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Kate  Wang   Invention  of  the  Personal  Computer     BIBLIOGRAPHY   Secondary  Sources     "Adobe  Illustrator.

"  Wikipedia,  the  Free  Encyclopedia.  5  Jan.  2012.  Web.  23  Jan.  2012.   <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adobe_Illustrator>.  I  used  this  website  to  find  out   more  information  on  the  application  Adobe  Illustrator.     Ament,  Phil.  "Personal  Computer  History  -­‐  Invention  of  the  Personal  Computer."  The  Great   Idea  Finder  -­‐  Celebrating  the  Spirit  of  Innovation.  The  Great  Idea  Finder.  Web.  2  Jan.   2012.  <http://www.ideafinder.com/history/inventions/compersonal.htm>.  I  used   this  website  to  get  an  idea  of  how  the  computer  revolution  started.  I  took  notes  on   information  about  the  microprocessor,  and  early  personal  computers.     "Apple  Inc."  Wikipedia,  the  Free  Encyclopedia.  Wikipedia,  16  Jan.  2012.  Web.  21  Jan.  2012.   <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apple_Inc>.    I  used  this  article  to  learn  more  about   Apple's  first  personal  computer  and  its  effects.     Apple  Inc.  “Apple  Macintosh  (1984).”  16  December  2008.  Online  video  clip.  Youtube.   Accessed  on  11  February  2012.   <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cvjLc24VbI8&feature=related>.  I  used  a  clip   from  this  Apple  advertisement  talking  about  how  the  personal  computer  was   designed  for  the  average  person  to  use.       "Attached  Advertisements."  Aresluna.  2  Oct.  2004.  Web.  20  Jan.   2012.<http://www.aresluna.org/attached/computerhistory/ads/international/app le>.  This  is  a  secondary  source  (a  website)  containing  primary  sources  (ads  of  Apple   computers).  I  took  ads  from  the  website  as  references  to  the  time  period.     Bruno,  Leonard  C.  Science  and  Technology  Breakthroughs:  From  the  Wheel  to  the  World   Wide  Web.  Vol.  1.  Detroit,  MI:  U.X.L.,  1998.  Print.  This  book  had  excellent   information  on  the  computer  revolution,  as  well  as  background  information  and   pictures.  It  was  helpful  to  use  along  with  the  websites.  This  book  also  had  events  in   chronological  order  and  was  easy  to  follow.     "Colossal  Cave  Adventure."  Wikipedia,  the  Free  Encyclopedia.  29  Jan.  2012.  Web.  01  Feb.   2012.  <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colossal_Cave_Adventure>.  I  used  this   Wikipedia  site  to  find  out  general  information  about  the  game  Colossal  Cave   Adventure.     CompaqVet.  “’I  Need  A  Vacation!’  –  JOHN  CLEESE  Compaq  Commercial.”18  October  2006.   Online  Video  Clip.  Youtube.  Accessed  on  1  March  2012.   http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pusPxN_7mm8&feature=related.  I  used  this   video  showing  how  the  new  and  updated  technology  made  computers  easier  to  use  

and  smaller.     “Computers  in  our  Lives  –  Computer  educational  film  from  1980.”  27  November  2010.   Online  video  clip.  YouTube.  Accessed  on  11  February  2012.   <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nTUvRAAG90A&feature=related>.  I  took  a  clip   from  this  computer  education  film  that  talked  about  increased  productivity  and   speed  of  the  personal  computers.     Computer  History  Museum.  Mountain  View,  CA.  Personal  Visit.  21  Jan.  2012.  I  went  to  the   Computer  History  Museum  for  an  afternoon  and  took  notes  on  the  exhibits:   “Mastering  the  Game”,  “Selling  the  Computer”,  and  “Microprocessors”.       Computer  Lab  1980s.  1982.  Photograph.  Castilleja  School  Archives,  Palo  Alto,  CA.  I  got  this   picture  as  a  home  page  photo  on  my  website.  