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teach yourself

mark vincent and jaehoon yeon

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contacted through the publishers.

Korean grammar is indebted to Ross King and Jaehoon Yeon's Elementary Korcar (Tuttle.. 2000) and Cortinuing Korean (Tuttle, 2002). !7e would lite to hear of any comments or suggestions for the improvement of this book, and can be


There are now several introductory Korean courses on the market, and our aim has been to make this one stand out in the following ways. First, it focuses on real-life situations, with dialogues which feature authentic Korean as it is spoken on the
steet. 'we have trid to make the book be led by the dialogues,

Korean is an exciting language to learn and to speak, and we have enjoyed writing this book. Mark Vincent would like to dedicate his share of its production to Peter Dickinson and Steve Rees from Pindar School, Scarborough - two brilliant foreign language teachers from whom he learnt a great deal, not least a deep love of language, languages and all things foreign. Jaehoon Yeon would like to express hearelt thanks to his former students at SOAS whose struggle with the Korean language has contributed unwittingly but enormously to making this book.
Jaehoon Yeon

Mark Vincent

while maintaining a logical progression througlr the basics of the grammar. Apart from the fust few units, in which we have deliberately simplified things, the dialogues contain real Korean with colloquial phrases and idiomatic expressions left in and

About the authors

Mark Vincent graduated from the School of Oriental and
African Studies, University of london in Korean and Linguistics.

Our second aim has been to make the lesson notes as clear as possible - drawing comparisons with English to illustrate how Korean is both similar and different, rather than innoducing a lot of grammatcal terminology. We have tried to explain in detail the crucial grammar points, and also provide a taster for a few more advanced matters, without lening these intrude. Much non-essential grammar has been omitted to put the focus on what s especially important. The exercises have been designed to test the essential gammar thoroughly, and to give lots of practice with practical language use. The book is a collaboration, despite the authors being 6,000 miles apart for some of its production! The content of the dialogus was iointly planned, and then became Jaehoon Yeon's responsibility. The grammar content was also lointly planned, and the notes were wrinen by Mark Vincent and then checked by Jaehoon Yeon. The exercises were created by Mark Vincent
ond then checked by Jaehoon Yeon,

He went on to obtain both an MA and a PhD from the University of Durham, specializing in Hebrew and Biblical
Studies. He has spent over a year living and studying in Seoul

and has conducted research and published in several areas of Korean studies and the Hebrew Bible. He curently works in asset management for a maior investment company, Jaehoon Yeon received his BA and

MA in Linguistics at Seoul National University, and his PhD in Linguistics at SOAS, Univers of London. He is the co-author o Elemmtary

Korean and Continuing Koreaa (Tuttle Publishing Co.) and has published many articles on Korean linguistics. He is currently lecturing in Korean language and literature at SOAS, University
of london.

We are grateful to those before us who have written books nbout Korean, and the approach adopted here to explain




want to have a truly rewarding time when you visit Korea (whether for business or pleasure), learning Korean is the way forward. And even in the West you can practise' too. There are now
many Korean companies in Europe and the States, and there are growing communiiies of Koreans in Britain, on the west Coast of America, and elsewhere.


A potted history o Korean

Korean is a fascinating language to study. For a stan, it has a completely different alphabet to ours, a writing system which is unique among the languages of the wodd. Its grammar is Grammatically Korean is related to Japanese and Mongolian (the structure of the three languages is quite similar). Korean is thought to belong to the Altaic family of languages, meaning that it is also related to Tungusic and Turkish. This may all come as a surprise, since many people ssume that Korean will be like Chinese. Grammatically Korean is totally diferent from
Chinese. There is no connection between them.


o 1+ o r

- so much so that at 6rst everything seems to be expressed backwards in Korean! On top of this, it
entirely different to English

has sounds which are alien to any that we have in European languages. That's qte a lot to cope with already, and we haven't even mentioned the different cultural assumptions which
underlie the different languages!

However, many Korean words (as opposed to grammar) come from Chinese, since China has been the maior influence in Korea's literature and culture, Probably 50 per cent of Korean words are originally of Chinese origin, This is a bit similar to the

Korean is not an easy lanBuage to leam. But, as we hope you'll come to experience for yourself very soon, the challenges that the language presents are what make communicating in it so '!hen you to communicate in Korean, you will
begin rewarding. find it both entertaining and fulfilling.

way in which English has many words which are borrowed from Latin.

Some tips or learning Korean

The first thing to remembe is this; don't be put off by how different and difficult it all seems at first. It is different, and it is difficult. But, as long as you keep going, you will quickly begin to spot the patterns and come to understand the way that Korean sentences work, It is quite possible for a westerner to learn to speak Korean luently - even a westemer with little previous eiperience o language learning. Vith a course like this

Who speaks Korean, and why should you?

If you learn Korean, you

earth which remains divided, the language spoken by a country with one of the world's strongest economies, the language of a people of rich and diverse culture still largely unknown in th rJest. Koreans will appreciate it when you try to speak with them using their language, and they will be deligbted to communicate with you. Korean is the eleventh largest language in the world in terms of the number of native speakers.

will be speaking the language of 80 or 90 million other people, the language of the only nation on

will find that although t}rere are always new challenges along the way, you will progress rapidly and logically through the basics of the Korean language.
ne, you

Being in Korea and speaking in Korean is both exciting and challnging. Although many Koreans are learning English, most do not speak it, and ofthose that do, rnany are not able to speak coherently, even though they know lots of English words. If you

one o the exciting things about learning Korean is that there are so few westeneswho can speak it. Despite Korea's rapid economic growth, and despite the constant American military presence in Seoul, there are still few westerners to be seen on the streets of even the largest cities. Very few o those can speak any
Korean at all.

Koreans are absolutely delighted when you try to speak their language and ey will bend over backwards to try to help and encouage you. They won't make you feel silly, and they won't take your effons to speak Korean for granted, no matter how
good you are.
ezlget for opportunities to ^e practise their English. If you go to Korea and are keen to improve
the writing system. But you must constantly practise reading the dialogues in the Korean script as well, without relying on the romanization. You should see romanization as a crutch to help you on your way as you leam Korean writing. By the time you have passed the 6-rst few lessons, you should be going first to the Korean texts, and looking at the romanization to rest your pronunciation.

Contrariwise, many Koreans

your command of the language, it is best to be clear in your mind that you will try to speak in Korean, no matter how hard someone might try to persuade you to speak English! k is the best way to learn quickly.

The Korean alphabet

The Korean alphabet is unique among the writing systems of the world. This is because it is the only known alphabet in the world which was specifically commissioned or made to order.
From ancient times literacy in Korea had existed only among the ruling classes, and consisted of classical Chinese, or sometimes of using Chinese characters and adapting some of them for use in a Korean context. Among the maiority of the people, there was no literacy at all - not even Chinese.

leners in this book, and finally to look at important rules of sound changes in pronunciation. First, then, the letters of the alphabet and principles of Korean writing.
The Korean script (ban'gull is indeed, an alphabet, but it has one special feature which sets it apart from most others. In English we stan writing at the beginning of a word and write a sequence of letters, each one following the next, until we reach the

We're going to divide looking at the alphabet and pronunciation into three sections, first, to introduce you to the letters of the alphabet, then to look at the way that we have romanized those

end. Usually (apart from the case of silent letters and other peculiarities) we pronounce each letter in turn in the sequence running from left to right.
sequence, writes

However, in 1446 King Selong, the most famous of all the Korean kings and queens, commnded extensive research to be condued in order to produce a writing system especially designed for writing Korean. This was carried out by a team of scholars, and the accuacy and sophistication of their research and phonological analysis is still a source of amazement to scholars today. The Korean alphabet, han'gul, s perhaps the most outstanding scientific and cultural achievement of the Korean nation.
If you are to take seriously the task of learning Korean, there is no substitute for leaming to read the Korean script. It is not especially difficr:lt (certainly not as difficult as it looks), and you will soon come to appreciate both its uniqueness and its

Korean, however, instead of writing a string of letters in its letters in syllable blocks. Thus, take the Korean word which is pronounced as komapsumnida. It means thank you.In Eng|ish we write the letters ftto right, k-o-ma-p-s-u-m-n-i-d-a, but Korean breaks the word into syllables: ko-map-sum-ni-da. Don't worry about the form of the letters, but simply have a look at the way this works in Fig. l



Vhat we will be learning about fust, then, is how to write

other to make up words and sntences.

Korean syllables. These syllables are then placed next to each

Writing Korean
Every Korean syllable begins with a consonant lener (if the syllable begins with a vowel then a special null consonant symbol is inserted in place ofthe consonant letter; this looks like
a zero, and is the last consonant letter in Fig. 2). This consonant


the dialogues in this book appear first in Korean script, followed by a romanized version. For the fust few lessons you may well want to re on the romanized version so that you can quickly begin to slxak Korean words and sentences without bcing troubled by the initial difficulty of being slowed down by

letter has a vowel letter either on its right or underneath it (some

vowels go both to the right and underneath; we will deal wi those Ir). Every syllabie must have the consonant letter plus a vowel letter. Sbme syltables have another consonant letter written underneath the first consonant and the vowel, and occasionally you will meet syllables that have two consonants next to each other in this final, underneath position.


-T- -lL


+H5x?Fh E9e'


For now we will just concentrate on syllables that have one

consonant letter and one vowel ltter. Here are some consonant

You are now in a position to do Exercises 1 and 2 and you

should do these at this point.




These are pronounced as follows: k as n kitchen; t as in toad; ch as in chamber; m as in miseri n as in nannyi D as in ihe last'letti is the zero or null consonant, which means the 'o'y; syllable begins with a vowel sound - you must always write this null consonant whenever the syllable begins with a vowel sound. Remember that we can add a vowel letter either to the right or underneath these. First, the vowels that go to the right-hand side. In Fig. 3 you will see the vowels a as in bat, as in hot, ya as in va'' y as in yonder' i as in /ir or ea in heat (this is why to'tell which one is to be used where!). uou n..'d't" 'on '..o.ios the next line we he made up syllables with the consonants you have learned. These are' respectively: ka' k' lga' ky' ki' tya, ti, pa, p, chi, ch, ma, m, ny, n, i, ya.

Read the following Korean words written in Korean script and listen to the recording.

exercise t

3 "l"l 5 zl. / )J-JIL 9 -t9

f,! Exercise


4* 6 0lol 8 .E-71



Read the following Korean words written in Korean script and listen to the recording.
3 5

)t^)lA)lLttl Bl l Xl I] 0l Bl
Ll 0l
Fig. 3




olBlrl q"t t+
4^] .E^I

2 qqq 4 7l+ 6E+


10 Llzl-al


There are also other vowels which have to be written under the consonant letter. Some of these are in Fig. 4, and underneath are some syllables for you to praise. The vowels are pronounced o as n boat (note that this is different to the vowel which you have learnt above); u as oo in pool; yo as in yoe[ yu as in yuletidel as u in curd ot e in er. The syllables we have given you a..' to' to, tyo, tyu, t, ko, k, pu, pyo, cho, ch' mu, myu, nyu, no, o, yo.

Now, as we remarked earlier, you can add another consonnt underneath the first consonant and the vowel letter, to give three-lettered svllables. Ve need at this point to tell you that the null consonant symbol (the little circle) has two functions. r\t the beginning of the syllable it tells you that the syllable begins with a vowel sound. However, in last place in a syllable it represents the sound ng as in bring. Some combinations are illustrated in Fig. 5. The syllables we have given are: kim, pak, min, chm, kn, pyng, kom, chun, yop, tm, pang
and fing.

)t cr

_a=.Q=8t.9 ErLl!J(=too
Flg. 5

Ht ot xt )l L-i E L-i


It is now time to learn some more consonants. These are given i.t iig. s, attd they are, respectivety: I as in ladle,h as in bope, s as in sa.
Fig, 6

s! E!


0H )l



The 6nal four consonants on the list are aspirated versions

(made with a puff of air) of the four consonants you have met alreadv, k. t. o'and ch. we romanize e aspirated versions as k', t'_ h;.'To .ake these aspirated sounds shape your mouth 'l,ou "'"d would to make e normal k, t, p or ch sound, and then "" the sound by forcing air out of your mouth in a rush' If make vou Dut vou hand'to you' lips as you make them (or hold up a 'oaoer) heei of vou shbuld fel the puff of air as you make the (or ihood.." the paper mve). Imagine the difference sound betwee saying rhe c in oi curse if you were saying it calmly and narurallv. and saying it again when you wee irrltated wlth someone 'dn't be riicilous, o course it's not, stupid!'. The first would be the Korean letter k, and the second would be k'. The difference can be important; as an example, the word pa means concer?r' business (as in 'it's not you concern'), but the word p'a means a sPring onionl

Finalln cenain vowels are made up of combinations of others (you read the one underneath fust, then the one on the righthand side). You can probably work out the pronunciations of these for yourself, but we give you them in any case. They are as in Fig. 9: wa (o + a) as in uag1wo (u + ) as ua in uantedi wae (o + ae) as the word uhere; we (wu + e\ es ue in ueti oe (o + i) as in German Goethei wi (u + i) as in French ozi; y
( + i, say them together' fast)' sometimes Ponounced as e.





In addition, the four consonants k, t, p and ch, along-with- s can also be'doubled (that is, one written immediately after the other). This is a bit more difficult to explain than aspiration' Here vou make vour mouth (lips and tongue) very tense and make ihe sound iightly, withoui a puff of air. Once again the

Occasionally you will meet syllables that have two consonants in the 6nal place. Unless we tell you otherwise (by missing one of them out in the romanization) both of these should be pronounced. You will find a couple of examples, along with some examples of the vowels in the last paragraph, in Fig. 10. The syllables we have given you are; ilk, wae, kwon, hwan, palk, kwi, mwo, oen and ps.





difference is imponant, and the best way to pick it up- listen to the recordig or a Korean speaker, and try to imitate the sounds. we roanize these by kk, tt, pp, cch. The consonant s can also be doubled to give ss. Fig. 7 has examples of syllables containing the double and aspirated consonants.

You have now learned the entire Korean alphabet, and are
ready to tackle all the exercises,


)Jz'AE !&&&






You can also now look up in a dictionary any word you find written in the Korean script. The order of the Korean alphabet is given in Fig. 11. Notice that all the words beginning with vowels are grouped togaher under the null consonant symbol. This means that all the vowels (the last 21 symbols on the list), occur in the dictionary at the place marked by the asterisk.

There are also a few more vowels to learn. Fig. 8 contains the vowels ae as a in carei e as in heti yae as in yestetday; ye also as in 'yesterda (there is no significant difference in sound
between ye and y}. These sounds are illustrated in the syllables maan, p'en, yae, kye.

--l -n 10r-





EC= t =



rl rll


tl E 7r







Exercise 3 ftre'fottow;"s Korean words written in Korean script are the names of coutries which you should be able to recognize' Read *'ite dow what the English equivalent is' it'. ""-"' ""d

course, and become competent t handling Korean as a spoken language as soon as possible.

'lhe second reason is that often Korean letters are not pronounced

1 q7l^ 3 a{E 5 4]]s! 7 Eql^l o}


2 E^13 4 qlE 6 {E} 8 eE oldl


cxactly as they are written, or rather, certain lefters are pronounced in a different way under ceftain circumstances. !e could explain all the rules for this and let you work out the
pronunciation for youtself. However, by using the romanization guidelines, most of this is done for you. 'Ihere are several different methods of romanizing Korean, and the one we have used is a modified version ofwhat is known as
the McCune-Reischauer system.


r'. forro*l"g Korean "English

wrds from iu"J th. na-..nd

Execise 4

3 aEl s 4qe 7l2 e g_drl e4A



2 4 "l:' 4 q^l a Altsl 6 }ola-zg 8


words witten in Korean script are loan which you should be able to rccognize' write down what the English equivalent is'

You have already seen the way we romanize most of the letters

rom the previous explanation of the Korean alphabet, but there nre a number of points to notice:

13 4vil+

10 d=g:l 12 4lr-l /14 .tr}E

f,l Exercise 5 "a th" following

2^lrl 1!8. 4 3 .saol oJ"d4^ig 6 +'J d/8ts S 8 "J+ 7 ^lB 10 E 9 JB

Korean words and listen to the recoding'

k, t, p and ch are all written as such at the beginning of a word; howeverjn actual pronunciation, they can be pronounced g, d, b and i if they are preceded and followed by vowel sounds. Ve do not indicate this in the romanization, so that you can be sure where you should be looking up words in dictionaries or glossaries. lf you listen to the recording (as you should), you will be reminded when these letters should be pronounced in the different way. However, in the middle of a word, these letters k, t, p, ch are written as g, d, b and j when they occur beween vowels. Therefore, the word which is written in Korean letters as ha-ko (the dash marking the syllable break) will be romanized here as hago. The consonants m and n are romanized as such; double consonants re wrinen as kk, tt, pp, ccfu aspirated consonants are written as k', ' p'' ch'; the zero or null consonant is not romanized since it has no sound remember to write it in the Korean script when a syllable begins with a vowel however. As the last consonant in a syllable, we romanize it as ng, which is the way it is pronounced (as in bringl. The lener h is sometimes not pronounped; in those cases we do not romanize it, although we indicate its presence in the vocabularies by writing it in brackets as in the word man(h)i" pronounced mani. When the lener h occurs as the last consonant in a syllable and the following syllable begins with k, t, p or ch, then those sounds become apirated. Instead of

This book gives you a romanized version of all the Korean ,h. l"..on notes it contains (that is, written in Jigu.' "d letters). ln addition, Korean scipts are glven ior all me Enelish
diaTogues and the new vocabularies.

Romanization o Korean

This is not because we believe the Korean alphabet to, be On e contrary, as we have aleady stessed' it '"i.'"""''. i*oon"nt that you learn it. However, there are two i. ""fo *h'" *. h"ve consistently used romanization, in addition ."^''' io p.intin tn. dialogues and ihe vocabularies in the Korean i' tt'awe want you to move quickly through the


. .

writins hk in romanization, therefore, we write k', which is the w in which the Korean is acrually pronounced'

Exercise 2 |'ut the following Korean words in romanization orm.

The vowels are saighorward, and are 1663nj'd -in the wav we described when going through the lettrs ot the Korean Be carefrrl to wtchihe two os, o and (as in over and ^lo'habet. .rther), also remember that is pronounced as the u in bura; the ,.r i. ionoonced as tbe u in lute. You should look over J...,firi." ithe no*els again at this point to ensure that you
are happy with them.
In conclusion. a word about double consonants' By this we mean two svllablesin whi the first ends with the same consonant as

The consonant s is pronounced sh (as in slzll) when it is followed by the vowel i, and we romanize it as sh ln such i;;.*. ote that ss i i is pronou''ced sshi, but we romanze it as ssi. Finallv. the consonanr I is a linle tricky' Sometimes-it is o.o',ounced l (when one of the |etters to the side o t is I ."n.n"nrl. bw between vowels it is pronounced r' Wt romanize it ai I or r according to the pronunciation' I ake . the word il for example, which means- da,y' lVhen the word is followed by the subject Particle -i, the pronounced,as an . so we romanize it as ir-i. what you have to remember is that in the vocabulary this will be listed under il, and not i..ji.oundt a bit puzzling at 6rst, but you will soon get used to it, and theie is no real difficulty'

I ,d^Jts J {qs-l
el 7 ^i+ e rll^l+

2 ^l+ 4 olq 96 "JLl+ I q;l



Although Korean writing is consistent (that is, a word is always rpclt in the same way), some syllables are pronounced in fferent ways in certain contexts (if swrounded by certain other syllables or sounds), For example, an n can, given certain conditions, be pronounced like an l. In Korean script the letter would still be written as an n, but Korean speakers would know to pronounce it as an l. You will know, not only because we are now going to tcll you the most important of the pronunciation rules, but also
bccause our romanization

D Pronunciation

will tell you.


;" ilt,i .on.o""n, of the second (om-ma; man-na; hal-la)' ln these cases, hold on to the consonant sound a httle longer ,-ft"" *oria if there was iust one, for example, with omma, "." then. keeping your mouth closed and still making the t"u 'J.'. '*,ni.i,.oud oi th m, make a little pause before you say tt' 'ma'. Lisen to this on the recording; don't get anxious about sound a llttle longer iust emembe to try to make the consonant ihan vo,t would if ihere were only one of them' ,ro* io a position to do the exercises on romanization' Yoo "." Exercis 1 !rite the following in Korean script' 2 kayo 1 Jaemin 4 yangju t chigum
marn anju 7 mashida 9 chinccha

k, t and p precede m or n or l, they are pronounced (and romanized) as ng, n and m respectively. If the lctter they precede is an l, then the I also changes to an n sound. 'l'he following examples show in the left column how they would be spelt in han'gul, and in the right-hand column, the way they are pronounced and romanized. We have put dashes in to indicate the syllable breaks,
When the letters



hang-nyn tan-nun-da ham-ni-da


Rule 2
I is pronounced as an n when immediately preceded by any consonant except I or n. Thus we have tong-nip as above (from tokJip), shimni (from shim-li). Whenever an I appears next to an n, either as

6 8

10 uri

chungguk pap

lcsulting pronunciation is

nl or ln, the ll: chilli from chinJi, illyn from

Rule 3
lf a word ends in a consonnt and it is not followed by a Particle a little word that anaches to nouns), or the verb -leyo (to De ln a iearned in Unit 1), then the last consonant is pronounced l hat means tnat soecial way. The last consonant is not eleased' ;";;;;';h;;"J "s vou *oold in English, mo'ing vour mouth into psition to make a 6nal consonant sound (see below).and iav it, but stopping short of releasing any air' lt ilff;i; wo'uld sund to an English speaker almost as if the consonant had been swallowed. If the last consonant is a ch, ch', s, ss or h, th-en the sound that is the sound t (agaln' ou begin to make at the end of rhe word you don't release it). 'We felt it was imponant to include these rules, becalse- they "r.. i_t'i u".i. ..iu."t. and enable you to understand what is soins on when it seems that the Koean text does not matcn uP _ii'i actually.say' or " -*""i*,ion you to what Korean-speakers ab-out lt'.lt become overly worrled to But we don't want vou listen to the recording regularly, and look caretully at the korean script and the romanization, then you will-soon pick up the rules, and the explanations we have given in thts sectton wtu help you as you go. There is a practice exercise, howeve_r, to enable you to pactise the rules of this section' lf you preer' you can sklP rt ano ger straight on with the lessons themselves'

A-Korean never releases a consonant at the end of a syllable cxcept when the word is followed a particle or ending that begis with a vowel. The following examples show in the left column when the lst consonant is not released, and in the right trrlurnn when the last consonant is released before vowels.

Exrcise 2

ld chip d.ll 2* ap *ql

l* 4* s* 6*

l,isten to the tape and practise them.

ot nat nat nat 7E kuk ll 9f pak e* pak l0* kkot

9 }+e *"1 )+ol ol qlgE+{ " *ol I


chib-e ap'-e osh-ieyo nach-n


nash'-i kug-ieyo pakk-e pat'-e


How to use the course

Most of the 14 units of this course follow the same pattem.
lntroduction An introduction in English that explains what you will learn in the unit. l)ialogue In each unit there are two dialogues, followed by a list rrf new vocabulary and some simple comprehensin questions


following exmples show in e left column how they wo-uld ;;;;;a i; ;;;;;"i''and in the right_hand column, the way they a.e p.onounced and romanized. Listen to the recordlng and pactise them.


in English or Korean. Each dialogue is followed by grammar notes which explain how to use the language patterns that have
t)m up.

Ithrases and expressions This section gives you expressions that nrc commonly used as set phrases, and also gives you translations

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

=4 +"J hang_gung-mal +Ll sung_ny *q 4 kam-ni-ta tsr+ tan_nn-da chang-mun 4 kung-min E"J sim-ni d4 am-mun "J* sim-man 10 d Yl


which you are not yet ready to analyse and which you must lcrrn simply as set expressions for the time being. Vocabulary New words from the dialogues will go into the vrrcabulary section. The list of words in the vocabulary follows rhc order in which they appear in the dialogue. Sometimes we llso give you additional words which are closely related to the orres that occur in the dialogues.
'l he units are meant to teach you how to use Korean practically

snippets o dialogue which contain dicultgrammar patterns

in cveryday situations

- how

to order in a restaurant, how to

complain when your hotel room isn't quite what it should be, how to express opinions and disagreements, and so on. Grammar To be able to do these things, however, you need to have a good understanding of grammar. This is the purpose of the cmmentary sections' Do not be put off by the quantiry of grammar explanations' theefoe' You do need these in order to ipeak Korean properly. We have done our best to keep unncessary detail ad minor exceptions to rules out of the text. Do nt worry if you don't undirstand every single bit of gammatical structure in the Korean dialogues. The important hing is that you learn the dialogues thoroughly, and that you
undrstand the main grammar points of each unit. Practice Please do the exercises! Don't be tempted to skip to the next unit until you've done them, checked them in the key at the back of the book, understood your mistakes and learned the corect ansE'ers' Take time to learn the Korean alphabet properly' and make sure you write the exercises out in Korean script, even if you also do them in romanization.


I you lvant to have a good command of spoken Korean, you will find the recording ssential. Listen to it as often as you can - take it with you in the car or in your walkman for example. Listen back over units that you studied previously; listen to future units - to make yourself familiar with the sounds
and intonations - picking out what you can' ven though you won't understand eYerything. Although the going will seem tough at times, Korean is a fun language, and studying it can be very rewarding. Remember to enjoy youself - the best way to do so is to follow the maxim 'a little and often'!

o J o o o

oJ tr o .l oo {r
{ I

l \


{r gt

ln lhis unit you will leam . how to talk about whore you ars going and why . how to ask quBstions . how to o1der dinks and

. .


how to make polite requests how to form what is knowl as the polite styls of spch


basic structuro of Kooan

thg stget and asks him wher6 sangmin meets his iend Jaemin in ha is otf to.

D Where are You off to?


namel -ssl l||


E aE

ll'l oJ l^l

!H lrn

! 9! E l^ll B uti. ei'":t,Hlet _IlHolE? ul , Lll . ol trl '/t li'/



ns ul chal


yes gpod' wdl (verb\

where? go (verb stem) 9o (stem plus polite ending -yo) now town centra o (prsposition, attachss to nouns) what? do (verb stm) do (stem plus polite ending -yo, inegular form)
in order to (verb\ in ordr to do

se section 2)


with people's names;


kayo chigm I|=

shnag l|u
_e _01





'J'J'^l3 ]l9' 7lB. ] aol lt9.^lu'll Ul. eol

na- 0lhaeyo Ug
(verb stem) -

mwo ?l

Ne. Annyng hasgyo! chal chinagssyo? J;;il sangmin Ne, ne. di kayo? Jaemin chigm shinae'e kayo' sangmin Mwo ha_r shinae_e kayo? Jaemin Ppang sa-r kayo' sangmin tt_d ppang sa+ shinaeie kayo' Jaemin Krm kaoh'i kayo'


ha-r oJd ppang B sa- l-





1 2 3 4 5

Ne' Kach'i kayo'

How is Sangmin gening on? Vhere is Jaemin going?


km f a kach'i aol




buy (verb stem) buy (stem plus polite ending -yo)



too, so (particle, attaches to nouns) then, in that case


Vh else is going rere? Vhat does Jaemin suggest?

bello!lhotu are You? hellollfine (note: this Phrase is both a question and a rePlY) bow haie you been doing fuening on)? fine.'taell) thanks (l'ue been gettng ' 'on (queston and reply) where are you going? what are you going to . . . to do!



Korean names
a two-syllable

Phases and expressions

annyng haseyo? annyng haseyol chal chinaessyo

Krrrean names usually consist o three syllables. The fust syllable is the surname (the most common Korean surnames being Kim,

irst name. There are odd exceptions: sometimes the first name will only contain one syllable. The two names in this dialogue, Jaemin and Sangmin, are both fust names. and Pak), and this is usually followed by

chal chinaessyo.

di kavo?


ln Korean, the surname (when it is used) always comes first, the opposite of tre English order. Therefore, Mr Pak Jaemin's rrttrne is Pak, and his first name Jaemin. In this book we rhall always use the Korean order (Pak Jaemin) rather than rhe English (Jaemin Pak). When you are writing Korean names in the Korean script, remember also that Koreans Put no space bctween the surnme and the 6rst name - they are treated llmost like one word.

Talking to riends and talking about them \hen referring to someone you know well in a friendly tt'" direcdy or to talk.about them' .'t*"il;.';i.h.,; w.oo ln
"ad..'. it is ouit acceptable to use their first name, iust ltke trtle--ssl' Eneliih. Following the name you should use the poltte quite well and with- whom il"";-.;i;; ;?i"nd. vou'kno*
vou are on a similar social level as John-ssi, Deborah-ssi' Jaemtn!si, Kyuthae-ssi, and so fonh. that this It is onlv when vou are speaking to a very close friend just use their_name (though l -ssi can'be dropped and you can you use other people are-present it is best to cary on ustnB lt)' lt make any mistakes or ottend anyone' wnereas lr -ssi vou won't y"oi a."pping it, you could make a social mistake'

tlifcrent endings at once onto a verb stem! In the vocabulary ricctions of thiJ book we shall usually list verbs by their stem krrms, and this is the form in which you should learn them. By thc rules we teach you, you will learn how to make the other lllrms of the verb from these stems. In e first few lessons wc shall remind you when we are teaching you e stem form. ll we don't tell you a stem, it is because ere is something odd (irregular) about it, or because we only want you to learn one pnrticular orm of the verb in question for the time being.

