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Stabilitytalkietalkies FactorsaffectingshapeofCurveofStaticalStability.

Effectonthecurveofstaticalstabilityofa changeofKG

Effectonthecurveofstaticalstabilityof LIST

TheeffectofincreasingKGisasfollows: InitialGMisreduced(byanamountequaltoGGV) AllGZvaluesacrosstherangeofstabilityarereduced, particularlyatthelargeranglesofheel Dynamicalstability(areaunderthecurve)isreducedmaking theshiplessabletoresistheelingbyexternalforces Rangeofstabilityisreduced Theangleatwhichdeckedgeimmersionoccurs(pointof inflexionofthecurve notshown)remainsunchangedas freeboardhasnotchanged. Ineffect,mostaspectsofstabilityareworsened! IfGwereloweredcausingKGtoreducethenallvaluesofGZwouldbe increased.InitialGMwouldbeincreased.Mostaspectsofstabilitywould beimproved! EffectonthecurveofstaticalstabilityofanincreaseinBEAM

Theeffectoflistisasfollows: InitialGMisunchanged(sinceonlyverticalmovementsofGwill causethistochange) All GZvaluesacrosstherangeofstabilityarereduced,particularly atthesmallestanglesofheel(whentheshipisuprightGGH actsasa capsizinglevercausingtheshiptoheelovertotheangleoflist) Dynamicalstability(areaunderthecurve)isreduced.Sincetheship isalreadylisted,lessworkisrequiredbytheexternalforcestoheel theshipovertodangerousanglesofheelonthelistedside! Rangeofstabilityisreduced(atbothendsoftherangeforaship havinganinitialrangeofstabilitylessthan90). Theangleofheelatwhichdeckedgeimmersionoccursremains unchangedbutthereislessworkrequiredbytheexternalforcesto reachdeckedgeimmersiononthelistedside.

EffectonthecurveofstaticalstabilityofincreaseinFREEBOARD

Theeffectofanincreaseinbeamisasfollows: InitialGMisincreasedasaresultoftheincreasingBM. GZvalueswillbeincreasedinitially. Dynamicalstability(areaunderthecurve)isincreased initially. Angleatwhichdeckedgeimmersiontakesplaceisreduced. Rangeofstabilitymayincreaseordecrease.Thiswilldepend ontheinitialfreeboardandincreaseinbeamforthat freeboardbeingconsidered.Thesmallerthefreeboardandthe greatertheincreaseinthebeam,thefurtherthereductionin theangleofheelatwhichdeckedgeimmersiontakesplace thismaycauserangetoreduce.If thefreeboardissubstantial, anymoderateincreaseinbeamwillresultintherangeof stabilityincreasing.

Theeffectofanincreaseinfreeboardisasfollows: InitialGMisunchanged(sinceonlyverticalmovementsofGwill causethistochange) GZvalueswillbeincreasedatanglesofheel beyondtheangleof heelatwhichdeckedgeimmersiontakesplaceforthesmaller freeboardship Dynamicalstability(areaunderthecurve)isincreasedatanglesof heelbeyondtheangleofheelatwhichdeckedgeimmersiontakes place. Rangeofstabilityisincreased. IffreeboardwheretobereducedthenGZvalueswouldbesimilarlyreduced.

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Stabilitytalkietalkies IntactstabilitycriteriaforcargoshipsundertheM.S.(Load Line)Regulations1998 INTACTSTABILITYCRITERIAFORSHIPSCARRYINGGRAINISSUED Theareaunderthecurveofrightinglevers(GZcurve) WITHADOCUMENTOFAUTHORISATION shallnotbe lessthan: Adocumentofauthorisationisissuedtomanyshipsandisacceptedasevidencethat (i) 0.055mruptoanangleof 30 theshipiscapableofcomplyingwiththerequirementsoftheInternationalGrainCode. (ii) 0.09mr uptoanangleof 40orthe angleatwhich downflooding occurs (iii) 0.03mrbetweentheanglesofheelof theangleofheelduetotheshiftofgrainshallnotbegreaterthan12,orinthe 30and40ortheangleatwhich df st caseofshipsconstructedonorafter1 January1994theangleatwhichthedeck occurs edgeisimmersed,whicheveristhelesser Therightinglever (GZ)shallbe atleast0.20m at an inthestaticalstabilitydiagram,thenetorresidualareabetweentheheelingarm angleofheelequaltoorgreaterthan30. curve and the righting arm (GZ) curve up to the angle of heel of maximum The maximumrightinglevershalloccuratanangleof differencebetweentheordinatesofthetwocurves,or40ortheangleofflooding heelnotlessthan30. (qf),whicheveristheleast,shallinallconditionsofloadingbe notlessthan0.075 Theinitialtransversemetacentricheightshallnotbe metreradiansand lessthan 0.15m. Inthecaseofashipcarryingatimber theinitialmetacentricheight(GM),aftercorrectionforthefreesurfaceeffectsof deckcargothatcomplieswiththearearequirements liquidsintanks,shallbe notlessthan0.30metres. abovebytakingintoaccountthevolumeof timberdeck Before loading bulk grain the master shall, if so required by the Contracting cargo,theinitialtransversemetacentricheightshallnot Government of the country of theport of loading,demonstrate the ability of the belessthan 0.05m. shipatallstagesofanyvoyagetocomplywith thestabilitycriteriarequiredby thissection. Afterloading,themastershallensurethattheshipisuprightbeforeproceedingto sea. .

Intactstabilitycriteriaforpassengerships(M.S.(PassengerShip Construction:ShipsofClassesI,IIandII(A))Regulations1998 Arguably,therequirementsarevirtuallythesameasthoseforUK registeredcargoships. Becausethemaximumpermittedlistafterassumed grainshiftis12(or qDEI),thecurve ofstaticalstabilitymustbederivedfromcrosscurves(KNcurves)thataresufficientin numbertoaccuratelydefinethecurveforthepurposeoftheserequirements,and,shall includecrosscurvesforthevalues ofheel12and40.

CurvesofStaticalStabilityforVaryingConditions. CURVE OF STATICAL STABILITY FOR A CURVE OF STATICAL STABILITY FOR A SHIPINASTABLECONDITION SHIPINANEUTRALCONDITION

CURVEOFSTATICALSTABILITYFORA SHIPINANUNSTABLECONDITION (ANGLEOFLOLL)

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Stabilitytalkietalkies IcingAllowancesand Windheelingcriteriaforcontainerships(MCA) Iceonbooms,stays,railsetc.shouldbeallowedforas 5%oftheweight onverticalsurfaces,andthe verticalmomentofthisiceallowedforas 10%ofthemomentduetoformationonverticalsurfaces. a. b. c. d. Calculateweightoficeondecksusingfullicing allowance Calculateweightoficeonverticalsurfacesonone sideusingfullicingallowance Calculateallowanceforiceonbooms,staysetc. Takemomentsaboutthekeeltocalculateeffective KGandGM.

Icingallowances. The fullicingallowance shouldbeapplied: (a) Northof6630'NbetweentheNorwegiancoastand10W. (b) Northof63Nbetween10Wand 28W. (c) Northof45Nbetween28WandtheNorthAmericancoast. (d) NorthoftheEuropean,NorthAmericanandAsiancontinentsoutside ofthelimitsoflongitudein(a),(b)and(c). (e) TheSeaofOkhotsk,BeringSeaandGulfofTartary. (f) Southof60S. The halficingallowanceshouldbeapplied: (a) Intheareasnorthof61N,betweentheNorwegiancoastand28W, southoftheareastowhichthefullallowanceapplies. (b) Elsewhereinseasonalwinterzones,asagreedbytheMCAandthe owners. Theicingallowancesareas follows: The fullallowance assumes: (a) Thatallexposed horizontalsurfaces(decks, tops ofhousesanddeckcargo)are carryinganiceweightof30 2 kg/m . (b) Thatvertical 2 surfacesarecarryingaweightequivalentto15kg/m onthelateralareaon one sideoftheship(hull,houses,anddeckcargo)abovethewaterline. The halficingallowanceshouldbetakenasonehalfofthesevalues. Thecentreofgravityofeachareaoficeformationhastobeestimatedinorder thatthemomentaboutthekeelofeachpartoficeweightcanbecalculated. Iceonbooms,stays,railsetc.shouldbeallowedforas 5%oftheweighton verticalsurfaces,andthe verticalmomentofthisiceallowedforas10%ofthe moment duetoformationonverticalsurfaces.

Whenicingoccursaspreviouslydescribedthefollowingmaybe expectedtohappen: 1) Icingonhorizontaldecksandcargo surfaceswillcauseGtoriseresultinginanincreasedKG/decreased GM. 2) Icingonthelateralareasoftheshipon onesideabovethe waterlinewillcausetheshiptolist. 3) Both(1)and(2)abovewillcausean increaseintheshipsdisplacementresultinginareducedfreeboard (arguablytheeffectsofthiswillbedependantontheshipsoverall sizeinrelationtothemassoficeaccumulated).

InitialGMtobereduced AllGZvaluesacrosstherangeofstabilitytobereduced Dynamicalstability(areaunderthecurve)tobereduced makingtheshiplessabletoresistheelingbyexternalforces Rangeofstabilitytobereduced Theangleatwhichdeckedgeimmersionoccurs(pointof inflexionofthecurve notshown)toreducealittleasa resultoftheincreaseddisplacement. Ineffect,allaspectsofstabilitywillbeworsened! Whentheheightofthelateralwindage is greaterthan30%ofthebeam.

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Stabilitytalkietalkies Thedistinctionbetweendynamicalstabilityandtransversestaticalstability Transversestaticalstabilityisthetermusedtodescribetheabilityofaship toreturntotheuprightwhenithasbeenforciblyheeledbyanexternalforce andismomentarilyatrestwhenfloatinginstillwater. Itiscalculatedbytheformula: whereGZisameasureofhowfarGandBarehorizontallyseparatedata particularangleof heel. The dynamicalstabilityofashipatanyparticularangleofinclinationis theworkrequiredby theexternalforces(wind,wavesetc.)toheel theshiptothatangleofheel. Itisassessedbyconsiderationoftheareaundertherightingmomentcurveup totheangleofheelconcerned. DYNAMICALSTABILITY=AREAUNDERRMCURVE(0to q) or(inpractice): DYNAMICALSTABILITY(tmr)=DISPLACEMENT(t) AREA UNDERGZCURVE(0to q)(mr) Themomentofstaticalstabilitywillbethesameforwhentheshipisheeled to25or53.However,thedynamicalstabilitywillobviouslybemuch greaterat53sincemoreworkis requiredbytheexternalforcestoheelthe shipovertothelargerangleofheel. TherelationshipbetweenGZanddynamicalstabilitycanbefurther appreciatedifacomparison ofthevaluesofGZanddynamicalstabilityare comparedatdifferentanglesofheel. Itfollowsthatifdynamicalstabilityisameasureoftheworktobedoneby externalforcesto heeltheshipovertoaparticularangleofheel, dynamical stabilitywillcontinuetoincreasewith heelas longastheshipcontinuesto resistsuchheeling i.e.aslongastheshiphaspositiverighting levers.Once heeledbeyondtheangleofvanishingstability(AVS)theshipwillcapsizeon its own. Note Itmustbeappreciatedthattheexplanationgivenis onlytrueforashipthatis heeledinstillwater,is momentarilyatrest and isnotheeledbeyondthe angleofprogressiveflooding.Furthermore,itisassumedthatthepositionof thecentreofgravityoftheshipdoesnotmove,evenwhenheeled tosuch largeanglesforwhichaGZcurveisnormallyplotted.Clearly,inpractice, thesituation whenashipheelsatseaiscompletelydifferent! CalculationProcedureForTheAssignmentOfATypeAFreeboard From TableA ascertaintheshipstabularfreeboardfortheshipslength(L). The tabularfreeboard isthefreeboardthatwouldbeassignedtoa standardship builttothehighestrecognisedstandardandhavingfivespecific characteristicsasfollows: ablockcoefficientof0.68 alengthtodepthratioof15i.e.L/D=15 nosuperstructure aparabolicsheerofthefreeboarddeckattainingaparticularheightattheforwardandafterperpendicularsasprescribedbyformulae(dependingon thelengthoftheship) aminimumbowheightabovetheloadwaterlineasprescribedbyformulae(dependingonCb andlengthofship). Itishoweachoftheabovecharacteristicsfortheshipinquestiondiffersfromthestandardshipthatwilldeterminewhetherthecorrectionstothetabular freeboardare added or subtracted. Correctionforblockcoefficient

ThetabularfreeboardhavingbeencorrectedforblockcoefficientistermedBasic Freeboard

Correctionfordepth ThestandardshiphasaL/Dratioof15.IftheL/Dratioislessthan15,whichisusuallythe case,thefreeboardisincreased. IftheL/Dratioisgreaterthan15thenthefreeboardmaybedecreased. Iftheshipsareconsideredwhereanamidshipscompartmentextendingthefulldepthofthe hullwerefloodedduetodamage,Ship1wouldexperiencegreatersinkageandlossof freeboardthanShip2,sinceineachcase,thevolumeofbuoyancythathasbeenlostmustbe regainedbytheremainingintactpartsofthehull.

