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Tilapia Culture Libro

Tilapia Culture Libro

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Libro sobre el cultivo de tilapia. Muy bueno
Libro sobre el cultivo de tilapia. Muy bueno

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: Pablo Antonio Pintos Terán on Mar 01, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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It is important to throw some light on the rigor
mortis phenomenon in order to ensure that the
quality of the product is retained during produc-
tion, processing and storage. Rigor mortis is the
rigidity or stiffness of the fish body that occurs
after death. The onset of rigor mortis may vary
from about 10 min to several hours after death.
This natural phenomenon may therefore influ-
ence the appearance and structure of fish muscles
and render it unsuitable for filleting. Jarding et al.
(2000) examined the occurrence of rigor mortis in
farmed Nile tilapia at a commercial processor in
Zimbabwe. Live fish were killed by cranial frac-
ture or bleeding for 10 min after severance of the
gills and/or the ventral aorta, and rigor mortis
was then measured. The fish were left at an ambi-
ent temperature (20 ± 3°C) or iced at 2–5°C. The
occurrence of rigor mortis took place within
1–1.5 h and was faster for fish stored on ice than
for those stored at ambient temperature, while
the effects of killing methods were not different. It
has also been reported that stressed fish go into
rigor mortis more rapidly than unstressed fish
and also generate more tension in their muscles

post mortem (Nakayama et al., 1992). The rapid
rigor mortis may render filleting tilapia difficult
or even impossible, due to the stiffness of the mus-
cles and their inability to appear in a relaxed
stage after entering the stiffening phase ( Jarding
et al., 2000).

It is clear that filleting tilapia during rigor
mortis is not a good idea and it is not recom-
mended since it has an adverse effect on fillet qual-
ity. Tilapia stay in rigor mortis for at least 1 week,
leading to decreased shelf life. Therefore, they
must be processed before rigor mortis because
waiting for filleting after the end of rigor mortis
may lead to fish spoilage. It is also necessary to
freeze the fish prior to rigor mortis because they
usually develop gaping when they are frozen. It
appears from this discussionthat the low fillet yield
of tilapia (35–43%) and the problem of rigor mor-
tis make the fillet market difficult to enter and


Radiation can be an effective tool for maintaining
high fish quality and enhancing the shelf life of
processed fish. Radiation is generally combined
with cooling. Cozzo-Siqueira et al. (2003) evalu-
ated the effects of combining ionizing radiation
and refrigeration with minimal processing on the
shelf life of processed Nile tilapia in Brazil. The
physical, chemical, nutritional and microbiologi-
cal characteristics of the fish were studied in evis-
cerated samples and in commercial cuts. The fish
were irradiated with 0, 1.0, 2.2 and 5 kGy and
stored at temperatures ranging from 0.5 to 2°C for
20 and 30 days. During storage, the level of mois-
ture in the non-irradiated samples decreased and
the levels of protein and lipid increased, while the
irradiated samples remained stable. Muscle amino
acids and fatty acids remained stable in the irradi-
ated samples, but decreased in the non-irradiated
samples. The levels of total volatile base (TVB-N)
and non-protein nitrogen (NPN) increased in the
non-irradiated samples but tended to remain sta-
ble in the irradiated fish samples. The microbio-
logicalcontent in the irradiatedsampleswas below
the levels established by Brazilian seafood legisla-
tion, whereas the non-irradiated samples had a
higher microbiological content. In addition, lipid
oxidation tended to increase with increasing
irradiation dose.


Chapter 9

Fig.9.3. Tilapia processing plant in Brazil (photo
provided by K. Fitzsimmons).

Harvesting, Processing and Economics


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