Korean verb. Sometimes you might want to add as many as seven

in a dictionary in what is known as the 'rlictionary form'. This is simply the stem with the syllable -ta aftcr h. You can use verbs that you learn from the dictionary simply by trrking off this -ta and using the stem as normal with the endings rlcscribed in this book. There are some verbs which behave a bit
Vcrbs are listed
rxldly, however, and we will not Bo systematically through all thc d'ifferent kinds ofverb stems until Unit 7, so you should hold

All the sentences (except the first) in the dialogue end with a u.ibl" 'doine-*o. d' llk ualk,, go, kir, steal )'- Ko'rean sentences alwavs end ith verbs in this way. In English' the Posltlon ot

Korean verbs

lirc a bit with the dictionary untl that point. Otherwise you tould make some bad mistakes!

o the erb is quite different: we would say, for examp|e'.l 80 will say I shops-to go' Jvlatn vebs tbe sbobs, wherea' a Korean alwavs'come at the end of the sentence, and Settmg. this maior difference in sentence structure takes a liftle whtle' ;;il tt'ougt' you are having to say everything

with quite simple endings, and we will look at these now.

hc verbs in this lesson, ka- (go), ha- ldo), sa- (buyl, all occur

Polite sentences with -yo

'ffi';;. backwards!


The dialos'ue also contains other verbs whch occur in the middle ;i ;;;;";..Even these ae at the end in a sense, however' a clause' clause'is a pa1t o.a ;;.-io ffi;;; "nd ."-"L... *.t' t'"s its own verb and which could stand on its For example' the il;;;; ;;;i.;;; ii were.hanged a lirtle bit-' two clauses' botn go is made up of sentence I you come then l'll of which culd stand on their own as sentences you co? e anr Korean sentences iit sot. To summarize, Korean clauses and about clauses and ;';;ilil;;;l-u.'s ", the end' More clause endinBs late. You will notice that all the verbs have endings to tbem' The rs.a polrte verbs at the end of the sentences all end in -yo'.'l his a sentence. The mid-sentence verbs ln thls lesson wav of endinq all end with -i. This is explained in note 7'

'l'hc verb stems of this dialogue all end in vowels (ka-, halnd sa-), and to these you can add what is called the polite rntence ending' -yo, to frm a sentence. This polite sentence
crrding -yo is also known as a particle, and it is sometimes called

tltc'plite particle'. Note that the verb ha- is irregular, and the 1xllit sentence form is haeyo, not hayo as you would have

Knyo is in itself a cornplete sentence (or clause) which means l g4 be goes, she goes, e go, etq depending on the context.
trr make a

Ihcre is no need to specify precisely who does the going in order go Korean sentence. Thus, if you are alking about ytrur mother, or example, and want to say that she goes lrrtnewhere, Korean onl requires that you say kayo - you don't ttr'cd to use a word for se. Wc ought to explain the term 'polite sentence ending' (or 'polite 1'rrrticl'). Koren has various styles or levels of speech which rrr: used according to the social situation in which you are rgrcaking. For example, when you are having a drink with close

cante Korean verbs are made up of stems onto which endings ; .,n"'r n"' a stem; it is the most basic pan of a ;il;._

friends, you will use a very different speech style to that which you would use if you were addressing a meeting, or talking to somebody for the first time. The speech style is shown in Korean principally by the verb endings. Atthough we have formal and informal language in English, we do not have anything as
systematic and widespread as the Korean system of verb endings. These verb endings are crucial to every Korean sentence, since you ctnnot say a Korean sentence without selecting a speech style in which to say it. You have now begun to leam the most common, -yo, which marks the polite style of speech. This can be used in most social situations, pafticularly if it is neither especially formal nor intimate. It is, if you like, a middle-of-the,'11r'sire o- what we would say in English. sually the order is lubjact _ object - uerb (SoV or short). This gives, Pee r tbe bull ku kul, Mary tbe shops-to uent.

rt litcrllly means 'well have you been getting on?', which is the


road style!

Verbs in the polite sryle may b statemenb, questions, suggestions or commands - this is expressed in the tone of voice that you use to say the sentence rather than being shown explicitly in the form o the verb. You have seen this several times already in tbe dialogue. The phrase kach'i kayo is fist a suggestion' then when it is used a second time it is a statement. Chal chinaessyo can be both a question, asking how someone is, or a statement, saying at you are fine. nnyng haseyo can also be both a question and a statement, depending on the way in which you say it.

|'lrr.other verb ending introduced in this dialogue is _r which You add this onto a verb item at the end ttl it clause, iust as you added -yo to verb stems at the nd of illlcnces. Note that, with verb stems which end in consonants {yorr haven't learned any yet, but will soon). you add the form ttrl {rather rhan just -r) to the verb stem. '
tuv,tns in order to.

Who are you taIking abou?

hc rnost_ complicated part here is sorting out the word order. I.ct's look at the English sentence ,l'm soins to the shoos Irr order ro buy bread'. Korean says this iy iutting the rdo rlrrrrscs the orher way round: iz order to buy breadT'm soins ro ,hc shops. However, that's not all! Remember th-at ii rrrlrlition, Korean puts its verbs at the end of clauses and rnucnces, and puts verb and clause endings after that. This grvcs us 1 |bread bay-in otder to| to the shps go. Notice llx' way one clause is embedded inside the the]r. Usuallv tlrc srrbject of the sentence comes first (in this case, I), en th! Irr order-to clause, then the place where you're going, then the

specify the sublect of the sentence, i.e. precisely who is doing the action the sentence describes. You can specify it if you want to for special emphasis, but as loqg as it is clear from the contexc, Korean does not require it. Odi kayo? therefore, means uhere are you going - but it is not necessary to say 'you',
because the context makes it clear that the speaker is asking the hearer. If you look at e last seven sentences in the dialogue

As we've already mentioned, Korean does not need you to

rrurin verb:


go to rhe shops

bread buy in-order-to

buy bread shops-to go


(English) (Korean)

(from line 3), you'll see that only one uses a sublect (na-do ppang sa_r kayo). The subject of that sentence (na_do) is stated for emphasis.

|'llc other part of the sentence, the iz ordef to . . . bit comes st' ,rl in ppang sa-r kyo' or PPang sa-r shinae-e kayo. This is th

l hcrefore, the Korean sentence order is na_do poang sa_r kavo |l to bread buy-in-order-to go). In other wors, th main veib rl the sentence is the going, for example kayo or shinae-e kavo.


Word order


obably be wrong!

Don't be tempted to try other ordrs _ they will


have seen that the word order of Korean sentences is very different from English. Ch chinaessyo? is a nice example, as

Nrrrp: This construcrion is only used with verbs of.going'and ',,'rlring'. It cannot be used with other verbs at the nd f the \rDlCnCe.

D Cheers!
sangmin gos to a bar with his iends and orders rom the raite.

gE olBu 8E olxlrl 8E 0llllll aqJ

... 9iote.

ilgrn golt! DlEe}+}n .] Dgt! 9ol +^le.

Grt ilote. g!?llt EAte. ,J^lLltrt.
H !

El flae. tLlt! 4+ tu +^le. ^+, L1t. g1{otr. letn gi+E +^ilg. 9t ?10t8?





'. ^+ P1ol9? E+, g+ ?,lole. t'4+


ajssi 0]lll soiu + is8- 9lmaokiu q+ 'l0|9 yangiu g+ -hago

waiter! soiu, Koaan winelvodl<a (1) exist' there islae (em) (2) have (stm) (as above, polite style)




ta El

spiits, westem liquor

Aj&g Sangmin Ajgsi sangmin Ai&si


Sangmin Ailssi,

olxlll $

littlg while late, the waiter brings the older - .

chuseyo +[fl prease g've (polite request om) k]igo f e|l and (atso) (used to begin a sentence) anju E+ snacks or side dishes for ddnks kwail ilEl oiing 9!|0| marn anju llE E+ p'ajn uE




all, everything


one and

g,v9 (stm)

(o f'ends)



a/so fruit

soju issyo? Ne, ns. lssyo. soju, maekju, yangju -ta issyo. Krm, maekju hana-hago soju hana chuseyo.
Ne. Algessyo.


ysi o{]l

died snacls Korean-sft pancake

Krigo anju-do chuseyo. Mwo issyo? Kwail_hagoo.iing-hagomarnanju-hagop'ain-hago


Krm, kwail-hago ojing chuseyo.


'|'he verb issyo means there is ot there ate, depending on_what yrru are talkig about (thete is a booh, there are some sbeep\.


little while latar, the waiter tuings the order . .

There is/there are

1 2 3 4 5

Sangmin Sargmin

Ygi issyo. Mashikke tseyo.

Kamsa hamnida.
(o fn'snds)


What drinks does the waiter have? How many drinks does Sangmin order? What else does he ask aboutl What side dishes does he order? !hat does the waitr wish his guests?

i'h".r"rn of ts verb ii iss-, and before tlre polite particle -yo cnn be added, the vowel - has to be inserted. This is because irs- ends with a consonant' whereas the verbs from the first rlialogue all ended with vowels. To repeat' stems ending in
vowels usually make the polite form by adding -yo (an exception ir the verb ha- (do), which, as you will remember, becomes

Phrases and exprssions

algessyo kamsa hamnida ygi issyo mashikke tseyo
. . . issyo? . . . chuseyo

please giue me . , . finelun der stoodlr igh t autay


hncyo not hayo). Stems ending in consonants add the ending -vo to form ihe oolite sryle' unless e last vowel in the stem is n-" o, -o. in which case'-ayo is added to make the polite style'



tbank you here you arelbere it is haue a good meallenjoy your food

consonant-stem (1lnsonant-stm


ite style


if last uoutel is 'a or -o otheruise '|'he opposite of the verb iss- is ps'(there isn't or there arm't';. ||rom ihe rules given earlier, yo can work out that its polite
style forrn is psyo.

+ + +


ayo yo

This pair o verbs, as well s expressing existence and location (as in chgi issyo' it's ouet tbere, it e'cisr oue there|, have another meaning o haue.Issyo can mean I hauelbe has (onel some), and' 'psyo can mean l don't haue. You can tell by the context which is the relevanr meaning.

You will notice again that you can make a complete sentence just with a verb (like issyo). You don't need io specifv the subiect (who has), and you don't even need to specifu-whai it is that you are talking about, provided that the-coniext makes it clear-. In English we usually do need to specify this son o thing, but Korean likes to be economical ad t cut out any unnecessary information.

zar}es. once again' this is because _hago belongs ii' tt'. nou it i. *ith; it is notl free word like the English 'and'' ll thcre are more than two items in a list, each word is followed hy hago, with the exception of the last, e.g.: t ildr ette s-ha1o ffiatches-hago asbtray-hago lightet
itt,ttIse) haqo

lowever. vou can also add -haco onto the last noun of the group wani to. This eives the squence a vaguer ring - as though -more items in the list, but you are decidilg thrrc mieht be even lll lit()p ere (or can't think of any more for the time being).

rl vrlu

Waiters and shopkeepers

The word 3issi literally means zzcle, but it is used as a general term to refer to a shopkeeper, waiter' or even a man in i street on occasions when formality is not called for. It can only be used for males. For females the rerm is aiumma which liteially means azz, but is used for any woman who is, say, over 35. Thi term agassi should be used to refer to and attract the attention of young women.

Ihc particle -hago can also mean'with'. Thus you can- say lrcrnin-ha*o shin-e kayo (l'm going m toul with laetnin|. once ,rrr,rirr. vocan add more names to the list, e.g. Jaemin_hago \,rntmin-haco shinae-e kayo. when you ae using _ba8o to mean use a sjighdy exended form of the panicle' u,li, you c "lso h116o kach'i, e.g.:
lrrrnin-hago kach'i shinae-e kayo.

Asking for things

Korean partacles

In the ntroduction we talked about the way Korean adds

little words called particles to the ends of wors. You can see this clearly in the dialogues. We have shown the particles bv inserting a dash between the word and the particle,is in na-d (me-too), shinae-e (toum eentre-to = to totunJ. Notice that the Particle always comes after the noun that it elates to. Bnglish often does the oPPosite of this. Ie would say .with me' school', bur Korean says me-wilh and schoollto.

Yorr have learned about Korean verb stems and the polite lrrrlinq -vo. You will see that this dialogue contains the verb r hrrtco.' The stem here is chu_, and the usual polite style rrrrlinu is -vo. The bit in the middle however, you will learn ulx,rrr'later. It is a form used to make polite requests, and or rurw simolv memorize the form chuseyo as a word meaning

irrl'hikie tuseyo. Mashikke means tastily, and

siie'me.You have also seen the same ending in the phrase tseyo' comts zib e ot take in.Thereore the lri,ttt a verb stm which means |ltrrnl meaning is'plase eat tastily'.


Asking or'one'

Giving lists, and saying ,and'

The Korean word for and is the particle -bago. Imagine that you want to say one thing azd anothe cigarcttes and matcbes. In Korean, the particle -hago attaches to the fust noun o the pair, so that you would say,: cigarettes-hago makhes. The hago becomes a part of the word cigaremes, since as a particle it h;s to be attached ro a noun. If you want to pause between the two words, you must pause after saying hago, not before, e.g. cigarettes-hago |pause| matches. You must not say cigarefts

lrr thc dialogue, an order is made for a beer anda soiu. Notic lr,'w the nubr h ana (one) comes afrcr what is being ordered.

nsk for one beer you say maekiu hana chuseyo' To ask for rrr tca you can say ch'a hana chuseyo.

l(lnrEns love to get together and drlnk and tho most popular dink |lllllcularly among men is soiu, Korean winvodka, which has about r rb% alcohol content. The normal fom o soju does not have an

Korean drinking habits

especia|ly strong taste, though recently it is being drunk moe and more in fuit flavours like chery (cd squ) and lemon (enon sU), and there is also even cucumbr flavour (oi soju). Beer is bcoming increasingly popula, with Korean bo6rs being typically sweeter and lighte than their westem counteparts' Anothe favourito is mekklll, which is also made rom rice, and has a thick milky consistsncy. lt s the kind o drink that you will pobably either love or hate'

;,';y';;;;; h;"en't

to use As vou are doinq these exercises, don't be tempted to try

t '

given you. You shouldn't need any! Uniumble the following sentences: write them in-the correct f"ti it t.*anizad'on, then in Korean script for practice' "ri.t forget to work out the meaning! Don't

spoken in a quasi-Ameican accnt, s very popula ln Koroan bas (the word for bar is sulchip, lileally fuze hclrse!). lf you 9o out to drink with Korean riends the will b toasts bgore each shot, and 'you will be expectd lo say one (English will b quit accaptablo, at irst!). Another popular habit is for sach person to sing a song' so be ready with a few BVis or Beatles numbrs, no matte how bad your
singing voico might be! Another allemative is the national anthem!

soiu is usua|ly drunk in shots liks vodka, and thg phrase o,e sot',

a kayo ilbon_e chigm b issvo maekchu ajssi . ,"-'b k"g"-. mw kayo d chuseyo-ojing yangju_hago e krigo chuseyo aniu_do f na-do kavo kage-e g marn tjpap niu-hago issyo

maek|u-hago Make up Korean sentences to say that there is or there are the following things.

You will need the following words for the exercises.

What other meaning could these sentences have? Imagine that the following Korean sentences were spoken to iuu] rvr"t. up an appropiiate response in each case'

gE =+ Japan sullp lg Pub haklqo |l school Fp g rice (cookd nce) k-dam-e f EtEil aftthat'.. kase TlIl s/,op mashi- El^|- d'hk (veb stem) ani- El- s (veb stsm) q- ga
mk(Vob stem)

tungguk llbon


I qq 7ls? 2 q7l glqe. ] J.d}49! 4 A 4x.qs? 5 +] "}^le-l aql 7}g? +' E+, "} 4 "^lqg.

(iive the polite style form of the following verbs' Try making q short sentence out of each one. ps! kac isssa-

mk- (eat|

e has ani- (sir )

d s you going to the town cene now? e where are you qoins? f we have ber, uit ind bread - all of thern! E flease atso gtve me some rice. yout l we don,t squid. En|oy your meal! r lre'Is have western spirits. Then give me a please. j Some Korean pancake and a soiu, please.
grve you the following things.

; fftr tr :*ii:':.:"i"! n..'"o, c What are you doing after'that?

Translate the following sentences into Korean,

Make up rwo dialogues, based on the foltowing scenarios. a You meet .a friend who is going to the shop. Greet him and ask where he is going' Suggest- that yogo together. rle egees and su8gests that atter that you go to the pub


for a beerYou are in a pub where you meet a friend. Ask how he's been and order a beer and a soiu for the two of you. Ask the waiter what snacks he has, make op response and order some fruit. "n "pi.op'it

Get the ayentign of

e following

people and ask them to



by a waiter for two orders.

l' lll ''l ^ Dl+

-44 +


7 1D{ T

+ -


D Long time, no see!

Mr Kim mets an old riend Mr Pak and is introduced to Mr Pak's

IlHol9? olll9? ul. XlH'olg. E ^lgE ]X1 ]allB. (pointing to his wife, +al ^lB0l0llB. 0l! ]dl'lg? HJaLIQ. g "Jol edg BJaLlEl. 11= Eglfle. jdg +E =fl.olE. r= z!g0lole. P!u^l BJaLIt}. e!!

ea t'J{S eg ttl^{ lI

adu ' 9!56t^ll9? ]d.J


0t| ! EEl^llg! gata$0l0ll9 u| . ]?l19. !il} 9?1lzoJ0l0llE'

e! l.{da

oo o J 5 o GI o o 1+ 1+ o t3 \ J uo o t1+ u

M Pak M Kim
M Pak

Kim snsaengnim, annyng haseyo? A! Pak snsaengnim! Annyng haseyo!

Mr Kim Mr Pak M Kim Mr Pak Mr Kim

M Pak's M

oaeganman-ieyo! Ne' Kraeyo. Chinccha oraeganman-ieyo. chal chinaessyo? Ne. chal chinaessyo. Yojm sab-un ttaeyo? Kuj kuraeyo'
A! Kuraeyo? Pangapsumnida. Ma|ssm mani

(pointing to his wie, Uri chipsaram-ieyo.




turssyo. Pangapsumnida. chl-nun chang Yunhuy-eyo. ch-nun Kim Jinyang-ieyo. Mannas pangapsmnida'

ln this unit you wlll loam . how to met, grot and

1 2 3 4

How long is it since they met? How is Mr Pak's business doing? r0hat does Mr Kirn say about Mr Pak's wie? !7hat is Mr Pak's wife's name?

. . .

how to iM where you want to be how to say that something is or isn't something olso hovy to givo yor snlonces subiscts and loplcg

inioduco pgoplo

oraeganman-ieyo yo|m sab-un raeyo? ku| kraeyo malssm mani trssyo

Phrases and expressions

long time, no see! so-so l'ue heard a lot about you (mannas)pangapsmnida pleased to meet you!
bou','s business tbese days

Kim snsaongnim

e lsH

at 0ll Pak r{ kraeyo (?) f Il|gp






chip g house person saam chiFaram g^} wife ^lEl


fiaeyo? 0|E|9p ul 9l

'n -g ^lg

Mr Kim (sonsaengnim a|so means tacf'e ah! Pak (Korean sumame) realy (?), is ivit is so (?) (qu6tion and roply) really nowadays busrhess (topic particle: se note 4) how is it?


rneans that someone is a teacher, or whether being addressed as Mr.

tley are simply

Addressing women is a little more complex. Often women are nddressed as being their husbands' wives. This means that Mrs (]ho who is marrid to Mr Kim (Korean women keep their own surnames rather than taking their husbands) may be addressed ns Kim snsaengnim-puia (Kim'Mr-tuife|. You could even say the English Mrs Cho (Misesu Cho), and sometimes Miss is also rused (Misu Pak).


-0l g Eg man(h)i *01 ch n _nn


it is (eq)ivalent to) (noun\

Words' specft much, many, a lot


When you want to say that something li something else (e.g. Mr Kim is a lapanese teacber, thk Abing) is a table, tbis office k tbc Korean d.epartmmt offieel,you use a special verb form called thc copula. Like other Korean verbs, it comes at the end of the rcntence. However, it behaves a little differently to ordinary verbs. 'lir say'A is B' (as in, this is a Chinese book\, you would say; B-ieyo (or B-eyo) this Chinese book-ieyo 'l'he form -ieyo is used

The copula

Jang Yunhui Kim Jiryang

l E9| e lgl

(topic particle) woman's nam (sumame first) man's name (sumame irst)

ir used when 'B' ends in a vowel: :rSnsaengnim-ieyo is a teacber

when'B'ends in a consonant, and -eyo

'!hen you want to address Korean men politely, you can use the title snsaengnim, which literally me ans teaeher, but in practice means Mr, Sir, The title can be used on its own to speak to someone you don't know, with the surname (Kin snsaengnim,

l)lcase note

is beer

Korean surnames and titles

that'is'in this sense means 'is equivalent to, is ldcntical with'; it does not mean 'is located in' or 'is a certain wny' (e.g. is green, k angryl. English does not make this
dirtinction. Look at the following sentences:
this is a book thc book is on the table the book is green

Jinyang snsaengnim (nor, for that matter, can you say Kim-ssi or Kim Jinyang-ssi, both of which would be considered to be qte rude). Notice that, like the polite title -ssi used with first names, the title comes after the person's name, not before as in English. The title snsaengnim originally meant the one who was bom fust, and it therefore shows respect in addressing the person being spoken about as an elder. It is also the normal word for a teacher, and the context is the only way of telling whetier it

Pak snsaengnim), or with the .rll name (PakJaernin snsaengnim). It is never used iust with someone's first name, so you cannot say

ll these use the English 'is', and yet only the fust'is'means 'ir identical to'. The second 'is' expresses location, the third
dcscribes the book. It is only for the first, when you are saying thnt'one thing is equivalent to'or'the same as something else'

thnt the copula (ieyo) is used in Korean. You must be very cnreful with this, as when you start to learn Korean it can be lcmpting to use the copula where you should not.

wc have described the orm A-B-ieyo, but the simple form ll-icyo is iust as common. This occurs several times in this
lcsson, and in all cases there is an implied which is unspoken.

[ook at the following examples (we have put the implied in


oraeganman-ieyo wi chipsaram-ieyo

(a tnatter of) long tbne no see

(tbis person) ,?ry urfe

This is the same thing which we saw in unit 1; e context tells

you what the subiect of the sentence is, therefore you don't have to say it explicitly as you do in English.


- it is

honorific term puin. This term is never used to refer to your own wife, however. In Korean culture you are meant to downplay yourself, your family and your possessions, therefore to speak ibout you. own wife as puin would be inappropriate and possibl even arrogant. lnstead, you use either the word chipsaram lliteraliy house prsoz), or anae. It would be very rude to speak

rbout smebne else's wife with these non-honorific words'

ttaeyo and kraeyo

house, you are expected to say uri (ozr) rather than nae or che,

Furthermore, when referring to your relatives; and even your

Korean has a group of words which mean 'is (a cenain way)'. Ottaeyo means is hou?, as nl


uhat is the teachet like?, hou is

what's business lihe, hou's business?

rhc is no one else's. Everybody is expected to do this when they trlk about their family members.

both o which man my. Thus, you would say uri chipsaram lour wifel when you want to talk about your wife, even though

sab_un ttaeyo?

Kraeyo means is like that. It can be used as a statemnt' e.g. kraeyo (it is like that, th*t's right, it is (so)\. As a question, kraeyo? means is it like tbat? is that so? really?

M o ls looking for the Koean t6acher, Mr Kim. However, irst he mat8 Mr Lee.

D ttt not me!


Korean has a particle which can be attached to a noun or a phrase to emphasize that it is the toPic of the sentence, at is to say, tlle thing which is being talked about. Sometimes we do this in English with an expression like as for ..., for emphasis, We might say, or example, As for my business, it's going pret uell at the motnent, ot As for m.e, l don't Lte cze. Korean does this kind of thing very frequently with the topic particle -u_nun. In the two sntences above, the nouns rzy business and me would both be followed by the topic particle in Korean to show that
they are the topics of their sentences. The particle has two forms, _nn when the noun you are making a topic ends in a vowel, and -n when it ends in a consonant. Examples are soiu-nun (as for soful,laetuin ssl-nin (as for laemin),
snsaengnim_n (as for teacher), sab-ll (as for business)'

9d! dlLlEl 0llg ul? glc eg ds0lAll9? !4"J ds0l o}Ll0ll8. olc o}Ll9. 11=,EaH0l0le. xl= goJ gAlc 0t' 5l LlEt. q]l]l E!+t'J ^lPol 0tLl0llE? uda Lll . !++n+]t o}Ll0llB. q]l= gE+'lollB' gil! ] !+Ei'} oltl0ll9? 0l{ n)l 9lol9. ^}+0l

Mr O gpos over to tho

gdg AdlrloJ' G7l]l E!4+I} ^l+0lole? llda ul . + g0l^llg? gtt{ e!=g d'J oJue{ *ole. shillye hamnida. li o Mr tae Ne?
il]o Mrtoo Mr o Mr [.ge
Aniyo. ch_nun hangungmal snsasngnim-i anieyo' A, choesong hamnida. Ygi-ga hanguk hakkwa

Koran depdtment.


Wives and amily

There are at least three words for wife, and they can be divided into two categories, honorific words and non-honorific words. Koreans are very concemed about polteness, and thetefore when they are referring to someone else's wife they use an

ch-nun ilbonmal snsaengnim-ieyo.

samushir-i anieyo? Ne. Hanguk hakkwa{a anieyo. Ygi-nun ilbon hakkwa-eyo.

Mr Mr

o Le

chgi issyo.

Krm, hanguk hakkwa samushir-i


goes ovr to the Korean


|{'9'. Mr Kim Mr o

shillye_jiman, ygi_gahangukhakkwasamushir-ieyo? Ne. Musn ir-iseyo? Hangungmal snsangnim manna-r wassyo.

1 What does Mr O ask Mr ke? 2 'Who is Mr Lee? 3 Where are Mr O and Mr Lee having their conversation! 'Vhere 4 does Mr O go next? 5 Why has he come?

Phrases and expressions

shillye hamnida . , . iseyo? choesong hamnida . . . di-eyo? shillye-iiman . . . nusn ir-iseyo? ercuse me, please are yoa, .., please? (i.e. the person I'm looking for)

I'm sorry

exeuse me, but . . . uthat is it? bow can I helo vou?


Ve have seen that Korean verbs take many different endings. This lesson contains the phrase shillye hallrtnida (excuse mel, which is made from the verb stem shillye ha-. The polite style form of this, as you would expect from the last lesson, is shillye haeyo, since ha- is irregular. The bamnida form is what is known as the formal style, and usually when you are asking aomeone to ei(cuse you, this is the form you will want to use. The formal and polite styles can be interchanged in many cases; but the formal is generally more suitable when speaking to rcmeone older or higher in satus than you, You will learn about how to make the formal style later. This lesson also contains the forrn shillye-iinan. This is an rbbreviation of shillye ha-iirnan, the -iiman ending meaning ar' The complete expression means I'm sorry, lt. .. Don't worry lbout the -iiman ending for now; you will learn it thoroughly hter. Simply remember shillye-jiman as a set expression.

More on verb endings



uhat's the

problem? '

Joining nouns together

hanguk !+ Korean) (ponounced han_guk hangungmal



-i _01

language Kor@n languaga


anlyo 0lu

(subjecl particle: see notes) /s no (opposite o -oeyo, nsgative Japanese lanwag (subje paticle) department (of college/universi office where? (over) therc what, which rnattr, bLrsi ness, w o r* meet (stem) carne (past tense form)


ilbon gEl ilbonmal -sa -71 hakkwa Pt samushil llFAl




As you know, Korean ataches all kinds of particles on the 'We cnd of nouns to give particular meanings. have indicated paticles by putting a dash between the nouD and its particle. However, Korean also allows many nouns to be srung together ln a sequence. Examples are hanguk + m, which gives hangungnal (Korean hnguage) and hanguk bakkwa which mcans Korean depntnent. We write some of these as one word (like hangungmal), and lag the individual words and e compound form in the vocabulary.

Finding the person you want


chgl I{7|







The copula is Korean's special verb form which allows you to lck if something is something else. You could use it, therefore, to ask a person if they are Mr Kim, say, or Mr Pak. However, when you do this, it is normal to use a special form of the copula -iseyo? This form is an honorific form - it shows politeness to the other person. For the moment simply learn it re a phrase .. . iseyo? for example: Pak snsaengnim-iseyo? Are you Mr Pak? Hangungnral snsaengnim_iseyo? Are you tbe Korean teacher?

sentnce subiects

lA+ubiltopl (B-subi)



In the previous dialogue you met the topic paticle, and this dialogue introduces you to the subict particle, which is similar. The subiect particl _i attaches to the end of nouns which end in a consonant, and the subject particle -ga a$aches to nouns which end in a vowel. This gives: maekiuga, hakkyoga (sclool); snsaegnim-i, kwair-i (from kwail' /rzlt). Naturally enough, the particle marks out the subiect of the
sentence. For example, in the sentence Tlr e man kicked the dog, 'the man' is the subject. ln the senten ceThe man is fat,'the man' is again the subfect.

ch-nun snsaengnim-i,bi\ anieyo lungu. hakkwa-ga

anieyo l


subiect particle;

'o"'"'e; lot a teacber

You can


(this) is not the Korean depart lrent

Look at the examples in the dialogue very carefully to be sue thrt you have understood this pattern.

However, unfortunately, things ar not quite so simple! In both of these sentences, the man could also be the topic, if the topic Particle -nun were used instead o the subject particle.'Whai is
the difference between the subiect and topic particles?