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Stabilitytalkietalkies Correctionforpositionofdeckline

Iftheactualdepthtotheupperedgeofthedecklineisgreaterorlessthanthedepthforfreeboard (D),thedifferenceifgreater,shallbeaddedto,oriflessshallbedeductedfrom,thefreeboard. illustratestheexampleofaroundedsheerstrake.

Correctionforsuperstructureandtrunks Freeboarddeductionsareallowedforeffectiveenclosedsuperstructurelengthasaproportionoftheshipsfreeboardlength.Itisalwaysadeductionin freeboardsincethestandardshiphasnosuperstructure. Correctionforsheerprofile

Correctionforbowheight Aminimumallowablebowheightmustbemaintainedwhenthevesselisfloatingtothesummerloadlineatitsdesigntrim.TheassignedSummerFreeboard foravesselmustbeincreased,ifnecessary,toensurethattheminimumbowheightrequirementsaremet. Ifthefreeboardascalculatedfromconsideringthepreviouscorrectionsislessthanthebowheightminimum,thenthebowheightformulaminimumwillbe assignedastheSummerFreeboard. Therequiredbowheightmaybeachievedby: * including sheerprovidedsheerextendsoveratleast0.15Lfromtheforwardperpendicularor * fittingaraisedforecastle providedthatsuchaforecastleextendsoveratleast 0.07Lfromtheforwardperpendicular.

ThefreeboardascalculatedappliestotheshipwheninsaltwaterandisassignedtotheshipasitsSummerfreeboard.Thesummerfreeboardshallnotbeless than50mm. TheTropical(T),Winter(W),WinterNorthAtlantic(WNA)andFreshwater(F)freeboardsarethencalculated.

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Stabilitytalkietalkies B60andB100tabularfreeboardsexplained IfatypeBshipcansatisfycertainadditionalconditionsofassignmentwithrespecttostructureanddamagedstabilityitwillqualifyforareductioninits tabularfreeboard.Thisreductionmaybe60%thedifferencebetweenthetabularAandtabularBfreeboard,andinsomecasesbe100%thedifferencehence thetermsB60andB100. Considertheextractsfromthefreeboardtables inregulation28below:

ForagivenlengthofshipthetabularfreeboardislessforaTypeAshipthanaTypeBship. Iftheshiptowhichfreeboardistobeassignedwere140minlengththetabularfreeboardswouldbe:

IfatypeBshiphasacertainimprovedstandardofsubdivisionandsteelhatchcoversitmayqualifyforareductioninthe tabularfreeboardof60%the differencebetweenthetypeAandtypeBfreeboards,hence,thetermB60. TabularFreeboardassigned=2109 (0.6 306)=1925mm. FurtherimprovementindesignmightqualifythetypeBshipareductionofthefull amountofthedifference B100. TabularFreeboardassigned=2109 (1 306)=1803mm. (ItcanbeseenthattypeAandtypeB100tabularfreeboardsarethesame!) AdditionalconditionsofassignmentfortypeB60freeboard(Regulation27) Thefollowingadditionalconditionsmustbesatisfied: (1) Shipmustbeover100minlength. (2) measuresmustbeprovidedfortheprotectionofthecrewonexposeddecksmustbeadequate(suchasthefittingofaraisedcatwalkorunderdeck walkways alongeachsideofthehull). (3) arrangementsforfreeingwateroffthedeckmustbeadequate(railingsinsteadofbulwarksmayhavetobefitted). (4) hatchcoversinpositions1and2mustbeofsteelandhaveadequatestrength,specialcarebeinggiventotheirsealingandsecuringarrangements. (5) theship,whenloadedinaccordancewiththe initialconditionofloading,shallbeabletowithstandthefloodingofanycompartmentor compartments,withanassumedpermeabilityof0.95,consequentupon the damageassumptions specifiedandshallremainafloatinasatisfactory conditionof equilibrium. Iftheshipisover150minlength,themachineryspacemaybetreatedasafloodablecompartmentwithapermeabilityof0.85. (The initialconditionofloading,damageassumptions andconditionofequilibrium arethesameasthoseapplicableinthedefinitionofatypeAship) AdditionalconditionsofassignmentfortypeB100freeboard(Regulation27) Thefollowingadditionalconditionsmustbesatisfied: (1) AllthespecialconditionsofassignmentapplicabletotypeAships(aspersection26.4.2) (2) AlltheadditionalconditionsapplicabletotheassignmentofB60freeboardsintheprevioussubsection 26.6.2. (3) theship,whenloadedinaccordancewiththe initialconditionofloading,shallbeabletowithstandthesimultaneousfloodingofanytwoadjacent foreandaftcompartments (notincludingthemachineryspace)withanassumedpermeabilityof0.95,consequentuponthe damageassumptions specifiedand shallremainafloatinasatisfactory conditionofequilibrium. Iftheshipisover150minlength,themachineryspacemaybetreatedasoneofthefloodablecompartmentswithapermeabilityof0.85. (The initialcondition ofloading,damageassumptions andconditionofequilibrium arethesameasthoseapplicableinthedefinitionofatypeA ship)

Loadlinesurveypreparation Thepreparationforaloadlinesurveywillinvolve ensuringthatthehulliswatertightbelowthefreeboarddeckandweathertightaboveit(cargotanklidson tankersmustbewatertight). Referenceshouldbemadetothe Formofrecordofconditionsofassignmentofloadlines asspecifiedinPart6of LoadLines 2002 Edition(Recordof particulars asdetailedinMSN1752(M)forUKships). Thefollowingchecksshouldbeconductedpriortosurvey: 1. Checkthatallaccessopeningsattheendsofenclosedsuperstructuresareingoodcondition.Alldogs,clampsandhingesshouldbefreeandgreased. Gasketsandothersealingarrangementsshouldnotshowsignsofperishing(crackedrubbers).Ensurethatdoorscanbeopenedfrombothsides.Ensurethat doorlabelssuchasTobekeptclosedatsea areinplace. 2. Checkallcargohatchesandaccessestoholdsforweathertightness.Securingdevicessuchasclamps,cleatsandwedgesaretobeallinplace,wellgreased andadjustedtoprovideoptimumsealingbetweenthehatchcoverandcompressionbaronthecoaming.Replaceperishedrubbersealsas necessary.Hose testhatchestoverifyweathertightness. 3. Checktheefficiencyandsecuringofportablebeams. 4. Forwoodenhatches,blahblahblah 5. Inspectallmachineryspaceopeningsonexposeddecks. 6. Checkthatmanholecoversonthefreeboarddeckare capableofbeingmadewatertight. 7. Checkthatallventilatoropeningsareprovidedwithefficientweathertightclosingappliances. 8. Allairpipesmustbeprovidedwithpermanentlyattachedmeansofclosing. 9. Inspectcargoportsbelowthefreeboarddeckand ensurethattheyarewatertight. 10. Ensurethatallnonreturnvalvesonoverboarddischargesareeffective. Page 6of 21

Stabilitytalkietalkies 11. Sidescuttlesbelowthefreeboarddeckortospaceswithinenclosedsuperstructuresmusthaveefficientinternalwatertightdeadlights.Inspectdeadlight rubbersealsandsecuringarrangements. 12. Checkallfreeingports,ensureshuttersarenotjammed,hingesarefreeandthatpinsareofnoncorrodingtype(gunmetal). 13. Checkbulwarksandguardrailsareingoodcondition. 14. Riglifelines(ifrequired)andensuretheyareingoodorder. 15. Derustandrepaintdeckline,loadlinemark,loadlinesanddraughtmarks. OnthedayofthesurveyensurethattheInternationalLoadLinecertificateandassociateddocumentationareavailableforinspection.Sufficientmanpower shouldbemadeavailablefortheoperationofhatchcoversandtheriggingofstagingandladderstoallowthesurveyortoviewtheloadlineanddraughtmarks. Theshipsstabilitydatabookshouldalsobeonhandforinspection. PassengerShips(otherthanpassengerRoRos)DamageStabilityRequirements:Deterministicapproachtosubdivision

When apassengershipsuffersdamage,lossoftheshipisinitiallyacceptedtooccurwhenthe bulkheaddeck becomesimmersedbelowthedamagedwaterline atanypointintheshipslength.However,amarginofsafetyisdesirablesothelimitistakentobewhenthe marginlinebecomessubmerged. Bulkheaddeck Thisistheuppermostdeckuptowhichtransversewatertightbulkheadsarecarried. Marginline Thisisalinedrawnatleast76mmbelowtheuppersurfaceofthebulkheaddeckatthesideofasubdividedship.Ifthemarginlineshouldbecomesubmerged intheeventofdamagethentheshipisdeemedtobelost. Theextentofdamageshallbeassumedasfollows: a. longitudinalextent:3mplus3%ofthelengthoftheship,or11m,whicheverisless.Wheretherequiredfactorofsubdivision(F)is0.33orless,the assumedlongitudinalextentofdamageshallbeincreasedasnecessarysoastoincludeanytwoconsecutivemaintransversewatertightbulkheads (i.e. theshipmustbeabletowithstandthefloodingofanythreeadjacentcompartments). b. transverseextent:20%ofthebreadthoftheship,measuredinboardfromtheshipssideatrightanglestothecentreline atthelevelofthedeepest subdivisionloadwaterlinetakenparalleltothekeel c. verticalextent:fromthebaselineupwardswithoutlimit. d. Ifanydamageoflesserextentthanthatindicatedabovewouldresultinamoresevereconditionregardingheelorlossofmetacentricheight,such damageshallbeassumedforthepurposeofthecalculation.

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Stabilitytalkietalkies StabilityInformationtobeprovidedtotheMaster Everyshipmustbeprovidedwithastabilitybooklet,approvedbytheauthorisingAdministration. Thebookletmustcontainsufficientinformationtoenablethemastertooperatehisshipincompliancewithallregulationsthattheshipissubjectto. Stabilityinformationbookletscomeinmanydifferentformats,howeverthefollowinginformationshouldbeincluded. A generaldescription oftheship Detailed instructions onhowtousethebooklet Generalarrangementplans showing,W/TCompartments,Closures,Vents,downfloodingangles,permissibledeckloadingsandloadline/freeboard diagrams. Hydrostaticcurvesortablesandcrosscurvesofstability,calculatedonafreetrimmingbasis,fortherangesofdisplacementandtrimanticipatedin normaloperatingconditions. Capacityplan showingcapacities andcentresofgravityforallcargostowagespaces Tanksoundingtables showingcapacities,centresofgravity,andfreesurfacedataforeachtank. Informationon loadingrestrictions,suchasmaximumKGorminimumGMcurvesortabulardatathatwillenabletheMastertodetermine compliancewiththestabilitycriterialaiddownbytheAdministration. Stability informationforthevesselinavarietyofstandardoperatingconditions andexamplesofhowthebookletmaybeusedtodevelopother suitableloadingconditions.Theseshouldincludeabriefdescriptionofthecalculationsperformedandanyassumptionsmade. Generalprecautionstopreventunintentionalflooding Informationconcerningtheuseof anyspecialcrossfloodingfitting,withdescriptionsofdamageconditionswhichmayrequirecrossflooding. Areportonthe incliningexperimentfortheship. StructuralFireProtection AllShips BASICPRINCIPLES(SOLASCHAPTER112,PARTA:Regulation2) Thefollowingbasicprinciplesunderlietheregulationsandareembodiedintheregulationsasappropriate,havingregardtothetypeofshipsandthepotential firehazardinvolved: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. division ofshipintomainverticalzonesbythermalandstructuralboundaries separation ofaccommodationspacesfromtheremainderoftheshipbythermalandstructuralboundaries, restricted useofcombustiblematerials, detection ofanyfireinthezoneoforigin containment andextinctionofanyfifeinthespaceoforigin protection ofmeansofescapeoraccessforfirefighting, readyavailabilityof fireextinguishingappliances,' minimization ofpossibilityofignitionofflammablecargovapour.

