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Vektor Matematik5.0

|Views: 195|Likes: 17Published by mrtgunduz

calculus 3 notlari

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https://www.scribd.com/doc/8336679/Vektor-Matematik

10/16/2011

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Smooth Surfaces. A smooth surface is a surface with a unique (upto a sign) normal whose direction

depends continuously on the points of the surface. A piecewise smooth surface is one that can be

divided into ﬁnitely many portions each of which is smooth.

smooth

piecewise smooth

Remark.

• An alternative deﬁnition of a smooth surface for a given parametric representation, e.g.

x≡x(u,v) is that xu and xv are continuous and that |xu ×xv| = 0. However, with this

deﬁnition the same surface can fail to be smooth at diﬀerent points, depending on the param-

eterisation.

Orientable Surfaces. LetS be a smooth surface. Choose a

unit normal n of S at a point P, i.e. ﬁx on one of

the two possible normals at point P. The direction

of n is then said to be the positive normal direction.

The surface S is said to be orientable if the positive

normal direction once given at an arbitrary point P

can be continued in a unique and continuous way to

the entire surface.

sphere

mobius strip

klein bottle

orientable

non-orientable

non-orientable

Open/Closed Surfaces. A surface can be either

closed, if ‘any’ straight line intersects the

surface an even number of times

(where tangents count twice or not

at all), e.g. a sphere,

or open, if the surface is bounded by a

curve, e.g. a mobius strip or a hemi-

sphere.

A closed surface bounds a convex region if ‘any’ straight line intersects the surface a maximum of

twice (where tangents count twice or not at all), e.g. a sphere.

Mathematical Tripos: IA Vector Calculus

33

c S.J.Cowley@damtp.cam.ac.uk, Lent 2000

The Orientation of a Bounding Curve. If an open orientable surface is bounded by a simple closed

curve C, then an orientation of C can be identiﬁed by the ‘right-hand-rule’.

A piecewise smooth surface is orientable if the orientations of common boundaries can be arranged

to be opposite.

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