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Vektor Matematik

# Vektor Matematik

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calculus 3 notlari
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10/16/2011

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Smooth Surfaces. A smooth surface is a surface with a unique (upto a sign) normal whose direction
depends continuously on the points of the surface. A piecewise smooth surface is one that can be
divided into ﬁnitely many portions each of which is smooth.

smooth

piecewise smooth

Remark.

• An alternative deﬁnition of a smooth surface for a given parametric representation, e.g.
x≡x(u,v) is that xu and xv are continuous and that |xu ×xv| = 0. However, with this
deﬁnition the same surface can fail to be smooth at diﬀerent points, depending on the param-
eterisation.

Orientable Surfaces. LetS be a smooth surface. Choose a
unit normal n of S at a point P, i.e. ﬁx on one of
the two possible normals at point P. The direction
of n is then said to be the positive normal direction.

The surface S is said to be orientable if the positive
normal direction once given at an arbitrary point P
can be continued in a unique and continuous way to
the entire surface.

sphere

mobius strip

klein bottle

orientable

non-orientable

non-orientable

Open/Closed Surfaces. A surface can be either

closed, if ‘any’ straight line intersects the
surface an even number of times
(where tangents count twice or not
at all), e.g. a sphere,

or open, if the surface is bounded by a
curve, e.g. a mobius strip or a hemi-
sphere.

A closed surface bounds a convex region if ‘any’ straight line intersects the surface a maximum of
twice (where tangents count twice or not at all), e.g. a sphere.

Mathematical Tripos: IA Vector Calculus

33

c S.J.Cowley@damtp.cam.ac.uk, Lent 2000

The Orientation of a Bounding Curve. If an open orientable surface is bounded by a simple closed
curve C, then an orientation of C can be identiﬁed by the ‘right-hand-rule’.

A piecewise smooth surface is orientable if the orientations of common boundaries can be arranged
to be opposite.

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