DEFINITIONS (SOLASCHAPTER112,PARTA:Regulation3) Noncombustible materialis amaterialwhichneitherbumsnorgivesoffflammablevapoursinsufficientquantityforselfignitionwhenheatedto approximately750C,thisbeingdeterminedtothesatisfactionoftheAdministrationbyanestablishedtestprocedure.Anyothermaterialisacombustible material. A standardfiretest isoneinwhichspecimensoftherelevantbulkheadsordecksareexposedinatestfurnacetotemperaturescorrespondingapproximatelyto thestandardtimetemperaturecurve.Thespecimenshallhaveanexposedsurfaceofnotlessthan4.65Mandheight(orlengthofdeck)of2.44m,resembling ascloselyaspossibletheintendedconstructionandincludingwhereappropriateatleastonejoint.Thestandardtimetemperaturecurveisdefinedbyasmooth curvedrawnthroughthefollowing temperaturepointsmeasuredabovetheinitialfurnacetemperature: attheendofthefirst5min.556Cattheendofthefirst10min.659Cattheendofthefirst15min.718Cattheendofthefirst30min.820Cattheendof thefirst60min.925C Aclassdivisions arethosedivisionsformedby bulkheadsanddeckswhichcomplywiththefollowing: Theyshallbeconstructedofsteelorotherequivalentmaterialtheyshallbesuitablystiffened Theyshallbesoconstructedastobecapableof preventingthepassageofsmokeandflame totheendoftheonehourstandardfiretesttheyshall beinsulatedwithapprovednoncombustiblematerialssuchthattheaveragetemperatureoftheunexposedsidewillnotrisemorethan139C above theoriginaltemperature,norwillthetemperature,atanyonepoint,includinganyjoint,risemorethan180Cabovetheoriginaltemperature,within thetimelistedbelow:class'A60'60min.class'A30'30min.class'A15'15min.class'AO'0min. TheAdministration mayrequireatestofaprototypebulkheadordecktoensurethatitmeetstheaboverequirementsforintegrityandtemperature rise. 'B'classdivisions arethosedivisionsformedbybulkheads,decks,ceilingorliningswhichcomplywiththefollowing:theyshallbesoconstructedastobe capableof preventingthepassageofflame totheendofthefirsthalfhourofthestandardfiretesttheyshallhaveaninsulationvaluesuchthatthe average temperatureoftheunexposedsidewillnotrisemorethan139C abovetheoriginaltemperature,norwillthetemperatureatanyonepoint,includinganyjoint, risemorethan225Cabovetheoriginaltemperature,withinthetimelistedbelow:class'B15'15min.class'BO'0min.theyshallbeconstructedofapproved noncombustiblematerialsandallmaterialsenteringintotheconstructionanderectionof'B'classdivisionsshallbenoncombustible,withtheexceptionthat combustibleveneersmaybepermittedprovidedtheymeetotherrequirementsofthischaptertheAdministrationmayrequireatestofaprototypedivisionto ensurethatitmeetstheaboverequirementsforintegrityandtemperaturerise. 'C'classdivisions aredivisionsconstructedofapprovednoncombustiblematerials.Theyneedmeetneitherrequirementsrelativetothepassageofsmokeand flamenorlimitationsrelativetothetemperaturerise.Combustibleveneersarepermittedprovidedtheymeetotherrequirementsofthischapter. Mainverticalzones arethosesectionsintowhichthehull,superstructure,anddeckhousesaredividedbyAclassdivisions,themeanlengthofwhichonany deckdoesnotingeneralexceed40m. GeneralStructuralFireProtectionArrangementsInClass1PassengerVessels Maybesummarisedasfollows: Thehull,superstructure,structuralbulkheads,decksanddeckhousesmustbeofsteel. Thehull,superstructureanddeckhousesmustbedividedintozones.Theseareusuallyverticalzonesabovethebulkheaddeckandthe maximum lengthofeachzoneis40m. ZonesareformedbyfittingAclassdivisions. Spacesarecategorised into14groups asshowninthetablefromMSN1667(M),suchasControlStations,Stairways,CorridorsandLifeboat andLiferafthandlingandembarkationstations. WhereanopeningiscutintoanAor'B'classdivisionforthepassageofelectriccables,pipes,trunks,girders,beamsorforanyotherpurposes,the Page 8of 21

Stabilitytalkietalkies integrityofthedivisionmustbemaintained. Anyfireresistingdoorfittedintoan'A'classdivisionisitselfsubjectedtothestandardfiretesttoensurethatitis,asfarasispracticable, equivalenttothebulkheaditself. PipesmaybeweldeddirectintoAclassdivisions,butplasticpipes,whicharenotpermittedbelowthebulkheaddeckorintheengineroom,bust haveasteelspigotfittedfor455mmoneachsideofthebulkheadandthissteelpipemustbeinsulatedtothesamestandardasthebulkhead. Ventilatorandfaninlets/outletsmusthaveareadilyaccessibleexternalmeansofclosing.Ifpossible,thesystem ofductsfromanyoneventilating fanshouldbewhollywithinoneverticalzone.Theremustbetwowidelyseparatedmastercontrolseachcapableofstoppingallfansinaventilating system,otherthanthoseintheengineroomsystemwhichmustthemselves havetwoindependentmastercontrols,oneofthemoutsidetheengine room. Combustiblematerialsarerestrictedwithinaccommodationspaces,servicespaces,controlstationsandmachineryspaces.Therestrictionisinterms ofthematerialsusedforceilings,linings,draughtstopsandinsulation. Documentofauthorisationtocarrygraincargoes OneoftheprinciplesoftheSOLASconventionsisthatmembernationswillberesponsibleforthedetailsofcompliancewiththerequirementsofthe appropriate IMOCodesandthatothernationswillaccept,ongoodfaith,thatthedetailscontainedwithinsuchCodesareproperlyobserved.However,each nationretainstherighttoascertainthatanyshipwhichconductscommercefromitsportshas,infact,beensubjectedtoregulatorychecksbyitshome Administration. TheDocumentofAuthorisationisacertificationmadebyanAdministrationwhichissignatorytotheConventionorbyanagencyauthorizedtoactonbehalf ofthatAdministration(suchastheMCA), thataspecificshipunderitsregistryis capableofcarryinggraininbulkandthattheinformationintheGrain LoadingManualdefiningsuchcapability,hasbeenreviewedandisapprovedasbeingincompliancewiththerequirementsoftheCode.Sincesomanynations aresignatorytotheConvention,thismeansthattheDocumentofAuthorisationwillbeacceptedatalmosteveryportworldwide. Informationregardingshipsstabilityandgrainloading IGCode RegulationA6 liststhespecificdataandinformationwhichistobeincludedintheGrainLoadingManual. Thisinformationshallinclude: shipsparticulars lightshipdisplacementandKG tableofliquidfreesurfacemoments(orIvalues)forshipstankstoallowafreesurfacecorrection tobecalculated capacitiesandcentresofgravitiesofcompartments curveortableofangleofflooding,wherelessthan40,atallpermissibledisplacements hydrostaticdatacurvesortablessuitablefortherangeofoperatingdraughtsand crosscurvesofstability(KNcurves)thataresufficientinnumbertoverifystabilitycriteriacomplianceandtoincludecurvesfor12and40heel. Inadditiontotheabove: curvesortablesofvolumes,verticalcentresofvolumes,andassumedvolumetric heelingmomentsforeverycompartment,filledorpartlyfilled,or combinationthereof,includingtheeffectsoftemporaryfittings tablesorcurvesofmaximumpermissiblegrainheelingmomentsforvaryingdisplacementsandshipsKGvaluestoallowthe mastertodemonstrate compliancewiththeminimumstabilitycriteria(thisrequirementonlyappliestoshipsbuiltonoraftertheentryintoforceoftheCode forUKships th theCodeisenforcedbytheM.S.(CarriageofCargoes)Regulations1999whichcameintoforceonthe15 March1999) detailsofthescantlingsofanytemporaryfittingsand,whereapplicable,theprovisionsnecessarytomeettherequirementsoftheCode(includingthe requirementsforshipsnotissuedwithadocumentofauthorisationcarryingpartialcargoesofbulkgrain) loadinginstructionsintheformofnotessummarisingtherequirementsoftheCode aworkedexampleofthegrainloadingcalculationsfortheguidanceofthemasterand typicalloadedservicedepartureand arrivalconditionsandwherenecessaryintermediateworstserviceconditionsbasedonthreerepresentativevalues 3 ofgrainstowagefactore.g.1.25,1.50and1.75m /t.

TheUnreliabilityInPracticeOfUsingStaticalStabilityCurveDataForAssessingAShip'sStabilityAtSea Considerthedefinitionoftheterm transversestaticalstability itrelatestotheabilityofashiptoreturntotheuprightconditionwhenithasbeenforcibly inclinedbyanexternalforce,ismomentarilyatrestandis floatinginstillwater. Atseatheshipwillbesubjectedtoforcesandmomentsthatarenottakenintoaccountincalculationsthatassumestaticconditions.Theshipwillbeactively rolling,pitchingandheavingandassuchamorerelevantdynamicapproachismoreappropriatetowhatisessentiallyadynamicproblem.Theproblemthat facesmodernshipdesignersishowsuchamoreaccuratemeansofstabilityassessmentcanbeachieved. Thedynamicforces,actingeitherindividuallyorcumulatively,canbesubstantialandhavebeenthecauseofthelossornearlossofshipswhichhavehad staticalstabilityinexcessofIMO,M.S.(LoadLine)Regulationsorotherstatutoryrequirements. Thelimitationsofusingstaticalstabilitycurvedataaresummarisedinthefollowingsubsections. LightdisplacementandKGassumptions ForanyKGcalculationtobevalidthecorrectlightshipKGanddisplacementvaluesmustbeused.Thesevaluesareobtainedbymeansofaninclining experiment.Inservice,however,thelightKGanddisplacementwillalterwithagebyreasonsofchangesofequipment,fittings,paintcoatings,corrosion,and accumulationofsparestonamebutafew.Structuralchangesmighteventakeplacewherebythesevalueswillhavechangedsignificantly.Whenany modificationtothevesseltakesplacethechangesinKGandlightdisplacementmustbeaccuratelydeterminedandtheshipreinclinedifnecessary. Furthermore,theshipascompletedmightnotbeexactlytodesign(drawing)dimensions andthepossibilityalsoexistswherebydataextractedfromdrawings canbeinerror. Itisessentialthatperiodicconstantcalculationsbeperformed,wherebythedraughtsasreadareusedtodeterminetheshipsactualhydrostaticdisplacement andthisinturniscomparedtothecalculateddisplacementanddraughtssothattheerror(constant)canbecalculated.Theconstantisavalueofanimaginary weightloaded(ordischarged)fromsomepositiontocorrectthedraughtsascalculatedtobethesame asthoseactuallyread.Itisnotpossibletodeterminethe KGatwhichthisweightmustbeloaded(ordischarged).TheonlywaytoobtainanuptodatelightshipKGvalueisbyconductinganotherinclining experiment. Calculationinaccuracies Theinformationgivenbyacurveofstaticalstabilitycanonlybevalidiftheshipisintheconditionofloadingassumedbythepersondoingthecalculations. Tobevalidtheshipmust: (a) beattheassumeddisplacement (b) beatthetrimstatedonthehydrostaticparticularsandKNtables(whichisrarelythecase) (c) beloadedorballastedtotheassumedeffectiveKGinthecalculationwherebyfreesurfacemomentshavebeenfullyaccountedfor (d) beintact,displacingwateratallcompartmentswhichcanbemaintainedwatertight. Effectsoffreetrim Thisistheeffectoftheshipchangingtrim,usuallyfurtherbythestern,inresponsetoheelingtosuchananglethattheforeandaftdistributionofbuoyancy changes.Thisisparticularlyrelevanttooffshoresupplyvessels. Page 9of 21

Stabilitytalkietalkies Dynamiceffectsoftheshipsmotionatseaingeneral Mechanismsthatwillreducestabilityandmightleadtocapsizeinwavesofanyheadingtotheship,eitherinisolationorincombination,arisebecauseofthe ships movementinaseaway,inparticularpitching,rollingandheaving. Changesinstabilitycausedbyheaving,rollingandpitching Thesemotionscreatechangesinthemagnitudeandpositionofapplicationoftheupwardbuoyancyforce.Theaccelerationoftheshipasaresultofthese motionsisalsonotaccountedfor. Theeffectofsteadywindmomentsorasymmetricicing Thesecreateasteadyheeltotheshipandreducetheshipsabilitytocopewithisolatedsuddenexternalforcessuchasgustingwinds, individualexceptionally largewavesortheimpactofbreakingwaves. Stabilitylossonawavecrest Stabilityisreducedwhentheshipisonawavecrestandincreasedwheninatrough. Ifanendonwave,equaltothelengthoftheship,hasitscrestamidships(wherewall sided)andtroughsattheends(wherefinelined)therewillbeareductioninwaterplane areacomparedwiththestillwaterlevel.ThiscreatesareductioninBMandalossin GM.AsBMisadirectlyrelatedtothesizeofthewaterplaneareaandbecauseofthe volumesofdisplacementattheendsoftheshiptherewillbeareducedoutward movementofBasthevesselisheeledresultinginreducedGZvalues. Thediagramsshowthatthecrestamidshipsdoesnotaffecttheamountofbuoyancy transferredacrossatamidships,butitisreducedattheendsoftheship.Areduced outwardmovementofBimpliesareductioninBMvalueandreducedGZvalue.When thetroughisamidshipstheoppositewillbetrue. Whentheshipisbeamon tothewavesthecrest/troughinfluenceonthepositionofBis insignificantbutthelossofbuoyancyforceinthecrestappliesthroughouttheships length.Thereisasignificantlossofstabilityduetothiscausealone.