When 'yes' means 'no'

Vhen sornething is mentioned or the first time, usually

subiect particle is used. Later on, when the subject is repeared in the conversation' you can switch to use the topic paticle instead. The topic particle, you will recall, is particularly for an emphasis -when
com,paring two things, e.g. as for me (me-rur.l, I hate shopping. As for Mum (Mum-nun), sle lzst loues it,


Anrwcring questions that require 'yes' and 'no' answers can be I blt tricky in Korean. l thc question is positive |Do you like musbrooms?, Are you 6ut tonight?|, then you answe as you would in English (Yu, I like them or No, I don't). 'olng lktwcver, if the question

like the English 'as for'. It is panicularly common

Ann't you goinf out tonigbt?|, thei the answer you give will be thc opiosit to what you would say in English, e.g.:
Don't you like mushrooms?

is negative (Don't you lihe mushrooms?,

Do not worry too much about whether, in a given sentence, it is more correct to use the sublect or the topic particle. Most sentences will be correct with either, although some will sound moe natural to a Korean (and eventually to you) with one rather than the other. Gradually you will get the feel of which particle to use as your sense of the language develops. It is important that you do use one o the other in your sentences whenever you can, however. Do not iust leave off panicles, as it
can tend to confuse Koreans when foreigners do so, even though they often leave them out themselves in casual speech.

Bnglish Yes, I do like tbem Koienn No,I do like tbem

Arcn't you going out tonight?

No, I don't Yes, I don't No, I'm not Yes, l'ffi not

Bnglish Korcnn

Yes, I am going No, I am going

out out

gocs without saying that you need to think very carefully whcn answering negative questions in Korean!

Where is it?

Negative copula

To lck where something is in Korean' you say; |B-subj) dieyo? l{owcver, confusingly, you cn also say (B_srrl ) di issyo! Whcn you answer a ubere
uao the verb issyo; e.g.

You have learnt how to say 'A is B' (this thing-A is a book-B). Now you must leam the negative copula, ' is not B', as in 'this thing is not a book', 'Mr Kim is not my teacher', 'this book is not a Chinese book'. The form is:


? question, you must always

hEkkyo-ga kgi issyo

the school ouer tbere is/exists, the school is ouer there

Koreans are very concerned about politeness, and this characteristic is especially noticeable When you mest people or the first time. lt is wise to bow slightly when you shaks hands with people, and be sure not to shake hands too hard. The Korean style is for the more senior person to do the shaking, while the other peBon allows their hand to be shaken. Phrases such as mannas pangapsmnida' which literally means l've met you, so l'm pleased ae Vgry common. The orm ch'um poepkessumnida is evn mors polite' and literally means I am seerng you for the first time.

seing introduced

(unun) ttaeyo? Kim snsaengnim lga\ saushir-ieyo? Yei -samushir anieyo. (i/ga' unun) a Aney"' Yogi Sov hello to the following people, and ask about how things iiJ *i,n it'".. For e*aple,'fo. the fist one you would

writc the Korean equivalint o Hello Mr

c.rmpany? (as for the company, how is it?)' the comPanY I Mr O


how's the

business b Mrs Cho Mr Pak's wie the family c school d l'aegyu her health r Miss Pak lill in the missing bits of the ollowing dialogue

i''nr,'o'i"t" Korea
.irltt.J uf,".

makes sense' cUnvcrsation ". I Paek snsaengnim' oraeganman-ieyo! b a Nc, ne. Yojm sab-un naeyo? h

sentences. Remember to check what well as what comes before, so rhat the whole


For the exercises you will need the following adtional vocabulary:

()higm di gayo? Snmushir-i dieyo?

(ouer there)



kngang hoesa kaiok Miguk adul hakkyo

de gfll ll+ 0l+ 01. 9ll AlE

Ameica(n) son school univeily

hsalth company (.e., the company, business) family

Musn ir-i issyo?

t,rxrk at the following drawings' Imagine that you are lolchinq a child the names of the objects and, pointing at ... rnth tln-e in turn' you say this thing (igsh-i)

chapii ElIl magazine chigm I|= now


The following Korean sentences have gaps where particles and word endings should be. Insert the appropriate word endings into the gaps rom the selection given. If there is a choice A./B, then make sure you use the correct form. Then work out the meanings o the sentences. ! Na shinae kayo. (e, do, ssi) a Sangmin (yo, e' -r) ? hakkyo ka b Mw ha


Now make up five more sentences, saying that this thing is zol what you see in the picture.
Translate the following dialogue into English.

Make up a short dialogue in which two old fiends meet up and sk each other how they are geming on. One of them

his his son with him and introduces the son to the other

a b

q7l= q4^}+o}{g. f! 4+Br]E}. a]4"J *q}4= qqqs? 471 flqg.. +.E.:] d^Jts ++4 *++4 7}9. a J.B. pol 719.
Make up five questions for the following five people. For

}r]qlg. 4 B+d^JHol }qq]9. +d^JHe d,J ts ol ^l g.

4Bq4. +d/8tsol4-q?

Chinese department, but finds himself talking to the wong pcrson in the wrong place.

Kim Dukhoon is looking for the Chinese teacher in


the first two, ask if they are so-and-so. For the last three, ask

negative questions (you arer't so-and-so are you?). For all five of your questions mke up positive and negative answers. Make sure that you get the words for 'yes' and 'no' the right way round with the last three!

b Mr Lee

an American person

c a Chinese teacher
d Mr Paek's son e a school teacher

trrkhoon approaches the teacher and says;

f,! 7 T."oslat"

the following sentences into Korean. Remember that you should not be translating literally, but getting across the meaning with the words, phrases and constructions you have been learning.
a I'm Pak Sangmin. Oh, really? Pleased to n eet you. b How is school nowadays? c Excuse me, are you the Japanese teacherl d 'lVaiter! Do you have any squid? Horu is tbe squid?

Shillye iiman ygi-ga chungguk hakkwa samushir-ieyo? ( lhrrnggung mal snsaengnim manna-r wassyo.

krw mig$t the teacher respond?

e f g h i i k l

It's not bad. Isn't this the Korean department office? No, it isn't. I'm not Mrs woo, Oh, really l'm sorry. This is our Chinese teacher? Really? I'ue beard a lot about you. Is this the Japanese shop? I'm going to see the Korean teacher too. I came to met Mr Pak's wife. \Vhere is the Korean department? where is the school ofice?

lu q lu { lu

wnong number!
GE^llg? l+6lIlBJ ed8'J

Tony le trylng to cont his old Korean riend' Mr Kim' but at irst h6 dhlr the wrong number.
^119 ] s'ol9' G]l ^lB }l]l Et+g(oll) 0l9=a 0lLl0ll9? 0lLl0ll9. &Et = 7lf'ole.



Aa laat Tony gss through, has a brief chat to Mr Kim, and ananges to

r',at hlm for lunch.



o tr o CL tr o 33 o ct q) o o CL r+ r q) o J 1+ o o GT

J U, -

fl| TE lcu lu

lcr lu lct lu

+^lls. z ]lE}al^llE. Lll ' "J l^ll9. 0l' e!5l^llg?

qE{lE? tllEJ' ed8g



0}' sJ5l^ll9.

ln thb unlt you will leam . how to make phon calls . how to makg arangments

ltdl tu

9= doll flole? Lll, Rlole. ^l?J ]aJ' ll]l d= dolE.

^1= 9alZ-|P}0l0llB.

B+tll^lg ELl

' =0}e. oJs^tEl.


=0t9. Ybosyo?

lB. 0l&ll

g^l0ll ^}I =cll

g g0ll^l


. I\ .

{ I


!r P.k

. abo dining out in Korea . how to ask or what you want . how to discuss what you like

to met people


n Prk

choesong ha-jiman' Kim snsaengnim chom pakkwo-juseyo. Ygi kurn saram psyo. Kgi sam-p'al-ku uy(e) i-o-kong-npk aniyo? Anieyo. chnhwa chalmot kshyssyo. chosong hamnida'
gpts through,

A] hal

. . . .

and dislik numba and counting hou to say 'but'


ritnl hlm tor lunch. l l(m'r wle


h6 a

bief ctrb Ml Km' and aranges to

Yboseyo? chosong

ha-iiman' Kim snsaengnim chom pakkwo-iusyo'


llr ln


horv to makE suggestions


that you can't do

r l(m lony

N9. Ma|ssm haseyo. A, annyng hasByo? ch-nun yongguk tagsagwan-y Tony-syo. A, annyng haseyo. oraeganman-ieyo. onl chmshim-e shigan-i issyo?

chamkkan kidseyo.

Mr Kim Tony Mr Kim

1 2 3 4 5 6


N' isyoKurm, che-ga chmshim_ul sa_go ship'yo. Ne, choayo. Yldu shi-e Lotte Hot'e| ap'-es mannapshida. choayo. Kurm, ittaga popshida.

chamkkan !?!


kjdai- 7|oilyngguk g+

a litle (while) wait Englancl, Biush

Who does Tony ask for? What number did he mean to dial? '!ho does Tony identify himself as? !|'hat does Tony ask Mr Kim? Why does he want to know this!
Where do they decide to meet?


-y ^ll!

shigan llz! che-ga IITJ choh- Echoayo

- -0l|



belonging to lunch
a (a certain time) l (humble orm) (subjct)
time, hour


Phrases and exptessions

choesong ha-iiman choesong hamnida

(chnhwa) chalmot (chnhwa) chalmot


krssyo cbamkkan kidariseyo

malssm haseyo shigan-i issyo?
. . . _ul sago

I'm sorry, but; excuse me, but . , . I'm sorry; I apologize; etccase me can I hauelspeak to . . ., please? you'ue got the utrong number (you'ue misdialled) I'ue got tbe urong number
please uait a ?nornent please speak (l'm lktening!) do you haue (free) time? let's meet in front of . , . ue'll see each otber bterl see you later et's meet hter
hello (on the telephone) p/ease (see note 2) a 'tle; such a, t/,at (particular)


g tuF

good (stem) good, fina, OK (polite style, notice the h is not pronounced)
en (pure Korean number) two (pure Korean number) wrye (pure Koran number)

hoel Eg ap'es 9l0|ll manna- qJu_





hotel in front of

ittaga 01lll71 po- Epwayo

mee (stem) in a little while


se' look (sometimes: mee) see, /ook (polite styls, inegular)


...ap'esmannapshida ittaga popshida ybGyo



(polite form)

bamnida, and a similar form rhlllye'iiman, which meant I'm sorry, but . . . or Excuse me, but , , , hia unit takes another verb, cboesong hamnida, and puts it ln thc -iiman form: choesong ha-liman, to mean I'rz sorry, but , , , Ar you will have guessed, -iiman is a verb ending which mlant r', and it can be attached to any Yerb base. Hata rrc a few other verb stems you have learnt, each put into lhr .llmon form;

Eontences with 'but' ln Unit 2 you learned shillye



sam p'al

= ]E!

ku+ t0l


kong/yng 3/


thlB eight nine two

faa slx

chnhwa chalmot



Lr. hr.


l| A

telephone wrongly, mis-


go do buy
eat sit

ka-iiman ha-iiman



is/are, haue

wel (adverb)


it-iiman mashi-jiman mk-!iman


goes,but.., does,but.,. buys,but... has,but... drinhs,but,.. eats,bat... sits,but...

pronounced as a t when _iiman is addd. In Korean Ean'gul yoll still write the double ss, but the word is pronounced itliman.)


e form with iss-'

where the double ss becomes



Can you work out the meanings of the following sentence?


Kim snsaengnim maekju chal mashi-|iman, ch-nun yangju

chal mashyyo.


2 3

5 6 7 9

shibil shibi shipsam






Making nequests more potite



The word chom is lagged in the vocabulary as meaning please' It is not, however, of itself the direct equivalent of our English word 'please', because some of its uses are quite different. However, if you insert the word chom in a request immediately before the verb at the end of the sentence, it does have a similar effect to 'please'. It is most frequently used when asking to be given something, that is, before the verb chu- (giue). In this unit you meet it in the sentence: Kim snsaengnim chom pakkwoirseyo (Can I speak to Mr Kim, please). You might use it in a sentence such as Mae$u chom chuseyo lPlease giue me some beer|, |t sotens the request, and consequently makes it more polite.


shibo shimnyuk shipch'il shipp'al shipku iship

13 14 15 16

ishibil ishibi ishipsam











)rrro you have leamt 1 to 10, everything is straightforward. I'wcnry is just'wo-ten', 30'three-ten', etc.:

20 i-ship sam-ship 30 sa-ship 40 (ec.) ku-ship 90 pask 100 1000 ch'n man IO0OO

Numbers and counting

Korean has two completely different sets of numbers which makes things very awkward for the language learner, There is a Korean set, often called pure Korean numerals, and another set which are of Chinese origin, usually called Sino-Korean numerals. Numbers are used for countinB things, and which set you use in any situation all depends on what it is that you want to count! To count hours, for example, you use the pure Korean numbers, but to count minutes, the Sino-Korean numbers must be used. You iust have to learn which set of numbers are used with which objects. Taking an example from the next dialogue' someone orders two portions of somethng and two dishes of something else. You simply have to know that the word potion takes the Sino-Korean numbers (so the word for uao is i), and that dishes takes the pure Korean numbers (so the word for trzo is dwu)! There is no shortcut, and we will tell you more about this as the course progresses. In this unit you will meet the Sino-Korean numbers only. They are as

llrr rrc a few more complicated examples for you to pick up lhl plttcrn:

lu.lhip-p'al &thlm-nyuk rrl-rhib-il iam.peek-p'al-ship-sa l*h'n-ku-baek-chi'l-ship



98 56 117 384

At you will have observed, there are a number of oddities in the llbhunciation of numbers when they are put together, especially ioncorning the number 6. However, we will always indicate thor in the romanization. Just remember that the number 6 aan b? pronounced in any of the following ways, depending on lht rurrounding syllables: yuk, yung nyuk, nyung, rnrk, rprng, lyul' lyungl

lhonc numbers are given in Korean by listing the digits in lhtlr Sino-Korean form. Seoul numbers have seven digits, and rpukcrs usually give the first three, then the sound -e, then the

second four' In Englsh, one might quote the STD, then say -e, then the telephone number:


Saying what you want to do

l<lrm -ko ship'yo (the form ship'yo coming from the stem


352-0873 9663497


ku-ryung-nyug-e sam-sa-ku-il kong-il-o-sam-o-e o-ryuk-p'al-sam-i-ryuk



rltttl'-) can be ade'd onto any ve.b siern which describes an (verb). Thus na-nun rr tirlrl, to produce the meanig tuant 'o nrtrk-ko sho'vo means I taafilo ear' The -ko attaches straight tr the verb item, whether it ends in a consonant or a vowel, and

llll'c:lre no iriegulariries other than that tbe k of the

and issuseyo (from iss-). These verbs are in what we call the polite honorific form which is shown by the ending -seyo. AII you have to do is add -seyo to a verb stem which ends in a vowel. and -useyo to a verb stem which ends in a consonant, like this:

In this unit you meet several verbs that end with -seyo. The ones you have seen are: haseyo (from ha-), kidariseyo (from kidari-),

_ko l,r, ,,tltes pronouned as a g after vowels, as you would expect. Nrrtc thai vou can't put ay other words between the _ko and

tlre lhip'o parts. Tieat them as if they are inseparable, even_ th,,rr6 there_is a space beween them. Here are a couple of


rrllrk. eat
llldnnn- meet

mashi- mashiseyo iss-




haseyo ani-



ch-nun chmshim mk_ko ship'yo I uant to eat lunch Jinyang manna-go ship'yo I urant to meet linYang

The most common use for this ending is as a polite request asking someone to do something, e,g. pbase (io it), so'that kidariseyo means please rzajr. Notie ihat we've called the ending the polite honorific. You've mer the polite ending -yo before, and this ending also has it, hence'the name |oltc honorific. But it also has an -s- in it, which is the honorifii bit. This serves to honour the person you are talking to, that is, thc person you are requesting to do whatever it is. It is a form of respect, and it is this honorific parr that makes the ending -(u)seyo into a polite request. Although for the next ew units ths is the most common use you will meet for the polite honorific, there is anorher way in which it can be used, either to ask a question of somebody you a statement about them. Thus the sentence Kimsnsaengnim-i hakkyo_e kaseyo means Mt Kim is going to school, and hows special respect or honour to Mr Ki. Yu will meet this usagc in the next dialogue, For now you should make sure that you are completely happy with the polite request meaning' but also be ware of ji'i. other use in the back of your mind, since these honorifics arc
something that we shall return to later on. particularly esteem, respecr or wish to honour, or simply to m'akc

Making suggestions
ending pattern

.(u}orhida' -pshida i added onto a verb stm ending in a vowel' rir-upshida is added if the verb stem ends in a consonant. This tlrttsr of usine the vowel u to add to nouns or verb stems that ind ln c,rnsonts is one that you are becoming familiar with. 'ltr oxample you have seen is the ending ()seyo, but the topic nrllcle (n)n is similar. You will meet many' many examples as

A llnrl verb

to learn from this dialogue


ou w<lrk through tlris book.

'l1r nrcaninq of ()pshida is let's do (such'and-such), and, it is a -formal form, as opposed to something you nlrtlvelv pite or soi in a very informal or colloquial conversation' Note wrrrrld

ttncc urain that vou can only add this form onto a verb which dlrrlhs an acrin' just as you saw with -ko shiP'yo. Thus you llr rlly'let's go for'a walk', since tlat describes an action' but (!h't say 1et's be pretry' using _()pshida, since being pretry_ lr I rtote and not an action. Here are a couple ot examples ot 'llll lhr trrm:
Yi'tlrlrr nhi-e


rltlnnc-e kapshida


Let's go to toun together at 72

haue a drink

mashipshida Let's

m" not oi"logua was all about arranging to met up for lunch, and this is a common enough Korean habit, iust as it is in the West. You will actually ind that Koreans tend to eat out a little mor oten than westemers, and also that eating out can b done mo cheaply in Korea. ln the West we tend to eat out for special occasions or or a treat and, o course, Koreans do this too and are prepared to spnd quite a bit of money to do so. But on more normal' everyday occasions they will also often take an odinary mal out and this can be done quite cheaply.
Whgn eating out with Koreans, it is very rare to 'go dutch' and split the bill s we might among friends in our culture. ln Korea it is normally one person who pays the bill, either the person who has done the inviting, or the most senior igure (in age o status). lt is generally regarded as the senior person's job to pay for everyone else, and you must not ofend Koreans by insisting on breaking their cultural tadition. After all, everyone ends up bing the senior party at some time or other, so everything works out fairly in the end!


lll lttm
I Xlm

orngpwon llr Xlm

oseyo' lcchog_uro anjuseyo. Komapsumnida' mryosu hashigessyo? Usn maekju chom chuseyo. Hanguk mshik choa haseyo? Ne, aju choa ha-jiman, maeun k chal mon

lrKm lcny

Km pulgogi-na kalbi-rul mgpshida. Ne, choayo. Krigo ch-nun naengmyn-do mk-ko ship'yo.

waLsss amyes to take theh food order.

''la ohongpwon chumunhashigessyo?

Yorry ory


Pulgogi i_inbun-hago naengmyn tu krt chuseyo. Mul naengmyn trilkkayo? Pibim naengmyn trilkkayo? Mul naengmyn chusyo.
the food.

Cl Are you ready to order yet?

Tony and Mr Kim meet up and go to a restaurant for lunch. They order drinks, and then have a discussion about thir culinary likes
and dislikes.

A llltla whlle later the waitess arives with

ohongprvon Mashikketseyo! tho mad, o tne wess:
Agassi, mul-hago kimch'i chom t chuseyo. olty I l)o they order wine! l \lhnt does Tony think about Korean food? I lirny is conteniwith Kim's suggestion. True or false? ,l What does Tony ask the waitress for?

=sfl !gLla. e!.g Bt+ l^lilolR? =sa 9d E+ +^ll9. els

EU ea!c EU


g^le. 0l +o gl9^ll9.

=ots. The wajtess aives to tale their food order. +E l^l7'{olE? =Ea En]l olE=l] Bs :] +^ll9. Eu EBrla? BlgBE Erl9? = =g$ +^ile. =Ea EgE EU
little while later the waitress anives with the ood.

=^] =0l ' 0t+ =0t lXlU' qlllE } F qolg. ] 3Ul= ^ltt. Lll, =27lLl laliJ XIE tscE q! cole.

Phrrree and expessions

nral orcyo


l r't'ho5-uro aniseyo

please sit ouer here (ouer this tbank you tuould you like sometbing to


0ntryoru hashigessyo?


Duting the med, to the waitress:

=gfl Eu

"1?l)ll EAle!

hunrun hashigessyo



utould you like to order? utoul.d. you like . . . llit.:


' ln zil tl




mryosu u9n 9! mghik g^| choa ha=0101aiu 0l+ maeun lfie

ani- gl-

* {9E



walte,i asstan (remembr aiossi is the term to call him over) towards, in the direction of




srt (stem)



/lke (stem)

k }l



= lltr7l

canno (nb mot + m- = mon m_) pulgogi, Kotan spiced mainated

sprcy (adi) thing, object, fact (abbreviation of kt' spelt ks)

without actually wanting to say thet you like it. Even iiyou hate kimch'i, you might still be able to discern between good and bad cxomples.

'l'here is an important difference between these two verbs. Choayo is a kind of verbal adiective which means 'is good'. It -meaning rnny by implication mean that you like it, but rhe root h that something is good. It is imporrant to see the distinctionl and here is an example to illustrate the diference. Kimch'i choayo means that the kimch'i is good. You might conceivably rccognize it as being good kimch'i (as far as kimch'i goes... )

-na -u katbi tul naengmyn gP! chumun ha- +=01-inbun


or (particle) mainated and fted spare nbs (usually pork, cheaper than pulgogi) thin noodles with vegetables
order (stem)

(irntrariwise, choa haeyo means 'like'. Kimch'i choa haevo tncans that you, or whoever else is being spoken about. actuailv llkes the stuff. It mt be the case that-you like kimchi, even f It'r not quite at its best. You can say you like something without eommenting on its relative quality.
choayo and Kimsnsaengnim choa baeyo?
(.bn you explain the diferencg therefore, between Kimsnsaerrgnim


ml naengmyn

fl muF --

-EE tus


two poftion
wo (pure Koran number)


E 8P!

pibim ulg ttirilkkayo e g4g

agassi 0lrlul
kimch'i g^l

water thin noodles in cold soup (spicy and rreshing!) mixed would you like? (it: sha l give you?) waitress! (lit-: gif , unmanied

'|'hc 6rst means that M Kim is a good man, a good guy. The rccond means that you (or whoevei) actually likel himi '

-nl can
be added after a noun to mean ,or', lust like -hago can hc added after nouns to mean 'and'. (noun)-n (noun), thfore,


cabbage, spiced strongly with chillies rnore

cbssic Korean side dish, marinated

mcans (noun) or (noun). Kalbi-na pulgogi mgpshida means 'lct's eat kalbi or pulgogi'.

You can make this eitber. .. or idea sound even more vasue by adding -na to both nouns. Then the translation woulbe romcthing like 'let's eat kalbi or pulgogi or something'. In a rimilar way you can have |ust on noun plus _na to mke the rcntcnce more vague so that ir means'(noun) or something'. '|'lkc the sentence kalbi_na mgupshida. This would mean tht you are not all that bothered about what exactly you eat, you are iust suggesting kalbi. Somethng else might be |ust as

When you can't do it

The little word mot can be added to a sentence to give the meaning that something cannot be done: shinae-e mot kayo (I ca?r't go to the city centre\, Note that your inability to do something is being described - you can't do it, rather than that
go, you can't use this construction. It expresses impossibility.

you aren't able to or you won't. If you simply choose not to go to the city, or if you aren't going, don't want to go or refuse to

|a mede of white radish (mu) instead o cabbag. You also mt na.ngmyn which is a kind of clear, thin noodle, her liks vermicelli, uaually eaten in a cold souP as mul naengmyn. lt is spicy (and l| ono o th ew Korean dishes to contain mustard or something almllar to it)' but is extremely rsreshing in the hot summer as it is aaryod with lots of ice. Plbim nangmyn is another orm, without wltor this tims, and mixed with othgr vegotablgs.

lrrr splcy and consists

o kimch'i

in liquid, and mu kimch'i which

Whether you want to go or not, you can't.

The word mot goes as close to the verb as possible, right near
the end of the clause immediately before the verb.

Watch out for the sound change that occurs at the end of mot when the verb ollowing begins with an m. Mot plus mannagives mon mannayo.(I can't meet'1.

Measurlng and counting

We will have a detailed section on measuring and counting later on, but for now notice the two pafterns in this lesson which will give you the key:



i tu

(number') (measurel

inbun krt

Arltlitional vocabulary for these exercises is as follows. paekhwaim q!t| department store wain glE wine
mal ha-

This is important. First you sate the substance you are measuring, then the number you want, then the unit that you are measuring it by (here ponions and dishes).




lott" Hotel is one of the amous buildings in seoul, and is situat ght next to the Lotto Dpartment store (Koroa's biggest) betwesn Mylngdong and shich'ng (city Hall). Lott s one o Korea's chaebl or largg conglomerates.


spea& say

Korean depatment store is a little ditferent rom its wsten quivalent. lt contains |itoally hundreds o sales assistants (mainly omalo)' with at least one on svery singls counte throughout the store. At istit can soem as though you're under prssurs to buy' but this isn't really ths cass any moe so than in the West, and you soon get us to itl

cxample, for the fust, your Korean sentence will say'I want to meet Mr Pak and Mrs Kim'.

Make up a sentence for each of the ollowing sets of information, saying that you want to do A and B. For

This lsson also introduc two fiamous Korgan foods. Kimch'i is thg marinatd pick|ed cabbage - very spicy with lots of chilli powdgr - eaten as a sid6 dish with virtua|ly svery Koran mal. Therg

n b c d c f

Pak bread pulgogi


beer octopus


Japanese teacher

Mrs Kim ruit kalbi


meet at



wait for drink


ars cetain othveties, like mul klmchT or Wat kimch'i which is

Now repeat the exercise, saying that you want to do either


2 The ollowing is an

excerpt from a page in someone's telephone book. Write out the names of each person and their number, in Korean script and in romanization (doctorz rtysa\.

What is the difference between the following two pairs of


r b

l-kalbi-ga aiu choayo. I-kalbi-rul aju choa haeyo. Pak sniaengnim-y Pak snsaengnim-y adul


choa haeyo.



The ollowing sentences should be translated into Korean. They ore intended io practise suggestions and also how to say 'but'.




kt's speak in Chinese. b Let's go to the department store. c Let's drink some beer or wine. d I want to go to America, but I can't.

The following sentences are jumbled up, Can you unscramble them?


good for me or it makes me too drunk!) want to telephone Mr Kim, but I misdialled. Vhat are the following numbers in English?

I like whisky but I can't drink it. (implication: it isn't


haseyo? mshik choa


c naengmyn

Hilton Hot'el ap'es onI mul

ieyo ch-nun

hanguk -uy

! kuship-ch'il.
b c






hakkyomannapshidaylshi_e shigan_i chmshim issuseyo? -e chuseyo usn chom rnaeun chal k mot

'Iranslate the following sentences into English.

kalbi tu-krt saminbun



+.}zlR} t+4 + * Eq.q' t]l^}+ol qq 9tq,s? o]+9_9+9,4-g. ++444'qs? c r "lr}7} "J^lE}. d ^l{ol 9--4]g?

t 'Ts b


Change the ollowing sentences to sy that they can't be done. For example, for the first you will write a Korean b Chigm chmshim mg-roshiktang-e kayo. c Jaemin-ssi, Sangrnin-ssi kidariseyo? d Sangmin eats spicy food. e I am meeting Mrs Jang in front of the Chinese embassy. Paekhwaim-e kayo.
(ending in -seyo), and also into the'let's do'form. Then make up four sentences, two with each of the tivo verb orms (you can use any verbs you want to make the sentences). sentence saying that you can't go to the Japanese embassy. a I'm going to the Japanese embassy.


You are arranging to meet your'friend. She asks you where you should met. Answer her, suggesting a place and a time.

aa 7144,\I.s. s'lg. 4*a1z1o3 q7l f,fl ^}B azl (+}+g Lg^}o]"l|9?

+* adqg.

Put the following verbs into the polite honoriGc form

^71-d*-f^lb E}- e 7l}4- c cE-


How much is it all together?

to a Korean bookstorg to buy soms dictionaies
has a littls trouble over the prica.

?lotR? ^tdElg ut .


5o j GT GI t o tr J 1+ o J ooJ q) r\) o

o. l.+

J q)


ln lrlg unlt you will lBam


c=rlg? d6ln ga^l6 E tl +^llP' ul ' ag ^ld orl flolB. g 0l0llB? !a0l P}a4. EF oloJ golfie. txt llolg? rlxl SFrl ?tols. E!& ^l8E Illg ^iEC +l9. E }l ^ll z} ]ltielH9.. ' 0{]l ?1ol9. IoJLlE}. gaF g 0}0ll9? aT ! soJ E...]aur} E+ gBJ
a0toils. I1lg 7ll P! a0l0ll9? Hls a gololle?






lua It lu4

dP! Et0t0llB? 0l! deuE. l+fiol9. EF aoJ B0l0ile. g+=E Erle? ul, +^119. gilLlEt. G]l l/ol9. Pt56l ]l^1l9! 9!5l }l^l|9'
Mwol ch'ajseyo? sajn issyo? Ns. Han-yng sajn tlkkayo? Ng han-yng sajn-hago yng-han sajn tul ta chuseyo. Ygi issyo. lma-eyo? Han kwon-e man won-ssik, modu i'man won-ieyo. Cheil ssan k chuseyo. chamkkan kldseyo ' '.ygi issyo. Komapsumnida. Modu lmaoyo? Hanja sain sam-man won . . . kurnikka modu o-man won-ieyo.
Hanja s4lndo issyo? Hania sajn-un s kali chongnyu-ga issyo.



. . . . .


