality = Total Defects X 1.1 Points < Total Yards Inspected.

Maximum defects allotted /yard = 10. Otherwise it is second quality. 9.6. Correlation between Fabric Quality and Apparel Quality Various studies have shown that there is a direct correlation between fabric quality and apparel quality, and poor quality fabric results in excess cost of apparel manufacturing. The subject point system can be used consistently, effectively, and economically as an
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index of fabric quality. The quality grade obtained by this system bears a measureable relation to garment quality. The weighting of the defects as 1,2,3 & 4 points defects is sound. The greatest weakness of this point system is difficulty in evaluating seriousness. Using proper precautions, this weakness is not disabling. The general use of this grading system will provide profitable to the seller and the buyer alike. While inspecting fabric for obvious defects, one should note any extreme variations in the hand, nap, or nay other such surface finish characteristics if they will be detrimental. Also any noticeable variation in the shade of a fabric should be recorded. This variation could be in the roll of the fabric or from roll to roll. Comparing the shades of two colors of two pieces of fabric (such as from roll to roll or between a standard piece of fabric and a roll of a fabric) is called shade matching. The shade matching process sounds fairly simple; however, due to subtle factors like lighting and background color in the area where shade matching is being done; or the ability of the individual who is doing the shade matching to perceive shades of color, shade matching can be difficult.

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10.0. Sewing Threads:


The necessity of the good sewing thread is evident because of the following (1). During sewing process in a high speed lock stitch machine, the thread is subjected to complex kinematic and dynamitic conditions. The speed at which it passes through the needle eye can reach 140-165 km / hour and at the moment at which the thread is caught by the sewing hook, the speed reaches 2000m/sec. While moving at such high speeds, the thread is subjected to friction from a number of guides, from the needle eye, from the fabric being sewn, from the bobbin case assembly, and from the bottom thread. At the same time, the thread is subjected to many stresses, all of which take place very quickly and at high speed. These effects acts on the sewing thread repeatedly and for a fairly prolonged period of time, since a length of the thread, before being incorporated in a stitch, may pass more than 30 times through the fabric, the needle eye, and the bobbin case mechanism. Such a severe working condition with the heat generated in the needle can reduce the initial strength of a thread by as much as 60% and this is one of the causes of increased breakage in the needle thread during high speed sewing. Therefore the sewing thread should be checked and tested for following characteristics. 1. Construction Yarn count, yarn ply, number of twists, twist balance, yarn strength (tenacity), yarn elongation. 2. Sewability At least three sewing thread packages from a lot should be used for at least 100 yards of sewing under normal conditions and a record kept for running performance. A good quality sewing thread should be able to produce uniform consistent stitches in the chosen sewing material at the highest machine speed under normal conditions. In addition, actually using at least three packages of sewing thread from each lot will give a very good indication of the following properties of sewing thread. 10.1. Properties of Sewing Thread 1. Imperfections Sewing threads should be free from slubs, knots or any such defects. Otherwise, there will be excessive stoppage on the sewing machine, resulting in the lower sewing efficiency. 2. Finish Thread finish is basically a lubricant applied to a sewing thread so that the thread will slip easily and smooth through the eye of the sewing machine needle and through various thread handling parts of a sewing machine. This finish
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varies from 3 to 15% of the weight of the thread. The amount of finish must be consistent from package to package and from lot to lot; otherwise, sewing quality and efficiency will be lost completely. 3. Color Color of a sewing thread (including white) should match that of either he original or the standard sample and should not vary too much within a lot or shipment of sewing thread. Also, the color should not bleed in washing and or dry cleaning and fade in sunlight. 4. Package Density Package density of the sewing thread should be consistent from package to package within a shipment or lot and from shipment to shipment. If package density varies too much, sewing machine operators will have to adjust the tension frequently, resulting in lower productivity. 5. Winding Winding of the sewing thread on packages should be uniform; otherwise, it may result in excessive thread breakages, again causing lower efficiency. 6. Yardage Length of the sewing thread on each package should be at least the specified amount or within certain tolerance, such as + 2% of the labeled length.

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11.0. Zippers:
Zippers should be checked for the following. 1. Dimensions Check for the correct width of the tape. If it isnt correct, the machine will run off. Measure overall length with the zipper closed from extreme ends of metal. Tape extensions should be as specified. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Top and bottom stops be fastened securely Zipper tape should be of uniform in color if that is important Zipper should not cause wrinkling or puckering after it is sewn in to the garment Can a zipper be washed or dry cleaned? Will it fade? Will the slide deform under pressing or ironing? Check the force it takes to pull open the zipper (sideways) Pull tab should be affixed firmly to the slider body Slider should ride freely but must not be so free that it is loose on the chain Check also to be sure the slider locks securely.

11.1. Avoiding Zipper Problems Most zipper failures in garments are the result of - Improper installation methods in the sewing - Questionable garment design or construction - Incorrect product application - Factory and / or retail customer abuse. As a mechanically operational device, a zipper is the most sophisticated component in the garment, and thus is acutely vulnerable to human error. This is especially true in factories that use continuous zipper chain and perform the gapping, bottom stopping, and slidering operations in-house Slider Direction The slider direction must run in a specific direction. On metal chain, the points of the teeth face towards the open end of the zipper. Correct direction is more difficult to determine with the plastic chai, but in both cases, arrows are usually printed on the tapes that point towards top, open end. Right Side Up On plastic coil and extruded tooth chain, the slider should be mounted, with the pull tab on the same side as the printing on the tapes. Some of coil zipper is not symmetrical, therefore making slider mounting obvious. Side to side orientation is not critical with metal or molded chain.

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Stabilization Most zippers tapes contain some percentage of cotton, or cotton blend yarns in order to provide a dense anti-sleazy construction. A resin treatment option is available for permanent press or low shrink applications, which are commonly referred to as stabilization. The process consists of applying a material to the chain which, when cured with a specified temperature/time relationship, will impart synthetic qualities to the cotton, at some sacrifice of strength. Resin treated chain is available in either a semi cured or fully cured state, to match similarly treated textiles. The use of fully cured chain with semi-cured textile will result in tape degradation when the assembly is subjected to a final cure. Also, the use of resin treated chain in a garment that receives resin treatment as an assembly, will subject the tape to double treatment, resulting in degradation of the cotton yarns. Slider and Chain Combinations Every zipper manufacturer has a large stable of slider and chain available for most applications. Materials vary from light weight plastic through the family of metals such as Zinc, steel, brass, and nickel-silver. Slider action covers a spectrum from nonlock, pinlock, camlock, flangelock, fliplock and atuolock. Selecting the proper combination is best left to application lab of the zipper supplier.
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Handling and Processing Zipper Zipper chain should be stored at a moderate temperature and humidity. Long term storage at elevated temperatures can cause some tape yarn deterioration, especially with resin treatment. Excessive tension or shock loading of zipper chain during processing can affect dimensions and cause latent shrinkage Running more than one manufacturers chain simultaneously can result in accidental mixing of components. Ratcheting This is the act of forcing the slider down the chain by pulling the two open halves apart. Although some sliders are designed to ratchet, this action does the damage, degrade the teeth, and with positive locking sliders the chain is destroyed. Ratcheting occurs in the sewing room, finishing, and at industrial laundries when operator wants to open the garments fast. Retail users can ratchet a slider by not fully opening the zipper when putting on or removing the garment, or as deliberate act to allow return of an unwanted item. Shear This is the act of attempting to shift one half of the chain with respect to the other half after the slider is mounted. It occurs when an operator tries to adjust the waistband alignment without first removing the slider, and usually results in permanent damage. Slider Distortion A slider is clam shelled when the top and bottom have been spread apart, as in opening a clam. This condition can be caused by sticking slider holder or by an overzealous consumer trying to move a stuck slider with a pair of pliers. A crushed slider usually occurs in the pressing buck of the garment factory or in industry laundering. Slider holder This device holds the slider by the pull tab, and lifts the lock out of the path of the chain during slider threading. A misadjusted holder can cause ratcheting if the lock release malfunction or clam shelled sliders and chain damage if the pull clamp does not release after threading. Bottom Stop The primary function of the bottom stop is to prevent accidental opening of the closed end of the chain. A stop that is not tightly clinched over the zipper teeth, or is totally missing will allow the chain to open behind the slider. This condition can sometimes be repaired in the factory by pulling the slider down thus rehealing the chain, and applying a new stop.

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Sewing The major cause of zipper failure is poor sewing. A garment panel attached too close to teeth will interfere with the slider and get caught inside. Attempting to free the slider can cause garment and chain damage, or clam shelled sliders. A sew line that is not parallel to the chain or wanders, causes localized high stresses and curvature which can eventually lead to erratic slider action and tape failure. Low stitch count can lead to tape sleaziness, and using blunt, large diameter needles will cause heating and melting during sewing because of the high density tight weave inherent in zipper tapes. Improper thread trimming will cause interference with slider action when the loose ends become caught. Fly Serging The outer edge of zipper tape can be accidentally cut during right fly serging knives, causing disastrous zipper failure. The best policy is to remove the knives entirely, or use a positive edge guide. Hump Hump is a roller coaster effect of either the zipper chain or garment at the sew line. A humpy zipper is usually caused by the operator over tensioning the garment panel during sewing, or feeding the assembly with the chain down in engagement with the feed dog. A humpy garment is usually caused by the over tensioning the zipper during sewing, or excessive foot pressure. Hump after washing or dry cleaning is the result of excessive foot pressure. Hump after washing or dry cleaning is the result of the excessive differential shrinkage between the garment and zipper. Contrary to poor opinion, this condition is usually the result of excessive garment textile shrinkage, resulting in zipper hump.

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Popping A zipper that opens in one spot has been popped. This can be caused by very high localized force, but is usually the result of folding the zipper back upon itself while under cross wise load. Most metal and extruded or molded plastic chain is almost impossible to pop. Coil zipper pop more readily, but can be healed by running the slider down and back up. Waist band and Hook/Eye Closures The hook and bar, snap, hook and eye, and button closures used at the top of the zipper opening are intended to absorb all the crosswise stress when closed. Mislocated or poorly attached closures will subject the zipper teeth to very high stresses at the top. Garments that are sized small, or retail customers that purchase undersized items, promote failure because these closures are usually left open and the slider is used to keel the opening closed. Bar tacks Bar tacks serve the function of protecting the bottom stop from excessive load in fly operations. A missing bar tack, or one set too low, could result in a bottom stop failure at the retail level. Design Problems Many potential zipper problems can be avoided at the garment design level. Some of the more common errors are; Opening too short, causing bottom stop failure, such as in hip hugger jeans Wrong side zipper not designed for stress Wrong type zipper Installation across a heavy fell seam, causing popping and slider snagging Insufficient fly piece reinforcement Improper sew line position, either too near the outer tape edge or the teeth. Lack of bar tacks at the bottom, as previously mentioned.