Parametricresonance This istheincreaseinroll(orapparentlossofstability)duetotheperiodicpassageof regularwavesthatcausestheshiptopitch.Itisparticularlyassociatedwithcontainershipsthatrequirelargedeckspacesforcontainerstowageandfinelined hulls forfastservicespeeds.Suchshipshavehullformsthatfeaturefinelinedbowsandwidesternsinordertomaximisedeckspaceaft.Thisvariation betweenbowandsternhullformissuchthatitcausesatendencyfortheshipspitchingmotiontoinduce rolling aphenomenonknownas parametric resonance. Dynamicmovementofwaterondeck Watershippedondeckwillnotbeaccountedfor.ThiswillcauseanincreaseinKGforthefollowingreasons: (1) addedweighthighupwillcauseGtorise,and (2) associatedfreesurfacemomentscausingafurtherriseinG. Waterondeckpresentsfurtherproblemsfortheshipifitisactivelyrolling.Thedynamicmovementofthewatermightattimesbeoutofphasewiththeships rollingmotion,assuchitwouldbehaveasa passivestabilising(flume) tankinafavourablemanner.However,thisdynamiceffectofthemovementofwater mustnecessarilybeassumedtobedetrimental,wherebyitsmovementisinphasewiththerollingoftheship.ThetransversemovementofG(whichisthetrue effectofafreesurface)causesareductionintheshipsGZvalues. Broaching Broachingoccurswhenashipistravellingwiththedirectionofapproachofthe wavesfromanearasterndirection.If,whensailingawayfromwavesthecrestofa particularlylargewaveovertakestheshipandhitsonequarter(ratherthan squarelyontothestern)theshipwilltendtobethrownroundintoadirectionin whichthewaveismoving.Thiswillbringtheshipbeamontothesearesultingin severeheeling. Oncebeamontothewavesstabilityisseverelycompromisedasevidentinfigure 14.24.Theeffectofwavesactingbeamontotheshipcausesreducedrighting leverswhencomparedtothosethatwouldhaveexistedhadtheshipbeenheeledto thesameangleinstillwater.Ofcourse,thestabilityoftheshipwillalwaysbe affectedwhenwavesapproachtheshipfromanydirection,beingdifferenttothe assumedstillwaterconditionsforwhichthecurveofstaticalstabilityisproduced.

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Stabilitytalkietalkies ApprovedMethodsofSecuringGrainSurfacestoReduceGrainHeelingMoments. Ballasting Strappingorlashing Ifthereissufficientreservedeadweightandtheshipisnotatthe Partlyfilled respectiveloadlinedraughttakingonballastwillbehelpful.Double compartments bottomtanksshouldbefilledtoeliminatefreesurfaceeffects.The havethegreatest addedlowweightwillincreasethedisplacementandreducetheKG. volumetric heelingmoments becausetheyhave Saucers Thegrainheelingmomentscanbe alargevolumeof significantlyreducedinafilled openspaceabove compartmentbyconstructingasaucer thegrainsurface asdescribedinIGCodeinthesquareof intowhichthe thehatchway.Thisdevicehasthesame graincanshift effectasacentreline,graintight and,also,because bulkheadinthatitpreventsthegrain theregulations fromshiftingacrosstheentirebreadth assumea25shift ofthecompartment. insteadofthe15 shiftwhich Unlesstherearegraintightdivisions applieswhenthe forwardandaftofthe hatchway,theeffectislimitedtothelongitudinal compartmentis lengthofthesaucer.Thevolumetricheelingmomentsthatapplyina filled. specificcompartmentwhenasaucerisfittedmustbeincludedinthe Consequently,a approvedGrainLoadingManualifthisoptionistobeavailableto the significant ship. reductioningrain Thespecificrequirementsrelatingtotheuseandconstructionofsaucers heelingmoments aregiveninIGCode RegulationA14asfollows: canbeachieved bytotally preventingagrain shiftinapartly Bundlingofbulkgrain filled compartment. Thismaybe accomplishedby fabricatingasomewhatcostlyconstructionthatcompletelycoverstheslackgrain surfaceandphysicallyrestrainsitagainstanymovementthatmaybegeneratedby themotionsoftheshipatsea. Theuseofthisoptiondoesnotrequireanyspecialinformationorendorsementin theGrainLoadingManual Securingwithwiremesh Thismethodofpreventingaslackgrainsurfacefromshiftingandtherebyreducing thegrainheelingmomenttozero,isessentiallythesameasStrappingorLashing exceptthattheprincipalrestrainingforceofthetransversecablesspacedevery2.4 metersforthelengthofthehold,istransmittedtotheoverall,fabriccovered surfaceofthegrainbymeansofastiff,wiremeshofthetypeusedtoreinforce concreteinsteadofthroughadeckconstructedofdunnage. Theuseofthisoptiondoesnotrequireanyspecialinformationorendorsementin theGrainLoadingManual

Whereasasaucerisformedbyavolumeofbaggedgrainorsimilarly restrainedcargo,the sameresultofpreventingatransverseshiftofgrain acrosstheentirebreadthofthecompartment,maybeachievedby constructingasingle,largebagofbulkgrainwhichfillsthehatchway andwhichisfixedinpositionbythestructuralboundariesofthe hatchway.Thisistermedbundlingofbulkgrainandisanacceptable alternativetoasaucer. Overstowingarrangements Ifoneormoreofthegraincompartmentsispartlyfilled,thegrain heelingmomentsforsuchcompartmentsismuchgreaterthanitisfor thefilledcompartments.Thegrainheelingmomentforapartlyfilled compartmentcanbeeliminated,i.e.,reducedtozerobysecuringthe slacksurfaceagainstshiftingbyoverstowingitwithbaggedgrainor withothercargowhichwillhavethesimilareffectofrestrainingthe grainsurfaceagainstanymovement.Areductioninthetotalgrain heelingmoment,achievedbythismeans,maybesufficienttobringthe proposedstowagearrangementwithinacceptablelimits. Thisoptiondoesnotrequire anyspecialinformationorendorsementin theGrainLoadingManual.

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Stabilitytalkietalkies TimberFreeboards Shipsregularlycarrying timbercanbeassignedreducedtimberfreeboardsthatallowforanincreaseinthemaximumdraughtwhenthevesseliscarryinga deckcargooftimber. Theregulationsconsideradeckcargoofwoodtobeadditionalreservebuoyancy,providedthatitiswellsecuredandcoverstheentire lengthoftheshipscargodeckuptoatleaststandardsuperstructureheight.Thetimberdeckcargowillalsoofferagreaterdegreeofprotectionforthehatches againstthesea. Theterm timberdeckcargo meansacargooftimbercarriedonanuncoveredpartofafreeboardorsuperstructuredeck. Thetimber(lumber)loadlinesandthespecialtimberminimumstabilitycriteriaonlyapplytothevesselwhenitisloadedwithtimberondeckthatmeetsthe timberconditionsofassignment.Thenormalloadlinemarkslimitthedraftsforanyother loadedconditionoftheship. Specialconstructionrequirementsapplicabletoshipsassignedtimberfreeboards (Regulation43) Thesearesummarisedbelow: Superstructures: The shipmusthaveaforecastle ofatleaststandardheightnotlessin lengththan0.07L.Additionally, iftheshipislessthan100m inlengthitshallbefittedaft witheither: apoop ofnotlessthanstandardheightor araisedquarterdeck havingeitheradeckhouseorastrongsteelhood,sothatthetotal heightisnotlessthanthestandardheightofanenclosedsuperstructure. Doublebottomtanks: Doublebottomtankswithinthemidshiphalflengthoftheshipare tohavesatisfactorywatertightlongitudinalsubdivision inordertominimisethelossof stabilityduetothefreesurfaceeffectsofslacktanks. Bulwarks: Theshipistobefittedwithpermanentbulwarksatleastonemetreinheight,speciallystiffenedontheupperedgeandsupportedbystrongbulwark staysattachedtothedeckandprovidedwithnecessaryfreeingports,or,efficientguardrailsandstanchionsofatleastonemetreinheightofespeciallystrong construction. MinimumMCA(UKships)stabilitycriteriaforshipscarrying timberdeckcargoes Inthecaseofashipcarryingatimberdeckcargothatcomplieswiththearearequirementsabovebytakingintoaccountthevolumeoftimberdeckcargo,the initialtransversemetacentricheightshallnotbelessthan0.05m. ThecalculationofeffectiveKGmustallowfor15%increaseintheweightofthedecktimberduetowaterabsorption duringthevoyage.Considerationmust alsobegiventotheeffectsofwindheelingandiceaccretionasappropriate(MCArequirements)andconsumptionsoffuelandstoresduringthevoyageas previouslydescribed. StabilitydatamustincludealternativeKNcurves/tablestoaccountforthespecifiedheightsoftimberdeckcargostows.InthederivationoftheadditionalKN valuestobesupplied only 75%ofthetimbervolumemustbeconsideredasreservebuoyancyas25%ofthevolumemustbeallowedforwaterabsorption.

ProblemsAssociatedwithSpecificShipTypes. OFFSHORESUPPLYVESSELS Bothsolidandliquidcargoeshavetobeloadedanddischarged,oftensimultaneously,atsea. Thereisariskofentrapmentofwaterinadeckcargoofpipes. Thesevesselshavealowfreeboardinwayofthecargodeckareaaftbutalargebuoyantsuperstructureattheforwardend. Whenheeledbeyondtheangleofafterdeckedgeimmersionseverelossofstabilityintermsofrightingleverscanoccurasaresultofthetendency ofthevesseltotrimfurtherbythestern. Thesevesselsoftenhavestabilisertanks.

DOUBLEHULLTANKERS Thetraditionalsingleskindesignoftanker,wherecargotanksaresubdividedintothreebytwolongitudinalbulkheadsanddoublebottomtankswherefittedin wayoftheengineroomonlywhereaninherentlystabledesignofship.Transversesubdivisionwassufficienttolimittheeffectsoffreesurfacesevenwhen three,fourormorecargotankswhereslack.Thenecessaryhighdegree ofsubdivisionofthesevesselsaccompaniedwithonlysmall,gasketedcoversofsteel providedaverystrongstructuredespitebeingsingleskin.ReducedtypeAfreeboardswhereassignedtosuchshipsbecauseriskofsinkingwasconsidered lowintheeventofacompartmentcontaininganoilcargobecomingdamaged. Theintroductionofdoublehulldesignscausedbythisincreasedlegislationhascausedanumberofareasofconcern. Stabilityconcerns Therearethreemainareasofconcern: * DoublebottomsresultinahighercentreofgravityofthecargoandhighershipsKGwhenloaded. Page 12 of 21

Stabilitytalkietalkies * Thestrengthcharacteristicsofdoublehullspermittankdesignswithgreaterfreesurfaces. * Increasedsteelweightofdoublehulldesignsandreduceddeadweightcapacityincreasedthereluctanceofoperatorstosubdividelargecentre cargotanks.TheresultingpotentialforlossofGMduetofreesurfaceeffectsisgreatlyincreased. Theseconcernsarewarrantedbytheincreasedtankerlollingincidentsthathaveoccurredduringload/dischargeoperationsindoublehulltankersofasingle tankacross(STA)designinthe35,000to150,000DWTrange. Damagedstabilityconsiderations Ifadoublehullshipshouldsuffer lowimpact groundingdamageitislikelythattheinnerhullenvelopecontainingthecargowillnotbebreachedandoil spillagewillnotoccur.InasmallertankerthedamagedspacemightbeaUshapedballasttankwhichwouldallowfreefloodingrightacrossthestructureand uptothelevelofthe waterlineoutside.Theaddedweightofthefloodwater(orlostbuoyancy)wouldbeconsiderablemakingitdifficulttorefloatthevessel. Inasinglehulltankersuchdamagewouldresultinalossofoilcargo,lighteningtheshipandmakingiteasierto refloat.Hadthedamagebeencausedina minorimpact collisionthelossoffreeboardwouldbeconsiderableinthedoublehulltankerwhereasanincreaseinfreeboardwouldtakeplaceinthesingle hullshipasoilspilledout. Inthecaseofadoublehulltankersuffering minorimpact damagetoanLshapedballasttankononesidetheshipwouldlistconsiderablyifstillfreefloating andthiswouldhavetobecorrectedbyfillingtheoppositesidetankwiththeoverallresultinsubstantiallossof freeboard.Anotherproblemisthatthe introducedstressesmightcausethedesignstresslimitstobe exceeded. Whatisassumedbytheregulationswithrespecttodamageisarguablyonlyapplicableto lowimpactcollisionsorgroundings.Manyshipcollisionsinopen waterarerelativelyhighimpactcollisionswherebythedoublehullboundarywouldbebreachedandoillosswouldinevitablyoccur. Approachestopreventingdoublehulltankerlolling Therearetwoapproachestopreventing/minimisingintact instability: (1) Enforcebylegislationtheadoptionoftankerdesignsthatensureintactstabilitycanbemaintainedduringallpossiblesimultaneouscargoand ballastoperations(thisbeingadvocatedbythe OilCompaniesInternationalMaritimeForum(OCIMF)). (2) Enforcebylegislationalimiteddesignapproachbutallowtheuseofsimpleshipspecificoperatingproceduresandguidelinestobeinplacein conjunctionwiththistopreventlollingincidents(advocatedby IACS). Thefollowingtableprovidesacomparisonofthetwoapproachesrelativetotankerdesignandoperations.

