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Tilapia Culture Libro

Tilapia Culture Libro

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Libro sobre el cultivo de tilapia. Muy bueno
Libro sobre el cultivo de tilapia. Muy bueno

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: Pablo Antonio Pintos Terán on Mar 01, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Tilapia have traditionally been cultured in
inland-based systems, such as earthen ponds and
concrete tanks and, to a lesser extent, raceways.
These systems have started to encounter a number
of problems that make their long-term sustain-
ability unwarranted. These are:

1. The growing environmental concerns about
the effect of the effluents from land-based aqua-
culture facilities.
2. The limitation and shortage of supplies of
fresh water, together with the competition for it
with agricultural, industrial and other urban
requirements, especially in arid areas.
3. Increasing land costs, which will limit land
use opportunities.
4. Climate changes, which may limit manage-
ment and production in these systems.
5. Introduction of tilapia into many countries
where the environmental conditions are outside
their tolerance limits has made the traditional
land-based systems unsuitable for tilapia culture in
these countries.

Recirculating culture systems, also known as
recycle or closed systems, are an ideal alternative
for confronting these difficulties. These systems are
characterized by water reuse, minimal effluent dis-
charge and optimal water conservation. Culture
water goes through various treatment processes to
restore its quality. These include the removal of
solid wastes and suspended metabolites (such as
carbon dioxide, ammonia and nitrite), sterilization
and aeration. The typical closed system consists of
settling tanks (for solids removal), biological and/or
mechanical filters (for ammonia removal), ultra-
violet (UV) light (for sterilization) and aerators
(compressors) or a source of oxygen (Fig. 5.9). A full
description of this system has been reviewed by a
number of authors (Mires and Anjioni, 1997;
Losordo et al., 1999; Muir et al., 2000).
Tilapia culture in recirculating systems is
spreading widely in different parts of the world,
especially in areas that face freshwater shortages
and/or harsh climatic conditions. In southern
Israel, commercial culture of tilapia in closed sys-
tems is carried out year-round in greenhouses,
even at low water temperature (19°C) and up to
29°C (Muir et al., 2000). At a stocking density of
15 kg/m3

, the system produces 25 kg/m3

Fingerling red tilapia (O. niloticus × O. aureus) were
alsogrown in indoor tanks or raceways at adensity
of about 300 fish (40 g)/m3

until they reached an
average weight of 200 g. The density was then
reduced to 150 fish/m3

during the fattening stage

to reach 450 g (Muir et al., 2000).
Mires and Amit (1992) described tilapia
culture in a closed system known as the DEKEL
system, where water recycles between concrete
grow-out ponds and earthen reservoir serving as a
biofilter. This system was able to maintain water
quality suitable for tilapia culture. The net yield
reached 19.5 kg/m2

in 1990. In a later study, Mires
and Anjioni (1997) evaluated the technical and
economic performance of red tilapia in the DEKEL
system and in another closed system supported by
a biofilter and pure oxygen supply and referred to
as O2BIO. Production in the O2BIO was higher
than in the DEKEL system, but it was less cost-
effective. However, after some technical improve-
ments of the DEKEL system, a net present value
(NPV) > 0 can be obtained after only 2 years, with
an internal rate of return (IRR) = 22% after 4
years. On the contrary, the NPV > 0 of O2BIO
can only be reached after 11 years. Only when
production reaches 100 kg/m2

and the initial


Chapter 5

Intensive Culture


investment is reduced from US$600/m2



, is an NPV > 0 in O2BIO system
obtained, after 6 years. Meanwhile, both systems
were uneconomic due to high production costs and
Tilapia culture in water recycling systems in
the USA is also gaining great popularity because
their culture in traditional land-based systems is
limitedduetotheir tropicalnature.Closedsystems
are currently the most sophisticated, using liquid
oxygen, microscreens, fluidized bead biofilters and
UV sterilizers. They also have the highest stocking
densities of any tilapiaculture systems (Rosatiet al.,
1993; Fitzsimmons, 2003). Rosati et al. (1993)
determined the carrying capacity and perfor-
mance of a recirculating system, consisting of an
18.5 m3

fibreglass raceway and a vertical screen
filter, when stocked with Nile tilapia under com-
mercial conditions. The fish (15 g) were stocked at
263.2 fish/m3

