This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Landscape comprises the visible features of an area of land, including the physical elements of landforms, water bodies such as rivers, lakes and the sea, living elements of land cover including indigenous vegetation, human elements including land uses, buildings and structures, and transitory elements such as lighting and weather conditions. Combining both their physical origins and the cultural overlay of human presence, often created over millennia, landscapes reflect the living synthesis of people and place vital to local and national identity. Landscapes, their character and quality, help define the self image of a region, its sense of place that differentiates it from other regions. It is the dynamic backdrop to people's lives. Landscape may be further reviewed under cultural landscape, landscape ecology, landscape planning, landscape assessment and landscape design.
The basic elements of landscape design are: • • • • • Color Form Line Scale. Texture
2 CONCEPTS OF LANDSCAPE • NATURALISTIC • GEOMETRIC
Naturalistic landscaping is an approach to landscape design which seeks to reinforce our connection with the natural history of a place. Naturalistic forms are most often found in the plant material.
Wind Some design principles. Distances between and among plants are not measured. are seldom abrupt. . Life. Naturalistic naturalistic landscaping: • • • • • • Lines and edges are infrequently Changes and transitions The surroundings straight. Use of native guidelines will start one down the path to naturalistic plants and consideration Perfectly vertical elements are not seen. are considered with a view toward Plant forms in nature are rarely regular. harmonious integration. this writer understands naturalistic environment. landscapes are every bit as planned as their formal counterparts. Water. of the following To plan a landscape one studies nature.While a precise definition is difficult to come by. The patterns of an environment are created by these natural forces: • • • • • • Gravity. rather than a standard landscaping text. Light. landscaping to be an emulation of patterns and plants that exemplify a particular Natural forces. Temperature.
abandoned which accommodate by human influences. landscapes. However. on earth that cannot return to natural landscape if abandoned but people exert forces on biodiversity. by people and our culture. vegetation History of Natural Landscape No place on earth is unaffected biodiversity.A simple example of the naturalistic mountain wilderness. wholly "natural" is found in the treatment of a trail through a may open beautiful where the mere removal of obstructing except for these removals. though. People have altered landscape to such an extent that few places on earth remain pristine. Terms such as semi-natural are used to describe landscapes with both cultural and natural is not a prerequisite for natural landscape designation. the landscape is again under the control of natural processes interruptions. Once features. People are part of which destroy the natural landscape. resulting in a new variant of the natural landscape' Stream Lake Landform River . Being pristine. there is no place by culture.
and fragmented edges. Plants and land forms (creeks. and dry stream beds. such as a restored wetland. Meandering lines can add interest and mystery to a garden by leading viewers around corners to discover new views and spaces. As the name implies.Naturalistic Forms Naturalistic forms tend to be informal. such as dry creek beds and rock gardens. hills. and organic and fragmented edges are used to make built features. and valleys) have a variety of forms. Figure 3. including meandering lines. these are forms that are found in nature and imitated or used in a more abstract manner in the design. unless it is a re-created ecosystem. Meandering Lines Meandering lines often mimic the natural course of rivers or streams and can be described as smooth lines with deeply curved undulations. rocks. Meandering lines in the landscape. The emphasis is typically on the arrangement of materials to appear natural and not the function. look more natural (Figure 6). Meandering lines (Figure 3) work well for pathways. organic edges. plant bed lines. Naturalistic form concept Meandering lines are often used for plant bed edges and pathways. .
Figure 4. . Fragmented edges: stepping stones in pathway. such as foliage. and are often used to create a gradually Figure 5.Organic Edges Organic edges mimic the edges of natural can be described as rough and irregular. and rocks. such as stones or pavers. plant forms. dry creek beds or purposely material. and Organic lines can be found in rock gardens and along created on hardscape edges. edge on patios or walkways. Fragmented Edges Fragmented edges resemble broken pieces scattered disappearing from the edge. Organic edges: irregular edge of rock garden.
• circles can be segmented and used with lines to create arcs and tangents. a formal design looks either right or wrong at first glance. squares are to create unique patterns and more stronger on the edges. and they include rectangles/square well for repetition (Figure 3). and the first consideration in designing the circulation traffic in the most convenient way. and timber The square form can Squares are used for a variety of features. symmetrical or not. 6 Concepts in Landscape Architecture ANGULAR FORM CONCEPT including stepping stones. Unlike circles. Geometric forms are typically found in the hardscape. The basis of the design scheme in every piece of landscape work is geometrical. A number of design styles are associated with a particular form. Once laid out. and planting is very evident in this type of work. Geometric forms work and organization in the garden. because they are an easy form to work with for construction. the lines of traffic determine of circulation whether landscape with straight lines. which can be lined up or overlapped . and have therefore this true of formal design. because the interdependence a double significance. structures.GEOMETRIC LANDSCAPING Consists of symmetrical balance. Geometric forms are often considered to be formal. also be segmented and used repeatedly complex forms. bricks. circles (Figure 4). geometric patterns and perfect is the handling of the the disposition Particularly is of the planting masses and open areas. and polygons (Figure 5). to create a grid pattern. tiles. • irregular polygons can be used to fit in odd-shaped spaces. • Squares can be segmented and arranged in grid patterns.
Circles are a strong design form because the eye is always drawn to the center. and interest.Figure and lawn panels.Figure 3. Rectangular/Angular (square) form concept CIRCULAR FORM CONCEPT Circles can be full circles. . which can be used to emphasize Figure 4. Circles can also be stretched a focal point or connect 4 shows the use of circle segments into ovals and ellipses for more variety other forms. or they can be divided combined hardscape into half circles or circle segments and for with lines to create arcs and tangents.
but they should be used Figure 5. Triangles. shapes. are three-sided polygons. for example.Circular form concept POLYGONAL FORM CONCEPT Polygons are many-sided cautiously forms with straight edges. simplicity is best. Polygonal form concept . The angled edges of polygons can make interesting because the forms can become complex.
ELLIPTICAL FORM CONCEPT CIRCLE SEGMENT FORM CONCEPT COMBINATION FORM CONCEPT .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.