BULKCARRIERS Bulkcarrierconcerns Themodernbulkcarrierisoftendescribedasbeingtheworkhorseofthemarinetransportindustry,butintheearly1990sbulkcarrierlossesgenerateddoubts astotheirstructuralintegrityasmanyshipssankrapidlydueto catastrophic and sudden structuralfailureoftenwiththelossofalllivesofthoseonboard. Singlesideskinshipswhereofparticularconcern. IACSconcludedthatthemostvulnerableareasarethebulkheadbetweennumbersoneandtwoholdsattheforwardendofthevesselandthedoublebottomof theshipatthislocation.Duringspecialsurveysofships,particularattentionshouldbepaidtotheseareasand,wherenecessary,reinforcementsshouldbe carriedout. Theprinciplecausesofstructuralfailurearewastageduetocorrosionandfatiguestresseswhentheshipisatsea.Poormaintenanceregimeswereamajor contributoryfactor. AfurtherstudyintotwoholdfloodingbytheU.S.MaritimeAdministration(MARAD)concludedthatamidsizebulkcarriershould surviveallonehold floodingscenariosprovidedthattheshipwasnotsufferingfromsteelcorrosionwastageandundetectedcracksbutthefloodingofanytwoadjacentholds wouldhavedisastrousconsequences. Newlegislationaimedatimprovingbulkcarriersafety InNovember1997IMOadoptedanewSOLASChapterXII AdditionalSafetyMeasuresforBulkCarriers (forUKregisteredshipsSI1999No.1644 The st MerchantShipping(AdditionalSafetyMeasuresforBulkCarriers)Regulations1999 cameintoforce on1 July1999whichimplementsthenewSOLAS regulations). st Theregulationsstatethatallnewbulkcarriers150metresormoreinlengthofsinglesideskin(builtafter1 July1999)carryingcargoeswithadensityof 3 1000Kg/m andaboveshouldhave sufficientstrengthtowithstandthefloodingofanyonecargohold,takingintoaccountthedynamiceffectsresultingfrom thepresenceofwaterinthehold (Regulation5). st 3 Forexistingships(builtbefore1 July1999)carryingbulkcargoeswithadensityof1780Kg/m andabove,thetransversewatertightbulkheadbetweenthe twoforemostcargoholdsandthedoublebottomoftheforemostcargoholdshouldhavesufficientstrengthtowithstandfloodingandtherelateddynamic effectsintheforemostcargohold (Regulation6). 3 Cargoeswithadensityof1780t/m andabove(heavycargoes)includeironore,pigiron,steel,bauxiteandcement.Lightercargoes,butwithadensityof 3 morethan1000Kg/m ,includegrainssuchaswheatandrice,andtimber. UnderChapterXII,surveyorscantakeintoaccountrestrictionsonthecargocarriedinconsideringtheneedfor,andtheextentof,strengtheningofthe transversewatertightbulkheadordoublebottom.Whenrestrictionsoncargoesareimposed,thebulkcarriershouldbepermanentlymarkedwithasolid equilateraltriangleonthesideshellamidshipsportandstarboardwithitsapex300mmbelowthedeckline.(Regulation8). Regulation4 detailsthedamagedstabilityrequirementsforbulkcarriers.Forbulkcarriersof150metresinlengthandupwardsofsinglesideskinconstruction 3 st designedtocarrysolidbulkcargoesof1000Kg/m andabove,constructedonorafter1 July1999whenloadedtothesummerloadline,mustbeableto withstandtheflooding ofanyonecargoholdinallloadingconditionsandremainafloatinasatisfactoryconditionofequilibrium asthatprescribedinthe definitionofatypeAshipinPart3oftheIMOpublication LoadLines 2002EditionRegulation27 Page 13 of 21

Stabilitytalkietalkies Itisalsorequiredthatbulkcarriersundergotheenhancedsurveyprogrammeof inspectionsasrequiredbyregulationXI/2. Regulation11requiresthatallbulkcarriersof150metresinlengthandupwardsbe fittedwithaloadinginstrumentcapableofprovidinginformationonhullgirdershear forcesandbendingmoments. InNovember1997IMOadoptedthe BLUCode(CodeofPracticefortheSafeLoading andUnloadingofBulkCarriers)(IMO)andreferenceshouldalsobemadetothese regulationsasappropriate. December2002SOLASamendments Followingthe1998publicationofthereportintothesinkingofthebulkcarrier Derbyshire theMaritimeSafetyCommittee(MSC)initiatedafurtherreviewofbulk carriersafety,involvingtheuseofFormalSafetyAssessment(FSA)studiestohelp assesswhatfurtherchangesintheregulationsmightbeneeded.Thisresultedinthe MSCadoptingamendmentstoChapterXIItofurtherimprovebulkcarriersafety. Theseamendmentsinclude: * thefittingofhighlevelalarmsandlevelmonitoringsystemsinorderto detectwateringress * theavailabilityandaccessforoperationofpumpingsystemstoallowthedrainingandpumpingdryspacebilgesandballasttankslocatedforward ofthecollisionbulkhead * requirementsforaccessincargoareasofoiltankersandbulkcarrierstoensurethatvesselscanbeproperlysurveyed,thisistobetakeninto accountatthebuildingstage. Futurechangesyettobeadoptedwillincludetheneedforallbulkcarriers150metresinlengthandupwardstobefittedwithdoublesidehulls,improved coatingsystems,thefittingofaforecastleandmanyothersallaimedatfurtherimprovingbulkcarriersafety. ROROPASSENGERSHIPS StabilityproblemsassociatedwiththedesignandoperationofRoRopassengerships Thesecanbesummarisedasfollows: (1) Lackofsubdivision ofvehicledecks Thelargeopenvehicledecksofrorovesselsmakethemparticularlyvulnerabletostabilityloss.Evenwhenonlymodestamountsofwaterareadmitteda considerablelossofGMresultsfromtheintroducedfreesurfaceeffectconsiderablelistingwillalsooccurasthewateraccumulatesononesideofthevessel. (2) Highpermeability ofcompartments Whenvehicledecksarefullyladenthereisstillgreatpotentialforfloodingduetothehighpermeabilityofthespacesallowinglargevolumesofwatertobe admittedindamagesituations. (3) Therequirementforbowandsterndoors Particularattentionmustbepaidtobowdoordesignandregularwatertightintegritychecksastheyarelikelytodistortinservicemakingitunlikelythatthey willremainwatertightoveranextendedperiodoftime. Rorovesselswillalsobeequippedwiththewidestpossiblesternramporwithaslewingramp.Thisresults inaveryfiatandwidetransomandconsequently severeslammingcanbeexperiencedafteveninmoderateseas. (4) Potentialforcargoshift ofvehicularcargoes (5) Windheeling Thisshouldbeconsideredfromastabilitypointofview. (6) Largeangleofheelwhenturning Asharpturnonaferrymovingathighspeedisliabletoproducealargeheelangleand,ifthevehiclecargoshifts,theshipmaynotreturntotheupright.Such turnsmaybenecessarytoavoidothershipsinclosequartersituationsincongestedwaters. (7) Floodingofvehicledecksduringfirefightingoperations Thepresenceofmanyvehicleswiththeirpetroltanksinlargeenclosedvehicledecksisahazardagainstwhicheventhebestfiredetectionandextinguishing systemscannotprovideinfallibleprotection.Firesonvehicledeckswillactivatewaterspraysystems. (8) Estimationofrorovehicleweights Forthepurposeofstabilitycalculationaccuratefigureswithrespecttovehicleweightsandtheircentreofgravityisessential,howevertherewillbeinstances whentheweightofsomerorocargoesandheightsofcentreofgravityhavetobeestimated (9) Potentialfor substantiallossofwaterplaneareaaftersufferingdamage Whenaroroshipsuffersdamagewherebythemarginlinesubmergesandthebulkheaddeckbecomesfloodedduetosinkageandchangeoftrim,perhapsby theheadasaresultofbreachofthebowdoor,considerablelossofwaterplaneareamightresult.ThesubsequentreductioninKM,asaresultofthereduced BMcansignificantlyreduceGMtoanunacceptablevalueresultinginnegativestability.Capsizemightberapidanditisessentialthatlossoftheshipbe delayedasmuchaspossibletoincreaseevacuationtime. (10) Passengerandcrewevacuation Ithasbeenstatedthatmanyrorovesselcasualtiesinvolveveryrapidsinkingoftheshipwithlittletimefortheevacuationofpassengerswhosenumbersmight runintothousands.Currentresearchisfocusedonimprovingrorosafetyoverall,butitisalsoaddressingmethodsbywheresinkingoftheshipcanbedelayed toextendevacuationtimes. Methodsofimprovingroroshipstability ItmightbeconsideredthatthelargelossofGMthatresultsfromwateronvehicledeckscanbeanticipatedforwhenconsideringthedamagedstability requirementsbyenforcingtheneedforaveryhighGMforintactstabilitypurposes.However,anexcessivelystiffconditioncancauseuncomfortablesea keepingcharacteristicsandmayleadtodangeroussituationsforthoseonboard.Vehicularcargoesbytheirverynaturehaveahighpotentialforshiftingandif theywerecausedtobreaklooseasaresultoftherapidaccelerationforcescausedbytheshipsshortrollperiod,shipdamagecouldresult.Increasedsafetyby enforcingahighintactGMisthereforepartlynullifiedbyreducedsafetyrelatedtopossiblecargoshiftandseakeeping. Approachestoimprovingrorodesigninclude: Perforatedvehicledecks Vehicledecksshouldbeperforatedtoallowautomaticdownfloodingofaccumulatedwater.Thedrainagesystemsmustbecapableofallowingverylarge quantitiesofwatertodraindirectlyintoalowertankwherewatercanbuildupsafelyasthevesselfloatsinastableanduprightcondition.Thiswillhavethe effectofmaximisingthedamagedGMbybothrestrictingthefreesurfaceeffectandloweringtheshipscentreofgravity.Accumulatedwaterinthelowertank canbepumpedouttoregainfreeboard. Limitedlongitudinalandtransversesubdivisionsonvehicledecks Clearlythiswillhavesomeimpactontheefficiencyofloadinganddischargebutthesedisadvantagescanbelimited Innerbowdoor Tolimittheeffectofwateringressviaadamagedbowdooranextrainnerdoorcanbeinstalledbehindthebowdoororvisortoactasasecondlineofdefence againstflooding.Morestringentmaintenanceregimesshouldbeadoptedforallwatertightopeningsinthehull. Improveddamagedstabilitybythefittingofsidesponsons Increasingtheeffectivewaterplaneareaimprovesintactstabilitybutmoreimportantlyimprovesthedamagedstabilitycharacteristicsoftheshipalso. Page 14 of 21

Stabilitytalkietalkies Retrospectivefittingofsidesponsontanksimprovesdamagedstabilityforexistingshipstoensurecompliancewithmore recentlegislation. Damagedstabilityrequirementsforroropassengerships Standardsforroroshipconfiguration,constructionandoperationhavecomeunderclosescrutinysincethetragiclossesofthe HeraldofFreeEnterprise and morerecently the Estonia amongstothers.Inmanycaseslossofaroroshipistheresultofaccumulationofwateronopencargodecksbutofmajorconcernis therapidsinkingafterfloodingordamageandthelackoftimeforvesselabandonmentwhichultimatelyleads toextensiveoflossoflife. The StockholmAgreement asitisknownassessesthestandardofrorosurvivabilityintermsoftheprobabilitythatthevesselwillsurviveafterthevesselhas suffereddamagewithwateringress,damagebeingbasedontheprobabilitythatitwilltakeplaceindifferentpartsoftheship.Thetotalprobabilityofsurvival dependsontwofactors:theprobabilitythatacompartmentisbeingfloodedandtheprobabilitythatthevesselwillsurvivefloodingofthatcompartment Inadditiontotheabovethestabilitystandardthe StockholmAgreement requirestheeffectsofahypotheticalamountofseawaterwhichisassumedtohave accumulatedonthefirstdeckabovethedesignedwaterlinetobetakenintoaccount.Italsotakesaccountofthesignificantwaveheightsincertain geographicallocationstobeusedwhendeterminingtheheightofwateraccumulatedondecks.