Zippers problems that do not fall within the scope of this bulletin are best diagnosed by calling in the supplier. Some manufacturers supply a free application lab service that will analyze a new design or construction prior to production.

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12.0. BUTTONS, BUCKLES AND SNAP FASTENERS


12.1. Buttons Buttons should have large, clean sew holes that are free from flash and will not cut the thread. Holes must be located properly in relation to the edge of the button. Buttons should be uniform thickness. The color or shade of the buttons should be within a certain visual tolerance. Buttons should be able to withstand laundering, dry cleaning, and pressing without any changes such as cracks, melting of surface (scorch), and change in color or shade.

12.2. Buckles Buckles should be checked for any visual defects such as sharp, burred edges. If a buckle is cloth or vinyl covered, there should not be an appropriate difference in the buckle and garment materials. 12.3. Snap Fasteners The attaching machinery should locate the snap fasteners accurately and at proper pressure. Components parts should be checked to close tolerances and free from dirt and other foreign substances so that they will feed rapidly through the hopper and permit uniform and troublefree assembly. Hardness and workability of metal are important factors also and are controlled carefully by quality suppliers. If the metal is too hard, the parts will be formed poorly and may crack; if it is too soft, the closure will be weak.

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13.0. TRIMS TESTING


Fusible Interlinings Zippers Elastic Waist band Sewing threads Buttons Snap Fasteners 13.1. Testing of Fusible Interlining The purpose of fusible interlinings is to give shape or form and improve the aesthetics of a garment. There is no better way to test fusible interlining other than to actually fuse the interlining with the end-item fabric and evaluate such samples before starting mass production. Therefore, at least three 30 X 30 cm (12 X 12 in.) pieces of end-item fabric cut and fused to the 23 X 23 cm (9 X 9 in.) pieces of fusible interlining at the recommended time, temperature, and pressure. Then these specimens are checked for compatibility, shrinkage and bond strength. Compatibility means that the fusible interlining material should provide good drapability, bulk, and support without altering the natural hand of the end item (shell) fabric. Shrinkage can be measured by placing gauge marks on the interlinings and shell fabrics before fusing and measuring the distance between these gauge marks after fusing. Any significant shrinkage in the fusible interlining fabric would result in a noticeable bubbled appearance on the right side of the shell/interlining assembly. Bond strength can be determined by using the standard method of testing bonded and laminated apparel fabrics. 13.2. Testing of Zippers Zippers can be tested using any one or more of the following ASTM test methods Durability of finish of zippers to laundering Colorfastness of zippers to dry cleaning Colorfastness of zippers to light Colorfastness of zippers to crocking Colorfastness of zippers to laundering Durability of finish of zippers to dry cleaning Resistance of zippers to salt spray (fog) Measuring zipper dimensions Strength tests of zippers Operability of zippers

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The durability of the finish of the zippers to laundering is evaluated by laundering the test specimen in a Launderometer. The effect of the test on zipper coating is evaluated by noting the loss of coating on the zipper chain or components or both The color fastness of zippers to dry cleaning is tested by subjecting the zipper tape to commercial dry- cleaning with multi-fibre fabric. The dry cleaned specimen is compared with the original specimen and any change in the color of the specimen or staining of the multi-fibre fabric is then assessed using AATCC grey scale for color change or the chromatic transference scale. The color fastness of the zippers to laundering is tested by subjecting the zipper with a multi-fibre test fabric to home laundering according to the intended care instructions of the garments on which this particular zipper would be used. The alteration in shade of the zipper tape and degree of staining of multi-fibre test fabric is evaluated by the AATCC gray scale for staining and color change or the chromatic transference scale. The durability of the finish in the zippers to dry cleaning is tested by subjecting the zipper to the dry cleaning, as in AATCC test method 86, but the zipper is air-dried rather than hot pressed. The specimen is then evaluated visually for any exposed base metal compared to a new zipper or compared to a sample illustrating an acceptable degree of coating loss. Sometimes due to corrosion, a zipper will not operate smoothly and its crosswise strength may be reduced. Such deterioration in a zipper can be evaluated by subjecting the zipper to a slat spray test. Of course, plastic/nylon zippers do not corrode, and therefore this test applies only to metal zippers. In this test method, specimens are subjected to slat spray [5% salt solution at 33 0 to 360 C for 24 hours continuously] as directed by ASTM method D 2059, slat spray testing. The exposed specimens are then visually evaluated for any sign of corrosion and tested for ease of operation and crosswise strength, and results are compared with the ease of operation and crosswise strength of the original specimens. Zippers dimensions should be measured in certain ways so that they can be communicated effectively. 13.2.1. Zipper Strength Tests The usefulness of a zipper in service can be evaluated by the following strength tests. No one test determines the suitability of a zipper for a specific end use. Since the tests are interrelated, more than one may be needed for a complete evaluation. Zipper strength is usually tested in the following areas. 1. Crosswise Strength The ability of a zipper chain to withstand lateral stress is measured by loading to destruction a 1 in. section of the specimen in the tensile testing machine.

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2. Scoop pull-off The gripping strength of a scoop around the bead is determined by pulling a single scoop from the bead at right angles to the stringer using a tensile testing machine with a specially designed fixture. 3. Holding strength of stops The ability of stops to perform their intended purpose is determined through the use of five different methods that simulate the important stresses encountered in the end use of zippers. 4. Scoop slippage The ability of a scoop to resist longitudinal movement along the bead of the tape is determined with a tensile testing machine fitted with a specially designed fixture 5. Resistance to cushioned compression of sliders The lower plateau of compression tester is cushioned with a neoprene pad. The specimen is laid on the pad and a load is applied. Then, the operability of zipper is tested and compared to the operability of the original zipper. 6. Slider deflection & recovery There are two procedures for determining the resistance of slider planes of zippers to an opening or spreading force. In one procedure, the force is applied to the mouth of the slider. In the other, an alternative method, the force is applied through the slider pull and back plane of the slider. 7. Resistance to twist of pull and slider In this method, the twist resistance of a pull and slider assembly against a torsional force applied to the pull of the zipper is evaluated. A fixture is used with a torque wrench to apply a specified twisting force to a slider pull. The amount of permanent twist imparted to the slider pull or other permanent damage or deformation are noted. The specimen is also examined for any other effects such as breaking of deformation of the lug or any other part of the assembly. 8. Resistance to pull-off slider pull In this test, with a special fixture, tensile load is applied to the slider pull to determine how much force is required to pull off the slider pull. The operability of zippers are tested by pulling the slider with a force indicator (such as pull gauge) along the zipper chain alternately in the opening and closing directions and the force required to maintain each movement is recorded. The force required to move the slider on the chain is a measure of the ease with which the zipper will operate in end use applications. 13.3. Elastic Waistband Testing There are two properties of an elastic waistband that need testing; i. Fit for labeled size ii. Resistance to degradation (becoming loose, losing elasticity) due to laundering.
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13.3.1. Fit for the labeled Size This property can be tested by stretching the waistband about 5 cm more than the hip dimension for the labeled size (to stimulate the condition that exists when putting on the garment) and bringing back the waistband to the waist dimension for the labeled size and measuring the force it takes to keep the waistband stretched at that particular dimension. Then the similar garments must be wear tested and the numerical value of the force required must be correlated with the actual comfort during wear. This testing can be done on a tensile testing machine. 13.3.2. Resistance to Degradation, Accelerated Aging Method 1. Take three specimens of the elastic that would be used for a waistband. Mark them in such a way that the distance between the marks is 25 cm (10 in.). Then subject them to accelerated aging [expose them to 149 0C for 2 hour in a circulated air oven]. After aging, let the specimens cool down to room temperature. 2. Then, stretch the specimen 50% and keep them in that stretched condition for 24 hours. Allow them to relax for 10 min. Then, measure the distance between the gauge marks and express that as a percentage of the original distance between the gauge marks 25 cm (10 in.). Use a sign to indicate shrinkage and a + sign to indicate growth in the distance between the gauge marks. The final results are expressed as the average of the three specimens. 3. Usually any growth over 7% or 8% is not acceptable. Any shrinkage is unacceptable because it will result in tight fit. 13.4. Sewing Thread Testing There is an ASTM test method for sewing threads. This test method outlines the procedure for testing the following properties of sewing threads. Diameter Length per thread holder Strength and elongation Shrinkage, single end Twist and twist balance Yarn number.

Diameter Knowledge of thread diameter is important because diameter can affect sewing performance and seam appearance. Sewing performance can be influenced because thread is required to pass through restrictions, such as needles eye and tension disks. Seam appearance can be adversely affected when the diameter of a thread is large enough to displace fabric yarn and results in a puckered seam. Sewing thread diameter is also a consideration when selecting sewing threads for embroidery, contrast stitching, or other decorative applications. The diameter of the thread is determined either with the thickness gauge or optically. The procedure for measuring sewing thread diameter by thickness gauge is as follows:
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Draw the thread from the side of the sewing thread holder, taking care not to disturb the twists. Place four strands of the thread side by side on the anvil and approximately midway between the sides of the pressure foot of the thickness gauge. Measure the thickness to the nearest 0.0025 cm under 240gm/cm2 (0.001 in. under 3.4.psi) pressure at 10 points along the thread and calculate the average as diameter of the sewing thread. The optical method for measuring sewing thread diameter is not recommended because it has difficulty determining the exact boundaries of threads having hairy fibres on the surface. Length per thread holder The length of the sewing thread on a thread holder is measured in meters or yards while being removed from the thread holder. Strength and Elongation Strength and elongation of sewing threads are determined by the same way as the strength and elongation of yarn, by a single strand method (ASTM D-2256). The loop length and elongation of a sewing thread are a measure of the threads ability to contribute to seam performance. The loop strength of a thread bears a direct relationship to stitch strength and hence to seam strength. Loop elongation is an indication of the degree to which seam, under stress, can be stretched without a thread breaking. Besides loop elongation, the ultimate elongation of a seam is dependent on the material stitched, the stitch and seam type and number of stitches per inch. In a loop strength and elongation test, each specimen consists of two pieces of yarn taken from one package or end. Both the ends of one piece are secured in one clamp of the testing machine so that the length of the loop is about one-half the gauge length. One end of the second loop is passed through the loop formed by the first piece of the sewing thread, and both ends of the second piece are clamped in the other clamp of the testing machine, the machine is started, and the load and elongation, when the loop breaks, are observed and noted. Shrinkage, Single End Shrinkage of sewing thread is important because shrinkage can cause puckering of a seam, thus adversely affecting seam appearance. A conditioned single end of thread is measured under a prescribed tensioning force before and after exposure to boiling water for hour or dry heat 1520 + 30 C for 1 hour. The change in the length is expressed as a percentage of the length before exposure. Twist and twist balance For determining twist level in the sewing thread, the ASTM test methods cited in [88-89] can be used. The determination of twist balance is important in predicting the snarling tendency of the thread during actual sewing operations. In this method, about a meter (yard) of conditioned thread from a holder is withdrawn in the same manner as that in which it is delivered to the sewing machine and formed into a loop, positioning the ends of the threads so that they are 10 cm (4
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in.) apart at the top of the loop. The twist balance is reported in terms of the complete rotations that the loop makes. Yarn Number The yarn number of the sewing threads can be determined by the ASTM test methods 13.5. Buttons Testing Durability of the buttons can be tested by an impact test. Individual buttons are placed on a surface centered under a tube through which a preselected mans falls from a preselected height. After the mans impact the button, the button is removed from a testing device and visually examined using 5x Magnifying glass for breakage, cracking, or chipping. The practice is used for acceptance testing of buttons. The buttons are classified as class A, B1 through B3 depending upon the impact resistance, the class A button being the most durable.

