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Vektor Matematik

# Vektor Matematik

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calculus 3 notlari
calculus 3 notlari

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10/16/2011

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We begin by noting that if f(x) is a solution to Laplace’s equation (8.1b) then further solutions can be
generated by diﬀerentiating with respect to Cartesian co-ordinates; for suppose that

g(x) = ∂f
∂xi

,

(8.10)

then from (5.21c)

2

g = ∂2
∂xj∂xj

∂f
∂xi

= ∂

∂xi

∂2

f

∂xj∂xj

= 0.

Deﬁnition. The fundamental solution (8.8), i.e.

ϕm ≡− 1

4πr , r = 0,

(8.11a)

is sometimes referred to as the unit monopole.

Deﬁnition. Let d be a constant vector, then using (1.18) and (8.10), it follows that

ϕd =−di

∂ϕm

∂xi

=− di
4πr2

∂r

∂xi

=−d.x

4πr3 , r = 0,

(8.11b)

is a solution to Laplace’s equation. This is referred to as a dipole of strength d.

Remark. A dipole can be viewed as being generated by two point sources that are of large, but opposite,
strength and very close to each other (see Examples Sheet 4).

21/99

Mathematical Tripos: IA Vector Calculus

111

c S.J.Cowley@damtp.cam.ac.uk, Lent 2000

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