Rolling. Stillwaterrolling. Therollingcharacteristicsofashiparegovernedby: (1) theGM,and (2) the distributionoftheweightcomponentsoftheshipsstructureanddeadweightitemswithrespecttotherollingaxis,whichisassumedtobeatthe centreofgravityoftheship(G). The rollperiod (T)insecondsisthetimetakenfortheshiptocompleteonecompleteoscillationi.e.thetimeittakesfortheshiptorollfromonesideback throughtheuprighttotheextentofitsrollontheothersideandbackagain. Radiusofgyration Theradiusofgyrationmightbeadifficultconcepttounderstandbutmaybelooselydefinedasbeingforaship thedistancefromthecentreofgravity(or rollingaxis)atwhichthetotalweight(W)wouldhavetobeconcentratedinordertogivetheshipthesamemomentofinertiaasitactuallyhas. Foranyparticularshiptheradiusofgyrationcanbechangedbyalteringthedistributionofdeadweightabouttherollingaxisasshowninfigure24.13.

Thisformulaissubstantiallycorrectforsmallanglesofheelwheretheformula GZ=GM Sin q isvalid. AsGMincreasestherollingperiodreduces. Theformulaalsoshowsthattherollingperiod isdirectlyproportionaltotheradiusofgyration (k)i.e. Askincreases(bywingingoutweights say),therollingperiodincreases.

Synchronism Synchronismisthenamegiventotheconditionthatariseswhentheshipsnaturalrollingperiodequalsthe periodofencounter ofthewaves.Thenaturalstill wateroscillationoftheshipisaddedtobytheforcedoscillationofthewavesandtheamplitudeoftherollincreasesbyapproximately(p/2 waveslope) betweensuccessivewavecrestsandtroughs Capsizingduetothebuildupofrollinginsynchronismconditionsisunlikelybecauseofthechangeintheshipsnaturalrollperiodwhenitisrolledto larger anglesofinclinationcausingthesynchronismeffecttobearrested.However,theheavyrollingmaycauseashiftofcargo(especiallydeckcargowhichisat greaterdistancesfromtherollingaxis)orentryofwaterthroughdeckopenings.Ifthis occurs,theshipwillthenrollinafashiondictatedbytheshapeofthe curveofrightingmoments,heelingexcessivelytothelistedsideandfurtherincreasingthechancesofsubsequentcargoshiftorflooding.Thereisalwaysarisk ofcapsizingbecauseofthelackofdynamicalstabilityunderthesecircumstances. Synchronismcanberemediedby: (1) analterationofcourse (2) analterationofshipsspeed(exceptwhenwavesareonthebeam) (3) alteringtheshipsnaturalrollingperiodby: (a) changingtheshipsGM,or: (b) changingtheradiusofgyrationoftheship(suchasbywingingoutweights).

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Stabilitytalkietalkies Termsrelatingtoturning. TERMSRELATINGTOASHIPSTURNINGCIRCLE

CALCULATINGTHEMAXIMUMDRAUGHT(INCREASEINDRAUGHT)DUE TOLIST/HEEL

Advance Thisisthedistancetravelledbytheshipscentreofgravityinadirectionparalleltothe shipsinitialcourse.Itisusuallyquotedfora90changeofheading. Transfer Thisisthedistancetravelledbytheshipscentreofgravityinadirectionperpendiculartotheshipsinitialcourse.Itisusuallyquotedfora90changeof heading. Tacticaldiameter Thisisthedistancetravelledbytheshipscentreofgravityinadirectionperpendiculartotheshipsinitialcoursewhentheshiphasaltereditscourseby180 andisonareciprocalheading. Steadyturningcircleradius Thisisthesteadyradiusoftheturningcirclewhenasteadyrateofturnisachieved.Thisstateisusuallyachievedbythetimetheshiphasalteredcourse between90and180howeverthiswillvaryfromshiptoship. Yaw() Thisistheanglebetweentheshipsforeandaftlineandthedirectionoftraveloftheshipscentreofgravityatanyinstantduringtheturn. CALCULATINGTHEANGLEOFHEELWHENTURNING

SituationsInWhichHydrodynamicInteraction IsInvolvedFallIntoTheFollowingCategories: a. Vesselswhichareattemptingtopassone anotheratverycloserange.Thisisusually duetotheirbeingconfinedtoanarrow channel. b. Vessels,whicharemanoeuvringinveryclose,companyforoperationalreasons,particularlywhenthelargervesselhasasmallunderkeelclearance. c. Vesselswithasmallunderkeelclearance,whichstoprapidly,whenapproachinganenclosedbasin,resultinginunexpectedsheering.Includedinthis categoryisthe reducedeffectofaccompanyingtugs whichmaysometimesbeexperiencedin thesecircumstances. PASSINGVESSELS Whenvesselsarepassingtherearetwosituations:(i)overtakingand(ii)theheadon encounter. (i) Overtaking:Interactionismostlikelytoprovedangerouswhentwovesselsareinvolvedinanovertakingmanoeuvre.Onepossibleoutcomeisthatthe vesselbeingovertakenmaytakeasheerintothepathoftheother.Anotherpossibilityisthatwhenthevesselsareabeamofoneanotherthebowofeach vesselmayturnawayfromthebowoftheothercausingtherespectivesternstoswingtowardseachother.Thismayalsobeaccompaniedbyanoverall strongattractive forcebetweenthetwovesselsduetothereducedpressurebetweentheunderwater portion ofthe hulls, the smallerof thetwovessels feelingthegreatereffect. Theheadonencounter:Inthissituationinteractionislesslikelytohaveadangerouseffectasgenerallythebowsofthetwovesselswilltendtorepel each other as theyapproach. However, this can lead indirectly to a critical situation. It may increase any existing swing and also be complicated by secondaryinteractionsuchasbank rejectionfromtheedgeofachannel.

(ii)

Inallcasesitisessentialtomaximisethedistancebetweenthetwovessels. Thewatchkeeperonthelargervesselshouldbearinmindtheeffectonadjacent smallervessels andtakenecessarycarewhenmanoeuvring. INTERACTIONINNARROWCHANNELS Whenvesselsintendtopassinanarrowchannel,whetheronthesameoropposing courses,itisimportantthatthepassingbe carriedoutatalowspeed.A low speedwilllessentheincreaseindraughtduetosquataswellasthesinkageand changeoftrimcausedbyinteractionitself. MANOEUVRINGATCLOSEQUARTERS

Page 16 of 21

Stabilitytalkietalkies

STOPPINGINSHALLOWBASINS Avesselinveryshallowwaterdragsavolumeofwaterastern,whichcanbeasmuchas40%ofthedisplacement.Whenthevesselstopsthisentrainedwater continues moving and when it reaches the vessels stern it can produce a strong and unexpected turning moment, causing the vessel to begin to sheer unexpectedly. GENERAL Itshouldbe appreciatedthatwhenavesselismoving throughthewaterthereisapositivepressurefieldcreatedatthebow,asmallerpositive pressurefieldat thesternandanegative pressurefieldamidships. SQUAT. Squat maybeconsideredasthe apparentincreaseindraught thatresultsfromthe reductioninwaterpressureactingnormaltothehull whentheshipis makingway. FactorsAffectingSquatinDeepWater. Themainfactorsthatinfluencetheamountofsquatanddirectionofsquatin deepwater are: 1. ShipSpeed. Squatwillvaryapproximatelywiththesquareofspeed. 2. BlockCoefficient. Considertwoshipseachthe samelength andmovingatthe samespeed throughthewater.It takesthesameamountoftimeforawatermoleculetopassalongthelengthoftheshipwiththe higher block coefficient,resultinginareductionofpressureactingnormaltothehull. ThereforethelargertheCb,themorethe shipwillsquat. 3. Shipsproportionaldimensions. InasimilarwaytoCb,theproportionoftheshipsmaindimensionswillinfluence squat,suchas:lengthtodepthratiolengthtobreadthratiobreadthtodepthratio. 4. LCBposition. ShipswithLCBforwardofamidshipstendtosquatmorebytheheadthanthosewithLCBaftofamidshipsmorebystern. 5. StillWaterTrim.Ashipinitiallyonevenkeelwillusuallysquatmorebythehead(trimbythehead).Ashipheavilytrimmedbythesternwill squatmore bythestern.Itisdifficulttogeneraliseaboutallshipssinceotherfactorsmaybeofinfluencesuchasappendageslikespectaclefames, Abracketsetc.whichwillcreateturbulenceeffects. Otherfactorsmayinclude: 6. Stem/bowtype 7. Alteringcourse(whichmaycausetrimtochange) 8. Reversingthepropeller 9. Turbulencecausedbyhullroughness. 10. List.Etc. IncreasedEffectsInShallowWater. Whenwaterdepthbeneaththekeelreducestoabout halfthedraught, squateffectincreases significantlycausingthelikelihoodofbottomdamageifspeedisnotchecked. Asintheflowofaliquidinapipewithaconstriction, speedofflow betweentheseabedand shipshullwillincrease markedlyresultingin reducedpressuresactingnormal tothehull resultingin increasedsquateffect.

the

Additionalfactorstoconsiderinshallowwaterinclude: 1. Blockagefactor.Theeffectivewidthoffreewaterinanarrowchannel/canal.Thiscausesreducedstaticpressuresatthehullsidesinadditionto Page 17 of 21