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14.0. Procedures practiced for Quality Control and Assurance (Cutting)


Process of Inspection, Types of Defects and their possible solutions, o (Marker making, o spreading, o cutting, o bundling , o ticketing o quality parameters and formats ) Quality Specs.

14.1. Introduction In-Process Inspection In-process inspection means the inspection of parts before they are assembled into a complete product. In apparel manufacturing, this means inspection at various points in the entire manufacturing process from spreading to pressing / finishing. The idea behind the in process inspection is to inspect or check the quality of component parts close to the manufacturing a possible and thereby identify the source of quality problems as early in the manufacturing process as possible. This type of inspection can be performed by either quality control inspectors or individual operators themselves after they perform their respective operations. This will minimize the need for later repairs and rework. Each production operation performed correctly makes for a smooth running plant with low operating costs. Poor quality at any stage in production compounds itself and can be expected to increase total cost. In process inspection is also called as during production or du-pro inspection A well run in-process inspection program will result in the following two advantages. 1. Reduction of major surprises from the customers due to bad quality. 2. Decrease in labor costs due to decrease in repair rates. These advantages are generally derived from the fact that due to in-process inspection a. The operators (workers) and supervisors are constantly reminded that the company has a specific quality level to meet, just by the very presence of the inspectors in their section on a daily basis. b. Because each worker realize that his/her work is subjected to being inspected at any time throughout the day the quality of work produced by workers will improve c. The data obtained can be effectively analyzed and utilized by the production supervisors and plant manager in correcting problems or improving quality. The day is long past when apparel manufacturers can depend solely on 100% final inspection at the end of a production line. The quality cannot be inspected into a garment after it has been made; instead, quality should be manufactured into a garment at every step and checked repeatedly during production.
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14.2. In-Process inspection - Spreading defects Various factors that affect the spreading process are - Ply alignment - Ply Tension or Slackness - Bowing - Splicing. The greater the variation in width or length alignment, the greater the waste in the precision cutting because the ends and sides must be trimmed to the narrowest and shortest plies. A tight spread will contract after cutting, resulting in smaller and skimpier components than what should be. A slack spread possesses excess length within the stipulated end of the spread. Cut components from a slack spread will tend to be oversized. Bowing is the distortion of filling yarn from a straight line across the width of the fabric. This would cause unbalanced stresses in fabric, resulting in slackness and tightness in the ply that will lead to undersized components. Also the garment component containing such a defect will tend to twist or distort in laundering or dry-cleaning. Splicing is the overlapping of two ends of fabric in a ply. A short or insufficient overlap will result in incompletely cut pattern sections and a long overlap will result in waste. Static in the fabric may cause a distorted spread, resulting in incompletely cut pattern sections. Static can be eliminated by either increasing the humidity in the cutting room or using static eliminators. Some more possible spreading defects are - Not enough plies to cover the quantity of garments required. - Narrow fabric - Plies not all facing in the correct direction. That is, not all the plies are spread face down, face up, or face to face, as required. - Mismatching of checks. Plies not spread accurately one above another ready for cutting. 14.3. Pattern Defects Marker making Defects 1. Pattern Parts Missing Correct number of parts for all sizes not included by the marker maker. 2. Mixed parts- Parts not correctly labeled in the marker; therefore, a marriage of wrong-sized parts. 3. Patterns not facing in the correct direction on napped fabrics 4. Patterns not all facing in the same direction on a one way fabric 5. Patterns not aligned with respect to the grain line of the fabric. As a result, a garment may not drape or fit properly 6. Line definitions poor (e.g., chalk, too thick, indistinctly printed line, perforated lay not fully powdered), leading to inaccurate cutting.
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7. Skimpy marking Either the marker did not use the outside edge of the pattern or the pattern was moved or swung after partial marking to squeeze the pattern into a smaller space in the interest of fabric economy. Alternatively, the pattern is worn around the edges and should be replaced. 8. Generous marking A combination of points 7 and 8 results in the components being sewn together with puckering or pleating. 9. Marker too wide Garment parts at the edge of the lay are cut with bits missing 10. Not enough knife clearance allowance 11. Mismatched checks and stripes 12. Notches and drill marks omitted, indistinct, or misplaced. 14.4. Cutting Defects Cutting quality is a prerequisite for quality in a finished product. In addition, cut work quality affects the ease and cost with which construction is accomplished. The quality of work leaving the cutting room is determined by how true the cut fabric parts are to the pattern; how smooth or rough the cut surface is; material or fabric defects in cut fabric parts; shade differences between cut fabric pieces within a bundle. In addition various factors in cutting that can affect the subsequent quality should be checked, such as under- or overcut, size, placement and sequence alignment of notches and drill holes, ripped or pulled yarns etc. The defects that may arise in the cutting are 1. Frayed Edges May impede cutting time by clogging the knife action and / or mar the fabric with the rips or pulled yarns. The amount of fraying depends on fabric construction and finish. Improper cutting tools or dull knives cause excessive fraying in a pattern as section is cut. 2. Fuzzy, ragged or serrated edges This is the result of the poor cutting. Such edges will impede sewing and / or diminish sewing quality. Such a condition is caused by faulty knife edges such as burrs, chips, or dullness. 3. Ply to ply fusion More common and troublesome. Adjacent plies in a block are fused together, which makes if difficult for the sewing machine operator to pick up a single ply quickly. Fusion occurs due to heat created by excessively high speed of cutting or by friction of a dull knife. To prevent fusion, check knife speed, keep knives sharp, place wax paper between fabric plies, and lubricate cutting blade. 4. Single edge fusion Consists of a single ply whose cut yarn ends are fused to form a hard brittle rim on the cut edge. Sometimes, this is desirable to prevent fraying; however
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hardness and brittleness are undesirable it they impede sewing manipulation or may result in seams uncomfortable to the consumer. 5. Pattern Precision Misshape or distortion of the pattern perimeter as cut. Whether it is under-or overcut is due to poor manual control of cutting machine and poor lines on the marker. To assure precision in a pattern, check markers before cutting, use tensionless spreading, or allow time for fabric to relax. After a cut, check the top, bottom, and middle plies against the pattern. 6. Notches Notch size refers to the depth of the notch. If the depth of the notch is too great, the notch may show after a garment is sewn. If the notches are too small, sewing operators may have difficulty locating them quickly, resulting in decreased efficiency. Misplacement of a notch may be due to an improper spread marker, poor control of cutting machine with cutters notching tool stroking diagonally instead of vertically, incorrect marker in that notches for mating parts do not coincide. Check notch placement against mating pieces. Quality control in stitching may be a problem if notches are not aligned. 7. Drilling The drill hole may be too large or too small in diameter. In addition, a drill may become too hot due to high speed or wrong size, causing the plies to fuse together at the drill hole. The drill must stroke vertically to the table for uniform placement throughout the bundle. Sometimes fabric properties are such that the slight movement of yarns in a fabric would close a drill hole. In such cases, it is necessary to drill holes with a marking fluid. The drill used for such purpose is hollow and carries marking fluid (ink) that is deposited at the drill point on the fabric as the needle is withdrawn. Such marks should last long enough so that further processing can be finished without difficulty, but should be easily removable after processing or in case of an error. 14.5. Glossary of Cutting room defects (Pattern, Marker, Spreading and Cutting room defects) S.No Defect Description Pattern Grading Defects 01 Grade not conforming to Finished product not measuring to specified Specification Measurements dimensions and component parts not fitting in relationship to notches, openings, and seams such as armholes, sleeve heads, neck bands, neck openings, side seams, inseams and waist measurements etc., 02. Distorted Grading: Unbalanced patterns which would cause twisted seams, puckering, pleating and a general uneconomical yardage waste.
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03. 04. 05.

06.

07. 08. 09. 10. 11.

Marking Defects Shaded Parts: All component pans not included in same section. Pieces not Symmetrical Will not sew together without puckering or pleating. Not Marked by Directional Bias will not fit together, causing twisting, Lines: puckering, pleating and a general mismatching of component parts. Skimpy marking Marker did not use outside perimeter of pattern. Pattern moved after partially marked to fit into space. Notches and Punch Marks: Left out, not clearly marked or misplaced. Marker Too Wide Parts will not catch in the lay causing skimpy garments or requiring recuts Marker Too Narrow Results in wasted material. Mismatched Plaids Marker did not block component parts to match. Misdirected Napping Patterns not marked in same direction on napped fabrics Spreading Defects Uneven Spreading: Front edge of lay is not even, resulting in front or back edge of marker not catching all plies. Narrow Material Bolts or rolls of material too narrow to cover marker width Missed Sectional Breaks: Sectional marker breaks too long or too short. Parts in lay will be short or material wasted. Improper Tension Cloth spread too tight or too loose, causing parts not to fit in sewing or distorting dimensions of garments. Mismatching Plaids: Material spread too loose or too tight causing plaid lines to run diagonally or bow. Misdirected Napping: Air pockets not removed. Napped material reversed in spreading.

12. 13. 14. 15.

16.

17.

18.

19

20.

Improper Matching of Face of Not spread face down, face up or face to face Material as required Cutting Defects Marker or Perforator Not stapled or stenciled on lay to catch both edges causing parts to miss in cutting. Too tight or too loose distorting dimensions of garment. Perforated stencil not powdered, or inked sufficiently to show distinct lines, notches and punch marks Misplaced Piece Rate Tickets Attached to, or marked on, wrong bundles or Bundle Members causing mixed sizes and/or shades.
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21. 22. 23.

Drill Marks

24. 25. 26. 27

28. 29. 30. 31.