I  thought  it  depicted  use  of  the   personal  computer  well.     Edwards,  Benj.  "From  Paper  Tape  to  Data  Sticks."  PC  World  Australia.  IDG  Communications,   2011.  Web.  02  Feb.  2012.   <http://www.pcworld.idg.com.au/slideshow/336086/from_paper_tape_data_sticks _evolution_removable_storage>.  I  used  a  picture  from  this  website  that  depicted  the   evolution  of  removable  storage.  I  also  got  a  description  about  each  of  the  pieces  of   the  removable  storage.     Guevin,  Jennifer.  "Say  What?  A  Look  Back  at  Gates'  Pearls  of  Wisdom."  Technology  News  -­‐   CNET  News.  15  June  2006.  Web.  03  Feb.  2012.  <http://news.cnet.com/Say-­‐what-­‐A-­‐ look-­‐back-­‐at-­‐Gates-­‐pearls-­‐of-­‐wisdom/2100-­‐1014_3-­‐6084505.html>.  From  this   report  written  by  Jennifer  Guevin,  I  got  a  quotation  of  him  talking  about  how   successful  the  personal  computer  was.     "History  of  Personal  Computers."  Wikipedia,  the  Free  Encyclopedia.  Wikipedia,  7  Jan.  2012.   Web.  12  Jan.  2012.  <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_personal_computers>.   I  used  this  Wikipedia  website  to  find  more  information  about  the  computer  industry   and  how  it  was  formed.  I  also  found  information  of  the  first  use  of  the  term   "personal  computer".  I  compared  the  information  on  this  website  with  the   information  on  other  websites  to  make  sure  this  one  was  correct.     "History  of  Video  Games."  Wikipedia,  the  Free  Encyclopedia.  17  Jan.  2012.  Web.  13  Jan.   2012.  <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_video_games>.  I  used  this  website   to  find  out  about  early  computer  games  and  systems,  and  how  they  were  used  and   created.  I  only  used  limited  information  that  directly  related  to  the  personal   computer  and  the  effects  of  it.     "IBM."  Wikipedia,  the  Free  Encyclopedia.  Wikipedia,  21  Jan.  2012.  Web.  21  Jan.  2012.   <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM>.  I  used  this  article  to  learn  more  about  IBM's   first  personal  computer  and  its  effects.    

"Intel  4004."  Wikipedia,  the  Free  Encyclopedia.  Wikipedia,  30  Jan.  2012.  Web.  02  Feb.  2012.   <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intel_4004>.  From  this  website,  I  got  a  picture  of   Intel's  first  microprocessor  and  information  to  write  a  caption.     "Microsoft."  Wikipedia,  the  Free  Encyclopedia.  19  Jan.  2012.  Web.  23  Jan.  2012.   <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft>.  I  used  this  website  to  find  out  more   information  about  the  application  Microsoft  and  its  inventions.     "Pac-­‐Man."  Wikipedia,  the  Free  Encyclopedia.  Wikipedia,  31  Jan.  2012.  Web.  31  Jan.  2012.   <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pac-­‐Man>.  I  used  this  website  to  find  general   information  about  the  game  Pac-­‐Man  and  to  find  a  screenshot  of  the  game  during   play.     "PC  Game."  Wikipedia,  the  Free  Encyclopedia.  Wkipedia,  8  Jan.  2012.  Web.  23  Jan.  2012.   <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PC_game>.  I  used  this  article  to  get  more  specific   details  about  games  on  the  personal  computer.     "Radio  Shack  Historical  Information."  Radio  Shack  Catalogs.  Web.  01  Mar.  2012.   <http://www.radioshackcatalogs.com/history.html>.  I  used  this  website  to  find   background  information  on  Tandy  Corporation  and  Radio  Shack.  I  wanted  to  know   why  Tandy  Corporation  is  now  known  as  Radio  Shack.     Reimer,  Jeremy.  "Total  Share:  30  Years  of  Personal  Computer  Market  Share  Figures."  Ars   Technica.  Condé  Nast  Digital,  2006.  Web.  01  Feb.  2012.   <http://arstechnica.com/old/content/2005/12/total-­‐share.ars/1>.  I  took  a  graph   with  statistics  on  computers  sold  in  the  late  1970's  and  early  1980's.  I  can  trust  the   statistics  because  it  was  published  in  a  magazine  and  is  a  real  article.     Skarda,  Erin.  "Technology?  What's  That?"  Breaking  News,  Analysis,  Politics,  Blogs,  News   Photos,  Video,  Tech  Reviews  -­‐  TIME.com.  Time,  11  Oct.  2011.  Web.  01  Feb.  2012.   <http://www.time.com/time/specials/packages/article/0,28804,2097462_209745 6_2097467,00.html>.  I  took  a  quotation  by  Ken  Oleson  from  this  Times  website.  I   also  got  some  statistics  as  well  to  counter  his  incorrect  prediction.     "Spacewar!"  Wikipedia,  the  Free  Encyclopedia.  Wikipedia,  11  Jan.  2012.  Web.  30  Jan.  2012.   <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spacewar!>.  I  used  this  website  to  find  general   information  on  the  PC  game  Spacewar!.  I  also  got  a  picture  of  the  screen  while  in   play.     "Tandy  Corporation."  Wikipedia,  the  Free  Encyclopedia.  Wikipedia,  12  July  2011.  Web.  21   Jan.  2012.  <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tandy_Corporation>.  I  used  this  article  to   learn  more  about  Tandy  Corporation's  first  personal  computer,  and  its  effects.     Tezzy.  “A  massive  5.25  inch  floppy  disk  haul.”  Classic  Computers  (One  New  Zealander's   View).  5  June  2011.  Web.  http://www.classic-­‐computers.org.nz/blog/2011-­‐06-­‐05-­‐ great-­‐disk-­‐haul.htm.  I  used  a  picture  of  application  floppy  disks  that  were  used  on  

personal  computers  to  put  on  my  "Software"  page.     Primary  Sources     "The  Computer  Revolution:  When  Will  It  Be  Here?"  Los  Angeles  Times  [Los  Angeles]  15   Nov.  1979:  12.  Print.  This  newspaper  is  describing  the  benefits  of  the  personal   computer  and  how  people  are  using  it  in  homes  and  jobs.  It  also  compares  the   difference  between  the  personal  computer  and  previous.     Dembart,  Lee.  "Computer  Show's  Message:  'Be  the  First  on  Your  Block'"  Editorial.  The  New   York  Times  [New  York]  26  Aug.  1977.  Web.  I  used  this  newspaper  to  get  a  feeling  of   what  the  advertising  would  be  like  when  the  first  computers  were  first  coming  out   and  becoming  popular.     Gumpert,  David.  "Home  Input."  The  Wall  Street  Journal  [New  York]  4  Feb.  1977.  Print.  I   used  this  newspaper  to  get  a  sense  of  what  it  was  like  to  buy  and  receive  a  personal   computer.  There  are  also  descriptions  of  some  personal  computers.     McElheny,  Victor  K.  "Computer  Show:  Preview  Of  More  Ingenious  Models."  New  York  Times   [New  York]  16  June  1977.  Print.  This  article  is  showing  new  personal  computer  that   have  come  out  and  how  they  are  being  displayed.  They  are  showing  pros  and  cons  of   each  computer  as  well.     Langer,  Richard  W.  "Computers  Find  a  Home  (Yours)."  New  York  Times  [New  York]  25  Aug.   1977.  Print.  I  used  this  newspaper  article  to  learn  about  daily  uses  of  the  first   personal  computers.  I  also  saw  differences  between  life  before  personal  computers   and  after  they  were  invented.     "Old  Computer  Ads."  Old  Computers  -­‐  Rare,  Vintage,  and  Obsolete  Computers.  Web.  19  Jan.   2012.  <http://oldcomputers.net/oldads/old-­‐computer-­‐ads.html>.  I  used  this   website,  a  secondary  source,  to  find  primary  sources  which  were  advertisements  for   early  personal  computers.     "Pocket  Computer  May  Replace  Shopping  List."  New  York  Times  [New  York]  3  Nov.  1962.   Print.  I  got  a  quotation  from  John  W.  Mauchly's  interview  described  in  this   newspaper.