Stabilitytalkietalkies thosebelowthe hullcausinggreatestsquateffects. 2. EffectsonStability.Underbottomsuctioncausedbyreducedstatichullpressurescancause increasedheel duetowind/turningeffects or unexpectedheel.Unexpectedheelmayalsooccurifshoalingoccursononesideoftheshipneartheedgeofachannel. 3. Typeofbottom.Inshallowwatersquatmaybeincreasedwhenpassingoverrockorlargepebbles.Withasoftseabedsuchasfinesand,water flowwillextendtowithintheseabed,causingflowtoreduceinspeed,thusstaticpressuremaybemaintainedtosomedegree. Butdontcounton it! 4. Strongtidalcurrents. Itisthespeed throughthewater thatmustbeconsidered.Ifashipistiedalongsideandastrongcurrentisflowingthesame effectswillbecome apparent.Thisisparticularlyrelevantwhenconducingdraughtsurveysduringwhichlargeinaccuraciesindraughtreadings mayoccurifunderkeelclearanceislimited. Shallowwaterwillalsoseriouslyaffectthemanoeuvringcharacteristicsofaship: Whenunderkeelclearanceisverysmallthedirectionalstabilityoftheshipwillbedangerouslyincreasedrequiringverylargeandearly ruddermovementstoachieverelativelysmallalterationsofcourse. Stoppingdistancesaregreatlyincreasedinstillwater. Turningcircleadvanceandtransferisincreasedbutmaybeunnoticedbecauserateofturn(deg/min)maybeunchanged. IncliningExperiment. Purpose Chapter7Regulation7.1.1oftheCoderequiresthateverypassengershipregardlessofsizeand everycargoshipof24mor overbeinclinedoncompletioninordertodeterminethevalueoftheKGinthelightcondition.Thismustbedetermined accuratelybecausethelightKGanddisplacementvaluesarethebasisfromwhichtheKGisdeterminedforeveryother condition.AnerrorintheKGcalculatedforanyconditionofloadingwillresultinallstabilityparametersdependantonthisvaluebeingincorrectalsoi.e.GM, GZvaluesanddynamicalstabilityparameterswillbeinerror.Duringtheexperimentthelongitudinalpositionofthecentreofgravity(LCG)forthelight conditionwillalsobedetermined. Theoccasionswhenanincliningexperimentandlightweightsurveymustbeconducted. Chapter7 Regulations7.1.1to7.1.6detailstheoccasionsonwhichashipmustbeinclinedandisasfollows: Everypassengershipregardlessofsizeandeverycargoshiphavingalength,asdefinedintheInternationalConventiononLoadLines,1966,of24 mandupwardsshouldbeinclined uponitscompletion andtheelementsofitsstabilitydetermined. Where anyalterations aremadetoashipsoastomateriallyaffectthestability,theshipshouldbereinclined. Atperiodicintervalsnotexceedingfiveyears,alightweightsurvey shouldbecarriedoutonallpassengershipstoverifyanychangesinlightship displacementandlongitudinalcentreofgravity.Theshipshouldbereinclinedwhenever,incomparisonwiththeapprovedstabilityinformation,a deviationfromthelightshipdisplacementexceeding2%oradeviationofthelongitudinalcentreofgravityexceeding1%ofLisfound,or anticipated. TheAdministrationmayallowtheincliningtestofanindividualshipasrequiredbyparagraph7.1.1tobedispensedwithprovidedbasicstability dataareavailablefromtheincliningtestofasistershipanditisshowntothesatisfactionoftheAdministrationthatreliablestabilityinformation fortheexemptedshipcanbeobtainedfromsuchbasicdata. TheAdministrationmayallowtheincliningtestofanindividualshiporclassofshipsespeciallydesignedforthecarriageofliquidsororeinbulk tobedispensedwithwhenreferencetoexistingdataforsimilarshipsclearlyindicatesthat,duetotheshipsproportionsandarrangements,more thansufficientmetacentricheightwillbeavailableinallprobableloadingconditions. Preparationsfortheincliningtest Beforetheincliningtestcanbedonetheshipspersonnelmayberequiredtoassistinthefollowingpreparations: 1. Theshipshouldbemooredinquietshelteredwatersfreefromtheeffectsofpassingvessels.Theremustbeadequatedepthofwatertoensurethatthe shipwillnotcontactthebottomduringtheinclination. 2. Mooringsshouldbeslackandanyshoresidegangwayslanded toallowunrestrictedheeling. 3. Alltemporarymaterialandequipmentsuchastoolboxes,staging,weldingequipmentetc.shouldbereducedtoanabsoluteminimum.Excesscrewand personnelnotdirectlyinvolvedinthetestshouldbesentashore. 4. Allfittingsandequipmentsuchasaccommodationladders,lifeboatsandderricks/cranesshouldbestowedintheirnormalseagoingpositions. 5. Alltanksshouldbeverifiedasbeingcompletelyemptyorfull.Thenumberofslacktanksshouldbekepttoanabsoluteminimum.Ideallytankswith rectangularfreesurfacesshouldonlybeslacksothatthefreesurfaceeffectcanbeaccuratelydetermined.Slacktanksmusthavethecontentsaccurately determinedwithrespecttoliquidmassandKg. 6. Decksshouldbefreeofwater.Anywatertrappedondeckwillmoveduringthetestandreducetheaccuracyoftheresult.Snowandicemustalsobe removed. 7. Thefollowinginformationmustbeprovidedtothepersoninchargeoftheincliningtest: a. linesplan b. hydrostaticcurvesorhydrostaticdata c. generalarrangementplan d. capacityplanshowingtheVCGandLCGofallcargospaces,tanksetc.Whentheshipistobeinclinedusingballastwatertransfer thetransverseandverticalcentresofgravityfortheapplicabletanks,foreach angleofinclination,mustbeavailable e. tanksoundingtables f. draughtmarklocationsand g. dockingdrawingwithkeelprofileanddraughtmarkcorrections(ifavailable). 8. Efficienttwowaycommunicationmustbeestablishedbetweenapersoninchargeof theoperationatthecentralcontrolstation,theweighthandlersand eachpendulumstation. CorrectinganAngleofLoll/List Duringthecourseofavoyagethestabilityoftheshipshouldbecloselymonitored.Itisrecommendedthata calculationoffluidGMandacorrespondingGZcurvebeproducedforthe worstanticipatedcondition. Calculationsshouldbedoneforbothdepartureandanticipatedarrivalconditions,thesebeingadjustedtosuitanychangesthat maytakeplaceasthevoyageprogresses. Anangleoflollsituationmayariseinshipscarryingtimberdeckcargoes.Deck cargoeswillabsorbmoisturecausingGtorise.FuelandwaterwillalsobeconsumedfromlowdownintheshipraisingG furtherduetotheremovalofweightfromlowdown intheshipandtheintroductionoffreesurfacesintanksthatmayhave beeninitiallyfull.Theseeffectsshouldbeaccountedfor.Poortankmanagementmaycauseexcessivefreesurfacemoments,leadingtoasimilarlossof stability. Unfortunately thingsdo notalwaysgotoplanand mistakes may be madeincalculations. Any numberofthingsmighthappen suchasa collision ora fire wherewaterisintroducedintoacompartmentforfirefightingpurposes. Whateverthecause,asituationmightarisewhereby youfindthattheshipislyingatanunexpectedangleofinclination. Itisnotpossibletoascertaineasilywhetherashipis listedorlolledandsincetheremedialactionforeachcaseisverydifferentitisessentialthatthecauseof theinclinationbecarefullyinvestigated. Thefollowingproceduresshouldbecarefullyobserved: Page 18 of 21

Stabilitytalkietalkies 1.Altercourseto puttheship'sheadintothepredominantwaves. Iftheshipisinalolledsituationitisessentialthattheshipstayslolledtothesameside.Waveactionmaycausetheshiptorollthroughtheverticaltolollon theotherside.Thisisadangeroussituationsincetheshipwillheelfromtheverticalofit'sownaccordandthemomentumitwillhaveinlollingovertothe othersidemaybesufficienttocapsizeit.Inanyevent,theshipwillinitiallyheelbeyondtheangleoflollbeforesettlingattheangleoflollwherebycargoshift mayresult,whichwillworsenthesituationfurther. 2. Checkthatportandstarboardlistingmomentsarethesame. Byverifyingtank soundingsand checking for cargo shiftit should be possible toaccount foranylisting moments that may causethe shipto bein alisted situation.Ifitiscalculatedthattherearenonetlistingmomentsthenacaseofinstabilitymaybe assumedandtheshipwillbelyingatanangleofloll. 3. Checkforslacktanks In carrying out (2) above it should also be evident if there are excessive free surface moments causing a loss of GM sufficient enough to make the ship unstable.Inthiscase alollsituationmaybeconfirmed. 4. TakeactiontolowerG(reduceKG) Itwouldbeimpracticaltoconsidershiftingweightsonboardusingship'sliftingequipmentatsea.Iftheshiphashighballasttanksthatarefullthenthesemay beemptied, dischargingballastfromthehighsidetankfirstthegreaterverticaldistancebetweenGoftheshipandgoftheweightbeingdischargedwill ensurethatthegreatestloweringofGwilltakeplaceinthefirstinstance. Oncethehighsidetankisemptytheoneonthelowsidemaythenbeemptied. 5. MinimiseFreesurfaces Havingsoundedallthetanksanythatareslackwillbeidentified.MinimisethelossofGMduetofreesurfaceeffectbytoppinguplowdownballasttanksand transferringfuelasnecessary.Thisactionalonemayremedythesituation. 6. Ballasttankslowdownintheship Selectaset ofsuitablysubdivideddoublebottomtankstoballast.Ideally startwithtanksthathavethe smallest free surfaceareastominimisethe effectsof freesurfacewhilstfilling.Theorderoffillingisasfollowsandmustbestrictlyadheredto: (a)Startbyfillingthetankonthelow side. Becauseoftheintroductionofmorefreesurfaceswhilstfillingthesituationwillinitiallyworsen. (b)Whenthefirst tankiscompletelyfull,fillthecentretank (c)Whenthecentretankisfull,fillthefinaltank. (d)IfGisloweredsufficientlythentheshipshouldcompleteinan uprightcondition (havinginitiallyverifiedthattheportandstarboardmomentswere the same). ThemovementofGaftercompletelyfillingeachofthetanks is asshown(ignoringtheupwardmovementofGwhicharisesasaresultoftheintroducedfree surfaceatintermediatestagesoffillingthetanks. Note: Oncealollsituationisconfirmedonlyeverfillonetankatatime. Alwaysstartbyfillingthelowsidetankfirst. TheangleoflollmayinitiallyworsenbecausetheintroducedfreesurfaceswheninitiallystartingtofillthetankmaycauseagreaterriseofGthanthefallofG causedbytheaddedbottomweight.Hencetheimportanceoffillingsmalltanksfirst. Ifthereisanydoubtastowhethertheshipislolledorlisted,alwaysassumeitisalolledsituationandtakeappropriateaction. Whencorrectingalist,itissufficienttoshiftaweighttothehighside.Thismaybeachievedbyshiftingweightsondeckorbytransferringballastfroma listedsidetoahighsidetank.Alternatively,excessballastfromthelistedside(possiblylowdownintheship)maybedischarged. Totreatalollsituationinthesamewaycouldhavedisastrousconsequencesforreasonsalreadyexplained! ComponentsofTotalHullResistance RT = RV + RW + R AA RT = totalhull resistance RV=viscous(friction) resistance RW =wave making resistance RAA= resistance caused by calm air

Viscous Resistance (RV) Asashipmovesthroughthewater,thefriction ofthewateractingovertheentirewettedsurfaceofthehullcausesanetforceopposing the ships motion. Experimentaldatahaveshownthatwaterfrictioncanaccountforupto85%ofahullstotalresistanceatlowspeed,and4050% ofresistanceforsome shipsat higherspeeds. Thisregionofeddiesisknownastheshipswake,andduetoviscouseffects,thewakeispulledalongwiththeship,thusincreasingtheshipsresistance. As youmay expect,shipsthat areshortinlengthwithwide beams (a low length to beam ratio)willhave greaterform drag than those with a largerlength tobeam ratio.Also,ships that are fuller near the bow (e.g.bulk oiltanker) willhave greater form dragthanshipswithfinebows(e.g.destroyer). WaveMakingResistance(RW ) As a shipmoves through the water it creates waves. These waves are produced at thebowandsternandpropagateoutwardsfromtheship.Aship movingthrough thewatercreatestwotypesofwave patterns. They are the divergent and transverse wave systems illustrated below in Figure 7.10. ReducingWaveMakingResistance Increasinglength of the ship increases the speed atwhich the length of the wave systemgenerated by the ship is equal to ship length and therefore reduces the impact of wave making resistance. Bulbous Bows.Bulbousbowsareoneattempttoreduce the wave making resistance ofsurface ships by reducing the size of the bow wave system. The idea behind a bulbousbow is to create asecond bow wave that interferes destructively with the bow divergentwave,resultinginlittletonowaveatthe bow. Awell designedbulbous merchantshipbulbhas beenshowntoreducetotalresistancebyupto 15%. This reduction in resistance translates into loweroperatingcostsandhigherprofits forthose merchantvessels thatemploy thisdesignenhancement. AirResistance(RAA ) Air resistance is the resistance caused by the flow of air over the ship with no wind present. Resistance due to air is typically 48%of the totalship resistance, butmay be as muchas 10%in high sided Other types of resistance thatwill influence the total resistanceexperiencedbytheship. AppendageResistance SteeringResistance WindandCurrentResistance AddedResistanceDuetoWaves Increased Resistance in ShallowWater Increased resistance in shallow water (the Shallow Water Effect) is caused by severalfactors. 1. The flow of water around the bottom of the hull is restricted in shallow water,therefore thewaterflowingunderthehullspeedsup.The fastermoving water increases the viscousresistance on the hull. 2. The fastermoving waterdecreases the pressure under the hull,causing the ship to squat, increasingwettedsurfaceareaand increasing frictional resistance. 3. The waves produced in shallow water tend to be largerthandowavesproducedindeep water at the same speed. Therefore, the energy required to produce these waves increases,(i.e.wave making resistance increases in shallow water). In fact, the characteristic humpin the total resistance curve will occur at a lowerspeed in shallow water. Page 19 of 21

Stabilitytalkietalkies Stresscalculatingprograms systemrequirementsanddatarepresentation Generally,shipsover150metresinlengthandothershipsthatarelikelytobesubjectedtoexcessivelongitudinalstressesmustbeprovidedwithaloading calculatortoallowthevaluesofshearingforcesandbendingmomentstobecalculatedforanyconditionofloading Theloadingprogramshouldbecapableofcalculatingthefollowinghullgirdershearforcesandbendingmomentsaccordingtotheappropriateclassification societyregulations: (1) Stillwatershearforces. (2) Stillwaterbendingmoments. (3) Stillwatertorsionmoments,whereapplicable(mostlyarequirement forcontainerships). (4) Seagoingconditionshearforces. (5) Seagoingconditionbendingmoments. (6) Seagoingconditiontorsionmomentswhereapplicable. Itisthevisualrepresentationofthe shearforceandbendingmomentcurves displayedalongwiththecurvesrepresentingthemaximumpermissiblevalues forboththeharbour(stillwater)andseagoingconditionsthatwillconveythe truestateofloadingoftheshiptotheuser.