Drill marks misplaced, not perpendicular, omitted or wrong side drill used. Opening Slits Cut under above to the side or at incorrect angle. Not cut through entire bundle or omitted. Improper Cutting Not following marker lines resulting in distorted parts. Letting knife lean, causing top and bottom ply to be of different sizes. Notches Misplaced, too deep, too shallow or omitted. Oil Spots Equipment improperly oiled or cleaned. Improper Knife Sharpening Causing ragged, frayed or fused edges on bundles. Knife or Scissors Cut Piece damaged by over run in cutting previous piece Shade Marking Defects Pencil or Machine marking Too dark, too light, bleeding through, not legible or marked on wrong side. Stains Ink stains from stamping or pin ticket machines. Thermo ply or Pin Ticket Improperly placed or marked marking: Mixed Plies Results in mixed shades

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15.0. Inspection procedures in Sewing Room


Introduction In process inspection in the sewing involves the inspection of work from each operator, with a quality standard established to limit the amount of bad work permitted and a provision for operators to re inspect and repair entire bundles should this limit be exceeded. The decision on where to place the inspection stations will be influenced by various factors, such as the importance of operations, and controlling troublesome or key operations. Since the inspections can often be performed for two or more operations at the same time, in process inspection can be established at various inspection points in sewing operations, as opposed to the inspector literally selecting work at each operators work station. First, a complete manufacturing process chart should be made, clearly identifying the production or manufacturing steps for each type of garment made. 15.1. What to Inspect during Sewing? Manufacturing process flow chart for mens dress shirts is given below. 1. Marker lay made according to cutting ticket. Marker lay checked 100% 2. Marker and material delivered to spreading operation. Material spread. 3. Machine knife cut 4. Die cutting small parts 5. Cut parts delivered to plant 6. Collar department: Fuse stays, run collar tops, trim points. Turn and press (shape), top stitch, trim tops. Hem bands, stich lining to bands. Band collar. Turn band ends. Top stitch bands. Trim and baste. Quarter-mark band. Button hole. Button sew. 7. Cuff department: Hem cuff, run cuff. Shape cuff top stitch. Button hole. Button Sew. 8. Under fronts: Baste neck. Crease Front. Hem button stay. Button Sew. Set Pocket. Set flap. 9. Upper Fronts: Baste neck. Crease Front. Centre Pleat. Buttonhole. Set Pocket. Set Flap. 10. Sleeves: Piece binding. Bind Sleeve. Tack binding. 11. Backs: Pleat. Backs 12. Yokes: Label. Sew. 13. Attach yoke backs. 14. Assemble completed bundles of parts, any size, section, ply number, and /or shade.

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2 3 5 4

10

11 1

12

13

14

15

16

17

18 9

19 9

20 9

15. Join shoulder seam 16. Join collar to shirt 17. Set sleeve, join side and underarm seams (Side fell) 18. Cuff attach, hem shirt, trim threads. 19. Button shirt, run collar, press, and fold. 20. Pack The inspection points or stations should be carefully selected so that the operations to be checked are neither covered by later operations, nor necessitate ripping good work to repair a defect. Inspection stations should provide a uniform work load for each inspector and should minimize the elapsed time between the completion of an operation and its inspection.
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Each operator should be told what standard of work is acceptable and what is not. There should be a written quality specification for each job in the manufacturing process. Wherever possible sketches of the garment parts should be included, illustrating how they are supposed to appear after completion. Dimensions and tolerances for critical points must be included. Knowledge of the factors that create problems in a particular operation helps to determine the specific dimension or characteristic to be maintained. Each inspector should be clearly told what to look for while inspecting various operations. There is no standard amount of inspection that will provide the right balance between the quality and costs for all types of garments and production methods. It is advisable to plan on having enough inspectors so that, on the average, every fourth bundle is inspected and no operation ever goes longer than 4 hours without being inspected. The daily volume of the garments produced should decide the numbers of inspectors and not the number of operators. Studies have shown that usually 15-20% of the operators in any plant will cause 65% to 80% of the defects. Most inspections in the in process check points can be performed rapidly without sacrificing the accuracy, and quite large units of inspection should be expected of inspectors each day. The inspectors must be allowed with enough time to inspect in greater detail when necessary and to carefully explain the quality problems to the supervisors. As with all the inspection activities, the thoroughness of inspection is more important than the quantity inspected. 15.2. Sewing Defects 1. Needle damage are evidenced by holes, picked threads, ruptured threads or other damage to the fabric; caused by wrong size or type of the needle, blunt needle, needle heat, or machine feeding difficulty. 2. Feed damage, particularly on thicker sheer fabrics, or when machining over transverse seams, from incorrect type of teeth, excessive pressure by foot, improper alignment of feed and foot, damaged throat plate, excessive machine speed. 3. Skipped Stitches, from the hook irregularly failing to pick up the loop of thread from a needles eye owing to a number of causes. 4. Thread breaks, arising from too thick a thread for needle, too thin a thread, needle heat, operator working un rhythmically, or too tight tensions.

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5. Broken stitches, arising from the wrong stitch type, too tight tensions, a badly formed joint in the seam where the second line of the stitch runs over the first and cracks it, sharp feeds, and too great a pressure. 6. Seam grin, arising from too loose a tension or too large a stitch, or use of the wrong stitch type. 7. Seam pucker, because of incorrect handling by the operator, misaligned notches, or tight tensions. 8. Pleated seams, an extreme form of seam pucker, where operator failed to ease fullness evenly 9. Wrong stitch density. Too many give rise to jamming and rapture of fabric threads; too few to grinning or weak seams 10. Uneven stitch density. Operator causes machine to snatch and does not allow machine to control fabric. 11. Staggered stitch, from faulty feed motion, incorrect needle, and other machine parts. 12. Improperly formed stitches, caused by bad tension, incorrectly adjusted timing, ill fitting machine components. 13. Oil spots or stains. 15.4. Seaming Defects Seaming defects are usually caused by the errors arising from the interaction of the operator and the machine in the handling of the garment. 1. Incorrect or uneven width of inlay, arising from bad handling by operator, incorrectly set guide, incorrectly adjusted folder. In extreme cases, the seams burst open, raw edges show, slippage of weave threads occur, or notches are exposed. 2. Irregular or incorrect shape of the sewing line (sometimes called run-offs) in top stitching, arising from lack of or badly set guide, not following a mark, or incorrect handling. 3. Insecure back stitching, because subsequent rows do not cover the first row of stitching. 4. Twisted seam leading to irregular puckering or the garment parts not hanging correctly when worn; caused by improper alignment of fabric parts, mismatched notches, and allowing one ply to creep against another.
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5. Mismatched check or stripes 6. Mismatched seam, where transverse seams do not match (e.g., inside leg seams at the fork of the trousers) 7. Extraneous part caught in seam, an unrelated piece showing through the seam. 8. Reversed garment part, where part is sewn with the face side opposite from specification, perhaps when the part cut for one side of the garment is sewn in the other, or when the whole garment is assembled inside out. 9. Blind stitching showing on the face side, or not securely caught on inside, arising from improperly adjusted bender. 10. Wrong seam or stitch type used. 11. Wrong shade of thread used. 15.5. Assembly Defects Assembly defects are perhaps caused by errors arising in marking and cutting, as well as sewing operations in the sewing room, or a combination of these. 1. Finished components not correct to size or shape or not symmetrical 2. Finished garment not to size, arising from incorrect patterns, inaccurate marking or cutting, shrinking or stretching fabric, incorrect seam widths. 3. Parts, components, closures, fixtures omitted, caused by bad work flow, wrongly printed work tickets, parts omitted in cutting, careless operator. 4. Components or features wrongly positioned or misaligned arising from incorrect marking, or sewing not following the mark. (e.g., pockets, bar tacks, top stitching, button holes, buttons, hooks and bars, hooks and eyes, zips). 5. Interlining incorrectly positioned, twisted, too full, too tight, cockling. 6. Lining too full, too tight, showing below the bottom of the garment, twisted, incorrectly pleated and so on. 7. Garment parts cockling, pleated, twisted, showing bubbles and fullness; for example, collar in relation to the under collar or the neck, sleeve in relation to the armhole, pockets, tapes, zips, pads in relation to the shoulder. 8. Garment parts shaded owing to being mixed after cutting
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9. Parts in one- way fabrics in wrong direction, usually only small parts, such as pockets. 10. Mismatched trimming. 15.6. Glossary of sewing room defects S.No Defect Description 01 Scissors or Knife Cut Self-explanatory 02. Tear Usually the result of excessive strain or snagging on the manufacturing machinery. 03. Needle Chew Caused by use of wrong or blunt needle or machine feeding difficulty 04. Incorrect Material Shading Where components do not match exactly as to shade 05. Spots or Stains Normally the result of a defective machine or a dirty work area. 06. Loose Threads Can be caused either by malformed stitching or poor trimming techniques 07. Puckered Seams An irregular seam surface usually caused by a) Inherent fabric characteristic, b) Needle puncture, c) Machine feed slippage or d) incorrect machine application 08 Pleated Seams Caused by incorrect machine attachments. Machine sewing parts too large or small for fabric or seam desired irregularly cut patterns or fabric irregularities and operator feeding fabric faster than normal feeding action of the machine. 09 Thread Breaks Wrong thread application, sewing machine malfunction, defective thread. 10 Insecure Backstitching Original stitch row not covered with second seam. 11. Wrong Shade of Thread Either caused by basic purchasing error, manufacturing defect by thread supplier or operator selecting wrong color from thread bin. 12. Irregular Gauge of Stitching Not using correct sewing machine or using single needle machine where a multiple needle machine is required 13. Open Seams Incorrect folder or poor operator technique. Sometime results from poor selection of type of seam for fabric used or purpose of seam in garment. 14. Run Off Operator not following marking or not using mechanical aids such as edge guides to assure uniform stitching.
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15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

Wrong Seam or Stitch Type

21. 22. 23.

24.

Management error in selection-or operating personnel failing to follow specifications Loose Thread Tension Tensions not adjusted correctly by operator Tight Thread Tension Tensions not adjusted correctly by operator Wrong Stitches per Inch Normally caused by operators who lengthen stitch to increase machine speed Skipped Stitch Caused by machine malfunction or excessive needle heat due to friction. Broken Stitches Often times the fault of wrong type of stitch for specific seam construction. Could be caused by excessive tightness in machine tensions Closures Omitted Normally an oversight by operators or failure by inspectors Closures Misplaced. Inattention or inexperience by operating personnel or improper alignment with gauges. Finished Components Not Could be caused by faulty pattern, cutting, measuring to Tolerances previous operations in stitching or by indifferent operator attention to the specified tolerance Dimensions out of Tolerance Could be caused by faulty pattern, cutting, previous operations in stitching or by indifferent operator attention to the specified tolerance. Notches Exposed Poor operator technique and execution in not covering notch with seam. Omission of Any Part of Poor work flow, inattentive operator. wrong work Garment tickets or poor inspection Twisted Seam Caused by improper alignment of fabric pieces. uneven tension or pull on plies being stitched Pieces Not Aligned Pieces sewn together not matched to each other Reversed pieces Where piece is sewn with face side opposite from specification; where part cut for one side of garment sewn in other. Excessive Fullness Caused where piece surface not smoothed prior to stitching. Uneven Edge Where stitching not straight or improperly formed in creasing machine Ragged Edges Usually occurs where knives on automatic button-hole machines do not dip smoothly. Uncut Buttonhole Where knife failed to cut button-hole United Stitch Where tying stitches on automatic machines fail to secure. Hole Damage caused by faulty machine or related equipment Faulty Gauging Where operator has not sewn seam to specified Margin
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25. 26. 27. 28. 29.

