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Tilapia Culture Libro

Tilapia Culture Libro

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Libro sobre el cultivo de tilapia. Muy bueno
Libro sobre el cultivo de tilapia. Muy bueno

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: Pablo Antonio Pintos Terán on Mar 01, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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09/23/2015

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Tilapias are a freshwater group of fish species orig-
inating exclusively from Africa (excluding Mada-
gascar) and from Palestine (Jordan Valley and
coastal rivers) (Philippart and Ruwet, 1982).
They are distributed all over Africa, except the
northern Atlas Mountains and south-west Africa
(McAndrew, 2000). Outside Africa, they are also
widely distributed in South and Central America,
southern India, Sri Lanka (Philippart and Ruwet,
1982) and Lake Kinneret, Israel. Tilapias also

26

Chapter 2

Fig.2.1. Redbelly tilapia (Tilapia zillii), a typical
substrate spawner.

Fig.2.2. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is the
most widely cultured tilapia species.

Fig.2.3. Blue tilapia (Oreochromis aureus) is
another maternal mouthbrooder. It is also widely
cultured.

Fig.2.4. Galilee tilapia (Sarotherodon galilaeus) is
a biparental mouthbrooder, where both males and
females incubate and defend fertilized eggs and
hatched fry.

Basic Biology and Ecology

27

inhabit a wide range of ecosystems (see Chapter 3
for details). They seem to have evolved as riverine
fishes living in marginal waters and flood-plain
pools, but they have adapted to lacustrine condi-
tions. This explains why they currently live in
various ecological water systems, including slow-
moving rivers and their flood-plain pools and
swamps, small shallow lakes, large deep lakes,
impounded water bodies, isolated crater lakes, soda
lakes, thermal springs and brackish-water lakes
(Philippart and Ruwet, 1982; Lowe-McConnell,
2000). These fish are also highly adaptable to their
environments, as reflected by their tolerance to a
wide range of environmental conditions, such as
temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and
ammonia.

Philippart and Ruwet (1982) suggested that
the natural distribution of the two tilapia gen-
era, Tilapia (substrate-spawners) and Oreochromis
(mouthbrooders), is a reflection of two types of
factors:

1. Historical–geological factors, which have led
to geographical isolation and speciation (endemic
species in lakes or stretches of rivers).
2. Ecological factors, which represent the
requirements of and preferences for various envi-
ronmental conditions, such as temperature,
salinity and water composition, in addition to the
behavioural characteristics that reflect feeding and
reproduction patterns.

Based on the historical factors, the genus Tilapia is
widely distributed in west and central Africa, but
not in the eastern slope of the eastern Rift Valley
and the river basins flowing into the Indian Ocean
north of ZambesiRiver.These fish species are sep-
arated by ecological or behavioural barriers rather
than by geographical or hydrographic barriers
(Philippart and Ruwet, 1982).
On the other hand, all species of the genus
Sarotherodon, except S. galilaeus, are restricted to
West Africa. Sarotherodon galilaeus has spread
eastwards towards the Nile and the first Rift lakes.
Meanwhile, the genus Oreochromis is widely distrib-
uted in the Rift Valley lakes and rivers and the
rivers that drain into the Indian Ocean, but it is
rare in western Africa. Oreochromis niloticus and
Oreochromis aureus are distributed in the Nilo-
Sudanian region. Moreover, O. niloticus is spread-
ing eastwards into the Ethiopian Rift Valley and
has moved southwards, colonizing all the western
Rift lakes (Lake Albert, Lake George, Lake
Edward, Lake Kivu and Lake Tanganyika) and
Lake Turkana in the eastern Rift Valley. This spe-
cies is also spreading in central and western Africa,
via the Chad and Niger basins.
It appears from the above discussion that
Tilapia and Sarotherodon species are more localized
in West Africa, while Oreochromis species are
more distributed in the central and eastern
African regions. However, some species, such as
Tilapia zillii, S. galilaeus, O. niloticus and, to a lesser

Species

Location

Dorsal fin

Pectoral
fin

Anal

fin Reference

Tilapia mariae

Umuoseriche Lake,
Nigeria

XV–XVII, 10–14 11–15 9–12 Anene (1999)

Tilapia zillii

Umuoseriche Lake,
Nigeria

XIII–XVII, 11–13 12–14 8–10 Anene (1999)

Lake Edku, Egypt XIV–XVI, 10–13 12–14 8–10 Abdalla (1995)

Lake Mariut, Egypt XIV–XVI, 9–13 12–14 7–9 Akel (1989)

Oreochromis niloticus Lake Mariut, Egypt XV–XVIII, 10–13 12–15 8–10 Akel (1989)

Lake Edku, Egypt XVI–XVIII, 12–14 12–15 9–10 Bakhoum (2002)

Oreochromis aureus Lake Mariut, Egypt XVI–XVII, 10–14 11–14 8–11 Akel (1989)

Lake Edku, Egypt XV–XVII, 12–13 12–14 9–10 Bakhoum (2002)

Sarotherodon galilaeus Lake Mariut, Egypt XV–XVIII, 11–13 11–14 9–11 Akel (1989)

Table 2.1. Fin formulas of various tilapia species.

extent, O. aureus, have a larger and overlapping
distribution. Tilapia zillii and S. galilaeus are distri-
buted far south to Lake Albert, suggesting that the
Chad–Nileconnectionthatenabledthemtoinhabit
the Nile River must have occurred after O. niloticus
had spread southwards and after the disappear-
ance of the connection between Lake Albert and
southerly lakes (McAndrew, 2000).

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