. . .

simplE shopping inding your Way around mor6 about negil'n how to say 'if use o lhe diroct obict particl how to say whosomething is and whg soms activity taks placo nroe numbes and money in

0hmwon Otulr 0hmwon






Koran basic use o classifieE whon counting things

0hmwon Ohdr ohmwon


chrl8 chmwon chl8 1 How many dictionaries does Chris want to buy? 2 How much are e first two volumes? 3 What choice is he later offered? 4 '!7hosekind o Chinese character dictionary does he require? Vhat ault is the confusion over cost? 5 6 What sarcastic remark does Chris make?
Phrases and expre$sions mwol ch'aiseyo? uhat arc you loohing fot? can l (modu) lmaeyo? bou', mueh k it (all togetber)?

pissan kn lma-eyo? Shim-man won-ieyo?l Al choesong hamnida. ch'akkak haessyo. Modu sam_man won-ieyo- Yngsujng_doi]rilkkayo? N, chusoyo. A|gesssmnida Ygi issyo. Annynghi kasyo! Annynghi kygsyo.

chil ssan ks sam-man won-i6yo? Krm' cheil

chongnyu choil

krnikka prssan


ssa_ lll_


=E nll .E

type' ft, Mnd lle mos chap (adjective) is chsap


d oh'akkak ha- q40lyngsujng g+


xpens'ye (adjec,tive) ,ls expenye

make a misbka

therefore, bacause of that thing, object (abbre\r o kt a! particlB)




belp you?


algesssmnida I utldersund;
annynghi annynghi

okly, right, fine (ormally| ch'akkak haessoyo I haue made a misuke



goodbye (to someone who is leaving) goodbye (to someone who is staying)
whal (obrect form)

! {-

l@k for

han-yng g-g ^ld yng_han g+!


sometimes use counterc (counting words) to We might say for example two cups of coffee, rount obiects. ahtee p^ckets of soup. Cups and packets are counters of tnoarures by which we count and measure things like coffee and roup. On other occasions we do not use counters' for lxlmplc we say two books, three houses. However, in Korean, (ountars are frequently used when English does not use them. 'lb ray the two previous sentences, for example, a Korean might

ln English, we


lma g0l han E! kwon A man E! modu hania E!I[ so



English-Kor@n lwo (whn you mean 'ths two of


ch'rck tu
ehlp ec



book uuo

bouse tbree



two boohs

three bouses

how much one (pure Korean, whon used with a counter or moasure wod) yolu'ne (measua woro

'|'hlr ig the usual pattern in Korean or counting things, or for nlking about a certain number of something. Here are some ('mmon Korean counters which take the Sino-Korean numbers you have already leamed:

won E!

u/on (unit of Koroan cunency) aach, pe (se nota 3)


al, togpther, evehing, varyone

ll kaii llil

kind' exalrple (counlq or thg noun chongnyu)

ge(puro Korean)

chinese charaers

Pun chro ll nyn


minute second



r'h'ng floors


|in building)

prrn ch'o samshib il sa nyn


ch'ng three

thirty days four years

tbee rrrinutes twerrty seconds



(Korean peson


floors, third floor

Note that the word myng can also be used with pure Korean

Sirrr>Korean numbers, you are safe to use pure Korean numbers'

You can ask how many of something there are with the word myt (spelt mych'), for example: myn-myng? myn-nyn?

l lcrc are some a*"*pa' of common counters which are used with pure Korean numbers:

rlri rlr igan

This is not to say that Korean always uses counters. There are some words which do not take a special counte' that is to say, the word itself is the counter, as it is in English with books and houses. Thus, for counting days with il lday) you don't need to say il sam il' In act, that would be wrong. You simply say sam il. If a counter is not used, therefore, the number comes before what it is that you ae counting' instead of after it.




bours (duration) years of dge person person (honorifrc)






uolume (for books)


teach you up to 49. If you need more than that, you can simply use

You now need to know the pure Korean numbers. We


eup(full box bottle

Pure Korean numbersi

the Sino-Korean numbers instead. ln act, there are no pure Korean numbers above 99.. and so Sino-Korean numbers have

to be used or 100 and over. For smaller numbers, however (say, below 50), it is important to know the pure Korean numbers and to use them when they are required, since otherwise you will be easily misunderstood (or not understood at all!) by

'l'hh lcsson introduces you to a construction or saying }row much thines cost' usin the word ssik, which is difficult to lllnrlate, b-ut give the sntence the flavour of so much each, so r so much per such and such a quantity. Study uit' "pi..", thr follwing sentences to see how it is used:
hrn kwon-e man won-ssik apples 500 uton each won-ssik h"n sangja-e ch'n won_ssik apples 7,000 uon a box To make sentences out of these, all you have to do is add the loPul| fu3wa-ga o-baek won-ssig-ieyo Apples are 500 won each





tasot yst ilgop ydl ahop yl


1 ylhan(a) 2 yldu(D 3 ylse(t)

5 b 7

lllwe ii!*a

70,000 won Per book (volume)



12 13

mahn 40


10 smu(l) 20 srn 30


You have now met several Korean words that function in the li tt'"t adiectives do in English. ln Korean they are usually olcd modifiers, but they work rather like adjectives. Remembe
always come before the noun they describe.' Here are you hve met so ar, with a couple of extras thrown in: ihr on"j ghr.n efqensiue

rt thcy

The ltters in brackets are only used when the number is not followed by a noun or a counte to which it refers. Most counters are used with pure Korean numbers, so with the exception of those you have already learnt which takc

||ln llrn


cheaq such a, that (kind of)



nrppn bad


You'll norice that they all end in n, and in a later lesson you will learn how they can be formed from their associated ves.
fact ot object|. This noun kt itself nees a little explanation' as it commonly occurs in several different forms. On its own the word is pronounced kt, but written ks (remember your pronunciation rules!). It is sometimes abbreviated to k. !ith 4l lopp particle ts form is ks-un, or, in casual speech, kn. Vlth the subject particle its form is ksh-i (prnunciation
rules!), but it is often shortened to ke. One very common construction in Koean is to find these words before the noun kt, which means thing (and sometimes also

Saylng goodbye

An example of the noun kt with an ad|ective would


ssan ke or ssan ksh-i, which mean the cbeap thing, or' more commonly, tbe cheap one.Y ol! might put thes into sentences as


You witl see from the dialogue that Korean has two ways for uyttrg goodbye. Annynghi_kaseyo is used- to say goodbye to rnrconc who is leaving (i.e. about to walk or go away) and al'(tn3hi kyeseyo is ued to say goodbye to someo^ne who is tlaylnB there' while the perso-n saying it is gorng' Sometlmes lrrrth rpcakers will be going off ot couse' so rn that case botn wtnlld say annynghi kaseyo' It sounds a bit tricky at hrst' rrlrnlttcdtv' but'one you gt used to the idea it's really quite .ii'i'ti. n"ouhave thk about is who is leaving and who ti rilvinc. nnvnchi means iz peace' so annyngbi kaseyo lll!!n; 'o in piacJ' (from ka_, go), and annynghi kyeseyo rnltna ';tay in peace' (made, surprisingly enough, from the htrnorific form of the verb iss-, exist, stcy\.

ch-nul pissan k choa haeyo I like expensiue things krn k mon mgyo l can't eat that (kiniof) thing

!Chlnese characters
ln lha dly8 beorg th Korean alphabet was inventgd, all writing in l(om wai done in Chinese characters and then only by an elits that hnrw how' Evon many yeas ater King sejong's great invention, ohlnlr characters still romained ths most common way o witing l' lh. .ducated, and it was not until the snd o the 19th century that lha Koaan script bgan to grow ln populaity.


You can easily make superlatives in Korean (e.g. the most

expensive, rhe most pretty, the best, the fastest) by puttine rhe word cheil before the adiectivmodifier cheil maeun mshik tbe most spicy food, tbe spiciest food cheil pissan ke the most xpbisiue (thing) |subict| cheil chon saram tbe best person


Linking words

dllljrnt ones, all o which have to be leamt' Fortunately you do not ttltd lo do thls for your studies in Korsan. However, many Korean ltltapaPcrs uso some chinBsg charactos interspersed within the

characters a9 vry comptex and there are thousands o


sentences relate to each other by using linking words to begin consecutive sentences. ln English we are encourged not to bein sentencs with 'but', 'and'and similar words, but Korean des this sort o thing a lot and it is good style' It makes your Korean sound natural. Here are the most common exampls:

In continuous speech, Korean likes to show the way that

you thorttt.". Unlss you wish to be a schola in oriental studies' prsctly Wgll with no knowledge ol charaers nd lln auYlvo Jtould you wish to read a Korsan nwspaper you can buy one which

and ducated Koreans are expected to know around l,l00 oharEers which are recommended by the Korean sducation


ill br ot-llmits to you.

nt ugo them. tt is then only academic and technica| books that

krigo krnde krnikka krm

krna krch'iman

but (rlhereas) but and botueuer, but

therefore, tbat being so so, therefore (more colloquial)

out o interest, the ol|owing shows an o(ract from an academic

book which uses both thg Korean sc.ipt and chin6s charaers.

tft Pak

shillye hamnida' l-kunch'-e nhaeng_i di

f,q4. olelt +a4.J a t}9.| ?}EJ-9__l.iF9l +rl.94 4*s^}q +glt +{g 4 dE{E} * +E' d4. tslg +7l4.g4l .l* +{4 1' 7}7} +'J4"J 4ElH4.l. f E t s9l +e qa 9l "ll ++q EJt} e "Jt a4 ^l*H.l +"| ilc zl"Jc altg + szl qol4.
+c. *^l "J+t


ch uch'egug-esl oencchog-uro ka-myn

sangp unhaeng-i issyo. Komapsumnida.


ll Pak
Mr Pak unhaongwon Mr Pak Unhaengwon

At the caunter in sangp bank-

"Je t (4+ i.t.E'E).{.q ltil + rB+ Dil* aJ+ !E{'J ag +'l.i sz1 91 t44 E+. q?l.{4 rEf;:E*-E fff* d.rolelts i!:u q+"J a* {. fE +{4l2l :}^! lln 4 :l4l ,J44.{++ {1}t a"Jql +9.lldE+. +t. frlg'}9e t {9.l d* "J"l7}'}4 .|l xl"l t r*.rd* z},t!,}+ ,}aE}. ltgrg.l +7l9] ^l a+. 4 .l+F q{! +q.l g}g+ts^ls. eol 9lE 4914'} t q*q 7l'l* 3txl *t r{ 9l4. +qe 4 7}.E^l4 *+3} Bl4q aol4. +{9l4olq }ts ae ^}^}.lq


llr Pak


Yngguk ton-ul hanguk ton-uro chom pakku_go ship'yo. Uri nhaeng-un oehwan mmu_rul an hasyo. Hanguk oehwan nhasng-uro kaseyo. Hanguk oehwan nhaeng_i di issyo? Chongno cchog-uro kasayo. Chongno sagri-es orun cchog-uro ka-myn Hanguk oehwan nhaeng chijm-i issyo. Yfui-s mryo? Aniyo. Krs o pun chngdo kllyyo. is required?

fa} ?*EL

t 2 3 4

where is the Sangp bank?

!hat service

\0hat is the problem? Where is the other bank located?

D finOing the way

Mr Pak needs to find a bank to ggt some money changed, a fw problems finding what he is looking or.

b he has

Jdc dlLlEl. 0l3xl0l egol oltl ilole? A Il +{l+olltl a+o ]}E g eol =Ea ?lol9. !E}Lltl. "4{c At the counter in sangp bank ge E= }t Eotr Bl+]] 4qe. Efc B +al ec 9l gFE 9} e' e!8 !+ EEl cgtr ]u{lg. "{{u B != 9egol oltl Rlolg? *o ]l^l9. tr N}lal0l^l 9= =!a +o ]lE !=9c Il0l t1ol9' Jda qrt^l gol9? B 0lLl9. 9 E E 3d9 =ol^l

nhaeng nhaengwon

i- 0l_ knch' ch-

uch'eguk 9n+ -es -0l|ll oen

k- ]-

=g egfl



this one (+ noun), /,ls (noun) distri ct, area, vicinity


bank clerk


old English 'yon')

haone (a long

way away, cho)

'l'he particle -(u)ro is used to indicate drection towards. It won't rurprise you to learn that the orm -uro is added to nouns that

sangp unhaong

E ye,,-myn -E - sangp g


post offics location particle (place in which something happens); rom

ha on (nearer than

cnd with consonants and -o to nouns that end with a vowel.

'l'he meaning, then , s towards, in the direction of, and therefore it usually occurs with verbs of going and coming.

gcs ch'anggu g? ton E -(lul -E/oehwan mmu

(verb) (clauso ending) tracle

trother meaning is izo (another shape or form), and the most irnportant use for that is the one you meet in the dialogue, changing money from one currency lzro another one.

Commercial Bank (lit.: trade



wndow, cashier window

Saying 'rom', and sayang Where .omethang happens

'l'hc particle -es on the end of nouns means from (a place). It could be used in the following circumstances, for example: lrrom the bank (_es) to the post office (-kkaii) takes 10 minutes l'vc come from the embassy (es): taesagwan-es wassyo 'l'hcre is another important (and slightly more complicated) use rl _cs, in addition to is meaning. W'hen you are describing wlrcre an activity is taking place, you rnark the place noun with -cr. For example, if you want to say that you are doing your hrltnework in the study, you put the particle -es onto the wrlrd for study. -es thus marks the place where an activity is hrrppening. Ifyou want to say that you are dong some drawing in our bedroom' you Put the particle -es onto the word hcdroom, since that is where the activity of drawing is taking
placc. N()te that -es is not used to say where something exists (that ir, with issyo and psyo). In those cases, you simply mark thc place noun with -e. Neither is it used to say where you are Soing to (motion towards is marked by -e, e.g. hakkyo-e kayo,




(direct ob,ie particle)

exchange ushasg seV,be no (used to make Verbs


(Hangwuk) oehwan nhaeng

Chongno sagi


Korea Exchange Bank C/,ongno (one of the main streets in Seoul, north of the
Han river)

krs o|tl on foot pun E minute chngdo E extent, about (approxi mately) klli- a- bkes (time duration) kllyyo al ,t akes (polite style)

chijm I| ygi-s q7|^| myo g0|9 aniyo oluB




cossroads right
ls fr (polite style, irrgular

from here (abbe\! ot yogi_eo)



lr yu have already leamt). observe the following examples curefully:

Knge-e ch'aek issyo/manhayo 'l hcre arc books in the shoplThere are many books in the shop (existence once again) Knge-es ch'aek-ul sayo I am buying a book in the shop (the activity of buying)

Shiktang-es mannapshida Let's tneet it the restaurant (the activity of meeting) Shiktang-e kayo l'rn going to tbe estauant (motion towards the restauant, going or coming)



lr'rreg-ul sapshda

huy a book

Thus, -e is used with verbs of motion towards (coming and going), and to speak about the existence or non-existence of something in a particular place. -eso is used to say where an activity is taking place, or to mean from.

ji r'""g*"t i-_ul ynggui ton-uro pakkwu-go ship'yo) Mlrkiu tu kaii iongnYu-rul saYo? ii yL" ["i"! . b"uy two (different1 hinds of beer?

ltrrr rrl pakku_go ship'yo i',nt to cbange some moneY

'lf' clauses

subiects' ||lalrc note at the verbs issyo and psyo always.take will not 6nd them in coniuncuon wlth .ii.l rr.rt obiects, so vou you wlll iii,urr', th"t'h"ui th ob|ect particle' This means that

;i;;;' il..n,.n..'

The verb ending -(u)myn (-umyn after verb stems ending in consonants' otherwise _myn) can be added to the stem of any verb to make an if clause. The half of the sentence that comes before the -myn is the part that is governed by the'if. This is
best illustrated by example:


much of something exists' They are thus .llllllA to th verbs issyo and Psyo'


llKe vcrbs of quantity like manh-, since that verb and others

*. a sentence like na-nun ch'aeg-ul issyo, since "*.; ond psyo always take subiects' The same thing pP,lles

o the_form na_nun ch'aeg_i. issyo; you

lf you go in tbe direction of Cbngno, there is a bank

Snsaengnim maekju chumun ha-myn, na-do maekju chumun

Chongno cchog-uro ka-myn nhaeng-i issyo

lf you (sir) order a beer, I'll order one too Kim snsaengnim ch'aj-myn ch-cchog-uro kaseyo If you're looking for Mr Kim, go that uay


that you ln thc lost unit you learned the linle word say it's time to learn how to say you ,it,tiJtt;i J. something. Now

8aylng you'e not doing something


(usually not doing"or are not going to do something not ctrcumstances "* hy ehoice). In other words' it is your decision, yJ"i.""""l, which mean you are not doing whatever it is' iy.i"J

The object partacle

The direct obiect o a sentence is the bit of the sentence that gets something done to it by the subject o the ctor in the sentence. This is best understood by examples. In the following sentences
the objects are in bold type:
I want to drink a beer (what you, the subiect, want to drink, the object, a beer)

verb, like this: Yttu urc the little word an immediately before the Nr-nun maekiu an mashyyo irii"s aeerll on't drink beet (it's your choce)


He's playing cricket (what he, the subiect, wants to play, the Don't watch television all the tme! (what you, the implied subiect, want to watch, the object, TV) Korean often marks the obiects in its sentences by adding thc oblect particle to the noun which is the obiect of the sentence.
The object particle is -rul after a vowel, and -ul after a consonant. Here are examples: obiect, cricket)

lmmln-un shinae-e an kaYo |lri]|ii " 'i'i"s into tun (he doesn't want to, chooses nol to ctc.) r;t,l"i"itt l"!.i.-un shinae-e mot kayo (he can't' he has an romcthing else on, etc.) Sometimes' however' the woro 'not' rlmply means

0mrhik'i an choaYo


(irs ttre food's fault - mot would be


Yrxt trlve now learnt several verb stems which end in -i' They and kidari-. These verbs change slighdy

Vrrb 8t9ms ending in _

when you add the polite Particle -yo. The last i changes to y, to give you the polite style foms; mashyyo' kollyyo and


Banking and flnance

4++7|^\-9]g' I \We beer.

have two kinds of h

E+ +9 "ll^l If you go right at the post office ere is an exchange bank.




9t ol


Banking is smple enough in Korea and the use of cil cards is widespread. There are on or two pculianlies, howsver, including the a that Korea dos not use chgquss' The online system is highly developed, and you can snd money eleonically very easily and at a much chaper cost than is usually possiblo in the Wast.
addition to the coins ther e 1,000 won, 5,000 won and 10,000 won notes (c.h'n won and man won). There is also a 100,000 won notg (shimman won), although it looks mor like a westem cheque than mon9y.


80,000 won. would -? gena"J-'9-gq4s? - togettreiit;s


you like a receipt?

long time no seel How's business nowadays? . {loJ "}^] wnt to drink the most expensive alcohol.

cash is stillthe most common method o payment, however, and


cBa ^l& EF Bl& +]l4 ]d ?lol9 ]t^llg q{ ol


G)lA =]l t}E 0l0ll9 rloJ lts ol9' cgrlg 9e Xj= 9E


Here is additional vocabulary for these exercises. c*n I! cup ilk- 81- read pyns

tn the following English sentences, which nouns are direct objects and would thus be marked with -(r)ul if they were to bc translated into Korean? Note that some sentences may
have more than one obiect, and some may not have any.


tarn another,

g g

Acket bottle

diferent (modifier/adjective)

a I want to watch a movie tonight' b What are you going to do when you see him? c How many cars does your family have? d He iust said a bad word. C Ca I eat some bread? No, but there are some crackers.

Think up appropriate Korean questions to go with

ollowing answers.


Complete the following sentences with the words taken from the box at the bottom.

a +4 +Je- B+
to another bank.

b ol+-o-4*ol flqg. If you go this way

s} "il.s. eJql Our bank does not do that (kind of business). Please go


gqg? c q] * Excuse mg but do you have a Korean-English dictionary? _ d_ Eqe? aq^l _ aas. Is it far from here? On foot it takes 50 minutes. olq]9' e 9] E}g 6J I'm a bank clerk from the Korea Exchange Bank, - -

there is a restaurant.

Choesong ha-iiman, ygi-nun kurn saram_i psyo. b I'm sorry, I don't have time. c Aniyo. Chal mot kshyssyo. d Plesed to met you. I've heard a lot about you! Chamkkan kidariseyo. Ygi issyo. G No- I don't like Korean food. I I dnl particularly want to drink beer right now.

Here are a number of items, and the price per item. Make up a gentence which says in Korean what the cost per item is rnd then say what the total cost is. For example, if you see a picture of six glasses, and the cost per glass is 500 won' you ivoutd write smething like han-ian-e obaek won-ssig-ieyo. Krnikka modu samch'n won-ieyo.


Make up 6ve Korean sentences based around the following verbs. Each of your sentences should put the verb in the negative, with the word an. a chumun ha- d kidarie ilkb kllitseyo Which of your sentences would still make sense if you replaced an with rnot? What would be the difference in meaning? Translate the ollowing sentences into Korean. a Excuse me, is there a restaurant in this area? b I can't eat naengmyn. I can't eat kalbi either. c How much is it? One plate is 2,000 won, so it's 6,000

Go left here. If you go five minutes, you'll see (= there is) Chongno crossroads. Go left. The bank is on your right. c How much is the cheapest one?

won all together.

s There's no branch

It takes about ten minutes on foot.

The following senrences have no particles in them. put them in!

of the Korea Exchange Bank in this area. h I want to change some money. I have about 50,000 won. i In Korea there are ten kinds of kimch'i. In England there ae none. Would you like a Korean language dictionary?

b c


Eol's. {- 'lg *..l- * flq.e.. atsl- E do]g. q7l_ rA f{ a- * ^lB_ - "}d^]E}. "}^lts, *^}d t 7}z] 9lol9. J fl:re]q?+ g+ +"Jgo]q]g. "l"J-,


^l+t+ E-

q7l- g+-



".}B^l+. _E- E}dqg. J g+9l+}

g^]-^}gJ e *-




i k What type would you like? I Please give me the cheapest. m Is Mr Kim a bad man? n You're going to the post office? Okay, goodbye!
pyng ).


Make up a dialogue between a shopkeeper and a child going rhopping. Here is the shopping list (NB rzilA = lwi bottle


Pactise counting the following things out loud'

c 1 person, 7 people, 34 people d 3 octopus, 9 octopus, 14 octopus e 2 bottles, 10 bonles 9 dogs, I dog (dog = kag) 1,000 won, 10,000 won

a 3 books, 8 books, 22 books b 1 day, 3 days, 67 days

0 /eere



D ls ttris the bus or Tongdaemun

Mr Klm is a stranger in Seoul who wants to find his way to Tongdaemwun market. He ends up being persuadod to 9o to
Namdaomwun market instead.

!!a alx|oJ oldu I]E


G7l EcllE

^lB0l fo Mrs O, another passer-by.


^| olLlal^l

]l= l/']l ?lolE? s Eitolg.



ol Foll Etl{E

'rl 3 o tr qt tr o + J a o .+ x CL xGI {r J r+ CL o qt o a oot oo o GI o + 3 5 o + J tr o o

I -l I

{r II

l,l+l8 gdu

^| olue' oI 5F0l= =tJE Etol9. olN B sl^= aE solE


]l= El^7l ^lB?


ct 1+ o J

9l8 lr{lu

gcl]E 9]]l s0l= ^l0l ?lolE? ^lolB? ?]]l 9lt-t-}!E? t-JrlE ^l0ll= 9! Iil _E ]ll ^l0]l= s.ol9. E] B0l9? Et]lE ^lEEt =a0l EtfiE I1l 40ll=, tsEllE ^lsEE} El *n l|'lol ^l0l ]*IlsJ Ht= tlolB. =aE 30l= E g0t9.



!\) \

ln this unit you will leam . how to catch buses in Korea


. .

CL l-

. compsons . how lo ioin two

and maks surs you have got to the right place horv to shop oood at the maket how to express surprise or exclamation

gda B1-\ g=Ot g 0lqle? g 0l0l.e ' ed8 oJ =^l0l^le9! ^lE lll8 nP}LlE}. 9dg gat }Ale. I]rl Bl4rl elg'. M Klm shillye-|iman, ygiTongdaemun shijang kann bsu-ga issyo? M] 1ro ch-do sul saram-i ani-ras chal morgessyo'
ro Mrs o, arther passer-by.


=$= ^l0lll= IJ= aol= EJ9 solg' "Jololl9? ]aB| f old s Bl^= Et^lg. 01Ll^1 El.e? HlE 'J aLlE Poll^lEl^llg.

ElI|PJ. . .

Klm Mr. o

togrther to make one



Tongdaemun shiiang Aniyo. l chngnyujang-_nun ganun bsu-ga psyo. lship pn bsu-rul t'a-myn Namdaemun shijang- kayo. Namdasmun shang-iyo? Namdaemun shijang_e-nun


chngnyuiang- Tongdaemun shiiang kann bsu-ga

mwoa issyo?

Ms o

Kim Mrs O

Kim Mrg o M Kim di_s ayo? Mrc o Paro kil knnp'yn chngnyuiang-es t'aseyo' Mr Kim Bsu yogm_i lma_eyo? chngmal chbnsaram-ishigunyo! sabaek won-iyo. |,!o o Mr Klm Komapsmnida' Mrs o Ppalli kaseyo. chgi bsu-ga wayo. 1 'Why can't th 6rst person help? 2 l$7hat happens if you take buJnumber 20? 3 What is the choice like at Namdaemun? 4 !7hich market is prefered? 5 Is there anything you can't get at Namdaemun? 6 Where should you catch the bus? 7 why is there surprise t the last question? 8 Why the hurry?

Mwo_ga innnyagoyo? Namdaemun shuang_enun an p'ann ke psyo. Tongdaemun shijang-poda mulgn-i t manayo? Che saenggag-enun, Namdaemun shilang-iTongdaemun shi'iang-poda mulgn_do t man-k'o chaemi issyo. Krch'iman Namdaemun shiiang_es wonsungi-nun an p'arayo. Tongdaemun shijang-es-nun p'aljiman . . . chngmal-i8yo? Krnde, ch-nun Wonsungi-nun p'iryo psyo. Km iship pln bsu_rul t'aseyo.

-oss _0[11


a- E-

=l s- Ilpn g

to bus stop stop (stem) number

_tyo _01sl

p'ann kg [-E rn p'ann ke 9! lll=






mano}_ J-



(se note 3: used to chsck inomation, g.g. 'you mean?') item for g]e' lems so/d something which is not sold, not available norc than


bk (transport}' ayel on (transport) Grcat South Gate (n Seour,


is manyr a /o (h is not pronounced; polit style: mamyo) (NB pronunc: h + k = k'; thereore

che nl saenggak
chaemi iss- Ill0l -ko


84 -il

thought and (to ioin clauses)


my Oumble form)

wonsungi p'arayo p'aliiman



inergsDhg lb fun monl<ey s8l/ (polite styls orm, stem is irregular) they se , but . . . (i.e. they do se ..., however)
is not neded,

Phrases and exprcssions

(chal) morgessyo an p'ann ke psyo I don't hnou (at all) there's notbing uhich is not sold, (you can buy euerytbing) you're asking uthat tberc is? (you mean you don't knottl) (based on iss-, tbne is, exists)


chrgmal p'iryo ps_ PB p'iryo iss-



mwoga innnyagoyo ?
che saenggag-enun

paro HJE

39 tl-

r@Iy is not necesBry, has no need of


in my opinion =t||= Tong@mun




Ggat Easl Gae 0n seour, going to, bound tor so!r/ nca ,t is not (noun) (here: s/'hce


euE! yogum E=


KEd, route

nec6ssa.y, is needed directly opposlte sdo fa' far country bumpkin, yokel (soe note 7: based on copula) quicldy over thre' ovar wnder over thare (neare lhan chog0


shfanS llg kann ]l= b6 H|'A' sul l{3






another, difoBnt

chgi n]l kgi ,|7| wayo glB o- 9pi-ga o- Ul7l9-

tllB ppo i l?l


come (polite style orm) coms (stem) is rning (politg sta: 'arhq wayo) pi-ga



cxample Namdaemun shiiang-e-nunmwga issyo?_This makes o tooi. out of the phrase 'at Namdaemun market" You have io bi' .ateful that the particles are put into the correcr order, htlwever. For example, you can say hanguk-e-do issyo (they haue ir in Korea, to),6ut hanguk-do-e issoyo is wrong' You con learn the correct oiders by observing the example sentences iri this cou.te. There are some rules, however, which you will

ind useful. Manv oarticles cannot occur together becuse their meanings *uud'b" contradictory (the same noun cannot be both subject

nnJ obj"ct, fot exa-!li1, so it is best to stick to only using

combinations that you have seen. l'lowever, the particles -do and --nn (too, ako and.topc) cnn be ajded ft.' rno.t other particles (but not the subiect or obiect particles), both giving eitra emphasis to the noun and noiticl to *hich tbev aie aded. Possible examples are -esnun, lsdo. and.o on. ou might like to srudy the following two which illustrate te use of combined particles:



Kim snsaengnim-un hanguk-edo ilbon-edo kayo Mr Kim goes both to Korea and to lapan

-iras, -aniras

In the dialogue you will firrd the phrase sul saram-i ani-ras. This is related to the negative copula anieyo and you will see that both forms include the part -ani-. ani-ras is a different orm of
anieyo, and it means since (it) is not a (noun). The -ras bit means because or since. The sentence in the dialogue therefore means since I am not a Seoul perso?, . . . , since I'm not from Seoul ...