30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36.

37. 38. 39. 40. 41.

Misaligned Closure Misplaced Component Misaligned Seam Mislocated Reinforcement Uneven Stitch

42. 43.

Needle Pick Caught Place

Closure components do not line up Where part not positioned according to specifications Where seams .do not line up or cross specified point Where bar tack or brad not in proper location Caused by operator speeding up machine too rapidly or by holding back or pushing fabric through machine in variance with correct machine feed Failure of operator to replace a dull needle Where a component of part of a garment been caught in an unrelated operation.

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16.0. Procedures practiced for Quality Control and Assurance in Fusing Operation.
There is nothing much that can be done visually on interlinings. The performance testing of interlinings as well as the control of variables in the fusing of interlinings are of utmost importance. These materials (Interlinings, linings, and other support materials) provide a foundation for product shape, support areas subjected to stress, help maintain a products appearance, enhance comfort or enclose interior parts for aesthetic or performance reasons. These materials must be compatible with the fashion fabric. Although they contribute to the overall quality of the finished product, they may not be visible at point of sale. Often many types of support materials are combined in one product because each material has a different function. These materials come in variety of different types, are made from many different materials, and may have different application methods and care requirements. 16.1. Interlinings Interlinings or interfacings are sewn or fused to specific areas of the product to shape, support, reinforce and improve performance. Many different types are available and influence the aesthetics, performance, cost, comfort, and care of the finished product. For example, the hand and drape of the fabric can be altered by the selection of the interlinings. Handling and sewability are the other two important factors to consider. Interlinings that are easy to sew and handle have lower production costs that those of that require more effort and attention to detail. Fibre content, fabric weight, fabrication method, and method of application need to be specified. For products were soft hand is important, cotton and rayon may be preferred. Where resiliency is needed, wool and hair fibres are preferred. Nylon provides a stiff, resilient, lightweight interlining. The heavier the weight, the more support provided to the fashion fabric. Light weight interlinings produce a softer hand. Interlinings can be fused to the fashion fabric quickly and inexpensively. Fusible interlinings incorporate a bonding agent that is heat, pressure, or steam activated. Several types of bonding agents can be applied in a pattern to or all over the back of the interlining. Selection of interlinings with the appropriate properties for the fabric and the style requires knowledge of the available products, the processes to be used, and an understanding of compatibility factors. As styling needs change, producers of interlinings may create new fabrications, weight, and adhesives with different properties. The soft unstructured look that was popular during the 1990s did not mean interlinings were omitted; their characteristics were modified to produce a softer hand and better drape ability.

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16.1.1. Functions of interlinings Interlinings serve mainly for two major functions (1). To produce and retain the desired aesthetic appearance, and (2). To improve garment performance. Selecting the appropriate interlining is not a simple task because many considerations must be taken in account. Interlinings must be compatible with piece goods and other materials used in the style, and they must be adaptable to the equipment used in the plant. Interlinings that enhance the hand of the shell fabric and create the desired aesthetic characteristics for a garment component may be preferred choice. Aesthetics Appropriately chosen interlinings provide the foundation for the shape and hand of the garments and the stability to maintain the same appearance through use, care, and storage. Aesthetic standards are often subjective and vary by designer. One designers interpretation of a soft silhouette may be interpreted as limp by another designer. A firm with high quality standards may determine that shrinkage of either the interlining or shell fabric is unacceptable; other firms may allow tolerances for shrinkage if both the shell and interlining shrink the same amount. Interlinings help form and maintain the hand, stability, durability and resiliency of the shell fabric. Hand refers to the drape, stiffness or softness of materials used in a garment. Interlinings are available in a variety of different hands and must be analyzed with the shell fabric when determining the best combination. Performance Interlining performance may be evaluated from two different perspectives: performance during production and performance in the finished garment. Manufacturers may select certain types of interlinings to facilitate handling and improve the sewability of the fabrics and garment parts. Interlinings may be used to reduce raveling and provide stability for the sewing process. They are frequently used under the embroidery to stabilize fabrics for better-executed stitching. 16.2. Fusing Technology The term fusing technology is concerned with: - Base cloths - Resins - Coating systems - Machinery and Equipment - Control of Quality. 16.2.1. Base cloths The Base cloth, also called the substrate is an interlining material on which the thermoplastic resin is coated, sprayed, or printed. Base cloths are produced in a variety
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of woven, knitted and non- woven forms from natural or synthetic fibres and each type has a specific application. Irrespective of the construction and fibres used, the base cloth influences the following characteristics in the finished garment. Handle and bulk Shape retention Shrinkage control Crease recovery Appearance in wear Appearance after dry-cleaning or washing Durability.

In addition, the final cost of the garment is influenced by the type and amount of the fusibles used in its construction. 16.2.2. Resins These are the materials applied to the base cloth and when subjected to heat and pressure they become the sole bonding agent between the top cloth and the interlining. Thermo plasticity, or change with heat, is the basis of all fusible interlinings in its cold state the resin is not adhesive and only becomes viscous when heated. Through the application of pressure, the heated resin penetrates into the top cloth; on cooling it solidifies again, forming a bond between the two fabrics. Today no naturally occurring resins are used for interlinings, but large variety of thermoplastic resins including polyamides, polyester and PVC. 16.2.3. Coating Systems Coating is the process whereby the thermoplastic resin is applied to the substrate material. There are many coating methods in use, some of the more commonly used ones being; Scatter coating: This method uses electronically controlled scattering heads to deposit the resin on to the moving substrate. Dry- dot printing: In this process, the resin is printed onto the substrate by a roller engraved with small indentations which hold the resin powder. Performed: The resin is heat-processed to form a net which is then laminated onto the base cloth by heat and pressure. During heating, the net melts and leaves a minute dot pattern on the substrate. A coating system is basically concerned with flexibility and uniformity, and these factors have to be considered when evaluating the use of the specific fusibles.

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16.2.4. Machinery and Equipment The mechanical medium required for fusing is a press, and the three basic types are (1). Steam (2). Flat bed (3). Continuous fusing 16.2.4.1. Steam press Regular steam presses with shaped bucks are designed for fusing but are used for this purpose by many factories that cannot, or will not invest in the correct equipment. While fusible with certain types of resins can be fused on steam presses, these machines have number of serious limitations for general use. Even when fitted with heated bucks, steam presses are usually unable to reach the heat levels required by most resins. The pressure applied over the full buck area is uneven, which restricts the machines use to the fusing of small parts. Most of the older types of steam presses are not fitted with timers and programme controls, thus leaving the time element completely dependent on the operator. When the resin has been originally activated by steam heat, the same thing can happen again when garments are pressed during production. This is likely to cause serious problems with lamination and handling.

All in all, steam presses do not have the complete range of the operating characteristics necessary for correct fusing. 16.2.4.2. Flat bed press These are purpose built fusing machines available in a wide variety of types from small table models to large, floor-standing machines. There is also wide choice of manual or mechanical loading and take off systems for use with these presses. Basically this type of press consists of padded top and bottom bucks with heating elements in one or both of the bucks. The bottom buck is static, with top buck raised or lowered to open or close the press. Flat bed presses can have single or double trays which move horizontally to feed work into and extract it from the machine. There are many types of special purpose flat bed presses which are built to suit a particular, repetitive type of operation. One of these has a carousel action which automatically moves the assembly from the loading position of the operator through the fusing and cooling process and returns the fused components to the operator for unloading. There are large ranges of flat-bed presses available for different purposes, which enables a factory to equip itself with the right machines for each job.

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16.2.4.3. Continuous fusing press These machines all operate on the same principle, transporting the assembly for fusing through all the processes on a powered conveyor belt. There are two conveyor belt systems in general use. End to End Feed: The parts are conveyed from the loading area at one end of the machine, via the fusing and cooling areas, to take-off area at the opposite end of the machine. This system is used where production levels require one set of operators for loading and another set for unloading. Return Feed: This machine has a belt system which returns the fused components to the same end of the machine at which they are loaded. The upper belt transports the unit through the fusing processes and the lower belt returns the fused unit to its starting point. This enables the operator to load and unload from the same position.

Continuous fusing presses are also available for special purpose such as the fusing of trouser and skirt waistbands or other narrow components which can be fused in continuous tape form. Fusing is known to be a labour intensive operation and in the past few years there have been some major developments which are substantially reduce the manual labour content. 16.3. The Control of Quality Relatively speaking, fusible interlinings are precision products and it is essential that they are fused on the correct equipment and under strict control. Some factors which influence fusing quality are (1). Temperature (2). Time (3). Pressure (4). Peel Strength (5). Dry Clean and / or wash. 16.3.1. Temperature There is a limited range of temperatures effective for each resin. The applied heat generated by the machine can be checked by simple and practical method involving the use of the thermal test papers. These are narrow strips of paper calibrated in increments of 20 C, which react to temperature by changing the colour of the segment with the matching temperature rating. 16.3.2. Time The only time element of any value in fusing is when the assemblies are actually being heated. For flat bed presses this is the time between the closing and the opening of the
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bucks; for continuous machines it is the time when the assemblies are actually in heating zones of the machine. 16.3.3. Pressure During fusing it is necessary to apply equal pressure all over the component in order to ensure that: - An intimate contact is effected between the top cloth and the interlining - The heat transfer is optimum - There is a controlled and even penetration of resin points into the fibres of the top cloth. There are many methods of verifying whether pressure is being exerted equally over the pressure surfaces of the machine. One of the simplest is to fuse a large piece of cloth with an identically sized piece of fusible. After cooling, the fused assembly should be carefully separated. In some cases the interlining fibres will remain on the cloth and in others the fibres of the cloth will be pulled out by the fusible. In both the cases, a clear optical pattern will result which would indicate the areas where there are pressure variations. Serious variations of adhesion need the attention of skilled technicians. 16.3.4. Peel- Strength test This test checks the strength of the bond between the top cloth and the interlining; the force required to pull them apart is compared to a standard for that particular cloth and fusible. The test is usually performed on a fused strip about 70cm X 5cm with the length on the warp of the cloth. The force required to separate them can be measured on a instrument called a tensometer, or more simply with a good spring balance. 16.3.5. Dry clean and /or wash It is recommended that production garments should be subjected to the appropriate cleaning methods on a regular basis. One garment in each cloth and fusible combination should be tested at least once every two weeks. 16.4. Problems associated with the use of the fusible interlinings. 16.4.1. Boardiness It is a problem related to the inappropriate selection of adhesives used on fusible interlinings. If resins liquefy and run together to form a resin coating instead of being retained in a sintered or dotted manner, a stiff hand is produced. This can be the result of over-fusing, too much adhesive, and the application of excessive heat and/or pressure. This is a problem when the interlining distorts the shape of the microfiber fabrics.