Providedthattheshearforceandbendingmomentcurvesdonotextendintothe redareathentheshipwillnotsufferexcessivestressinharbour.Onceloadingis completeitshouldbeverifiedthatthecurvesdonotextendintotheyellowarea, representingtheacceptablestresslimitsforwhentheshipisatsea. Thelimitsettingswillbedeterminedbytheclassificationsocietythatwillbe suchthattheyareatsomeacceptablepercentageofabsolutemaximumthatthe structurecanwithstand. Mostloadingprogramsincludetheabilitytocalculatetheshipsstabilityalso. However,itmustbeemphasisedthattheprogrammustbeclassificationsociety approved,andifprovideditmustbeperiodicallycheckedbymanual calculations.Testingprocedureswillbestipulatedandmustbefollowed. Obviously,anyprogramwillonlybeeffectiveifthepersonusingitinputsthe correctdata! TypeAFreeboardsExplained SpecialstructuralconditionsofassignmentfortypeAships(Regulation26) (1) Machinerycasings ontypeAships,asdefinedinregulation27,shallbe protectedbyanenclosedpooporbridgeofatleaststandardheight,orby adeckhouseofequalheightandequivalentstrength,providedthatmachinerycasingsmaybeexposediftherearenoopeningsgivingdirectaccessfromthe freeboarddecktothemachineryspace.Adoorcomplyingwiththerequirementsofregulation12may,however,bepermittedinthemachinerycasing, providedthatitleadstoaspaceorpassagewaywhichisasstronglyconstructedasthecasingandisseparatedfromthestairwaytotheengineroombya secondweathertightdoorofsteelorotherequivalentmaterial. (2) An efficientlyconstructedforeandaftpermanentgangway ofsufficientstrengthshallbefittedontypeAshipsatthelevelofthesuperstructure deckbetweenthepoopandthemidshipbridgeordeckhousewherefittedorequivalentmeansofaccessshallbeprovidedtocarryoutthepurposeofthe gangway,suchaspassagesbelowdeck.Elsewhere,andontypeAshipswithoutamidshipbridge,arrangementstothesatisfactionoftheAdministrationshall beprovidedto safeguardthecrewinreachingallpartsusedinthenecessaryworkoftheship. (3) Safeandsatisfactoryaccessfromthegangwaylevelshallbe availablebetweenseparatecrewaccommodationsandalsobetweencrewaccommoda tionsandthemachineryspace. (4) Exposedhatchwaysonthefreeboardandforecastledecks oronthetopsofexpansiontrunksontypeAshipsshallbeprovidedwith efficient watertightcoversofsteelorotherequivalentmaterial. (5) TypeAshipswithbulwarksshallhave openrailsfittedforatleasthalfthelengthoftheexposedpartsoftheweatherdeckorothereffective freeingarrangements.Theupperedgeofthesheerstrakeshallbekeptaslowaspracticable. (6) Wheresuperstructuresareconnectedbytrunks,openrailsshallbefittedforthewholelengthoftheexposedpartsofthefreeboarddeck. TypeAship definition (Regulation27) Forthepurposeof assigningfreeboardsatypeAshipisonewhich: (a) isdesignedtocarryonly liquidcargoesinbulk (b) hasahighintegrityoftheexposeddeckwithonlysmallaccessopeningstocargocompartments,closedbywatertightgasketedcoversofsteelor equivalentmaterial,and (c) hasa lowpermeabilityofloadedcargocompartments. AtypeAshipifover150minlengthtowhichafreeboardlessthantypeBhasbeenassigned,whenloadedinaccordancewiththeassumed initial conditionofloading,shallbeabletowithstandthefloodingofanycompartmentorcompartments,withanassumedpermeabilityof0.95,consequentuponthe damageassumptions specified,andshallremainafloatinasatisfactory conditionofequilibrium.Insuchashipthemachineryspaceshallbetreatedasa floodablecompartment,butwithapermeabilityof0.85. Intheaboveparagraph: The initialconditionofloadingbeforefloodingshallbedeterminedasfollows: (a) Theshipis loadedtoitssummerloadwaterline onanimaginaryevenkeel. (b) Whencalculatingtheverticalcentreofgravity,thefollowingprinciplesapply: (i) Homogeneouscargoiscarried. (ii) Allcargocompartments,exceptthosereferredtounder(iii),butincludingcompartmentsintendedtobepartiallyfilled,shallbe consideredfullyloadedexceptthatinthecaseoffluidcargoeseachcompartmentshallbetreatedas98%full. (iii) lftheshipisintendedtooperateatitssummerloadwaterlinewithemptycompartments,suchcompartmentsshallbeconsideredemptyprovidedthe heightofthecentreofgravitysocalculatedisnotlessthanascalculatedunder(ii). (iv) 50%oftheindividualtotalcapacityofalltanksandspacesfittedtocontainconsumableliquidsandstoresisallowedfor.Itshallbeassumedthat foreachtypeofliquid,atleastonetransversepairorasinglecentrelinetankhasmaximumfreesurface,andthetankorcombinationoftankstobetakeninto accountshallbethosewheretheeffectoffreesurfacesisthegreatestineachtankthecentreofgravityofthecontentsshallbetakenatthecentreofvolumeof thetank.Theremainingtanksshallbeassumedeithercompletelyemptyorcompletelyfilled,andthedistributionofconsumableliquidsbetweenthesetanks shallbeeffectedsoastoobtainthegreatestpossibleheightabovethekeelforthecentreofgravity. (v) Atanangleofheelofnotmorethan5ineachcompartmentcontainingliquids,asprescribedin(ii)exceptthatinthecaseofcompartments containingconsumablefluids,asprescribedin(iv),themaximumfreesurfaceeffectshallbetakenintoaccount. Alternatively,theactualfreesurfaceeffectsmaybeused,providedthemethodsofcalculationareacceptabletotheAdministration. (vi) Weightsshallbecalculatedonthebasisofthefollowingvaluesforspecificgravities: saltwater 1.025freshwater 1.000 oilfuel 0.950 dieseloil 0.900lubricatingoil 0.900 Page 20 of 21

Stabilitytalkietalkies The damageassumptionsareasfollows: (a) The verticalextentofdamageinallcasesisassumedtobefromthebaseline upwardswithoutlimit. (b) The transverseextentofdamageisequalto B/5or11.5m,whicheveristhelesser,measuredinboardfromthesideoftheshipperpendicularlytothe centrelineatthelevelofthesummerloadwaterline. (c) Ifdamageofalesserextentthanspecifiedinsubparagraphs(a)and(b)resultsinamoreseverecondition,suchlesserextentshallbeassumed. (d) Exceptwhereotherwiserequiredbyparagraph(10)(a)(whichrelatestoB100vessels)thefloodingshallbe confinedtoasinglecompartment betweenadjacenttransversebulkheads providedtheinnerlongitudinalboundaryofthecompartmentisnotinapositionwithinthetransverseextentof assumeddamage.Transverseboundarybulkheadsofwingtankswhichdonotextendoverthefullbreadthoftheshipshallbeassumednottobedamaged, providedtheyextendbeyondthetransverseextentofassumeddamageprescribedinsubparagraph(b). Ifinatransversebulkheadtherearestepsorrecessesofnotmorethan3minlengthlocatedwithinthetransverseextentofassumeddamageasdefinedin subparagraph(b),suchtransversebulkheadmaybeconsideredintactandtheadjacentcompartmentmaybefloodablesingly.If,however,withinthe transverse extentofassumeddamagethereisasteporrecessofmorethan3minlengthinatransversebulkhead,thetwocompartmentsadjacenttothisbulkheadshallbe consideredasflooded.Thestepformedbytheafterpeakbulkheadandtheafterpeaktanktopshallnotberegardedasastepforthepurposeofthisregulation. (e) Whereamaintransversebulkheadislocatedwithinthetransverseextentofassumeddamageandissteppedinwayofadoublebottomorsidetank bymorethan3m,thedoublebottomorsidetanksadjacenttothesteppedportionofthemaintransversebulkheadshallbeconsideredasflooded simultaneously.Ifthissidetankhasopenings,intooneorseveralholds,suchasgrainfeedingholes,suchholdorholdsshallbeconsideredasflooded simultaneously.Similarlyinashipdesignedforthecarriageoffluidcargoes,ifasidetankhasopeningsintoadjacentcompartments,suchadjacent compartmentsshallbeconsideredasemptyandasbeingfloodedsimultaneously.Thisprovisionisapplicableevenwheresuchopeningsarefittedwithclosing appliances,exceptinthecaseofsluicevalvesfittedinbulkheadsbetweentanksandwherethevalvesarecontrolledfromthedeck.Manholecoverswith closelyspacedboltsareconsideredequivalenttotheunpiercedbulkheadexceptinthecaseofopeningsintopsidetanksmakingthetopsidetankscommonto theholds. 2/3 (f) Wherethefloodingofanytwoadjacentforeandaftcompartmentsisenvisaged,maintransversewatertightbulkheadsshallbespacedatleast L or14.5m,whicheveristhelesser,inordertobeconsideredeffective.Wheretransversebulkheadsarespacedatalesserdistance,oneormoreofthese bulkheadsshallbeassumedasnonexistentinordertoachievetheminimumspacingbetweenbulkheads. The conditionofequilibriumafterfloodingshallbeconsideredassatisfactoryprovidedthat: (a) Thefinalwaterlineafterflooding,takingintoaccountsinkage,heelandtrim,isbelowtheloweredgeofanyopeningthroughwhich progressivedownfloodingmaytakeplace.Suchopeningsshallincludeairpipes,ventilatorsandopeningswhichareclosedbymeansof weathertightdoorsorhatchcovers,andmayexcludethoseopeningsclosedbymeansofmanholecoversandflushscuttles(whichcomplywith regulation18),cargohatchcoversofthetypedescribedinregulation27(2)(referringtothesmall,watertightandgasketedcoversofsteelas requiredfortypeAships),remotelyoperatedslidingwatertightdoors, andsidescuttlesofthenonopeningtype(whichcomplywithregulation 23).However,inthecaseofdoorsseparatingamainmachineryspace fromasteeringgearcompartment,watertightdoorsmaybeofa hinged,quickactingtypekeptclosedatsea,whilstnotinuse,provided alsothatthelowersillofsuchdoorsisabovethesummerload waterline (b) Ifpipes,ductsortunnelsaresituatedwithintheassumedextentof damagepenetrationasdefinedinparagraph(12)(b)(beingthetransverse extentofdamage),arrangementsshallbemadesothatprogressiveflooding cannottherebyextendtocompartmentsotherthanthoseassumedtobe floodableinthecalculationforeachcaseofdamage. (c) The angleofheelduetounsymmetricalfloodingdoesnotexceed 15.Ifnopartof thedeckisimmersed,anangleofheelofupto17maybe accepted. (d) Themetacentricheightinthefloodedconditionispositive.MCA requiresthatthe GMmustbeatleast50mm. (e) Whenanypartofthedeckoutsidethecompartmentassumed floodedinaparticularcaseofdamageisimmersed,orinanycasewherethe marginofstabilityinthefloodedconditionmaybeconsidereddoubtful,the residualstabilityistobeinvestigated.Itmayberegardedassufficientifthe rightinglevercurvehasaminimumrangeof20beyondthepositionofequilibriumwithamaximumrightingleverofatleast0.1mwithinthisrange.The area undertherightinglevercurvewithinthisrangeshallbenotlessthan0.0175metreradians.TheAdministrationshallgiveconsiderationtothepotentialhazard presentedbyprotectedorunprotectedopeningswhichmaybecometemporarilyimmersedwithintherangeofresidualstability. (f) TheAdministrationissatisfiedthatthestabilityissufficientduringintermediatestagesofflooding. LoadingPrograms INPUTDATA: 1. Weightsforindividualcompartment S.F.forbulkcargoes. 2. Incaseofliquidcargo,thevolumeorullage/density/temp 3. Otherdetailsincludingbunkers,FWandballastonboard,stores,crew, passengersandallotherweights. 4. Densityofwaterinwhichvesselisfloating(DWA) 5. Maximumlimitingdraughtwhereapplicable. 6. Loadlinezone. 7. ObservedDraughts

OUTPUTDATA: 1. Vesselsdisplacementwithsummaryofweightdistribution. 2. VesselsDWTandFSM. 3. Draughts,trim,list,KG,GM,GZcurveanddynamicalstability. ComparedtominimumMSLoadLineRegs. 4. SFandBMsandtorsionalstresses.Maximumallowedandactualat eachstationsbothinseagoingandharbourconditions. 5. Heel.Grainloadingassessment. 6. Localloadassessment(containerslackweight). 7. DamageStabilityCalculations

PURPOSE: Thedataobtainedmaybestoredforfuturestoragerequirement. Variouscondition(storageplan)maybeavailableforquickreferencetomostsuitablecondition Outputinfo.Canbecheckedimmediatelyforcompliancewithloadlineregs.withoutdelay PURPOSEOFASHIPBOARDSTRESSFINDINGSYSTEM: 1. Thedistributionofthewt.onboardmustbecontrolledtoavoidanystresses&bendingmom. 2. Mathematicalcalculationsofthese(BM&STRESSES)arelengthy&tediouswiththepossibilityofclericalerrors. 3. Foranychangeofplantheentirerangeofstresseswillhavetoberecalculated. 4. Anyproposalplancanbecheckedreadilyforstress. 5. Anymodificationtopreviousplancanbedoneimmediatelytillasatisfactorycond.isachieved 6. Allstressfindinginstrumentsaremadeshipspecific&allshipsdataispreprogrammed.

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