Slul-enun shiktang manayo ln Seoul (topicl there are many restaurants

Checking on something

To say the opposite of this, that is, s lce something is sometbing e/se' you use the form -iras instead of aniras. Thus, you could say since I'm a Korean with the words: hanguk saram-iras. . . Here are examples of both constructions, and you should also
study the example in the dialogue:

Hanguk saram-i aniras hangungmal chal mot haeyo Since I'm not a Koreafl I can't speak Korean uery well Yngguk saram-iras sul chal mashyyo Since I'm an English person I'm a good drinker

'Ihe oarticle -vo (or -ivo after consonants) can be added to u,'" noon ro heck *h"t has been said, to clarify something .,.io show surprise. In the dialogue one speaker asks which bus qtrcs to Namdemun market, and the other says Namdaemun '*'hiianc-ivo? This translates as Namdaemun market? You said Ni-r|"o"mu market, right? you uant Namdaemun market? or somethins similar. Iia shopkeeper cold you that an apple eost 10,000 won (a ridiculously high price], you might.say Manwon-iyo? 10,000 won? (you ,nust be johing!), Depending (n the in;onat;on it can express surprise or incredulity or c;rn simply be used to checli whether what you heard was

Particle order

Comparing things

You will have noticed that sometmes Korean allows you

put more than one particle onto the end of a word, as in the

You can comDare one thing with another quite simply in Korean. [,et's iake an example sentence. To say that English
bcer is better than Korean ber, the pattern is as follows (first

then with Korean):




words ro show how rhe construcrion works,

English beer (subjecr or ropic) Korean beer-poda is more sood Yngguk maekju-nun Hanguk maekju-poda t choayo -

You can even omit the word t if you want to. Here is another example in which something is climed to be more tasty than
something else:
Che.saenggag-enun hanguk umshig-i chungguk umshik-poda (t) mashi issyo. Ir my opinion, Korean food is tastier than Chinese food.

'l'his verb ending -ko is comrnon in Korean, and it can be used with all verbs. Here is anothr example; Kim snsaengnim-un ch'aeg-ul ilk-ko Chang snsaengnim_un t'ellebi pwayo Mr Kim reads books and Mr Chang uatcbes TV


How many other examples can you spot in the dialogue?

Many and

Korean uses the word manayo to say that thee are many of something. It uses another word k'u- to say rbar somethi;e is big (-polite style k'yo). The stem for the ve manayo is mah_ (the h is still there in Korean writing in the polite foim manayo, but is silent in pronunciation).
chk-, polite form chgyo. Here are some exam"ples, Ynggug-enun yongguk saram_i manayo In Enghnd there are many Etglish people Yongguk-enun hanguk saram_i chgyo In England tbere are feu Koreans
I-chaeg_un k'_go ch-chaeg-un chagayo Tbis book is Ug and. that orre is small


'l'he verb ending -kunyo can be added to verb stems in order to cxpress surpris. Looi< at the example in the dialogue, where vol will find it with the copula. lt is particularly common with ihe copula, often in the honbrific form -ishi-gunyo, and it is this orm that you have met;

big and small

Kim snsaengnim-ishi-gunyo! Pangapsmnida Ah, so you'r Mr Kiffi (surpfke, supise!)! Pleased to meet you! You do not need to use this form yourself, but you need to be nble to recognize it if a Korean uses it. Here is an example of its usc with the normal (non-honorific) copula:
So you're

To say something is small you use the verb chak-, polite form chagayoi to say there is or are few of something use the verb

Kim snsaengnim adul-i-gunyo! Chigm di kayo? Mr Kim's son! Wbere are you going nour?

Baoul has several famous and fascinating markts, paticuly Tonodagmun and Namdaemun Which you have leamt somthing
rbout in this lesson. Namdaemun is more compact, psrhaps more
plaasant to look round and has more touists' Tongdaomun sprawls lght on all tho way down ch'ngyech'n (parallel to chongno)' and la choapgr or some goods. lt depends a bit on what you want to buy lt to which is best. Tongdagmun has a bstter slection of shoes and boot8, or example, but both o them ars well worth a Visit-


Joining sentnces together


You have learnt the word kurigo which can be used to begin a second sentence with tbe meaning 'and . . ,' Take the exaple

balt tlmo to go is betwsen ons and six in tho moming. The night

Both Tongdaemun and Namdaemun are also night markets, and th

Hanguk mshik choayo. Krigo ilbon mshik-do choayo Korean food is good. And lapanese food is good too Tlese two sentences can be joined into one by taking tlre verb stem

mrkets can b good, but they can also sometimes bg disappointing. l pu're in seoul or a while it's probably somhing which is \orth trylng once.

of the first (cboh- from choayo), and adding the eding -ko to it: Hanguk umshik choh_ko ilbon mshik-do choayo

(NB h

k', thereore roh-ko is pronounced cho_k'o.)

Thcra arg oth markets too. chegi shijang is much lss well known (rnd thgreforg lss touristy) and is grsat or ood, chinese herbs md modicines, and for ginseng products. ltaswon is well known or havlng hordes of oreignrs and lots of Koreans who can speak Encll8h. But it's not the cheapst placg to shop by any means. cities out of seoul a|so havs good marks o cours6, and tha fish market


(much o it aw) at Pusan is a case in point' Korean marks something you'll probably grow to |ov or hate!

cl tnis ruit doesn't look too good!

ln this dialogue a Koan gil, Minja' goes to th maket looking to buy some boxes of apples. She has some trouble, but eventually
manages to strike a good deal-

qJrl Eg A oJrl aA llT a A EIl

golole? Gll ^}nt oJ 80l0llB' a iloil LIP HlrlLllE. ?lot+^ilg.. olPj ] l iloll = DJd g0ll ]ll17l^ll9. ]JE' Hl,t\lg'. f EtE Bl )lEAle. (o f,,mseff) 9= 0l+El lil+s'Lll 0l
^lJl]l 49'01E'.

B choayo. Kulm iman-ch'ilch'n wn-man chuseyo' chom t kkakka_juseyo. Mln|a chmwon B choayo' Han sangia_e iman-och'n won naeseyo' Komapsmnida. se sangia chuseyo' illn|a I How much reduction does the first vendor give on a box? 2 What is the response? 3 rJhat is the prblem at the second stall? ,l What is the cause for surPrise? 5 Vhat is the final price?

Phrases and expressions

chom kkakka-iuseyo (onul ach'im-put') chaesu mne rhingshing haepoiii anhaYo rnworaguyo? sagwa sangja
please cut the Price a bit for me i'ue had no luck (all morning);

Minja goes to another grocers.

I'm unlucky they d.on't look fresh

what did you say?

ga B slr g B

Minia A Mlnia chmwon A MinJa Chmwon A

chmwon Minh goes

Erl B EIt E B gll =0l9' noJLlEl.

dd .ts'olll BL]lg' oIE a E ]ellg? f ?lolEgrl|9. g 0lu9? = |ruql AoJ d 3oJ +^llE. flalng?! e }llEr+ EJ Hl/ilLltg'. *0l9. ] olEj gd aP! +^lg. q = 4+01+/'lle. ols} 9d 8 u,{lg. 0{l

kkakka-iu- ?tol+kaiyga_ 7lx71kraedo ]u|E te El

nmu ll+ -neyo -ulB


llill 8Il

appls box

aach, per too (much) mild surprise sentencs ending cut the pice (ol someone's beneit)


take however, nevefthdess, but sti//


Ygi sagwa lma-yo? Han sangja_e samman won-ieyo' Nmu pissa-neyo. chom kkakka-.juseyo. Krm han sangja-e iman-p'alch'n won-e kaiy-gasyo. Krao pissayo. Krm tante ka-boseyo. (to hlirs) onl ach'im-pul' chaosu mne|

8hlngshing ha- dolttn 0|E s8gsgyo

kabo- 7lHach'im ole -put' -+E chassu Il+

place go and se, ylsi (a placs)





is fresh cerbrh, soms (as a question word = which?) has gone bad, has gone of


to anothar goces.


chmwon B Kaeyo? Kurm chom kkakka-durilkkeyo.

l-sagwaa shingshing hae_poiji anneyo. ttn gn chom ssgssyo.

Han sngja_e samman_ch'n wn_man chuseyo'



(polite stylo, past tens) l'll cut the Price for Yd) (polite style) approx, about (deried Jrom ihe meaning 'o you have learnt)

Minia chmwon B Minia

-man -EJ yp' gl

only pay

Mworaguyo?! Yp kag-poda t pissansyo.



nart door


To and rom (with people)


The panicle -man means ozly, so that samman won-man means only 30,000 won, and chaek-man chuseyo means please giue me tbe book only or please iust giue me the book. Na-an wassyo means only l haue corfle. -man can be added to any noun in this way.

when vou want to say o a peson (write o a person, speak o o nar.n. eive to a prson), you use the particle -hant'e or the pnnicle -ee (the panicle -kke can be used when the person is honorific). For example: I'm utiting a letter to Mum lnni-ege p'yn|i ssyo lrrcnrin-hni'e chu-go ship'yo I want to qiue it to tae'nin 'ib,ii_"n. I'm speaking to Fatbe ivasi hae-yo I'm setling it to Mother po''eyo ntni-i"e'

More surprises

The verb ending -neyo can be added to any verb stem, and it indicates surprise, although usually of a milder form than -kunyo. This is perhaps a more useful pattern ro learn to use for yourself. Look carefully at the examples from the dialogues:

Plga o-neyo!

Kurm, k_saram-un

Aegi-ga ch'aeg-ul ing-neyo! (spelr ilk-neyo) hanguk saram-ineyo!

Oh no, it's raining!


person'is said with the particle -hant'es or _eges; ( ih'ingu-hant'es ton padayo l receiue money from my friend Wrllvoil-lar-e mni-eges I receiue a letter from my Mum on Mondays o'inii oadavo ntiii-t'ni'.'a.nann*" I got a phone call from Dad (a call came) wnssyo
'llr<rm a

Wout, tbe baby is reading a

So be's the Korean person, Or, so tbat person is a Korean, then! (depending on the intonation)


plsnty o bargaining to be done at Korean markets. The best rdvlco ls to go shopping with a Korean or somsone who has been in

cutting the price

Koca a long time and who knows how to get a good deal. some


tvtonths o the year


carefully June and October in which the number loses the lasr

The months of tbe year in Korean are as follows

ahopkoopsrs aksady give the lowest price, and you must be aware lhat lt ls not fair to expect such dealgrs to cut' Others will give qultc an lnlared prlca when they se you ar a forigner. ln general, howcvgr' Korea is a much saer plac or not getting ripp otf than aomowhgrs like lndia or Thailand. ln genera|, the places whes there aa lowor oreignsrs are more likely to ofath best deals (and less llk ly to speak English!).

il-wol i-wol

ch'il-wol p'al-wol ku-wol shi-wol shibil-wol shibi-wol

o-wol yu-wol

sam-wol sa-wol

lanuary February March

May lune




September December

October Nouember


questions in Korean' based on the

Translate the following sentences into English. a Yogi'pissaneyo. Yp kage-e ka-bopshida. b Yi- p'al-iiman tarun te-e ka'myn t ssayo. c Sl shirrae-e kanun bosu-rul di-s ayo? d onul ach'im-put' chaesu mneyo! Ilbon-un Hanguk-poda t pissayo. Kraedo Hanguk_do
Flangug-e Yngg saram-i manhayo. a Kkakka-durilkkeyo. Han sangia-e mansamch'nwon-e

1 nswer the following

alogues in this lesson. Make sue to use full sentences in you answes'

b EEIIE ^l+ol g oJ ^l*}L4 $o|9? ts].,- c o'lc d ^l*.ll^l4E qq 7}9? d Br.|l ^l+"llE aol Y}otg? e lc l2- qq4 }g? 2 Make up answers or appropriate responses to the following




he aenggak-poda


b Onul ach'im-e mwol haseyo?

a Tongdaemun shiiang-e ka-go ship'yo. Kach'i kayo? c I kwail-i an shingshing haeyo. d Bsu yogum-i lma-eyo? e Hanguk choa haseyo? Hangungnral chaemi issyo?
Imagine that you suddenly recognize or are surprised by seeing e following people or things. This exercise is intended to practise the -kunyo form with the copula (don't forget to use the honorific fom of the copula when appropriate).

h i !


vonsung-iinnnyaguyo? Tongdaemun shiiang_e


Chumun hashigessyo? Ygi-ga Hanguk-aniras Kimch'i-rul p'anun te chgyo.

Ihich o the following Particle

and which are not?

sequences are acceptable

b c

^l -q.Al9--q zJ


khig a


b Mr Ob wife c a Japanese book

a Mr Kim's dog


"ll^l =.

d the Korea Exchange Bank

e hyngjun the Chinese teacher

t '|i (kuk = solp) ^.ll7l s o}a+EJ



Make up
a Korean

sentences coinpaing the following sets of information. For the first set you would make up a sentence to say that Korean food is moe tasty than Japanese ood'

Translate the following sentences and put them into the -neyo mild surprise form.
a My, these dictionaries are expensive! b Taegyu is coming! c vhat ae you doing? (surprise!)

c d

food Japanese food Here there Train bus Mr Kim Mr Pak

Namdaemwun Tongdaemun moreexpensive

tasty more of them faster (ppayo) more luck

d This newspaper's really interesting.


Join the following pains of sentences, with the -ko clause

a a

Vrite a alogue

thinks is a Korean. Fortunately, the Japanese can also speak Koreaq and so, after explaining that he is Japanese not Korearq he tells him that the Louve is nearby (not far). He doesn't need to take a bus and it only takes seven minutes to walk.

bus to the Louvre and a Japanese, who the Korean mistakenly

betweerr a Korean in Paris who wants to get

c d

E/d{Bo'l"llg. 4 ^}} rJ',g,$Holql9' ^}B.o'| qp]q 4 9]l3.' }tsl ts4tlt 4g' 7l * qolg. ^}'}E.^| qq-9-. old ]a= * d d"J B ts]az} Br.llE ^l"ll 49'

5l]+ ^l +oil

tsia 4-s'

49' q5



10 nu bsu_ga hak_kyo_e kann bsu-eyo? Shipp'al pn

bsu-ga di kayo?

3o o o {r + +

o 5

J o t+ t st IJ B) II I J o
\ I

tr I

ln this unlt you will lam . how to talk about shot_tm

. .


how to sWEBst and discuss


and pains' say thal you a ill and gst sympathy tho pobablg Utur (what you expocl lo do o wh b ]flost pobablg) how to make suggstions and t6U othrs what you are thinking of doing

horv to xpess you achs

Cl on

to the mountains

Mr Kim wants to take Tony mountain climbing, but with Tony's busy schedule they have some dificulty inding a convenient dat'

ilta Eu e{ Eu

e!8 E= 3r/.l]t ot+ =ots. Eu . E!=c gE'Et g,l{|'l =ol9. eda ug 9] }loll9? gg s9E 2Jrl9? =&oltj Eu ]ln cI|oJ L]{gc d^taJl! E[]{E l]ltr floltr. ^lsol|^] adg fal tla gsgc ot0ts.? ^E Eu ttB g9goll= uq' 53=ln 2J'lll

'Vhat plans does Tony have for tomorrow! 4 with whom has he made plans or the following Sunday? J What is resolved? 6 '$(,Ihat do you know about Tony's opinion regarding the experience of mountain climbing?

e E=&ol E Et } ol|9. Eu _] E=! g?0l^l oJ=rlg? Mr Kim Yojm nalssi_ga aju choayo. Ne. l9ry NaeilHanguk-un yngguk-poda nalssi-ga choayo. Mr Kim mwo ha{keyo? Pylil ps-umyn tungan-ina ka{kkayo? Tony Ka-goship'-jimannaeil-unchipsaram-hago Tongdaemun shijang-es shyop'ing ha-giro haessyo. Mr Kim Krlm tam ilyoir-un ttaey? Tony Tam ilyoiFenun taehak tongch'ang-hago pulguksa-e ka-lkka haeyo. Mr Kim Krm tam ilyoil_do an toe_genneyo. n1e_9a
_T9n_Y Mr Kim

fal tl- g'gE P! El7'tLlte. 9ll} =rlE? ] trtB ggge olEl u=7{oll8. ]B B3 gagoll 3^ltrl. =ola. XJE ll8. ratll=}= =olJol BIl B0l^1 s+oll= =}= PJ 0| E ol9. >Jrlg?


naeil mwo halkeyo? ubat are you going to do tomonou? if you don't haue anything pylil psmyn . . . -sqecial on. . . it uon't be any good, then on twoegenneyo

Phrases and expressions

ama kwoench'anulkeyo naeil

(unfortunately) it uill probably turn out (be) okay

nalssi Ellll
-()lkeyo -(9)

UE E 10lE

tono ow


f atll olt-

pyli| H

(Usd to give verbs a future meaning, se note 3)


_()lkkayo -(o) p =t! )llQ


-kiro haessyo

shyp'ing (ha-)

ilyoil 9991 ilyoillal 9l9glEl taehak ll9l tongch'ang pulguksa

iB(0l-) -]l= trolE

a special matter, something pafticular mountain climbing (verb ending meaning sha// We?, se note 6) shopping (do/go shopping) decided to


sunday (longr orm)




colleague (fellouJ student in this case) Pulguksa (Korean Buddhist temple, the largest in Korea, am thinking o doing when
mountain near Kyngju)

1 2

Kim Tony


How does English weather compare with Korean? does Mr Kim suggest and under what circumstances?

cho-ulkkayo? K tam ilyoir-un ama kwaench'an_ulkeyo' choayo. Krm k tam i|yoil-e kapshid. ch-do tngsan_ul choa haeyo. Krnde yngguk_enun san-i manch'i anas tngsan_ul mani mot haessyo. Krnde nU san-e kaikkayo? Tobongsan-i p'yn ha_lkeyo. Krm Tobongsan ipku-es manna{kkayo?

_(llkka haeyo


9) e

man-ch'i anas ElIl

nie 9!!| 'll san t!



E=! ha- Eolipku g?

n g1u

drd (past tense form of ha- do)

since there aren't many (written manh-ii anh-as)

which one Iobongsn (mountain in seoul) is comfoftable, is convenient entrance

This unit contains several verbs whose stems end in i,

Verb stems ending in


ll'l'Jlli:,':ffi J3;#&11,'J,il'il'l?;'';,l,ffi ,',1,1"""


example: umfigi- (moue\, nolli- (tease), and you have previously met mashi_ (drink|, lad- (uait) and kIli_ (a''s' takes (titnc)|. All these verbs change the last i to yo and add yo in order rrr

rlrklne decisions

form the present polite style, This gives the polite style umiigyyo, nollyyo' mashyyo, kidaryyo' kllyyo.



Tuesday Wednesday Thursday

{H{{[:"'iil+"l:j.-i'.*ItTi'ii''l'"il'.ffi Kim sonsaengntm-hago chomshim-ul mk_kiro

rxu wrlulcl ray: hrrrryrrr

The following are the days of thg week in Korean:




mokyoil kmyoil kiday

t'oyoil ilyoil

Saturday Sunday

ilrlnfmg about it lAnrllmr whcn vou still.haven't. -1d9 $:1':jl?::'J::

Probable future

The most common way to give a sentence a future meaning irr Korean is to add -(u)lkeyo to the stem of the main verb. As ytlrr would expect, you add -lkeyo if the stem ends in a vowel, antl _ulkeyo if the stem ends in a consonant. Thus manna- becomcrr

mannaJkeyo (I ll uill sitl.


meet\, and ani- becomes anj-lkeyrt


qo sorutrrlur' t: tjh::ll1!t aomcone 'shall lo .omcone 'shall we do something lt. ,h;;;;. y;' hae iust. learned' |dd and -lkkayo? to 6'_i".'t stem ending in ar'owel, to someone 'shall .i""'""' r" sa ii'ji;i".iii_i,"ra therefore'"y yrgi "ni-ttt'k"y'1l "iiitt''. have a beerJ' you would say maehwu


have called the form the probable future, because there are other ways of expressing the future tense in Korean - there is a definite future, for example, which you might use if there ir scarcely any doubt that you will do something' or i you wattt to stress your intention to do it. The probable future is the most common, and is used in most everyday situations when yort want to say that you are going to do something:


'ffi;; i:"'i"i';



Naeil chungguk taesagwan-e kalkeyo

I u.,ill (probably) go to the Cbinese embassy tomonow

Naenyn-e ch'a-rul salkeyo I'm going to buy a car next year (naenyn, next year)

are very ond of and to I xo.eans Korgan mountain mountain climbingpublic if you goyou vitually any weekend o hollday, will b sure to ind hordes of Korsans all dressd up in hiking goar, on a

fton l'rr

ch shinae-e ka-nunde, gach'i kalkkayo?

Kulsseyo .

no mom-i choch'i anayo? Yongtas-sshi-nun hangsang

kkoebyng-ul purijiyo! Anlyo' Krch'i anayo. onl-un chngmal ap'ayo' onr-un dija ap'ayo? Tut'ong-i issyo. Mri-ga chom ap'ayo. K_ge ia-eyo? Kkjng ha-ji masoyo. Ama nalssi-ga tWos kurlk-eyo' Anln kt kat'ayo. Pae-do ap'ayo. Mani ap'ayo? Kraeyo' Mani ap'ayo' Krm yag-ul sa-r yakkug-g kapshida' Ch-nun ot kayo. Him_i psyo. Kedaga tari{o chom ap'ayo. Tarl-doyo? chnshin-i ta ap'_gunyo' An ap'n dg-ga

ch-nun mom-i chom choch'i anayo'

with graat enthusiasm. For most Koreans mountain climbing mgans a stenuous hike ather than scaling rock aces, but
that in no way diminishs ths fun (or the steepness o the mountains!)'



baskatball (nonggu ha-). Football (ch'ukku) is also popular and, for the walthy, gol has grgat status (golp'u).

Sport is very popular, too, and nowadays the most popular sports are the American imports baseball (yagu' Veb: yagu ha_) and


othe pastimss include thg noraebang and kaokei Korgans also

and card games ars also popular among some, the most common ons bing paduk (9o is the Japanss equiva|ent, and is somewhal known in tho West), and hwal'u,
lovo to dink, and sometimss braak into song as thgy do so. Board






Yongtae is sick - sverything sems to bo hurting and his risnd Jaohoon isn't v6ry sympathotic. When hg wants his fiend Jaehoon to g him soms medicine, Jaehoon has another suggestion. Bul
Yongtae is not imprsssed.

I've got a nasty headache!



lasyo? shlkkurwoyo! Nolli_ji maseyo. Yag_ul mg-yagessyo. Yjl manbyngt'ongch'iyak' suFi issyo! sashil vek_ooda sur-i t choayoiondam na-il masoyo. sul mot mashyyo' chngmal pylngwon-e ka-yagessyo.


ne tEl EE 9=e qq)l olrrlE'? tE F=01 ilole. dalll otrrlg. ITE ]1l E}o]l9? 4 6lll= Dl^]lE. 0t0l ElqA f }l01|9' ' tEt olu 1 e0t9. BtlE 0til9. oJ0l

]t=ql 0l 2lE'? ^lLl{01l n= Eot 5xtPJotg. =r{tg... = E' E0l EilAlts B !lE= +alXl9! olLlE'. =xlB0l9? ]Il PJ0l9. 9Ec "J oltrlg.


I I I { I

Why ir there little sympathy at first?

WhAt ore the svmptoms? Wlrnt lr thc suese3ted reason for the illness? Whv can't thei-both go for the medicine?

Whrt curc-all is suggested?

lhreres and expressions

l0rtlhch'l rnhayo llrrhyng-ul puri|iyo
r'hrrh-ch'i anhaYo


nE tEl !E aH

0lBg? fPJg'. Elol 01il9'. ] E= got a^lo. Eeql ^lal n= ll9. s.ota. )tE+} BalE = = 0lrr9. BaIE.B'? d!0l Et o}ItEQ'. g! olEgl7l ilolE? 0ti*119. E= qol0!1tol9. qr| P!g=xlg+ 0l91ol9! =alIl ^ln49lE! +tsE} ^l 0l El tote. Eg 6tll ot^llE'. ot/dE. "J Ea0l = 7t 0til0tE.

nun mom-i chorn

I don't feel aery


y:ou're making it uP!

of course not an ilbress)


llllrhn5 he-ii maseyo

don't uorry! (colloquial form: kokiong maseyo) I dn'tihiflk so; it doestt't seen like it rttllt ll let'ayo to eP'8unyot ^tour uhole bodY must be burting! lhtlnrhln-i ihut upt, be quiet! (lit.z'it's noisy'\ rlrlllrllrwoyol don't ioke, don't kid me, don't tease rrrrlll.ll mrcyo
1r1 rrl mgyagessyo I'll baue to take some medicine

-nnde -=B| kailsseyo

(verb gnding for clauses, see note 4)


'l'ho vcrb stem ap'- (rr) belongs to another group of verbs all lrrlllnc in -. Thise delete the u and add instead a or , followed hy yo-to form the polite style. Thus ap'_ in the polite style is

cho-ch'i anh-




who knows?

dunno, I'm not sure,

To hurt

=n tto

-ji maseyo

hangsng k|$oabyng a eigned illness ap'- 0=- huls (stem) ap'ayo 0lu9 huns (polito style) rut'ong F= headache mi qe| had kking 4 wony, concem kking ha_ E|0lbe woied ama olEl twos Egtl

g8 x8

again; moreoveL also, fufthem)ore a!ways

rs not good (from choh-)


lkrw do you know whether the last vowel before the yo will be ? Simply remember this rule: if the preceding vowel ln r ,'r " lr ln r (as in ap'-) or o, then the becomes a, otherwise it is .

Don't do it!

-Il [ll|B


pae !l yak 9f yakkuk E+ him g kedaga ,llEltl chnshin E+! ap'n 0l= nolli-

]3rl0l9 kat'- e-

ls f'o (can also because you're hot, but hge subject is Weather) it wi probably be like that

please don't peaps, probably




sems /rlke stomach medicine chemists, drugstore strangth, energy on top of that
the whole body

Whon you want to tell someone not to do something' take the rlrnt o the verb you want to tell them not to do and add -ii mlrovo to it. Thus. maekiu-rul masbi-ii maseyo means pleasa ln'i drink beel he two phrases in this dialogue, kk|ng hl.ll mescyo and nolli-ii maieyo are quite common. The first nlin don't uorry!, and the second means don't tease me!' whlt other useful xamples can you think of ? How would you lly 'plaoe don't wait here' and 'don't do the shopping'?

Long negatives



h u fti n g, p ai ntu I (adite'oliv el

-yagessyo -otiloll sashll llll nongdam El nongdam ha- Eaolpyngwon Efl =



make fun o cure-all medine, minclecure,

You hrvc learnt how to make negative sentences in Korean with mot rnd n, by putting them immediately in front of the verb. 'llrrro lr anothr way also' which is known as the long negative. 'ltrrr b no particularly significant difference between the two, thourh thcr are some circumstances in wbich you are moe lllrlto find the long form than the shoner one you have learnt rlllddy. To spell ot these distinctions would be rather long wlndrd and would also make e fference seem more important

will have to fact (the act is . . . ) /bke (noun) lokes (verb)

thrn lt rcallv is. The best advice is to look carefully at the

dlrlorucc in ihis book, and to imitate Korean speakers whenever tsu cin. You will then pick up a feel for which to use. Generally, ihort ncgatives are biner in short, simple sentences; long nrSrtlvchould be used in more complex sentences.


how to make the long negative. Instead of adding trmathlng before the verb you wish to negate, take the stem of lhrt vcrb-and add -ii an(b)iyo or -li mot Laeyo, depending on whrthcr you want to give the sense of the Korean word an lttorl't or isn't going tol or mot (can'tl.

thn lr

Dad doesn't tell jokes

Abii-nun nongdam ha-ii anavo

Therefore, mot kayo in the long negative form would be kaii mot naeyo' and an mgyo in the long negative rrrrr Uulu uc - form would L," mk-ii an(h)ayo. He.e s n.*".pt. r."?t',''

thc past stem of all verbs, whether they describe an action or are

ldlcctival. ln other words, it doesn't make the distinction that

lhc present tense does.

tngsan-ul choa ha-iiman Yun snsaengnim pum tungsan ha_ii "'r mot haeyo Mr Yun likes mountain climbing, but his uife can t do it

Descriptive verbs and pnocessive verbs

- descriptive and processive.

lmminent elaboration




The,-formation of the. pattem is easy: take any verb which expre_sses an aion (that is, not an djectivat ,i..ui-""J the stem. Note tat you ."ri "Ji u."-_;";h iss- and ps-' giving'you ,rc "l.o ro'r*-i'-'"

speak-er still has more to ."y *hi.h i"i"i1'i,iii'" ii"Tlijii said. It is a clue to tbe listenr not to..ply'y.i, the rest has been said. The statement i!;,;..;br;;;il#j: "*ii mote to com. ln this case, the second clause is kacili ki-ki.;;.; |snau ,ae 8o togetber!). Koreans use this pamern all the tim io show that they have something more ,o *t'"it'".'i been said (in this case an invition), '"y "u"u, i:ji -'" meet the -nnde pattern frequently'"""j it'. *il'i"l';J.*

This sounds rarher forbidding, but it isn't really aIl that dificult! Noran nas a very common way of linking two clauses toseth"" ro snow that the fust one is not all that you have got to. that there is more coming i" "nJ to it. For example, look t *'. n'.i-'-.*.n!.*; ;ili"ff;:: Nil-nun sbtnae- ka_nnde. That is the end of the 6rst cla"u... rne meanm8-ls straightlorwrd enough, 1rn going into totan. _ir'"1ij but the -nnde added on to the end "o kaiii.i ..


Processive verbs describe a process, the doing of something, {n action. Thus, mk_, an|_, ka-, ha_, manna- are all processive vcrbs. Descriptive verbs describe something, so choh- is an cxample, because it describes something as good. Cho(h)a ha-, by contrast, is processive, because it describes the process or Iction of the speaker liking someing. Descriptive verbs unction like ad|ectives in English. They are adiectival verbs.