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16.4.2. Bubbling Bubbling occurs when the face fabric or interlining becomes puckered from delamination, poor bonding, differential shrinkage, uneven temperatures or pressure, and inconsistent use of the resin. 16.4.3. Color Change This may be temporary or permanent discoloration caused by the high temperatures and resins used in the fusing process. Certain types of dyes may change color with the application of high temperature. 16.4.4. Delamination Delamination is the loss of bond between the interlining and the shell fabric. Resin, because it migrates toward heat, becomes embedded in the interlining substrate instead of the shell fabric, which prevents an effective bond between the two materials. The shell fabric may appear to be bubbled. Delamination may be the result of underfusing, overfusing, not enough cooling time, or incompatibility of the resin and the shell fabric. 16.4.5. Shrinkage Shrinkage may cause performance problems if one garment part shrinks because of application of fusible interlining and adjoining pieces do not shrink. This is a common problem with jacket fronts and facings. Often the high temperature needed for fusing causes the fabric to shrink. This may make accurate seaming impossible, create puckered seams, or cause puckered surfaces of shell fabric. With proper testing the amount of potential shrinkage of the shell fabric and interlining can be determined and adjustments made in patterns. 16.4.6. Strike back Strike back is the penetration of the resin through the interlining substrate. It causes resin to stick to the fusing press, conveyor, or shuttle tray. It can affect both cost and quality of fusing. It may be the result of too much resin for the type of fabric and interlining fabrication or too much pressure. 16.4.7. Strike Through Strike through is the penetration of resin through to the face of the shell fabric. It may be caused by too much pressure, too high a fusing temperature, or too long a fusing time. This is a greater problem with sheer, lightweight, non absorbent fabrics than with heavier, bulkier, more absorbent ones. Strike through is the cause of many other problems such as color change, differential shrinkage, bubbling, poor strength, and boardiness. This is the common problem with microfiber fabrics because of the construction and weight.

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17.0. Final Inspection


Final inspection consists of inspecting finished garments from the consumers point of view; size measurement; form fitting (putting garments on the proper-size mannequins to see if they properly fit the labeled sizes); and live modeling if necessary (again to see if the garments properly fit the labeled sizes). Final inspection may occur before or after garments are packed in polybags and boxes. If it is done after garments are packed, then proper size and style markings on the package can also be checked. In any case, there should be a list of points to be checked in a garment, including a table of finished measurements. For example such a list is shown for mens dress shirts in the below table. Final Inspection - Quality Specifications for Mens Dress Shirts. Location Inspect for 1. Collar Both points same length (+1/8 in.). Stripes, plaids, checks, or pattern should match on both points. Uniformly stitched, no puckering, skipped or broken stitches, or raw edges. Should lay flat. 2. Buttons and Properly spaced, no puckering or fullness. Buttonholes properly Buttonholes sewed, no cut stitches. No broke buttons. Located so stripes, plaids, or patterns match (+1/8 in.). 3. Pocket Top of the pocket horizontal. Uniformly stitched, no puckering, skipped or broken stitches, or raw edges. Corners securely tacked. Stripes, plaids, checks or patterns should match (+1/8 in.). Should lay flat 4. Hems Uniformly stitched, no puckering, skipped or broken stitches, or raw edges. Stitching 1/16 in. from edge. 5. Yoke and Pleats (if any) properly placed. Uniformly stitched, no puckering, Shoulder skipped or broken stitches, or raw edges. Should lay flat. 6. Side Seams Stripes, plaids, checks, or patterns should match (+1/8 in.). Uniformly stitched, no puckering, skipped or broken stitches, or raw edges. Stripes, Plaids, checks or patterns should match the sleeve (+1/8 in.). Uniformly stitched, no puckering, skipped or broken stitches, or raw edges. Clean of all loose thread. No oil/dirt stains. Free of any fabric defect. No shade difference within a shirt from part to part (panel to panel).

7. Cuff

8. Finished appearance

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17.1. Measurements for mens L/S dress shirts.

17.3. Some possible defects in garments with diagrams Left side is off grain to the seam

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Poor Stitching : Loops pulled to one side

Poor Collar: Collar is not smooth and there are tucks where the collar and lapels join together.

Zipper is unattractive because facing does not cover it completely

Plaids do not match at the seam

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Armhole seam is unattractive because gathers caught in seam

Hem is unattractive because gathers and stitching show on the outside

Unattractive seam because of puckering

Pocket opening is too loose

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Material is caught in armhole seam

Opening is uneven at the bottom

Top button hole is too large for the button

Pocket Opening is too loose

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17.4. Not readily apparent defects

Control of proper size is extremely important because no matter how well a garment is made, unless it fits properly, it will be useless from a customers point of view. Control of garment dimensions will not guarantee that the garments will fit right, look right, and feel right. Fit is dependent on pattern shape, proportion, and dimension as well as proper grain. Poor cutting and inaccurate sewing can result in poor or not fit at all. Checking garment for size, appearance, fit drape, and so on by putting them on appropriate mannequins is called form fitting, whereas the checking those items by having someone try them on is called live modeling. Form fitting and live modeling will contribute significantly toward assuring that the garments in question fit right, look right, and feel right for their intended sizes.

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18.0. How much to Inspect?


The purpose of inspection is to make a sound judgment on the disposition of a material or product, whether to accept it or reject it. What is done with a rejected lot may be a matter of negotiation between a buyer and a seller, it may be passed on by a review board or committee or it may be inspected 100% (100% inspection of a rejected lot is also called screening), but the immediate decision is that the lot is not acceptable. However, before an accept / reject or pass /fail decision can be made, a fundamental question must be answered: How much should be inspected? The entire shipment or lot? Only a part of it? If so, how big or small a part? How many pieces out of a shipment? The following alternatives will help answer this fundamental question. 18.1. No Inspection If no inspection is done, little or nothing is known about a material. In case the material is defective, no one knows until the material is in critical demand. This situation increases cost. If the defective material is detected before it is put in process, the needless waste of the labour, machine time, and rework and so on can be avoided. No inspection also means that next to nothing may be known about the product and no one will be aware of any defects until that product is in the hands of the customer. Then the customer may return it for a refund or may decide never to buy that product again. Either way, cost is increased and loss of goodwill created, and in long run, goodwill is invaluable. Loss of goodwill will result in the loss of repeat business. If the defective product was detected before it reaches the customer, such a loss could have been avoided. Needless to say, this alternative is not acceptable. 18.2.100 % Inspection This is other extreme of no inspection. 100% inspection is the inspection of every unit of a product. The accept / reject decision is not made for entire lot of the shipment, but for each unit individually, based on the results of inspecting a unit for the quality characteristic concerned. The obvious advantage of 100% inspection is that it gives the better idea of the product quality than any other inspection alternative. However, generally 100% inspection does not guarantee detection of all defects, especially when the inspection is done by human inspectors; 100% inspection is usually not 100% effective. The direct cost of 100% inspection will generally be higher than that of any other inspection alternative. Therefore, this is also not an acceptable alternative. 18.3. Spot Checking This represents an attempt at a compromise between no inspection at all and 100% inspection and consists of inspecting random shipments. This procedure, of course,
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stops some defective material from entering production or some defective products from reaching customers, but it is only partially effective since many shipments are accepted without inspection. Therefore, this is also not a practical alternative. 18.4. Arbitrary Sampling Under this alternative, a certain percent of a shipment is inspected and an accept / reject or pass / fail decision regarding that shipment is made, based on the inspection results of that certain percent of the shipment. The most popular and widely used plan under this alternative is called 10% sampling. This means that regardless of the size of a shipment, 10% of the shipment is inspected and the results are used as the basis for a decision regarding the entire shipment. Although this alternative is better than the previous three alternatives, it still has some drawbacks. For some shipments or lots, 10% is too small a sample to be representative, whereas for other shipments or lots, it may be too large. Also, as with any sampling, certain risks (chances) or making a wrong decision exist. Too often, the users of arbitrary sampling have little idea of the risk inherent in their procedure, but at least, they will have some idea about product or material quality. However, there is a better way to gather such information, and that is statistical sampling. 18.5. Statistical Sampling Statistical sampling is known as acceptance sampling. The inspection alternative also provides a comparison between 100% inspection and no inspection at all. Still it has certain disadvantages. Large shipments or lots are not over inspected; Small shipments or lots are not under inspected; Most important, the risks of making wrong decision (such as accepting a defective lot or rejecting a good lot) are known controllable. This is usually the most economical means for determining product quality. Statistical sampling has the advantage of flexibility with regard to the amount of inspection to be performed at any given point of time, depending on the importance of the product and apparent product quality Statistical sampling, which is also sometimes referred to simply as random sampling or random sampling inspection, means taking a sample of units from a lot or shipment of product, inspecting the samples for defects, and making a decision as to whether the lot is acceptable or not based on the quality of the sample. Statistical sampling is equally applicable to incoming inspections of shipments of raw materials or partially finished products, products at various stages of manufacture, and finished products as well as outgoing shipments. Let us look at the some terms and definitions used in conjunction with statistical sampling. The definitions of these terms are taken from the Sampling Procedures and
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Tables for Inspection by Attributes, ANSI / ASQC Z1.4. The international designation for this standard is ISO 2859. Sample: A sample consists of one or more units of a product drawn from a lot or batch, the units of the sample being selected at random without regard to their quality. The number of units of a product in the sample is the sample size. Lot or Batch: The term lot or batch shall mean inspection lot or inspection batch, that is, a collection of units of a product from which a sample is to be drawn and inspected to determine conformance with the acceptability criteria, and may differ from a collection of units designated as lot or batch for other purposes (e.g. production, shipment, etc.). Lot or Batch Size: The lot or batch size is the number of units of a product in a lot or batch. Percent Defective: Percent Defective =

number of defective units X 100 Number of units inspected .