. Final survival was 70%. Oxygen
and un-ionized ammonia became limiting factors
when the feed approached 8 and 12 kg/day.
Rosati et al. (1997) further evaluated the perfor-
mance of Nile tilapia (95% males) reared in a pro-
totype commercial-scale recirculating system. The
system consisted of six raceways, with a total water
capacity of 160 m3

, provided with a rotating drum
with a screen biofilter, submerged biofilter media
and pure oxygen. The fish grew from 15–20 g to
560 g in 6 months. The total yield was 11.33 Mt/
year (78.8 kg/m3

Tilapia culture in recycle systems has also
been reported in other tropical and subtropical

regions. Cheong et al. (1987) reported a growth of
Taiwanese red tilapia raised in a recycle system
from 0.78 g to 438 g in 239 days, with a total pro-
duction of 49.3–50.2 kg/m3

. Watanabe et al. (1997)
also described a recycle hatchery system for
Florida red tilapia in the Bahamas.
It should be emphasized here that the recir-
culating system is technically sophisticated and
very costly, while tilapia is considered a low-priced
fish in many countries. Production of these fish
with high investment in commercial recycle sys-
tems may, therefore, be neither cost-effective nor
sustainable in these countries. The message is
clear: cost/benefit analyses should be carefully
conducted prior to the adoption of tilapia culture
in recycle systems in developing countries.
Recirculating systems are characterized by
the ability to support extremely high stocking
densities and high net production compared with
other culture systems. However, stocking density
has a significant effect on individual fish growth,
survival, total production and water quality. A
decrease in final individual fish weight and an
increase in total yield with increasing stocking
density is very commonly observed. Considerable
variations in fish size may also occur with increas-
ing fish density in recycle systems (Rosati et al.,
1993). Suresh and Lin (1992b) evaluated the
effects of stocking density on the water quality and
production of all-male red tilapia juveniles (75 g)
stocked in circular tanks at 50, 100 and 200

for 70 days. Fish growth, feed efficiency
and water quality were inversely correlated with

Fig.5.9. A recirculating system used for intensive culture of tilapia at the United Arab Emirates University.

stocking density. However, 100 and 200 fish/m3
showed a similar performance. Feed digestion and
body composition were not affected by stocking
density. As mentioned earlier, Bailey et al. (2000)
raised Nile tilapia juveniles (4.3 g) in 2-m3

tanks in a recirculating system, at two densities,
200 and 450 fish/m3

, for 12 weeks. Fish stocked at

200 fish/m3

grew slightly faster than those stocked

at 450 fish/m3

. The desired survival, uniform size
and FCR were not achieved, as a result of using
large feed pellets.


In recycle systems, as in other culture systems, con-
siderable amounts of fish metabolites, including
ammonia, nitrites, organic phosphates, suspended
solids, etc., along with uneaten feed, are released
into the culture water. These compounds are gen-
erally toxic to fish and have a high biological oxy-
gen demand (BOD). If not removed or treated,
they may be subject to oxidation, leading to the
removal of oxygen from the water and, in turn,
producing anaerobic conditions that will stress
and/or kill the fish. The magnitude of this prob-
lem is much higher in recirculating aquaculture
systems than in flow-through systems, where these
compounds can be discharged with effluent water
and eliminated through natural processes. Thus,
effluent treatment and management become
essential for successful aquaculture in recycle sys-
tems. Typically, management includes: (i) waste
settlement and removal; (ii) removal of ammonia
and nitrites via biofiltration, sterilization and aera-
tion; and (iii) partial water replacement.

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