Korean has two basic kinds of verbs



compactly by saying that _nnde can only be added to processive vcrbs, and that _()nde is added to descriptive verbs and the copula. In e future we shall be making use of these rwo terms when we describe verb endings. 'fhe two verbs iss_ and ps_ can be either processive or descriptive dcpending on their use, and we will tell you about whther or not they can be used with panicular verb endings as we go olong.

we tell you all this because some verb enngs will only work with one o the two kinds of verbs. what we have iust said nbout _nnde, for example, could have been said much more

There is one other verb, the copula, which is in a class of its

own. We will tell you about this also on a case-by-case basis, as
we did with -nunde.


Mr Kim You have not learnt the past tense, yet, but you might like keep in e back of your inind the r.t it'"t -ooae'l;H to

form -()nde instd 1ode"ater'.onsriffi#:'.Hj after vowels). The copula also'takes ,t'i. r.i., -".' Cho-nun Pak Jaemin-i_nde Kim snsaengnim manna-r wassyo I'tn Pak Jaemin (and I'ue got more to say): I,ue come to meet

Verbs.which describe things (e.g. is green, is hot, is foolish etc.) take the


What you wil! have to do

This unit introduces you to one final pattem - how to say that
you will have to do something.

To form the construction, take off dre -yo of the polite style
form of the verb and add 1agessyo. Take the verb mk_ as an cxample. fie polite sryle is mgyo, so taking off the _yo and adng the -yagesyo ending we have mg'yagessyo. This can then be used in a sentence: figum mg'yagessyo (I am going to haue to eat ou, (l'm obliged to)|.


The dialogue had two examples of the panern: yag_ul mg -yagessyo and pyngwon_e ka_yagessyo. Can you remember
what they mean?

Doctors and chemists

at th yakkuk (pharmacy). Doctors are available at hospitals

and gsnerally speaking there is no equivalent of going to a doclor med|cines for headache, tiedness, lu and so forth, and many frequontly take tonics and helth drinks in the interest of staying

Most medicines can b bought over the counte without prescription


o the hospital. Koreans are nthusiastic takers


Chinese medicine is also very popular in Korea and there

markets which concntratg


on sslling the hsrbs and potions which ll


lnv Mik'a, annyng! Naeil shigan_i issyo? iltil lstate another Planl il;; i{ui ityoit-i pylil ps_umyn kach'i tungsan ' kalkkavo? l,ll.l lToo bisv doing somethirg else) loy 'Iaum ilyoir-urr naeyo? (#l lAnother Planl il; "li_.t'ig!"-i issyo, kurm? Na-rul an choa haeyo? iitit (Desn't-like mountain climbing| hry Kurm, an twoegennneyo'

iln you write a simple conversation between two friends' who thin]<s ;#;il;'ill'-" ."".t'" and the other realizes that she --" she and suddenly ,iir..tili'1"""-""v


Here is an exercise about putting verbs into different forms. give you some sentences with the verb stem, you writc out the sentences in full, putting the verb into the correct orm.

4 slictlt

Future a Yangju mashi-myn naeil mri-ga ap'ub Ittaga chmshim-ul mkc Hanguk saram manrra-myn hanja sain p'iryo psDecided

d Pyngwn_e ka_ e Wonsungi-rul saf onl-un mshig-ul an mkThinking of g Ch-nun 'Star \Vars'(!) poh onl ach'm shyop'ing hai llyoir-e pulguksa-e kaShall we

llnlc nrc


i k l

nie tngsan ka-? Kim snsaengnim_ul di_s manna-?

Uch'eguk ap'-es bsu-rul t'a-?

The following dialogue concerns a boy who wants to go mountain climbing with Mik'a, a reluctant girl who keeps making up reasons why she can't go with him. Can you fill in the missing parts, giving reasons why she can't go? (Note: annyng is a way of salng hello to a close liend, or someonc
younger than you.)

wlll nt' so be choose the most rrirl trl ind all the possibilities and then llhrly. r Your friend is making fun of You' your tnend' but sne h You want to go out tonight with
,,rr' ln rme cases' more than one expression

some situations in which you might use one o the idiomatic expressions. See if you can match them

. Yu; i. awful pain, and every part of your body seems to hurt. ,l li'."n. has iust said something eally stupid' . too r Ytlu're trying to concentate, but someone is maklng

cdn't make it.

ntuch noise.

You've made a mistake. a Your iunior colleague has lust said something you disagree with. h Your boss has lust said something you disagree with. t Your mother is panicking about your health. i You dn't hear properly what your younger brother iusl

dcrcribe them?

is in bed sick, with the ollowing symptoms' Can

44ilqs Pl.dls
^ln' 444^l El^19 *el+s?

a^!o] } }9

f Bzl gl}s. "lU a +olg

tl+ 91il9

a! q 4.Ljlg This exercise is designed to help you practise the

pattem. For each question we give you one o two clauset n which the first one always ends in -nnde. Your task is t() make up an appropriate clause which fits with the one wc have given you to make a complete sentence.
-(n)nde an kavo. b c I-osh-i pissa-nde clothes\ d Yngguk taesagwan-e ka-nnde


a Bsu-ga o_nnde

-(ost Choose the best word from those given here to fit in the gapr in the sentences. Moe than one might be possible, so choosc the best option.
k'rch'imankedaga krnde k'rn klsseyo krigo

K-saram choh}-nde cho(h)-nde

a Him_i hana_do psyo' chnshin_i ta ap'ayo. b Kach'i shyop'ing kalkkayo? Tarun te-e ka-ginr haennnundeyo. -. c Sangmin-ssi-n'n nongdam mani haeyo. chaemi psyo. d Pulguksa-e ka_giro haessyo. mot kayo. e Pak snsaengnim hakkyo-e kaseyo. Kinr snsaengnim-do kaseyo. Put the following sentences into the long negative form.

a a-7| t +o}llg. d ol ^}3}7} cd llg' b xl * 7}g' e E]a * 49.




simple phone calls and arranging to meet people rg foand ordering food and drink in a resauant and money our way around ! the right bus g your free time

bccn learning the stems of Korean verbs and you have ut the way i which endings are put onto these stems nicular meanings. You havi learnt about vowel stems thc panicle -yis added to give the polite style; you _yo tt aut consonant stems to which you add either polite style. However, each of these two types !o rivc e rrr - conbnant ind vowel - can be broken down into cltctoies (one of these you have seen already - stems ji. faA of nese subdtegories bas cerain peculiarities d h rxtthc way in which verb endings are added. Ye are bim to take ou througb each of thi main types of verb Tn Krc"n, to show you how e endings are added. Some b wlll bc revision, but much will be new. Many of the verb teach you aie also new, and these may occur in the ftom now on. They are all common verbs, and you brrn them.

This unit is designed to give you the opportunity to soak up all thethings you have learnt already and to give you more pratice bothvith practical language use, and wit}r te grammar pinerns. In adtion, the unit bas another important section wfrich you must work through carefully - it describes all the common types of Korean verb stems and the way in which the enng. put "." on them. It is very imponant to master this, as you need tobe comfonable puning different verb endings onto the different
types of verb stem in order to progress quiclly with your Korean mres. You should use this section to wrk through the granrmar points, as you normally would, but you will also probably wanr to keep coming back to it for reference.

The unit is a frrrther opponunity for you to revise both the practical topics we've gone through so far (finding your way! ordering food, and so on), and to heck you are halpy with li th9 qa|or garturra points. If you find'tlrere are ire topics which you are not so comfortable with, make sure you go bick to e relevant lesson and cover tlem again.

5wr rr r llH

rtcms which end in consonants take the polite style n|p yo or -ayo, depending on wheer or not the vwcl bf the stem ws an o or an a. Verb endings .ko and -iiman atach straight to the consonant base. like _()tkkyo nd -()pshida attach the longer the ) to the verb stem. Here are some

Topic revision
First of all, topic revision. Here is a list of the topics you have covered so far. Make sure that you know e baiic words and pfuases that you would need for each of them.


. o .

Tetin& finding out what other people are up to: where they are going and why buying drinks and going out for entertainment

identifying and introducing people

elt .li'

aniyo ant-iiman receiue padyo pt-iiman

mgyo mk-|iman

read ilgyo ilk-iiman

good i:hoayo hoch'iman cho_!\kayo


mg_lkkayo ani_lkkayo pad_lkkayo


Certain Korean verb stems which end in I change the I to a t before endings that begin with a consonant (like -ko and -iiman). The only very common verb that does this is:




tuoyo tut-ibnan



Some verbs whose stem ends in p change the p to a w before adding the polite ending _oyo. The p rmains in endings which begin with consonants (-ko and -iiman), bur changes to the letter u before endings with two forms like -(u)lkkayo and -(u)pshida. The shorter form (without the -u-) is then added:

lrnlluryng hr.


goes kayo sleep chayo leaue ftnayo get up irnayo uieu), kugyng sight-see haeyo study kongbu




nna-go mnalkkayo



kugyng kwugyng ha-go halkkayo

irna-lkkayo kongbwu




hot twoyo tp-ko difficuh rywoyo ryp-ko ch'up- akL ch'uwoyo ch'wup-ko kakkap- near kakkawoyo kakkap-ko maep- is spicy maewoyo maep-ko
rypis is is is


vcrbr o' (comel and Po' (look or watchi are regular aNa'l ]om their polite forms wayo and pwayo. The stem lb lhru^e, is all rigbtl also has an irregular polite sryle


ryuJkkayrr ch'uu-lkkayo maeuJkkayo



I ll'ml


thrt end in -i change the i to y before the polite yo is added. Everything else is as you would expect. rtyh
arr bctcd on the polite style minus the -yo ending. Tor lr.lnolc. there isln ending -s which amaches to the polite rtylc inius the yo. In is ase, the stem mashi_ would be
rrrrrhyr, sinci it is based on the polite style (mashyyo) tttltlur thc yo, plus s: Itir rdmcmber, however, that some verb ending patterns

Perhaps the most confusing category is the last, the l-irregular verbs. These all end in l, but the ldisappears beore all endings that have two foms G(u)pshida, -(u)lkkayo and so on}, that is, the last colun of our table. The shoner endings (withour the -u) are
then added-

sal- liue sarayo nol- baue fun, norayo Plav alknou.t alayo p'al- sell p'arayo ml- is far mryo
Vowel stems

tttrrhl- drink mashyyo mashi-go

sal-go sa-lkkayo nol-go noJkkyo al-go aJkkayo p'al-go p'alkkayo ml-go m_lkkayo

llch'i- teach

mashiJk\9yo karch'yyo karuch'i-go karuch'i-lkkayo

Att rrr'oDtlon is the verb stem shwi- (resr) which keeps the thr prrllt'c rtylc before adding yo.

i in

lltnl. thrt cnd thr plltc style


|r|lhrr -yo or -ayo);

in the vowel delete this before adding ending as you would for a consonant base

You will 6nd that all the vowel bases are regular in the finll two columns. Tte only difficulry is in the formation o the politc



vritz ssyo ss_go ssJkkayo hurts ap'ayo ap'-go ap'Jkkayo pppayo papp-go pappJkkayo is busy

Most vowel bases add the ending -yo directly to tbe stem to form the polite style. Endings like -ko and -jiman are addcrl suaight to the stem; endings with two forms (-ulkkayo and -lkkayo; -upshida and -pshida) add the shorter form straight to the stem since the stem ends in a vowel (note ha- has an irregular polite style form):

l r. howcver, that verb stems which end in l not only delete ll l, but rdd another l before the polite style ending yo or
r||, vrrything else is regular:
mrr0. purll.



fast ppallayo ppar_go pparJkkayo knou ollayo mor-go morJkkayo sing, call pullyo pur-go pur-lkkayo

Bases that end in u change the u to wo before the polte style -yo is added. Chu- s generally not shortened like this, however, and has the polite form chwoyo;

the following' Answer the question my-shi-eyo for each of

paeu- study paewoyo paeu-go _p'i*"yo p'iu_go 'lo- 'mok" chu-go ihu- giue chuyo
(or chwoyo)





1 Translate the following
sentences into English. Most ol them should look familiar, as they are based closely on sentences you have met in the dialogues of units 1 to 6.

rffi ffi@ffi

a Krm, kach'i kayo. b onl chmshim-e shigan-i issyo? c Chinccha oraeganman-ieyo. d Ch-nun ilbon mal snsaengnim-i anieyo. e Choesong hamnida. Chakkak haessyo. f Tam wolyoir-un ama koench'an-ulkeyo. g Ch-do Swul saram-i ani-ras chal morugessyo. h Chnshin-i ta ap'u-gunyo. An ap'un te-ga issyo? i Yngguk ton-ul chungguk ton_uro pakku_go ship'yo. I Krigo ch-nun naengnryn-do mk-ko ship'yo. k Marn anju-hago p'ajn chuseyo'

d n hab tat- (shut\ e c p'alpapp_

g r-g

form of Give the polite stYle, the -ko form and the -upshida thc following verbs.
.'smjgi- (moue\

Han sangja-e iman won-e kajy_gaseyo.

(lheck vour answers carefully with the information about vcrbs tatwe have given you' up You are planning a trip away with your friend' Make
rcsponses to his questions'

2 Telling

the time in Korean is easy. To ask what time it is' you sa"y my-shi-eyo? Literally this means houl matry bours is iri To ask at what time something happens you would say either my-shi-e hakkyo-e kayo? or n|e haklcyo-e kayo? (Note th word my is spelt mych', but in normal speecll the ch' is not pronounced).

The hours are counted by the pure Korean numbers, and the minutes by SinoKorean numbers. 9 o'clock is ahopshi; 2 o'clock is tu-shi; 3.35 is se-shi samshipo-bun; 12.02 is yoldu-shi i-bun. You can s y at a certain time with thc panicle -e. Thus, at 2,40 is tu-shi sashippun-e and so on. You can say half past with the word pan. Half past one is han-shi pan.

a di ka-lkkayo? b Mwo ha-r kgi kayo? c Onie kalkkayol d My-shi_e mannaJkkayo? e di-s mannaJk}ayo?'

Read the following questions and answer each one negatively with a full sentenc (no, I'm not or no,I doz't). Try to use the long negative pattern for one or two of the questions. Then make up another sentence saying what you do do instead.

wants to eat Pulgogi, another kalbi. and a third naengmvn_ !7rite a diogue which includes the followine ouesdos from the waiter and your answers to them. (you "deiide to have a
beer each).

You go to a rstaurant with your two friends. One of you

I Ch'ukku choa haeyo? b Maeun k chal mgyo? c Tellebiiyn-ul mani pwayo} d Norae-rul chal pullyo?

Can I help you? Can you eat spicy food? (literally, do you eat well spicy rVould you like anything to drink? Mul_do trilkkayo?

Chunggung mal paewyo?

l,ook at the following steet Plan and answer the questions with full Korean sentences.

6 Make up five short dialogues

b (ansuer)
a Where are you going?


based on the followine information. The dialogue panern is like this: What are you going to buy/do/drink/eat there?



a b

a Kage b Hakkyo c Shiktang


Here is the information you need for the answers: oiing



d Chip e Shiiang



Here is a typical day for Mr pak. Answer the questions that

7.30 7.00 2,a '00 7.30



ut at

hre' a. i-/

/r4,ob p,o atiilal /ual at Chtce"r<*aam,t /natlrbarrllhti.t


-l *nnffiffi
a Kyohoe-es yngguk taesagwan-un mryo? b |.kunch'-e hanguk oehwan nhaeng-i issyo?


//.00 hl a Ed^Jtse g^]"il "JqLls? b dd 4ts qqg? c EJql* qq zl9? d 9 .il ztg?


d Hrkkyo-ga kakkawyol I Uchegug-un taesagwan-poda t mryo? Hrkkyo-e ka-myn shigan mani kllyyo? a Uchegug-i di-eyo?

Hrkkyo-ga di-eyol

kyohoe hakkyo chegwa

church school bakery

10 Jaemin has gone shopping. Iave a look at his shopping list. How wod he ask the opkeeper for g thingr on tbe list? what oigbt he say if the apples are too exPerrve} How would he ask the toal cost?


g 7l o1 or


4 2B d


11 Bnglish to Korean uarslation. b l:t's

a I'm goiqg to sc.hool to study English too. meet out3ide e shop. See you laterl C Enioy your meal.

d Pll really have to go to hospial. c Just pay 15P ) won, thcn-

ft tale about 15 minutcs. s Hos business ese days?

h Give mc tbe chcapest ong plcasa i Thc weather is good nowadays. I came to rnest Mr Pak from c Korcan cmbassy. I k I can't cat sp thingr. Does the bus fot the post office stop at this stop? I

,l..mok ings up his gilfiend chngmin to cancel a date with

D Stret iust gone out


her, lly to lnd that she'd already gone out or the evening with someone

tgu llrl ldu



frE^llg. El H}T]+^1l9. = ul. zsj r|t}al^Ig.

0l9!L|tJ. 4= rtxl 91*'=tjl ' B= Ll'/O|9. +^l oltl 'J=rl 0l^ll9?

lo while later.

ul d8



]la E^llg. +a d^ltol 0l0l fl=1q19. E/l 9= LJ Xl !7 g91 Ea1 u'Jole. oJLl]ltr



oO o o br GI tr tr tr J +t t+ o. -r o r\' o
= -t


ln ihis unit you will leam . how to give inomation aboljt whee people ha\'e gone and why

Yun Jr.mok M7 Yun



f ella? 0ls6lL]l. 95 qq ull Ild, E/ll= EtE LJX|3 tllol E le] ftqTll otot B P! =}lrtll I1q 9++= ] 9'L1l9. 9==olEnqlE. '14aI Esjfl.]lEB. 9= I1E!B| Hte g0l ao|g. 0l, ]?ja. flLllB. U,l''liEl| ag "J0l ?l9^l9?
otLlB, g.ol9. gJ..J6l
Yboseyo? Yboseyo.chngmin_ssichom
Ne. Chamkkan-man kidariseyo'

A nL

whlle laterMian hamnida. chogm chn-kkaji issn_nnde, panggm nagassyo. Hokshi di kannunji aseyo? chal morgessyo. chamkkan-man kidary-boseyo. U chipsaram-i ama al-go iss-lkeyo. chngmin-ssi onul namia ch'ingu-rang ynghwa po-r nagassyo. Kraeyo? lsang ha-ne' onl chnyg_ na_hago
manna-giro haennnde..'

. .
. .

J st


how to give inomation about what happened in thg past sevgral impotant verb and claus endings one way of saying 'because' a way o asking for somEthing to be done o you benet

Jrrmok ll Yun



Mrs Yun

chrn' chngmin_ssi-nun tarun namja_rang deit'u

Mr9 Yun


Ama pam ntke_kkaii an torao-lkeyo' Krlm chal toenneyo. onl chnyk yaksog-ul chwiso ha-rygo chnhwa ha-kdunyo. onl ch-hant'e pappun ir_i saenggyssyo. A, kragyo. chal toenngyo. chngmin-ssi-hant'e chn hal mar-i issuseyo? Aniyo' psyo. Annynghi kyeseyo.



chwiso ha- +1401-rygo chnhwa ha- I!9|olpappn ulE -kdnyo saenggl- ]|chn ha- EoJ-




with the intantion of (see note 5) telepl'on (verb stem) busy

(see note 6) to occur, happan, i,.ke place


Phrases and expresslons

di kannn|i aseyo? do you hnout ubere (she) has gonc? ama al-go issriJkeyo uill PerhaPs knout isang ha-ne (it is) strange! chrn oh dear!, Oh no! chal twoenneyo. it's tumed out uell, it's all for the better . . . hant'e chn hal d.o you haue a message for , , . ?
mar-i issuseyo?



Continuous states

Enclish we have a present continuous tense, used in sentences ii sitting. This continuous tense is indicated In Englih we use the continuous tense fairly by the ening

llkc l-am eoins, be --l'zg.

eoucntlv. herias in Korean e continuous form is used rlnli, for 3ecial emphasis, to stess that something is going on conlinuouily. This eans'that when in English you meet a verb

chogm chn

pakku- HIT_

chogm iEEl chn ! chn-e !0|


-kkaii _il1 -(lss- -9

panggm EJ= naga- U7lhokshi onl 9-E namia ch'ingu HII {!+

change a little while ago a little, a bit before previously until (used to orm the past tense, see note 4) just now
go out

rlrm that eds in -izg, you must not automatically assume that you should translate it by a Korean continuous orm; irr most clrce you should probably not do so.

l,ot's take an example to illustrate this. In English it is quite !()mmon to say a sntence |tke I'm going Dorae. This us'es the conainuous tenie. It would be very unusual to translate this by 3ho Korean continuous tense, and you would only do so if you olrticuIarly wanted to stress the procss or tIe ongoing action bf vour qoins home. You would be far more likely to use the nomat oren present tense form na_nun chib-e kayo.
'Ihorc are certain circumstances in which the Korean continuous


ynghwa $p[ isang ha- 0l0}chnyk Il{ deit'u ha- tll0l=0tpam '! ntke =1| toao_ I0J9-


-( 0D

is strange, bizare
to date night
late evening, supper

,naybe, perhaps, possibly today boyfriand Mh Gilng after consonants) lm, movie

orm is used however, and you should note ese. It is often uard with the verb to kloul. The phrase al_go issyo literally molns I am knouing, and the Korean emphasis is I am in a.state o knowinz thlt' ad sometimes has the force I already knoul that bou kdn't need to tell me), You meet that form in this


yakok E+

come back, retum

othor common uses are to stess what you are in the process o dolng rigtrt now. Thus, as answers to the question mwol haeyo? luhat are you doing?\,you might saY:
uhrck ilg-yo

appointm t

chrok ilk-ko issyo

speak, that is what you are busy with and in the middl of

They both mean I'm reading a booh, but the second one suesses that you are in the process of reading the book even as you

ln the past tense it meas haue you tied lvetblin1?, baue hid a po at lverb\ing?, e.g. t'enisu-rul (t?,lzis) hnc-bwassyo? (baue yoi euer played tennis? haue you

,ryer rried p:laying

Generally you should only use the present continuous tense when you,are sure that you want to stress that particular meaning of continuous aion.

ln the following point).

teniis?) tho- to make rhe past tense is

To make the form, take the verb stem and add -ko iss-, for example' in the polite style, -ko issyo' You will not normally
find negatives in the continuous Dattern: vou would simolv use a verb form, for examplan ilg o 1t'n not reaiig1.


The past tense


l'hc oast tense in Korean is used very similarly to the Past tense ,iqlish to sav what someone did or was doing in the past' ,,rr st need t learn how to form it and, fortunately, that is lllrlv easv too. Take the verb vou want in the polite style (e'g' nrrllyo, rayo' kidaryyo, aniiyo), take the _yo off the end and

n,lJ'-is.'vht you novr have is the past stem (previously you

probable future form _lkeyocan also be used simply to rnean 'probably'. You have an example in this dialogue in the phrase ama al-go isslkeyo (my uife will ptobably kioul, perhbs my uife utill knou|. Notice that this isn't a proper future tensi; it s just a way of expressing probability.

You will emember that we said in the last unit that

Invc bcen learning the Present stem of verbs). This-paststem can tlir,n be made intoi veib form in the normal way, by adding' for rrEmple, the polite style ending -yo:

Having a go


.l n lllknl lrtrlrrrilll

You have already learned the verb kabo-, which we told you
a compound of the verb ka- (go) and the verb po- (see).

ttem polite minus -yo plus pok":' kayo kaka-bmk- mgyo mg_ mg_bo_

make other compound verbs by adding the verb po- to another verb. You must take the other verb in ihe polite tyle -yo form, knock off the _yo, and then add on the verb po_. Here re some examples; meaning go andlee
haue a go

meant'go andsee'. It is not really one verb at all, however,-but You can

l(rtttcmber that you can put all sorts of endings- on the.past lrarr. iust as voi can on the normal verb bases that you have lp,rrricd oreviuslv. Sometimes the forms you make will look a lrtt rrdd'because f the rules of sound change - the -ss_ might ,llranoear into another sound, but it will still be thee in Korean

polite mrgoyo "'"o' kidryyo aniayo'

-yo mg aa kidary ania




-ss aasskidaryssaniass_

po.lite past

mgssyo arassyo anjassyo


*rirl'ir. r". example, witlr the past base mgss- you could
l|ld(lc! m8ssyo, mgt-kuna (mgss- +kuna), mgt-ko (nr1ss- +ko), mgn-neyo (mgss- +neyo)' etc.

at ax'd see

kidari_ kidaryyo kidary_ kidary-bo- ;::r":rTr""

try uaiting
The two most common uses for this pattern are as follows: . It is oftn used in the polite honorific sty|e to mean please haue a go at lverb) and see, please try out (verb)rzg. For example, kidary_boseyo in this lesson means please wait and see, please try waiting, please haue a go ai uaiting.

llr'tncmber that the orms haennnde and kannnde are also r.n tcnse forms in which the -ss- of the past tense has become ir hv the rules of sound change. These two forms ae thus the ,,n. b"..s haess- and kass--with the imminent elaboration 'nllndc added to them' This past tense _nnde form is very r otnmon in Korean.
nrrrl add -shyss- to giue you the

moke honorific past forms' take the present verb base, honorific past base (if the stem (if the stern ends in a consonant)' ntlrlr in a vowel), or -shssllrlr con then' be made into, fof example' anjshyssyo


lyru (hotorifc)

sat dounl, from the honorific Past base

Here are some more examples: I meet (my) friend and then (ue) go to the pub Hangug-e ka-s hanguk ch'ingu-rul mannassyo I uent to Korea, and then I met a Korean friend

Ch'ingu-rul manna-s sul chib-e kayo

l It tt

A good example would be: Piga wa-s hakkyo-e mot kayo

It can mean'because A, then B', and this is perhaps the meaning which you will use (and meet) most frequntly.

Ir tlil

oll1l BlollE u]t :a} il'=Bl oll UJoll oltl 2Jflolg? oll tjJol8?


It's raining, so I can't go to sebool I can't go to school because it's raining


Here are some more examples: onl pappn ir-i saenggy-s yaksog-ul mot chik'yyo
Sometbing has corte up today, so I cannot keep the appointment (lit. a busy maner bas come up)

Ir It
Yongt'r. 'mgyu Yon0l'!.

ltqol glue. 0l0l olErt ?t=1q9. ]lqol g!ue? ]3]ll = "Jol 0ljo9? +]} = 0t/d9? Ell;l^l]l 96la Bilg P! Dt^lda0l9? otaE olrll fiq 2JfiOlg? ratsoll ?tfi,ole. 0l+ 50rB. u q& !?= ldllt+g 2zts.ol9? 0lo LAtljJoll^l u9l^l q?E 'ol9. = ]]ll clollE? 4l gollE^llE. g.flolB.
"Jol0ll9. 0l+


Yongt'!c Tagyu_ssi annyng haseyo?

Annyng hassyo. Yojm chaemi-ga ttsayo?
Yoim pappayo' Yia ch'inguja saenggy-s t pappayo. Kurn-iul arassyo. Yja ch'ingu irum-i mwo-eyo?

Mri-ga ap'a-s sul-ul mot masyyo My head hurts, so I cannot drink

Cl Wrat did you do last night?

Yongt'ag has a nsw girlriend' and his fiend T'aegyu appears rather inquisitive - what's her name, where does she work, how did they meet, what do they do together?

Kim chngmin-ieyo.


changnyn-e sul taehakkyo-rul chorpha-go chigmun Hyndae chadongch'a-es ilhao issyo.

ttk'e mannassyo?

Vonot'.. ch'ingu_ga sogae

sEl $t TEI rltt tEl

ch'um-enun kurk'e maum-e tul-ii anannnds, han tal

hu_g p'at'i-es uynhi tashi mannassyo.


Et;l'l 9lEl^ils? 9!5t^llg' 9= li0lrt ot[1^itg? E= UIUUIE. GIl !+]l }^l tl BlUUlE. rd gPlolB. G il = E!+ 0t=0t 9t oil 9?


Elt tEl !?]l tllt a$

=g6l! ^lE ^1 Xfsoll^l gl! l/ol9. olg]l PJHolg?

r1aql= ]*1l OlEoll ^




PJ9t=sl 3 =Il +s6l rt^t oJHolP. ' lu1+El 4+ oJull IlBe 19 0lig oJu^l r]l0l E lIl9? ^l4flote. :] E0l0ll9.


+0ll iltEl0ll^l

Ku-ttae-but' chaju manna{i shijak haessyo. chigm-un kuy maeil manna_s deit'u hajiyo? Ym!a. Krn p'yn-ieyo. rogytl ie parn-edo nae-ga chnhwa haennunde lpsssyo. ie pam-e ldi kassssyo? Yonel'r. Je pam-iyo? Kig-i an nayo. Ama dinga kassul keyo. rrlyu Klg_i an nayo? Kurk'e sul_ul mani mashyssyo? Yon!l'.. Nuga sul-ul mashyyo? Taggyu-ssi-ga ohiry maeil suFman mashijanayo? laag|yu cchaettun ie di kassssyo? Von'rr Noragbang-e kassssyo. Nae yia ch'ingu-nun noraebang-ul aju choa haeyo. Noraebang-es nawa-s di kassssyo? Yong'a. T'akku_rul chom ch'yssyo' ' Ku6 ta-eyo? solchikhi mal hag'boseyo. Vamttaa chngmal-ieyo. Anu il-do psssyo.