Process Average: The process average is the average per cent defective of a product submitted by the supplier for original inspection. Original inspection is the first inspection of a particular quantity of a product, as distinguished from the inspection of a product that has been resubmitted after prior rejection. 18.6. Acceptable Quality Level (AQL) AQL is one of the most frequently used terms when it comes to quality in the apparel export industry. Everyone in the industry uses this term quite liberally, assuming that they know what AQL signifies. But when a few years ago, an American apparel importer requested me to provide inputs to him and his sourcing office in India on what AQL actually was? What was the logic behind it and how to use it effectively? I realized that AQL in its true sense remains little understood among the large number of executives working in the apparel industry. As most of the acceptance decisions of the apparel shipments for the export market are made on the basis of AQL based sampling plans, it is important that all concerned in the industry at least have a basic idea about what is AQL. In this article we shall look at fundamental concept of AQL, its origin and how to prepare an organization to meet the prescribed AQL level. All of us know that inspection is the tool that is used for assessing the conformance of the merchandise to the agreed specifications or the requirements. Though inspection is important and it gives us an idea about the acceptance level of a product, it may not be possible to carry out 100% inspection of all the units in a particular shipment or a lot. This is mainly due to following reasons: It is costly.
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100% inspection is seldom 100% accurate and dependable. It may be impractical and not desirable as it leads to excessive handling of goods which results in goods losing their freshness. Having known that 100% inspection may not be the best thing to do, the next question is if not 100%,how much to inspect? There are two options available. The first option is to decide a fixed proportion of the lots that will be inspected to arrive at the acceptance decision of the whole lot or the second option is to use Acceptance Sampling procedure to arrive at a sampling plan for given AQL and make an acceptance decision. The first option is arbitrary and it does not have any scientific basis, which can tell us about the reliability of this technique. Since the acceptance decisions are important commercial decisions, it is important to have a reliable and scientific method of arriving at such decision and one should be aware of the extent of risk involved in such decisions. Acceptance sampling is a scientific technique and it also tells us the probability of making a wrong judgment while using it. 18.6.1. What is AQL? As Pradip V. Mehta describes, "The AQL is the maximum per cent defective that for the purpose of sampling inspection can be considered satisfactory as a process average." In layman's language this means, when a buyer specifies a particular AQL for sampling inspection, it is an indication that as long as the percentage of defective garments in the shipments (lots) supplied by a manufacturer is lower than the AQL, most of the shipments will be accepted. Process Average means the average percentage of defective products (percent defective) in the lots submitted for the first inspections. Assume a true percent defective level of six lots of garments is 2.3, 2.7, 2.4, 2.6, 2.8 and 2.2 respectively the process average will become 2.5% defective. 18.6.2. Brief History of AQL and Acceptance sampling Acceptance sampling is an important field of statistical quality control that was popularized by Dodge and Roming and originally applied by the U.S. military for the testing of bullets during World War II. If every bullet was tested in advance, no bullets would be left to ship. If, on the other hand, none were tested, malfunctions might occur in the field of battle, with potentially disastrous results. Acceptance sampling plans help in distinguishing between the acceptable and the unacceptable lots. The basic assumption here is if the proportionate sample is randomly drawn from a lot, the sample would represent the quality level of the lot and based on this the acceptance decision can be made. Acceptance Sampling is the middle of the road approach between 100% inspection and no inspection. Based on the extensive work by the American military during and past World War II, US Government issued the standard for sampling procedure and tables for inspection called MIL-STD-105D in 1963. This was further modified in 1989 as MIL-STD 105 E and re-designated as ANSI/ ASQC Z 1.4 in Feb 1995. For all the
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practical purposes MIL STD 105D and ANSI/ASQC Z 1.4 are almost similar. For the purpose of acceptance sampling inspection in the garment industry, most buyers refer to the tables from either of these standards. Though garment industry generally uses normal level on inspection, the standards also provide from reduced and tightened inspections based on the past performance of the supplier. Table: Acceptable Quality Level

18.6.3. How do the Acceptance Sampling Plans Work? The apparel industry mainly uses single sampling plans for the acceptance decisions. However, a few buyers also use double sampling procedure. In single sample based on AQL table you randomly draw a sample consisting of specified number of garments from a lot. The sample plan also provides the number maximum allowed defective pieces. If the defective pieces are less than allowed number the lot is accepted and if the number of defective pieces is greater than allowed the lot is rejected. One may say that as the acceptance sampling is scientific, ideally speaking, it must lead to 100% reliable results. In other words, it must always lead to acceptance of lots containing lower defective level than AQL and must reject all the lots that contain more defective products than AQL. But this is not possible, as the acceptance decision is made only on the basis of small sample drawn from the lot and it carries a risk of making a wrong judgment. The acceptance decisions based on AQL based inspections contain two kinds of risks as detailed below:
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1. Producer's risk: The chance of rejecting a good lot that contains equal or less percent defective than AQL. 2. The Customer's risk: The chance of accepting a bad lot that contains more defective than the largest proportion of defects that a consumer is willing to accept a very small percentage of the time. It is also known as Lot Tolerance Percent Defective (LTPD) or represented as RQL (Rejecting Quality level). 18.6.4. How to ensure success at AQL based inspections? The answer to this question is very simple but difficult to achieve. Ensure that your average percent defective level is below the AQL prescribed by your buyer. What does this mean? It means the true percent defective level of the lots submitted for AQL based inspection must be less than the AQL. For this purpose an organization has to measure its current average percent defective level (process average). This can be achieved by conducting sampling inspections of the lots before the inspection by the customer. In such case, all the pieces in a sample drawn from the lot are inspected to arrive at percent defective level of respective lots. If an organization does this for about 300 consecutive lots and calculates the average of the per cent defective of all lots inspected, it would give a good idea of the 'process average'. Assuming your process average is lower than the AQL level, and then there can a very minimal chance (generally less than 5-10%) of your shipment getting rejected. If your process average is greater than AQL level, you need to work towards, if not eliminating, reducing the generation of defect level at source so that the process average becomes lower than the AQL level. In case process coverage remains higher than the AQL level the chances of your shipments failing to pass AQL based inspection are higher depending on the process average. 18.6.5. What AQL is not? Having known what is AQL? How does it work? How to succeed in AQL based inspections? It is equally important to now, as indicated below, what AQL is not: 1. A permit to ship defective goods to the tune of agreed AQL level: AQL 4.0 does not mean that supplier has a right to send up to 4% defective merchandise to customer /buyer. 2. A guarantee that all shipments passed as per AQL plan will definitely contain lower percent defective than the specified AQL. There is also no guarantee that lots with higher percentage defective will not pass on AQL based inspection. 3. An indicator of the quality level achieved by a manufacturer. Let us assume that the average rate of defective garments in a manufacturer's shipment is 6%, but the AQL used by buyer for final inspection is 2.5. It is possible that the manufacturer may resort to 100% inspection of the merchandise to weed out the defective garments so that the shipment can pass the final inspection by the buyer at AQL 2.5.

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18.7. Sampling Plan Production System: The above sampling plans are suitable for the bundle system or group system of production. These are not suitable for continuous production system or unit production system. The statistical sampling plan applicable for continuous production called continuous sampling. 18.7.1. Continuous Sampling Plan CSP 1 In the beginning all the pieces until X pieces found acceptable are to be inspected. Then the inspection has to be restricted to a fraction of the pieces produced. This can be done by inspecting n pieces in succession. All the defective pieces should be either repaired or replaced with good pieces. 18.8. Average Outgoing Quality Level (AOQL) It means the maximum possible value of average percent defective in the outgoing product or shipments. E.g. AOQL of 3% means that in long run the average percent defective of outgoing product will not be more than 3.0% defective. To select C.S.P-1 Plan, one must decide level of AOQL and fraction to be inspected, that is, 1 out of 20 pieces (5%), 1 out of 5 pieces (20%), 1 out of 10 pieces (10%), etc. or the number of successive pieces you want to find acceptable before discontinuing the inspection of all pieces, that is, 100% inspection

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19.0. Procedures practiced for quality control and assurance (Finishing)


The basic objective of finishing must be quality and appearance. Appearance is the basis of most consumers judgment on whether or not to purchase a garment. The quality of pressing operation can be measured by evaluating the following: 1. Burned or scorched garments 2. Water spots / stains 3. Gloss and/or change in color (original shade) 4. Flattened nap or surface 5. Broken zippers, buttons, etc. 6. Creases not correctly formed 7. Fabric of finished garment not smooth, wrinkle- free, and showing its proper appearance 8. Edges wavy and stretched or thick and cockling 9. Garments not thoroughly dried. 10. Pockets not smooth 11. Lining showing pleats, creases, wrinkles, shine 12. Garments not correctly molded, either in detail or total silhouette 13. Shrinkage due to heat and moisture Also it is very important to continuously monitor the temperature (surface temperature of the press), the pressure under which the garments are pressed and the time of the length for which those garments are pressed and the time of length for which those garments are pressed. 19.1. Quality / workmanship standards in general A. Open seams No open or raw seams allowed except on hems where up to 5/8 allowed. B. Skipped Stitches No skips allowed on chain stitch or raveling stitch unless skip will be covered by a subsequent operation. Two or fewer skips allowed on lock stitch provided skips are non-consecutive. More than two skips are allowed on lock stitch provided seam will be covered by a subsequent operation. Skips on decorative top-stitching allowed on non- reveling seams if not obvious on face of garment. C. Cracked stitches All seams must withstand stress reasonably expected in wearing without breaking stitches. D. Stitches / Inch All operations must meet SPI (Stitched per inch) requirement designated in the product specification and/or standard speed and stitch chart. E. Uneven seams Leg, sleeve cuff, or other seams designed to meet evenly must be no more than from meeting evenly. Intermediate operations may have
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larger tolerances provided measurement, appearance, or operations are not affected by failing to meet evenly + tolerance.

subsequent

F. Crooked, puckered, curled, pleated seams Finished garment appearance or serviceability must not be adversely affected. G. Needle and Feed cuts No feed cuts allowed unless cut will be cut off or completely covered by a subsequent operation. One needle cut allowed provided no hole or run develops when subject to normal wearing stress. Two or more allowed if meets run or hole criteria and only needle cut appears in finished seam. (Exception: Holes confirmed by gripper or embroidery). H. Unclipped Threads and Long ends On intermediate operations (i.e. those operations which will be seamed over or covered by a subsequent operation) threads will be specified on In-process quality specifications for that operations a. Automatic operations such as buttonhole or bar tack, 3/8 allowed unless thread contrasts with garment and creates poor appearance. b. Finished seams 3/8 allowable if texturized polyester thread is used. c. Otherwise none allowed outside if contrasting and visible to the consumer. Allowed on outside if matching thread is used and tail is less than d. Exception: Foot or hand area of footed or handi- cuff garments may not have a thread tail exposed on finished seams in excess of 3/8. Strictly Enforced. I. Raw Edge, Untrimmed No raw edge allowed on outside finished seams. No raw egde inside wider than . J. Turn Ends Defect on finished seam if appearance or secureness is affected. K. Labels Defect if crocked, missing, incorrect, insecurely attached, or seriously puckered. Stitching not to cover logo in any manner. L. Snaps, Fasteners Missing, loose or misaligned. Stud must match socket within . Greater tolerance allowed only if appearance is not seriously affected. M. Broken Needle Any broken needle left in the garment. N. Hems Defective if excessively curled puckered, pleated, or excessive bite. O. Smocking Ends not caught securely such that subsequent operations will fail to secure. Incorrect design. One skip on securing stitch or obvious skips on decorative thread affecting appearance. P. Trim Missing or obviously pieced, shaded or defective so as to affect appearance of finished garment.
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19.2. Glossary of finishing department defects Defect Description Trimming defects Thread not Trimmed or Self-explanatory. Threads not Trimmed to Specified Length Cuts or Nicks Caused by indifferent handling of scissors. snips or mechanical trimmers Seam Tears Frequently caused by the turning equipment used to reverse garments in finishing Soil Caused by oil, grease or dirt. Often times originating from a dirty work area or machinery not properly cleaned. Streaks Marking caused by some types of turn boards or defectively finished trimmings Pressing Defects Pressing Omitted. Burned or Self-explanatory. Scorched Garments Inadequate Pressing Excessive heat or pressure resulting in poor pleating, fullness or twisting of a seam or garment surface Garments not Thoroughly Resulting in excessive wrinkling of garment. Dried: Improper Pressing Over Often produces a tear or unsightly impression on the Zippers or Other Closures face of the garment Pockets or Linings not Causing wrinkles or ridges to appear on the surface Pressed Correctly of the garment Pressing Producing a Shine Usually caused by excessive heat or incorrect type of in Fabric pressing surface Folding Defects Garment not Folded to Self-explanatory. specifications Garment not Folded with Cardboard, tissue or other specified packaging Proper materials materials omitted Pins or Folds in Garment Pins in wrong location or folds not correctly aligned Incorrect for package Garments not Buttoned. Flys Self-explanatory. not Closed. Incorrect number of Pins: Label not Showing Garment not positioned in package to show label on top surface

