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Vektor Matematik

# Vektor Matematik

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calculus 3 notlari
calculus 3 notlari

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10/16/2011

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1. Consider a rigid body rotating with angular velocity
ω about an axis through 0. Then the velocity at a
point x in the body is given by

v = ω×x.

Moreover from (5.11c)

[ ×v]i = εijk ∂jvk

= εijk ∂j εk mω xm

= (δi δjm−δimδj )∂j(ω xm)

ω δjm

= ωiδjj −δijωj

= 2ωi,

i.e.

×v = 2ω.

Hence the curl at a point gives twice the angular velocity; for a ﬂuid curlv is related to twice the
local angular velocity.

The curl is a measure of the rotation of a vector ﬁeld.

2. Let v be a vector ﬁeld, and deﬁne the circulation, Γ, of v around a closed curve C to be

Γ =

C

v.dx.

(5.17)

Suppose that C is a rectangular curve in
the xy-plane with a vertex at x0, and with
sides of length δx and δy parallel to the x
and y co-ordinate axes respectively.

Then for small δx and δy and by repeated application of Taylor’s theorem

C1

+

C3

v.dx =

x0+δx
x0

v1(x,y0,z0)−v1(x,y0 +δy,z0) dx

=

1
0

−∂v1

∂y (x0 +αδx,y0,z0)δy +o(δy)

δxdα

where x = x0 +δxα

= −∂v1

∂y (x0,y0,z0)δxδy +o(δxδy).

(5.18a)

Similarly

C2

+

C4

v.dx = ∂v2

∂x (x0,y0,z0)δxδy +o(δxδy).

(5.18b)

Let A= δxδy be the area enclosed by C, then from (5.18a) and (5.18b), and using (5.9b),

lim

A→0

1

A

C

v.dx = z.curlv.

(5.19)

z.curlv can thus be interpreted as the circulation about z at x0 per unit area. Analogous results
hold for the other components of curlv.

Mathematical Tripos: IA Vector Calculus

81

c S.J.Cowley@damtp.cam.ac.uk, Lent 2000

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