Phrases and expressaons

yoim chaemi_ga ttseyo?
krn_iul arassyo mam-e tl-ji anayo how are you dobry! how are things these days? I thought so I don't lihe (ber) lmarm-e an tuoyo) usually lihe tbat, etc.) I don't remember I expect ftae) uent someuhere
or otber; tnaybe , . tell ,ne the truth! nowadays rb busy

maoll [Ill kik 7|q dinga 0|g7l nuga +71 ohly 90| cchaett]n 0|'E

everyday memory

somewher or other !'o? (subject orm) rather, on the contary

krn p'yn-ieyo


(t)like... (we) tnd to be so/do

so (it's

kig_i an nayo ama dinga kassl keyo

t'akku |?

lllg nae Ul ch !


laraol<' snging roo m


ch'i' a40l

my (humble orm) tennis gtc.) to ptay (tgnnis, tabl tennis

rankJy, honesdy

solchikhi mal hae-boseyo yoim E= pappu- HF!yia ch'lngu q& e!? im 0|l changnyn qE taehakkyo 0 ell llyndae



gidfiend nane


-g0lchadongch'a gJ ll=l



graduae (vorb stem) Hwndai car (company)

ch'a 1l it ha- lloF sogaehank'e ^rl0l0| gr|| ch'um lt krk'e ]3'll lrk' 0| r|| maitm Elt tol I

ca (shot form) wok (verb stem)
to intoduce


at irst

mind, heart

like that (hers'- particulaly) like this

polite You hrvc learnt how to ask people to do things by using _seyo. The construction you ae aDour to rruurrtl cnding in iirin onables yu to make such requests even more poltte' ano suppose vou want to iii.iiii, ttt"t itt.v are for your benefit'my'beneht)" revlo'usly iolcree do it for me, please do it (for rrv or vrr ivould have said haseyo' Instead, take the pollte syle 'ne knock off the -yo (hae-)' and add the-verb stem irrrb lhrcvo). usually you rhu. irluil and then add the verb ending you.want' ending' so yoll 1oT" itll idlll *"nt to use the polite request iilr thc form hae + chu + seyo, hae-iuseyo (please do 't,ror. please 4o. xlt, tlc literal meaning of the construction $ this meaning " .. ho* the verbs make togettt"t'"na implv that vou are asking for ijiriiit"g to b donifor your benefit'

tor my beneit


Itlr lr quite

huF p'Et'l &g


time from

month after

a common pattern' Here are a couple of examples:

'rynhl tashl Ql,l

ttao -put' -FH

by ctpnce, coincidentslly again

often, frequantly begin, s''rt narly, almost

(lnl chmshim chom sa_juseyo? iiriiiu y." buy my linch for me today?

l'fiiu chom pilly-iuseyo urrn lerd i, Yo"t (tbis) umbrelh

shijak ha- ll.lolky nE

cfiaiu Il+

lnr me


9 prlli- gilusan


/end easily



_ss- added. Thus, mgssss- would be the double of mk-. base

hc orecise meaning of le form is a bit more difficult to

Beginning to do things

j;h;;;Ji. b.yonth" scope of this book' It emphasizes the ;;i.. ol a'past event nd shows that an event occurred need, to Iii-iii **pt"i"d in the distant past' what.vou doverDs Kawlth the two
know about it, however, concerns its use lnd o-, 'go' and 'come.' Compare the following two sentencesi le pam yBi

You can say that someone is beginning to do something in Korean by adding -ki shiiak ha- to a processive verb stem (a verb of doing). Here are two good examples:
Hakkyo-es ilbon mar-ul kongbu ba-gi shiiak haeyo (We) are beginxing to study Japanese at school
haessyo Noruadays some English people haue begun to learn the

Yojum ttn yngguk saram-i hangung mar-ul paeu-gi shiiak Korean language

Sentence endings wiht -iyo

You can end sentences with the form -iiyo added to any stem. As you can see, it is a bit like the polite style (since it ends n -yo). It means something like l stppo se., you knou,l guess, etc., and it gives your sentences a bit more flavour than the politc style. However, the exact meaning of -iiyo coresponds to a
number of English meanings, dependng on whether they occur irr statements' yes-no questons, or suggesdons. It is used when the speaker wants to draw the hearer in to what is being said. The following examples illustrate some of the ways it can be usedr

Thc implication of the first of these might well be rhat you are rtlll heri, you came and you remain. However, the imPllcatron i the .".na is that the action is over, that is, that you came, went again and that it all took place in the past' aii in", "ou Thc eame would be tiue of kassyo and kassssyo' 'hir rule is something of a simplification, but it will explain mo of the occurrences of the double past that you are hkely lo nccd to know about for the time being. Take a close look at iho example in the dialogue to see that emphasis: u'e carne t.o ,bh rcstlurunt last nigbt (and, by implication' we left agaln place lftcrwards). The act of our coming (and going) all took
lmt night.

. b". ai wassssyo l


I came here yesterday came bere yesterday

Put the following sentences into the past tense'

Hangguk saram-ijiyo? Chmshim plss mgt-|iyo? Chigm chmshim

Sur-ul choaha_jiyo


I suppose you ae Korean' aren't you? You'ue eaten lunch already, hauen't you? Let's haue lutcb nou (I


}jlql z}g. Pq }"l "}d9.


don't you?

++g *4-s. {!"J+,s. s+B! dlg.

do something for your bene6t).

Make the following into polite requests (sking someone to

Hasevo. b Pleae go shopping for me. c Chmshirn saseyo. d Can you Phone Mr Kim for me? c Please buy me some medicine. Shiiak haseyo.



The double past

Korean has what is known as a double past construction, which is a past tense of a verb formed in the normal way, with an

Complete the following by filling in the blanks.

9 . a "J+ d+-. "J*q"g.- a


the exercise.

the following sentences, and in each case add a second sentence along the lines suggested in the brackets to explain what has just been said in the first sentence. This is practice or the -kdnyo pattern' and you might want to look back at the lesson ots for that paitern be%re you do

Vrite out

* I rBzl".l ;l4a olAql z]aqg 7lnolg ^J4^l aEqvl


ts}g Jol


9e 6 g 7 49



olB EsoJql ++ ++ol 9lq9? ^{/} ,J-,89 'dgol"ll9? olB oJg"Jol tg 4j xs?

H)l -a =Aq oJ




aturnni meeting

+s_oJol li,s.

a b c d e 5


onl bakkvo-e mot kavo rnokuyo onl pam 'hin".-.mot ch'yo t'akku

(bead aches)
(a?roth er a?p

Translate the following (using verb compounds with po- for the English to Korean examples).

qq zl4. ds.? al+q +4"ilg? qd]= i ddg E9'|9?

Noraebang-e kayo? Na-nun


(arm lpal) has begun to hurt\ (d o n' t li he nor aebangsl

(I can't 80 eitbel)


Jaemin-ssi mot kayo? chat toenneyo


r T'ang mashy-boseyo! (t'ang: spicy soup\ b You ibouW uisit Pulguksa one time |lterally, Please uisit . . . !) c Papp-iimanka-boseyo. d r'k-rut mot ch'y-bwassyo? Kurm han bn hae-boseyo. c laemir itasn', come yet? Please (try) uaiting a little
longet Use the following pairs of information to make up Korean
ccntences, each wi two clauses linked by -s. The first tfuee have the sense of'because A, B', the last three are sequential'

Read the following page from someone's diary and then

answer the questions.

6 *Y +8 +e

6fl O,*1
Eqr+ e qE

dl4 4 I rz {+*ala f*





?t 4Al

4i q

4tr t .E- tG |7 frll 44 E r 44t


ra T 4l+ al+t

6fl 6"u)

'and then'. a busy matter has come up b no food in house G business is not good d Iet's go outside C Bo to sangnin's f go to city

can't go go to restauant no money

and wait

what shall we do? buy some fruit

! te

r*t '"4

Translate the following into Korean. a t'm ringing to cancel my appointurent. Something carne up (you see). b Sngmin has just gone out to play table tennis. c At 6rst I didn't particularly like kimch'i, but I got used to it. (get used to: iksuk haeii-) d When did you graduate! c We met by chance in a bar. That's strange! Chris bas come back already. c !hat did you do last night? Tell me the truth.


l*'l ato

Ask your friend if they have tried doing the following things. Make up appropiate answers.

lE .I

l!.l lr a

l* lo r




l5l I rt


.- A p l!- < r
{ o

3s tB' r-.- o- E

12 '+(g = o{- l*lnrisuniryouwillteam

=:il**.rJ;.:::,:_. il"{'i'3i?*n*o"



f,! we
+E HE +E

oought him that last yeart



A husband and wie are deciding what to buy grandfathgr for

birthday. However, the task is not as easy as it sounds!





ug0l 0lBlIl 8!0l0llB. fl? grl? ]eilg. +a= rtl0l7lolB. rtlt ^lE=rl = B{!0l g + g'ol?u= Hlllg. 0lE0ll= _4 E9+^]l9. E Lll]l L.lE =l0l9. 3019. |Bt= C eJrl g? tl ot afHl= gfil g golLl +ja }t^JtE. Ut= t] 0l "Je solg. BE lal E /H*= Olgrtg? +E i-.E tl 0l Ea &'olE.
L.lE EOt

kuln llrmpln fuuln

Halmni-nun toks_rul choa hashi_nikka taeshin ilgUshi-myn toe-janayo. Nongdam ha-ji maseyo. chom t cho-un saenggag_ul mal hae_boseyo.


lrntn l{|mp'yn lrrrn

Usan-unttlkkayo? Harawi-nun pi o-l ttae naga-ji anushi-janayo. Kumyangmal-un? changnyn-saturyt_ianayo'


Kurm sae chnggi myndogi-nun ttlkkayo? Ku-gn chaejangnyn-e sa furyt_janayo. Kuigo hara$ii-nun myndo-rul chal an hasgyo.


golu ^l= doll^l0ls? EJtilLl= tl|! 9.lo^lE ^l= B0lE. =^l= =0ll^lLlrl



Tangshin-uir nae uygyn_ul choaha_ii anch'anayo. Nao-ga ch'um-e ma| han-daro tangshin honia kylchngha-myn to&'janayo!


E I.ltrI

.JlXl ot^ll9. u 4= "J6ilE^lls. = =e ?!e ol*JrlB? g0lBl^lE Bl E[ll u]l^l s9^lolE.


Phrrrog and expessions



hout about . . . ?, uhat do



Pwuin Namp'yn Pwuin


] ^lLJ='80ls' olgrl9? d7| gE]l= ]a ^ll4t 0ll E'&olB. Iil +E ]alI g0lBlll= EEs 9J l^]l9. ^l HE :]a H'?! g&0lB. g!c u 9Z= =ollxl
Lll]l ]= "Jltll B! =
Naair-iharabjisaengshin-ieyo. Mwo? Plss?
Kraeyo. Mus-ul sa-drilkka kylchng

lrnphin-un nae ygyn-ul ohorhr-ii ancb'anayo nrl hrn daero

see? ! you don't like nry *ggestions, you see! as (1) said, like (I) said

3lE Ed0t9.


mmpYn ElE!

kyling ha-

s*ngBhin g! sangil 8l| mus +9

tangshin oot!


husband grandfathar
bithday (honoiic form) b,'rthday (normal form) wha (ful| orm of mwo)



ha-yagessyo. Tangshin-i chng ha-l su psyo? Na-nun pappayo. chom towa-iueyo'

Hangsangnae-gakylchnghajanayo.l-bn-enun choayo.chamba-rulsa-drilkkayo? chamba-nun polss yl pl-ina kat-ko kyeseyo. chamba-nun t isang p'iryo psyo' Kurmynshych'u-nunttlkkayo? shych'u-do t isang p'iryo psyo.

.|| ru lrr-/po-

chng ha- 8Ultowa-iu- ES+-

you (often used betwen husband and wie)

dcide dacida

{9 r* 9l/flpn E! chamba
i_bn 0|g

to help






jacket (jumper, (counler or clothes)

(se note 4: canlcan') ine, second alns (as in time, many 's! times, this time

katko ky6shi-

illl ilfl-

aya, possass (or honoiic person; politg styl: katko




exist (honoic o iss_ in its

existential thge islare

isstuhit isang p'iryo psyo p'iryo ha-

tlolltl 0|8

IB flols

meaning) haye (honoriic o iss- in its meaning o possession) any norc is not needed
ls nsedsd (p'iryo

rlhkrguc you have just looked at is all about buying presents for llrnrhrJ, and there is an implied for'grandad's benefit'in many rrl lhc scntences. Once more you can make a compound verb whht rncans literally'buy and give', but which in practice means 'lrrry krr him', 'buy for his benefit'.


bs- also exists but is less common)



shir ha- 40|0lhalmni lB| u


= Ell

llrr,rr nrc two ways of doing this, and it depends on whether thr prrson for whose benefit you are doing something is nllfnrcd (honorific) or not. Grandad is definitely honorific lrrl thir means that instead of making the compound with the vrrlr chwu- as you would expect, Korean uses a special verb lurl which mears giue (to someone honoific). Compare the lrllrrwlng two sentences' the first one means that you will have

{9} u'1

Yangmal gE Ginggi myndogi T!)l P!E)l k_gn

myndo(-rul) h-

-()l ttae -( o)

iaeshin tll*! saenggak g4 usan ++!

reading to dislike grandma becauss (clause ending, added to veb stems) idea umbrella
instead, on bahal of




rlor'klc what to buy for someone honorific, the second means wlll have to decide what to buy for someone of your own hrwcr status (for example, your child):

Mrrr' rrl sa-dri-lkka kyling hae-yagessyo Mrrl1r.ul ea-iu-lkka kyljng hae-yagessyo


rbprttding on who you are giving to.

Ar yorr can see, Korean has two different verbs for llrtr rrc




rome more examples using the two verbs for giue:

fd chaeiangryn n{E gE(l)

ysyn 9l?! honja EI0


i,a thr'lng (topic) the year before last

electic shaver



I h'ltt1tt-cgc ch'aeg-ul ilg-iussyo

1l) mnt a book for my granfather

lrrrhji-cge ch'aeg-ul ilg-dryssyo

a book for my friend

suggestion, opinion alone, on one's own

ll) rttd

lltn rllnrrcn8nim-ul kidary_dryssyo l wurd Or M Kifi

t lh'lnlu-rul kidary-|ussyo

Note: The verb endings to some of the sentences in this unit (tht' ones with -sh- and -s- in them) are new, but we won't explairr them until after the second dialogue.


f.,r my frie?td

lllondering, worrying and deciding

Doing something or someone else

We learnt in the last unit how to ask someone to do somethir4i for your benefit by combining verbs with the verb chu- (giuc), as in sa-iuseyo (please buy it for me). Now we are goinlq to expand on this to look at how to talk about doing things for other people's benefit, for the benefit o someone else. Thr'

ln Xnrlhh we make quite a few constructions with the word flhrthrr', e.g. I'm utondering uhetber, I'm worrying wbether Itlt, llrrt1, I'm trying to decide uhetber .. . Korean makes these lll o lcntcnces by adding Jkka or -lkka to the base of the h (thh lc the same ending as -()lkkayo? (shall ule?\ wthour l.'ot you met it also in -()lkka haeyo (I'm thinking of|' Itr .(0)lkkr pattem is used in the following construction: llm rnrrcngnim kaJkka. This would form part of a sentence an ll mcons wbether Mr Kim uill go. It could be used wirh


any of the_following verbs: kk|ng ha_ (zorry), kunggun ha(tllondn\, kyling ha_ (decide\. Here are a couple oixample


utoried that the diuet had had i tot-to driik This basic -()lkka pattern is also found in a few common variations.
I taas

Yia ch'ingu_ga yaksog-ul chik'i-lkka kunggumhaeyo I uonder ulhether my girlftie u',ill keep e appointnent Uninsu-ga sul-ul mani mashi-lkka kkinghassvo

Nroil-kkaii l-il-ul kknnae-yagessyo |'ll hove to finisb the wok by tomofrou Nlonyn-enun kkok kylhonlrae-yagessyo l'll h,luc to ?rrary next yeaf
kknme- lukkok + 'inh tail, detinitely withod
(Verb stem, to fini1 something)

word, malkka,

Sometimes__{)lkka is followed in colloquial s1reech by another _in



mean ubether

or zt,


the iollowing


Kalkka malkka kk|ng haeyo I'm utorrying uhether to go or not This form with malkka can only be used with verbs in wfuch a person is wonderng whether or not they themselves will do something. You could not use mkka in alentence to mean l'm ulondering uhetbet it utill ruin oz zo, since there is no decision to be taken about whether or not to actually do something.
Often, when Koreans are saying that they are worried thar something-mjght happen, they use a slightly longer form of thc pattern: -lkka bwa:


You can and you can't llttcln has a vey common way of saying that you can or

lalhr thsn knowing how to). Take a


processive verb stem (r vrrb of doing), add the ending J su if the stem ends in a vowel rrrrl '0l u i it ends in a consonant' and then add either issyo, lll lly you can do the verb, or psyo,to say that you can't. For

do something (in the sense of being able to carry it out,

issyo l cat eat it Ft|-ul ru psyo l c*rr't eat it

ntfu ul ru


I can go |r lru lrryo lr lru pryo I cln't go ll'r n rlmple as that! But you must

I'm uorried that it might rain Yia ch'ingu_ga na_rul pri-lkka-bwa kking haeyo I am uonied that my girlfriend might damp me

Pi-ga oJkka-bwa kking haeyo

practise it until you can do ll hlt, 'l'hc exercises should give you plenty of Pactice. Here are lto atrmples:

llrrhlk rorro-l su psyo I *ln't bt able to get home early

(-lh.hrn|r-rul ilg_l su issyo? lls yn nad those Chinese cbaracters ouer there?


throw away





The oer form is simply a contraction of this longer version.

Things you'll have to do



This unit should remind you of the way to say that you arc going to have to do something (often the context cbncern, something that you'd really not have to do). The pattern -rather is -yagesyo, and it is added onto any processive verb bae. Thc form literally means something like 'only if I do such and such will it do'; 1a is a particle which means'.only if.

trtlmtr pcoplc say things which are really stupid and Korean lfrldu r nicc (and not too rude) way of pointing that out and htltlnf fiut gendy) tbat the person should have known better. 'fth dlrlo3uc has lots of examples. The man keeps suggesting lhal lo buy for granddad for his birthday and e wife thinks hh ru;3 tlonc are a bit silly. For example, he suggests buying nhln] thcy bought last year. The implication is that the

man should know what they bought for granddad last year, so he shouldn't have been so stupid as to suggest buying it again. Therefore the wie says: Changnyn-e sat-janayo (from sa-ss-' past base of sa-) We bougbt that last year! Note the implication; you should know we bought him that lasr year, stupid! What did you go and suggest it again for?

I'm Borry, I really didn't know!

a div going the wong way up a ong-way street.

pllormrn catcnes

ll llr ll

when someone asks you something obvious, to which they should really know the answer. Suppose someone met you and you were dressed all in black and they asked you why. You could say'because I'm going to a funeral!'and you would put
-janayo onto the stem of the main verb of the sentence. Suppose you are going to get married and someone asked you why. You might respond:
Sarang ha-ianayo! It's because I loue tbem, stupid!

One of the very common uses of the pattern is to give an answer

ff' '

gile? + = flue? ] el^llE? BJ Ee}H =Il]l

Aldl}LlEl' EG+^119. B6l=

ll+ ll alr

ilr*ll$'u== l s lle. fil u =e gsg +ilflote. eil^19? atE! 11 lsa 4 gt+ EB EIlEi P gBEg.
l ; eJiLlEl. "J


sarang ha-



It's a very useful pattern, and one that makes your Korean sound natural and colourful.
The ending -janayo (spelt -ianhayo) attaches to a presenr or a past base, and to honorific bases (note the sound change ss to t
when -ianayo is added to past bases).

uB+El dlHe. 53e e EflgLl[}. ]]stLlt}. +!l^l9. *rl|oh'.l shillyehamnida.


Al+= 6l0l9. =ilol9. 0l+ 9lBtn lBE PJOIE. =ol9c gBl Elllc *018. = A UPJ E} +dE.

ga0ll *

l||oh'.l ft{a'.ml

Having one right there

Mynhcchng chom poy-iusoyo. Waoyo? Musn munie-ga innayo? chngmal mollas krseyo? Mwol mar-ioyo? Ygi chuch'ahan ch'a{r-ul han pn poseyo. ch'a-rul ta ttok kat'n panghyang-uro chuch'a

You know how to say that someone has something by using

second one is the honorific form and is usually found in thc polite honorific form katko lcyeseyo). Often it is has the force 'I have one right here', '1 have one with me now'. Imagine a situation in which someone wants a lighter. Sorneone else in the room has one and as he fumbles in his pockets' he might well say' na-nun katko issyo. This stresses that he has one with him right there.
the verb issyo. Korean has anothe verb form, which stresses a bit more the act of possessing: katko iss- and katko kyeshi- (the




Alllbangt'onghaengnounyo. Mianhamnida. chngmallo mollassyo. K'nshilsu-rulhashyssyo. chngmalp'yojip'an-ulmotpwassyo. Tam-put'choshimhaseyo'

Hanbn-man pwa-juseyo. Plgm-un oman won-imnida.

Kraesyo? Krmyn ch-ppalgan saek ilbang t'onghaeng p'yojl-rul mot pwassyo?

llbang t'onghaengno-e chalmot tur o-myn aju wlhm ha-go plgum-do manayo.

This is a form you need to be able to recognize ather than to actually use frequently yourself.


llr0alawu Komapsmnida.sugohasyo.

++ +l]*ll s*g "uL

lbmg t'onghaengno gEJ

llbang t'onghaeng

hilsu ha_ d+oltu o- -0|9wihm ha- +|goJ-

k'n = hilsu ll+

lgE ploii

Eg l!


one way one-way street sr04 sronpos


nake a misa


choshim ha-

lgm =

EIIE 5C0l-

to antar be dangerous fine, penalty signpost ba careful, bs cautbus


Qucstions with -nayo

Phrases and expressions

mwol mar-ieyo?
chngnral molla-s krseyo? kraesyo? chngnal mollassyo hanbn_man pwa chuseyo

so what? I really didn't ktoulrealize please let me off just tbis oncc! work hard! (said to someone

uhat are you talking about? do you really not knou ftubat you're doing)?

lhr lurticle -na is often used as a way of asking questions and *hrtt you use it in the polite style, you should also add the polite 1lrrttrlc -yo to give _nayo. (Vithout the -yo it is an inormal rlrurlhrlt which you could only use between friends or to ask a rlttlrtkrn of someone younger or of lower status than you.)
It tr nrlrlcd on to the stem of any verb (either the present stem

tln plrt ntcm). Here are a couple of examples:

I lltrrrrrrr haen-nayo? lhtrrnrrrn kgi innayo?


doing their lob)


Haue you ordered? (haess- past base of ha-)

kyngch'al 3al unjnsu El!# mynhcchng E0|= poy-iu- H0*musn += munie chuch'a han +lE! chuch'a ha- +Xlolttok *

ls tbe ?reuspape ouer tbere?



(diving) licence to show why? problem

what (kind of)

l'lll ln.nnl

t hOlluhlm mgn_na?

(from iss-) Wbere are you going? Did you have luncb? |mgss past base of mk-)



Honorlflc forms





ppalgan g?J saek 4


exacuy, precisely (often used with katl) same be the same, be similar direction

red colour

lt'r rxrw time that we talked a bit more systematically about You have already learnt that honorifics are rtrrll ltt Korcan to show respect t the person you are talking thrrt rnd in the present tense this is often done by using the hrttrr which you have learned as the 'polite request form' l htyo, In actual fact this form is not only used to make lFt||lrlr' it is also used to make statements or to ask questions rhltrt lnyone to whom you wish to show respect. It is very I lmllrr in Korean, and you will use it whenever you meet and
hrrtrrrrillc vcrbs.

talk to new people o equivalent or senior status (to ask them quesdons' fo example). Actually, the form _()seyo is an abbreviation of the honorific particle ()shi, plus the vowel -, plus the polite particle -yo. This contracts to give the form you know -(u)seyo. Just as ere are Present and past stems' so also ere arc honorif,c stems. The honorifc present stem is the usual stem plus the honorific panicle -()shi. The honorific past stern is the usual

l'trt ;lxlcessive verbs, add -nn- to the verb stem. Thus the ttrrrrliicr form of ka- is kann, the modifier form of mk- is ltllntnn (written mknn)' and so on. You will find that

Itoocrslve verbs


stem plus


ilk- ilgshi- ilgushyss_ ka_ kashi- kashysso- oshi_ oshyss-

stetn bon past stem ani- an!shi_ aniushysshon


tlrr'rr you add _nn to verb stems that end in consonants' sorrnd ltrngcn will take place. For mk_, tlerefore, the hangul letters wlll lircrally read mk-nn, but the pronunciation (accorng Irt thn rules of sound change you learnt at the beginning of the lrrrrrk) will be nrngnn.

would a normal verb with a stem nding in _i_. Everything abbur the h-onorific stems is regular apart fro the preseni polte srylc which contracB to _()seyo' as you have already learnt:

You can add verb endings to the present honorific stem, as you

th laa- and ps_ (these verbs behave like processive verbs, so lhll lho modifier forms are innrin and mnnn in the present bll.. - they do not have past tense modifier forms).

lir nukc a past tense modifier form for processive verbs you lrlrl .()n to the stem, so that the Past tense modifier forms of ml. lnd ka- are mgnand kan. You cannot do is with the

hclptlvo verbs

Harabji-nun unhaeng_e kashi-go halmni-nun uch'egug_e

post offrce


tst drrcriptive

kaseyo Gtanddad-is going to the bank and grandma is going to tbe

hashi_l su issyo?

verbs, simply add -n if the stem ends in a vowel, .n lf it ends in a consonant, As you can see this is identical I ptat tense modifier form for processive verbs. There is no Fnrc modifier form or the descriptive verbs'

mcmorize these rules.

Kim snsaengnim unin Kim snsaengnim

Can Mt Kim diue? Can Mr Kim


su issseyo?





honorific base of ka-) T'akku-rul ch'ishyss_yo

(rom kashyss_,

kashyt-kuna|!, past

He's abeady gone (surprise, _


He played table tennk

now look at iust one mering of the mifier form Sometimes you want to talk about the act of doing vebs), as though they rvere nouns. In English, for a' we say things hke l like suimming which means I lie gf tuimming, and of course 'swimming' comes originally n vcrb 'swim'. lr able to express e act of (verb\ing by using a orm, plus the noun kt, often abbreviated to k. Here

tntroducing modiiers: making vebs anto nouns


activities, e.g,:

tbe aa of going the act of seeing a film the *ct of sifting here (from ani_)

are,a tind of verb. First, we will show you how to maki them, a,nd then we will worry about what they mean. In this unit we shall iust look at one of their uses and then in Unit 1l we shall

You now need to learn about something called modifiers, which

dten simply add verbs like choaychoa haeyo/shir choa haeyo afterwards to say what you think about
'nn k choa haseyo?

look at the other uses.

How you make the rnodifier form ofa verb depends on whether it is a processive or a descriptive verb.

seeins frlms?

bnn k chom poseyo ) look at uhat k hete (literally , the tbiflg that islackts herel

P'yn|i-rul ssunn k shir haeyo

I hate

uriting letters

Sul mashi_go unin hann ke wihom haeyo It's dangerous to drink and driue


ss_ g-


3 d I


Say that you are worried about the following things.


lrhee to sit. !7hat to order. vhee to 8o at e weekend. tlnelate the following sentencs into Korean, using the Drttcrn -(u)l su issyo/psyo that you have learnt in this hrrcn. I Can I come too!

a b c d

That there won't be enough food.

That teacher will come (to a party).

That Mr Kim might not come, That your g.idfriend might not like you any more. That it might rain.

Can you meet me tomorrow? I can't speak Japanese. a I don't have nny money, so I can't buy it. ', I can't park here. d

b this edible?

Mrk" up retoB to

Make the following passage honoriGc where appropriate. '!7e have told you that normally you only need onlhonorific


. 1 Vac

tha .ianhayo pattern.

the following Korean statements using

sassyo? namia(boy) -clt'inga-eyo?

Myndo an

verb in a sentence' but for the Purposes of is exercise use as many honorifics as you can. Look out for sentences that should not have tiem, however!

(I already did it!\ l-chaeg-ul ilg-boseyo. (I hate eading, stupid!


st qid!|

bout it yestztday, didn't I!\ (No, I'm already manied,





+4t9. 44n. ol 4s..


7l=l a



(lt's my uife! You only met ber


l+"il^.l *g d{Ho]qlg' .JE"JE 7}949. {''J }a *goil 7}^l ol oJ

Here are some situations. Make up Korean sentences to say

a Your head hurts. b You can't meet your boyfriend tonight.

g t"Js



+olg. ad^Jts

z1q Eol



aq &


to buy your brother for a birthday present. You make following suggestions of what to buy, but she manages 'wite against nd a reason asainst it until the very last suggestion. nd you suggestions and the answers she makes, trying to ia the dialogue as interesting as you can. (Note: leazs,

nc you are talking to your sister and discussing with her

what you will have to do because of them (using -yagessyoi.

nrpaii; CD' ssi-)

c You need to use a dictionary, but you don't have one. d You go, out and realize you've forgotten something,


You want to know what's going on at the theatre. (You'll have to look at the newspaper.) You're trying to decide about the following things. Say so in Korean, using a similar pattem to the one you were using in
question 1.

(You'll have to go back.)

a b

What to buy.

Vhat to wear. (wearz


EWtrat did you do with it?

llr at lfr lr



al}Llo. I]= oll a+=olaJ G]l gfl'=tllP' ]lt+E


E *0l E^lE'. ]lg0l ols}l aole? ]l=otr oJ=fl'olB. Lll ' 0t+ tI, a40l?' r{}oltE? rJ]l }got Pl=Bt, ^rF 0lLlE, lF ]lB0l 0lLl0llE'
H]} ]l^l
whlle latar.

o o o CL o + o J CL o t a J
-l I

o qt

J -

.\) \


5 CL qt

&b a ecBle. lll fl 9a 1 =ol 9/u9? ql ll ' ^l 0l+ 9! ^lFlI 4ln eg7l]l Eolflqe. alU 11! tz! rlE}4 E^llg. l c =olErllg'


J tr st

{ I

llt -t


nnager comes.