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20.0. Different Stages of Samples and their requirements


There may be a separate sampling department in a company. But the merchandiser is the person who is interacting with the buyers regarding samples and other requirements, this sampling department will work under the supervision of merchandising department. Also as the samples are to be made according to the buyers price ranges and quality levels, merchandiser has to advise sampling department suitably. There are different types of samples used in the apparel industry. They are Salesmen samples or promotional samples Proto samples or fit samples Counter samples or reference samples or approval samples Wash test samples Photo samples Fashion show samples Pre-production samples Production samples Shipment samples 20.1. Development samples or enquiry samples When we work with some buyers continuously, we will have to keep on sending samples to them very often. Whenever they have enquiries, buyer may need samples. Buyers may like to see the garments in a new fabric. For one enquiry, they may need samples in different fabrics to choose from. If they want to develop new style in new fabric, then also we will have to send these samples. We may have to spend too much on these samples. But these samples are inevitably important to develop business. Some times, even the buyer is not so confident of some enquiries, if our samples are good and attractive at reasonable prices, they will bring orders to us. Also we will have to send samples to the newly contacted buyers to show our workmanship, product range, quality standards and price level. These samples should be sent so that they would attract the buyers. So it is better for a company to have a separate sampling department so that they can create new styles in new fabrics to impress the buyers. 20.2. Salesmen samples or promotional samples Some buyer needs these samples for getting the orders from their customers. If the buyer is having 7 salesmen in his office, then the buyer will ask us to make 7 samples in each style. The salesmen will book the orders from their customers, by showing these samples. Buyer will place the order to us accumulating the quantities.
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If we have sent samples for 5 styles, some times, we may get orders for all 5 styles, 3 styles or 1 style. Some times, we may not get order for even a single style. Expected sales may not be possible, due to poor quality, unsuitable colours, improper measurements, unmatched prints or embroidery, etc. of salesmen samples. Or it may be due to local business recession or competition or unsuitable prices. Any way, we have to make these salesmen samples perfectly with sincere interest to get orders. We might have spent more money, time, etc. for making these samples. But as we dont get orders, we can not blame the buyer. He too can not help us in this regard. To avoid this embarrassing situation, it is better to discuss about the cost of these samples with the buyer before proceeding for sampling. Normally the sampling will cost us approximately 3 to 5 times of the garment price. We can not expect to get the full cost from the buyer. Of course these samples will help us for our business. Hence we can ask the buyer to accept 2 or 3 times of garment price as the sampling cost, for the styles which we dont get orders. Some genuine buyers will agree for this. 20.3. Photo samples or fit samples These samples are to be made after getting the order sheets. These samples are needed to check the measurements, style and fit. So they can be made in available similar fabrics but in the actual measurements and specifications. Some buyers may need these samples if they want to print the photos of garments on photo inlays, packing box, hang tag, etc. These samples may be needed for local advertisement or buyers promotional occasions. In any case, the samples will be worn by the highly paid models. The buyers will arrange the photo shoot session, by spending huge money to the advertising agencies. So the buyers will need these samples strictly on time. If they dont get samples on time, the buyers will have to pay more compensation to the advertising agencies and models. Buyers will ask us to make the photo samples according to the intended models body fit. So it is important to strictly adhere to these measurements. Buyer may ask these samples to send either from production or before starting production.

20.4. Counter samples or reference samples or approval samples These samples are to be made in actual fabrics with actual trims. If the order is for 3 colours, buyer may need samples in any one colour and swatches (fabric bits) in other colours. These samples should be strictly as per the specifications in the order sheets. We have to get the approval for these samples from the buyer before starting production.

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After getting the approval, the approved samples should be followed in production. Some times, buyer may comment on fabric, measurements, making, etc. We have to follow his comments carefully in production. Some buyer will mention that the order sheets subject to the approval of counter samples. So these samples are very important.

20.5. Wash test samples If these samples are sent before starting production and if we get some remarks or comments on these samples, we can correct them in production. But some buyers will need us to send these samples from production before shipment. In this case, these samples may be considered as shipment samples. If these samples are rejected due to some complaints, then we will not have any excuse and we will be in real trouble.

20.6. Pre-production samples These samples are almost like approval samples. They have to be made in actual production fabric with actual bulk trims. They will represent that the production will be like these samples.

20.7. Production samples These samples are to be sent before shipment to get the buyers confirmation for shipment. Hence these samples are needed to be perfect in all manners. Buyer may check these samples for everything or anything. Some times, they may do wash test also. We should not get any remark or comment. We have to get only OK from the buyer. Then only we can ship the goods and we can be sure of getting payment. So these samples are to be sent with more and more care.

20.8. Shipment samples These samples are to be sent after shipment. They should be sent in actual packing with all labels, tags, etc. (Generally these samples will not be tested by buyer for anything. And even if we get some comments from buyers, we can save ourselves by saying that these samples were sent from the left over garments after the shipment; hence there might be some mistakes. If we expect any comments in these samples, it is better to inform the buyer during sending these samples).

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21.0. Product Zones Zoning defects and Appearance


In product zoning, the company recognizes that some parts of a product are more crucial in terms of appearance than the other parts. Those parts or zones that are more visible are of greater importance than the other parts that are less visible. A definition of each zone or priority area should be included in specifications because terminology and designators for zones are not standard within industry. For example, one company might use numbers, such as 1, 2 & 3 or Roman numerals, such as I, II & III to describe the product zones and another company might use letters such as A, B & C for their Zones. Zone 1for one company might be the part with the greater demands for appearance, while another company might use Zone C to describe similar requirements. Typically, zones of highest priority are those areas most likely to be viewed during face- to-face conversation with someone or those areas most likely to be seen when using the product. Thus, the areas of the garment closest to face are of greater importance for apparel. For upholstery furniture, these areas would include backs, armrests and cushions. Areas not as likely to be seen, but remain visible, are assigned to the next zone in terms of priority. Areas that are rarely seen by others, such as under the arms, the crotch, and inside for apparel and areas under the seat cushions and bottom of the upholstered furniture, are assigned lower zone priorities. In addition to defining the zones, many companies also identify types of defects that would be unacceptable in each area. For example in mens dress shirts, a company may state that no fabric, construction, or appearance defects are allowed in Zone 1 (the neckline, cuffs, and center front placket area). The company may further state that in Zone 1, an absence of thread ends, a button and buttonhole match within + 0.16 cm (+ 1/16 inch), and collar points within + 0.16 cm (+ 1/16 inch), of specified length are required. If a shirt does not meet all requirements for this zone, the shirt has to meet specifications and is not acceptable. 21.1. Product Zones Explanation of Zones When a construction flaw or defect occurs in a product, acceptance or rejection of the defective product is prioritized by the area, or zone, in which it occurs. Product zones that are more visible to the customers are more crucial in maintaining higher levels of quality. Each product has specific zones that are more important than others, and guidelines are defined accordingly. Zone 1 Areas with extremely high visibility that is likely to be viewed from a close distance at the time of purchase or receipt. Cosmetic flaws located in these zones would be considered major and would be cause for the rejection of the product.
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Zone 2 Areas that are not visibly dominant, but are visible in normal use. Cosmetic flaws would be evaluated based upon the size of the defect, color, and intended end use of the product to determine acceptability. Zone 3 Areas normally hidden in everyday use, but could be visible on occasion. Cosmetic flaws in this zone are more acceptable than in any other location on the garment. Flaws occurring in this zone would be evaluated product by product based upon the intended use of the garment.
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22.0. Packaging
Packaging is the manner in which a product is prepared for transportation, shipped, and presented to the customer or the ultimate consumer. Packaging standards describe general aspects of how the product is packaged, whereas the packaging specs describes the materials that should be used and the manner in which the garment should be folded, blocked, supported, or manipulated when packaged. In addition, packaging indicates how many products will be shipped together in the same box or container and the kind of labeling or product information that is to be attached to the outside of the individual product packages and on boxes, cartons, or other containers. Companies that ship from a distribution centre have very specific requirements for packaging because of their automation systems and the number of items that are processed on a daily basis. Bar-coding is essential in such circumstances. Suppliers who do not meet packaging specs may find orders refused, even though each individual product meets or exceeds the minimum product specs. 22.1. Apparel Packing Merchandise - Each Master Shipping Carton must contain only one SKU (Stock Keeping Unit). The buyer will not accept any Master Shipping Carton that contains multiple SKUs. - Merchandise must be bulk placed without multiple units boxing or bagging inside of the master shipping carton. - The merchandise inside the Master Shipping Carton must not be tied together in bundles with string, bands, ribbons, etc. - Do not ship merchandise on hangers or in hanger packs. - The minimum case quantity is 4 selling units per master shipping carton - The buyer encourages its vendors to send full cartons. If you are unable to fill a standard master shipping carton with one SKU, you may choose one of the two options. (1). Reduced Carton Size (Preferred) If a shipment is small and a full case of one size and style is not possible, you can reduce the standard carton by no more than 6 inches, thus making the carton dimension 22 in. X 10 in. X 6 in. (minimum carton dimension). (2). Quantity Adjustment Discuss order quantity adjustments with inventory control. For example, if you have a request for 20 units and the carton will hold 26 units, you may request increasing the quantity by 6 more units to make a full carton. Another example would be a request for 35 units, and the carton holds only 26. You may request a decrease in the quantity by 9, and include them in a subsequent order.

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22.2. Diagram for Packaging a shirt Lay item front down, flat and smooth with the sleeves extended.

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Sleeves must be folded flat and smooth with cuffs placed even with the shoulders at top of the package.

Shirt must be folded neatly, bulkiness smoothed out by hand. Clips can be used to secure shirt in position, however pins of any sort are unacceptable

The tail of the shirt must be tightened around the folding template, extend slightly beyond the top of the shoulders and taper in on each side. The shirt tail is then tucked in between the sleeve fold and the sleeve cuffs

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Place folded item in an appropriately sized polybag. Seal and label with stock number and country of origin

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