Egol^ll8? +ggLlr}? r{l }r4= 9lolHaolB.

-t lll


uIil G1& ^t^tdn ts! uaolE. Lt]t11Ll9? xl s

ul Bg ts ^l ... gts 0lB a^g 0l , 0t , a4u9.

g Fl^l0ll !

^]g0ll^l 0I0llg'


ln this unit you will leam . how to describe things that

t/90ts. _l& ol5}l oll'olB? a&0ll EH019. !aI flg}ql9. l ^lB=0l LJ ^l]} oltlEI| ]tel+^lilcl9? l0ll^l L})l^l 4laa a q=ol 9= +oe
,|.ilEilt ?l0lE. ==oil g e|^l}Lltrl.

E{ llt*01

. . .

you havo lost and sy when and where you lost thm how to buy medicine om a Korean yakkul or chemist 'when' clauss how to say it seems as though something or other will happen


trnlm l rnlm

P!l }l^ll9'

ch, shillye hamnida. ch-nun je ch'ingu-dl-irang ygi


wassnnndyo, kabang-ul nok'o kassyo. ka-s han-pn ch'aja pojiyo' Kabang-i ttk'e sanggryssyo? No, aiu k'go, kmchng saeg-igo, kaiug-uro mandrssyo-

chongpwon chgi


sryu kabang-i innnde, ch-g-gyo? Aniyo, sryu kabang_i anieyo.

little while later.

sonnim *El ch'.. '..



mnn kt kat'ndeyo. Mwo chungyo han ke lur innayo? Ye, sashil aju chungyohan sryu-hago ch'aekhago nhaeng k'adu-ga tur issyo.

tsch'aia Po- !l0lE1no(h)-



a briecase, a bag




saiangnim_hant'g hanbn mur_bo-lkkeyo'

The manager comes.


Sonnim Sajang Sonnim

Annyng haseyo? Musn ir_imnikka? che kabang-ul irbryssyo. Qe ygi-s shiksa ha-go no-k'o nawassyo' Myt shi-e chhuy shiktang-es nagashynnayo?
Han ylhan-shi cchm_ieyo. Yngp kknna-l tta cchm ' . . A, ye' saenggang nayo. onl ach'im ch'ngso hal ttae kabang-i hana issssyo. Ku_g-l ttk'e hashyssyo?


irk'e 0l37ll krk'e -l3 saenggi- E7l'|| kming e! kaiuk ll4

ch'ai- 4ttk'e 0|E|r||

put down, leave have a look, look for


like this like that look (like)

oJgolB mandl- qJ-syu

leather e made of (past tense o nake (l-iregular verb like p'al-, nol- etc)


mandul-' l irregular vrb)


=gg ohungyo ha- E90lsashil k'adu

chungyo han



important (modirer form, lik be contained, be included yes (politer orm o rr)





Kyngch'a|s-e ponaessyo. K-saram-dur-i pogwan ha-go iss-ulkeyo' Kyngch'als-ga di-inii chom karuch'y_ jushigessyo? shiKang_ss naga-s han tame orn cchog-uro sg.bn_cchae kolmog-e issyo. chngmal kamsahamnida. Annynghi kyeseyo.

tl] iss- -o| tl_ vem

be important in fact ask lose

an adictive)

Phrases and expressions

mnnkt kat'ndeyo
musn ir_imnikka? it doesn't look as tbough tbere is anythinglare atry hou can I help you?, uhat's tbe problem? uhat does it look like l'll iust ask (*ch and such a


nao- u9chhy Il9 (nmbon'mel cchm


.alang(nim} mur-bo- ^l](H) E0ltslbi- 9|0|He|3hlk8a ha- alllol-

llc 'lE

a card (e.g. credit cao managr (honoriic form)


neal cop out

yngp e!9|


(humble orm of wuli, our, my) about, aound, app roxi matel y



{9) E





k_gJttk'e hashyssyo ubat did you do u]ith it? . . . -ilga di_in|i chom Please tell me uthere (such and
uhoejn han tam_e

-hant'e) han_bn mur-bo_Ikkeyo karch'y_|useyo


aa.nggong naoh'ng8o ha-


trae ul

f/hish (as in tl hishes) when (see note 4)

me (When)
clean up keep

remember, it comes to mind


kyngch'als llN bonae- Hlllbogwan ha-

ohwahoein s9| I!


police sbtion send

chwahoein han tam-e

such) is

a{ter doing a left turn

after doing a rigbt turn


gElc cchae Il

ight tum

left turn


number (time, alley, snall road


lltn thc svstem we have described here. However, for using the

Making plurals

You will have noticed that a Korean noun can be eier singular or plural, depending on the context. ln oer words, Korean does not have one word or dog aad another word or dogs1 it has iust one word kae which can mean either. It is very rare that there is any ambiguiry or confusion because of this,
however. There is a plural particle which can be used to show explicitly
ob|ect, topic (_i, -l, _n} or other particles (such as {o or _hago) onto the plual form. Thus you could have any of e following forms: dl_do, _dr_un, _dr-i, -dr-ul, _dl-hago, _dl-hant'c, and so on.

hrnr youiself, if you remember the rules we have given you, you wllll|l $() wong. Nrrlo uls<l that -nndeyo and the related _nnde are added to thl trrcrent stem of processive verbs, and on to the past stem trl brrth orocessive nd descriptive verbs' The form (}ndeyo. Jir, rhc iulat"d ()nde are oniy used for the present tense of rltrrlotive verbs. Taking a processive verb and a descriptive irlll lh both past and pieset tenses' then' we would get the
rlhrwing forms:

that a word is plural

- it

is -tl. You can then add subiect,

lllrrnt 'plls ha-nndeyo cho-ndeyo haen-nndeyo choan_nndeyo

(processiue) cho- (desciptiue\


Ending seRtences with-nndeyo

fumrmbcr that in the past examples the first of the two ns llrrlro thc hyphen) represents the double s of the past base irhtsh hrc becine pronunced as an n rrough the pronunciation tlrr wc describeat the beginning of the course.

have already studied the clause ending _nunde, to incarc that you have something more to say, that you are going to elborate on what you have iust said. You can also end r sentence with _nnde by adding the polite particle -yo after it. The use is very like that for -nnde, except that saying -nndeyo allows you to make more of a pause than using _nnde. often _nndeyo is used to explain who you are, where you have comc from, or what you want to do. The following sentence would go on to Bive more specific information, either about what thc peson you are speaking to should do about it or what you would like to happen (on the basis of having explained who you are, for examplel). This all sounds a bit confusing in writing, and it is perhaps best to explain by example. In the following sentences' the first could be ended in Korean with -nndeyo. Notice how the second sentence often makes an explicit request, or homes in to ask something;

lt loems like lgu cln say that'it

lgrrrn bv using modifier forms of verbs plus kt kaayo. ls'. ll a vcrb w:hich means is lihe, so pi-ga o-nun kt kat'ayo


like something is bappening' in

iirnr 'htt


llterally'the act of raining it is like', or, in effect, rt ttLc it'i ruining. Remember that the modifier forms are
dcpending n whether the main verb is procesive or


lome examPles:

ayo ppang-ul mng-nn


po-nn It seems


like tbe teacher is


I'm from the BBC (nndeyo) I'd like to do an interview I'd like to buy a bicycle Can you show me your
I'm the brother of your

kt kat'ayo choh-n kt kat'ayo


It seems lihe Minbo is eating bread It seems like the ureatbet is bad in England This house seems to be nice


(nndeyo) (nndeyo)


range? Pleased to meet you! May I have a seat?


something happens

Since -nndeyo is a colloquial expression, you will sometimcs find it used in other ways which do not seem to fit exactly

havr mct many times the form ()l added to the stem o r lor example in the endings: ()I !lka(yo)' ()l kka haeyo' jlrvo. In atual fact this ()| is the future modifier. It is a

modine iust like -nn and _()n, but it has a future meaning. This means that you can use the pattem you have iust leart (modifer + kt kat'ayo) to say seems like something ill '7 happen:


FEol dg

Piga o-l kt kat'ayo It seens like it taill rain KaJ kt kat'ayo It seems as tbougb slbe u',ill go An even more important use of _()l is when it is followed by the noun ttae which means tine. The whole consruction (verl) stem)_()l ttae means uben (verb\ happens. Have a look at thc

hakkyo-e kal ttae pi-ga o-l ttae mni toraoJ ttae

uhen I go to scbool uhen it rains ubet Mum gets back

]alI ]ll ]ilE!'xE =a}Il 0l/ll9' ^6l^119. |lUU ul ' loJLltl' Vrlrr s oseyo. Musn yag-ul lilkkayo? r Prk Ne, tut'ong-i aju shim ha-nde, tut'ong yak chom chushigessyo? Yrhrr Ne, nie-but' ap'u-gi shiiak haessyo? ll' trk |e-but' ap'u-gi shijak'aessyo. Vrlr mt tak Y .. Ir Vrhx 'ah

lol f^l

uolIlE ^l+0ll Edle' +44 ee ae s.LlB? gLlr} 9{= qoE


[llts Lll

lg l E^ltr' g l ^laol 6t+ s }


Here are some examples in sentences:

Pang-es naoJ nae pang-ul ch'ngsoha-seyo Wben you come out of the room, please dean it up

Hanguk mar-ul karuch'i-l ttae haksaeng-dur-i manassyo? Were there mary students uhen you taught Korean?

D nasty headaches
Mr Pak goes to the chemist to get some medicine for a nasty

?ak Vrlr..

ellt l'Jc


^l+*o1E'. li .l-Ed|,\E B0| a^loll^l g L1.P E?t01e. 0t0t iltrlI .^-E||-A)} aEEa olE'. 9l^l ]eB' tse olEll g}o,{l8? ,4dE Llt, otiil9. E^} c ^=+9^lle? JgolLle. $al]l Ll+ oltrl^l I}9. = Eil g7'lol9' 0l0l .\E||.^|tr B0l fl= a


+ qt= Egrlg? ul ' FEol 0t+ !t1l ' +Egl +^lilo]a? Lll , 9lt+Et 0tIIlt ^t+il.o19? 0lnl+E1 0lEll oJol

ot^t g^lta.

Yrlrl '.t
llk ?.k

Ho6sa-es ir-ul nmu mani ha-go sut'uresu_rul mani padassyo. Ama kwaro-hago sut'uresu-ga wonin-i-n kt kat'ayo. Kurk'unyo. Nun-un ap'u-ji anuseyo? Ns, chogum ap'ayo. Cham-un chal chumuseyo? Anlyo. Mri-ga nmu ap'as chal mot chayo. Algossyo. Ama sut'uresu-hago kwallyn_i innun kt kat'ayo. I yag-ul chapswo-boseyo. Haru-o myt pn sshik mngnayo? Tut'ong-i shim ha-l ttae-nun ns shigan-mada han al Bghlk tushi-go, chom naaii-myn, shikhu_e han al sshik haru sabn tuseyoPu|agyong kat'un kls-un mnayo? l yag-ul mlg-umyn chorum-i o-nikka, choshim haseyoKudgo shwipke p'iro-rul nukky-do nolla-ji maseyo' Ns, komapsumnida.

lhrrees and expressions

aHa airlrurclu-8a lonln-l-n kt kaayo r lhllan-mrda han al rrhll trcyo
it seems as tbotgb it's because

of stress uke one tablet euery four



e0lR. 0l E= +] Eda. Foll EE4qug?

rhllhu.r hrn al sshik trcyo

.take orre tablet tbree times a

rhwlnlr o'lro-ru| nolla-ii maseyo

day after meak ilon't be surptised if you feel tired uery easily


nje hoesa glJ Sutruresu ,\ E tl ,\ kwaro illE wonin E!g! nun ts





pharmacist, chemist ls senbus when

par- E!-

company sress receive

ecrtainly do, are promising to do or are iust about to do. It is (ltcn used in crcumstances where there is no doubt about whcther or riot you will be able to do the thing concerned. You rrn only use this form to say what you yourself will do, since ytttt have control ove your own actions' You cannot say what


rrrncone else will do, since you have no control over their ltions and there is theefore always a certain element o doubt


kwallyn t! relation,link chapswo po- lflE!- y aalng (honoriic fom) chpsushi_ l+tl- ea (honorific equivalent of mok-) haru-e JE()| -mada -[lEl shikhu 4{g pujagyong

cham chumushi- ++ll-

eason' cause ah, I see; it's like that, is it?! an eye

s/eep (noun) s/eep (honorific equivalent of cha-)

lbout them.

Asking polite questions

maji- Uo]il-

han al E!

ona tablet get beftar per day

Xtrrcan often uses the endinB _kessyo added to the honorific rtrnr of verbs to ask polite questions. Examples are: chigum llrhiges-syo? (are you going noul?|, cbumv bashigessyo? Ituuld you like to order?). lt can also be used to express lll|llcsts: hae-iushigessyo? (would you do it for me?).

chorum -= kai'n kt 3e a shipke A p'io u!= nkkinolla- ='J|tsl-


a sideiffect

each, every after meals, after the meal

Honoriic verbs

eeplness, drowsness (a) similar thing, something similar

fatigue, weainess


to fee!

Iorcan has several verbs which are only used in the honorific ftrrnr (the non-honorific form is a completely different verb). ln thir lcsson you meet the verb churnwushi- which is the honorific rtnrrr <rf the verb cha- (sleep). Here is a list of the common Itrrttorific verbs and their non-honorific equivalents. Notice
r,r1rrciolly the verb issyo.

to be surprised' b6 shoed

nn bonorific meaning honorific


The future marker -kess

-kess can be added to verbs to make furure orms. An explanation of this is g.iven in Unit 12 and you do not need to be cbncerned about it until then.

lrn rrrrlk lrr lrr lrttk rlrirk /nrashi-

tl""p eat exist, stay baue die eatldrifik



hon polite chumwuseyo chapsuseyo kyeseyo tora-gaseyo tuseyo


'l'his exercise is designed to help you practise the -(nu)ndeyo lorm. If we give you a Korean sentence ending in -(nu)ndeyo, yr)n must provide a second sentence that fits with it. If we givc you the second sentence in Korean, then you ae meant to nrake up a first sentence with -(nu)ndeyo along the lines of thr English that we suggest.

lmmediate uturc

Yo have previously leant to put sentences in the future with

added to the present stem of processive verbs which .*p.".."i " more definite (rather than probable) future, something-you will

the form -()lkeyo. Korean has another future form -()tkkevo.


znd serrtence) b (I'ue come from England) Kgi_s hangungmar-ul chogum kongbu haess-vo(I telepboned-yesterday)'Kim c snsaengnim

a Y-ngguk taesagwan-uy Tony-indeyo (Create , appropriatc

chom pakkwo-


d oie ch'ingu-hago ygi wan_nundeyo. (Create apprcpliat(


jrry f ::.t. :o



verb into seems



it: iI# r:L

a di c tnna ry) Hana poy- j ush gessyo




pu in

-i n

devo' (w h

? h

"i "


! l


uO a. senrence for each



You have lost your iacket and the man at the lost t'".orooertv othce asks you to describe ;t. ', lpoctar, chumoiii"'

^J dqg. ^l+"il rtols. e at^JH g*il9. 7}*g q7l 9}"lg.

a b c d


tslzl elg.

the like'p"t..''*i i'--innffii;il;:

of the following verbs. put


r d I I ; h

lt l you

' nnrlat. rhe tbllowing into Korean.

buy it?

! olE x] +ig 6}7l ilol-s? b !.q .q^| ! * *q9? E_E 4Ell l. f, t_}o}z]g + El "| qzl "}^i9. dp}t4lg. d !{.zq9?r -ql ++ 4qo] E} ! 9a1x;91 q tq+;i*+gr al+]}s6il9? 'qg? l 4lol= 4 E} lrl z} 7}9.
You've made a big misuke! go into the ciy late at niqht it's dangerous. Vould you show me that dicionary? Viere did you
lr thcrc a problem? Yes, I seem to have losr mv medicine.

'lrlnrlate the following sentences inro English.

l'vc had so much stress lately and I can't sleeo at nieht. You've lost your bag? What'was inside? You don'r like my ideas! So what did you do?

You hlve a headache and your friend, who has gone out whtlo you were asleep, leavs you .orn t"ut.t. ut' rlxnrt whcn to take them. Vhat are his instructions? "-ni.




Hl 4?t"|4



a When you eat food b When you park your car c Vhen you _re ging into d Vhen the 6lm' ovei '!0hen (toch'ak ha-, arriue\ When you go out
I arrived home

*ilH.^,!1HP:.t^'".:::_:!.l:,Y:o:thatemeaningis ;1|T'h':-Tt:1'+,'".':t''rih?;;;;,;;i;;,:,;' don't tllh or,in b;,,.. ildi;, ij;;1;r#';:l;::#,a'

.[ 0


let's go to a restauranl I had a beer let's go together

don't talk tate care call me

l l

l+ Sr l+

WoulO you lake to try it on?




rno Pyngswu go to Namdaemun market to buy


llr la

l}at. "J *t+. 4ollts tlllEol ?^]t}. 0lLl0l. u 0tafl 4 =ol ol lll^l ld= g0l0l9?






lA B0 toilE'. 9l ' "J t+ 0ll0l , l aBl 0l7l Y}. 0| g E lr/dl . l aJ DE *0ll )l=rt?
//,t .



ooo r+ 1+ o o .a tr CL 3 tr F+ ot oo r J
tr IT


ttl li.

ilr Itl flr

x x + o

J tr

llkrlrrl Qfurgru llfurlrrl a{tanwon A lltrlrrl l.'filgru blhtl

ln this unh you will leam . how to shop for clothes

ol l g,{la. B *9^]l9? *=t1l9' '+e 4a9' $s4E == 'q lsBtlldl' 0l g= + 9/= a?1! = = 0lE. ()l}l oltlll9? R 0l+ Ftsl= ^Elg0l0ll9. rilE7t elolg? url ll{dlE Eotqle. E s golE^lilolE? Ill , j]oJLltl ...!Eil $=de?

Pyngsu decide to

out the depaftmnt store instead-

ch shych'u chom pwa-ra. chongmal cho_t'a.

AnFya' Nag mam-e kkok tur.

Krae? Nae saenggag-enun dijain_ichom kushik kat_ta-

Agassi, ch-shych'u lma-eyo? P'al ch'n won_ieyo. Wa, chngmal ssa-da. El, kurnde i-g pwa. chi_i pyllo an choa. Klsse' krm tarn kos_e ka-bolkka?

lltrrltr rlrrJ Pyngsu decide to

out the department store instead.

.T -

. .


commenting on prices, quality and style comparing one thing with anothe informal styles of speech (used between close friendx) more about modiiers and

l{lllwon B s oseyo. Mwol ch'ajseyo? llrttt chom hwalttongjg-in os-ul ch'an-nndeyo, chom
ch'ngbaji-hago kach'i ib-ul su in-nun mshit_ko chil choun osh-iyo. Itlllltwon B l-g ttaeyo? Yojum aju yuhaeng ha-nn sut'ail_ieyo. Chaeryo-ga mwo-eyo? irlrylu r4$firwon B Paok p'sntu myn-ieyo. Hanbn ib-boshigessyo?
palgn saeg-uro-yo'




Na-hant'e ullyyo?


Phrases and expressions

ib-boshigessyo? uould you'Iike to try it on? wa' cnonpal ssada uout, that,s reall^t cheatt - '' . . . -hant'e ullyyo? do"''it . .i' 'rii. For any verb endings that you do not recognize, read gammar section after reading e dialogue.
i tr


I like it uery muth

llnll ( tea consonant stem) or -n (after a vowel stem) onto the rlt lt rlctn or the present tense, plus the verb ending -da. Hence: ltttt rrtnda, kidari-nda, mng-nnda, ha-nda, mashi-nda etc' hl rhr past tense you simply add -da onto the past stem of the irl lrr kidaryna, mogtta, haetta, mashyotta.


shych'u 1{* djain QIlg kushik ?al kkok + chil { pyllo EE

hwa]ttongjk j=q hwalttongjg-ln J!.| 9! eit 0f0l

Itrr rlncriptive verbs, you add -da to the stem of the verb, either tltr 1ritrt stem or e present stem according to whether you want rl or present meaning. a

ml gl

shift design old sle, old tashbned Qxacy' cenainly, Pracisely wow!
hay! quality

brr rrc some example sentences in the plain style. Mf rrhrr"ga shijang-e ka-nda Minbo goes to the market Mlrtltrr-ga shijang-e kat-ta Minbo uent to tbe marhet
Minho eats an apple
Mirrho ate an apple Today, the weather is good Yesterday, tbe ueather uas good
ttt11n1-nnda sagwa-rul
Mlttho-ga sagwa-rul


paniculady (see note 2)


palgn e ch'ngbaii 3UlI|



sut'ait AEIEI


p'sg'lt'u ulll-






liks an adiective) bnght blue jst.ns a sylish, handsome ba popular, be in vogue style stuff, (tdw) mateial (also ingredientsl par cent cotton

(modiier form of tho above,

casual, activ

hrlll rrnlssi-za cho-t'a 1r nllrri-ga- choat-ta


{[arlk]nr in the plain style. l hr rr thcse you have learnt already: it is the question panicle

hr rrklltion, there are two very common ways of asking

nr rrklod to any verb stem (past, present, honorific) without the |rllh'l!.yo on the end. Here are some examples: mwol mngtll lwhat are you ealizgi), mwol ha-na? (wbat are you doing?1.


(a person)

Alltlhtt common question pattern is to add -ni? to any verb iallll /r o_ni! di gan-ni? meaning is it raining! and ulhere thl lot pl respecdvely.


The plain style The.plain style is used


between very close friends

lru rome examples of questions in the plain style: Nlmdrrmun shi|ang-i dini? wbere is Namdaemun
musn yak-ul

tlnil rch'im}

market? What medicine did you take this morning?

when saying something to yourself oui loud and it "f.. is uscrl as a wntten lorm in notices and in books and newspapers.

speaking to someone much

yo*g., ih"n y"r. il .""




a|l;l ylc of the present tense, minus the -yo. Thus, plain sryle lilnrndl would include: mg&ra, hae-ra, ka-ii ma-a edt it! ' h hh donl Eof (from ha-ii maseyo)), and so on. fit Hl
n rny processive verb: mk-ia, ha-|a' iyagi ha-ia (let's eat, ln lt' lat's talh\ and so on.
rrylo ruggestions can be made by adding -ja to the present

VeU etn mekc commands in the plain sryle by adding -ra to the

hs form is very like that of the modifiers you met in Unit 9. btrr wtth some important differences. For processive verbs you atl,l

The inormal style

very easy.

Korean also has another very important system of addressilu tnose younger rhan you or very close to you, in addition to rhr plaln sryle. In act, it is perhaps even more common and it ir

More on modiiers l untt c you learnt how to make modifiers with -nn or laaaltivc verbs and -()n for descriptive verbs. You learned


AII you have to do is take the polite style of the verb (oresenr. Past or uture) and take off the _yo panicle! Thats aliihere i., to it:


lhoy could be used with the noun ke (kt) to mean tbe act

h rst, yoo

Nae mam_e kkok tr Krnde ig pwa Chil-i pyllo an choa

and taktng ott the _yo, the informal sryle of thl copul is atter a vowel, and -iya after a consonant:

The onc-exception is the copula: instead of takinq the -ievo fonrr


Brt look at tbis The qulity k ttot uery good

I like it uery much


can use modifiers in front of any noun and, as would expect, their function is to modify the noun, to tell rcmething about the noun they modify. Here is a good

Ch saram-un hanguk saram-iya That percon is a Korean sonsaengnlm-un ysa_ya Mr Kim k a medical docttlt ^Im

Use o the panicle -.7/ro


The panicle

has various functions' some of which '_()ro have learnt already. Here is a list of its different useskich'a-ro way son_ro mandryo Kyor'ong sago-ro
instruments; try, by means


cause, reason: because


cotne by train mahe by hand (He) died ( beczuse ofl in) a traffc accident (I) refused for a priuate reasofi

(apple\, and chega mngnn (from vrtb mk-) is modifying the noun 'apple'. The meaning of 9htle is the apple I an eating.ln English, we put the nun t rnd eftcrwards the modifying phrase ((which) I am eating), lul ln Korcan it is the other way round. The noun and its itnlllylnr phrasc can then be usd as pan of a sentence' s lftl would rny other noun. For examplg you might want to say lrllt I am cating has gone bad or uthere is the apple I am auaYou could do this in Korean like this (the modifying rro in brackets and you can see tht they are optional; lir Inmncee would make perfect sense without them, but the $dlyln3 phrases show which particular apple you are talking

lh};r mng-nun sagwa l.lrn o noun is sagwa

fi fi fl

k $ltn


|r|r.1 mng-nn) sagwa-ga ssgssyo lrr{r mng-nn) sagwa-ga issyo?

Kaeini iyu-ro
kil haessyo
I chib-un namu-ro

stuff, raw materiak from-


n'. Ml

O Do you think it suats me?

madrssyo '!7ain-un

p'odo-ro madryo


This house

k made of


Wine is made from

tlr clothes on and thy havo anothe discussion. ol. 0}+ qt,lElg. 0o ryng8u) uElEl olEel Ll?


unit, measure, degree: by p'aundu/ k'iro_ro p'aray


They sell by tbe poundthilo


direction: toutards London_uro kassyo Uri cib-uro oseyo

0|ltl lt riL ?lole. am


l, qEa. ]Bl I t e gotEcale?

+e a e'

(He) uent to Londott Please come to my bouse


]]ll cl *t}. 0)' 0}+ =^llltr. ..lt1l g0tIlE'?

E oJ 0la 0l0ll9. EE aal!e? a q9? & 7lqle. }e P! 0l8 EEc{l9

Phraees and expressions


eqlg. B+ Nrl +llE = Bl{! a ]ll 98 a0l0ll9. Hl*! EE tst'll= L't4ElI= fl 0l, ul ,^l0|^l= Blio|l EqE 0l3elE. F c oJoll * .^)ll E= st]lE 5l}lE9. 5]l^ ^l0ll^l *E LJ0IE ^l& ^]l L1l ullLl tJ ^ll E+ teJE 0l*0l ^l0l ^15 =Etl 9allla? t! 4olEe. ]an a! tJ s *0t9. EJE E, ]l^l 8+ 5 t+^l Elol?Jlolg.
Ya, aiu mshin-nndeyo. Na-hant'e ulli-ni? ng, chal ully. Krnde chom chagn kl


fu rrmman_ich'n mwo

rrcng8ak hae-do

it seerns to ,ne it's onlY j2,000 won (it's not much)

at ledst

ltrhl hrc'bwa-yagessyo

rlcng8ak chom

I'l! baue to go auaY and think


lono. ha. A^lotlryu


o Ri wl (mai
look mila

yes (casual orm)


Mlnho (to

pl.0t ha- Hl*01man'


look super, look good

nurda = man-nunda)

chmwon Mlnho chmwon

chom k'n g] ib-boshi-llaeyo?

N' Ygi issyo.


le while later.
K-ge t chal man-nnda' Ya, aiu knsa haeyo. Krnde' lma-jiyo? samman ich'n won-ieyo. Mworaguyo? Waeyo? ssan k-eyo. Kyu samman-ich'n won-indeyo mwo. che'ga saenggak hae-do, chom pissan kt kat'undeyo. Namdaemun shijang-es-nun pisut han ke

ka_ wol.hln

Elol lltll toe- 9bae orao gall


b9 dr'ffen(polite styls: talayo) within, in onl| (2 or 3 months)


become long

double, (two) timas

here: last, ldure by far, far and awaY

l{! 'l_

Pyngsu chmwon Minho Chmwon Minho chmwon Pyngsu Minho chmwon


lnrllng sentences with mwo

r Koreans will add mwo to the end of certain has no_real $anslation ;';iJ.i "e.ooght. Ityou don't need to use it ;iatt\i and 'knou'', 'tii"lil;;"* | lti yo" isn't it o l think' iiel.s|J;;
wben you come across it.

A, ne, Namdamun-hago-nun pist

p'alch'n Won-igyo.

any rhould not try to translate it or think that rt has

hae-poyGdo chir-i allayo.

Pyngsu chmwon Minho

Namdaemun shijang-es os-ul sa-myn tu se tal man_e mot ss-ge to-s sae os-ul sa-ya to+.gdunyo. Kurmyn i-osh-i Namdaemun shiiang ot-poda ne.bae-na orae kayo? chg-do-yo. Kigo hwolsshin t chal yagessyomajayo. Um, ka-s saenggak chom tashi hae-bwa-

l lt looks the same

good rc has a rather complex verb in it which is a

pa}ticles and compounds verbs in ;i(;.;;;'". -u,iita up importani meanings'. The ;;"J;;;; io it slowly to



the vcrb is pist ha- which means b similar' To this to give the app"an has been added

lr formed.

il"lip"via;. e wil woik tluough

meaning to look similar, to appear similar.Youhave seen verlrr

remember that these verbs are added on to the polite sty|e odrr main verb, with the -yo particle taken off (or example, mgl_ bo-seyo, please try eatirrg it|. This example is iust th same; ihr polite style of r sizilar is taken (pist haeyo), the yo is removcrl (pist hae-) and the next verb poi_ is added (pisut haepoi_).

compounded before with the verbs chu- and po. and


You have also learnt the form _()do before, which means ezrrl though, and once again this is added to rhe polire style of thc verb, minus the yo.

This means that the meaning o the entire verb set pisuthac poyodo is euen thougb it looks similar, euen though it appean simihr.

furrrnrrber. speech styles are decided according to the Person i,u, o'. t"king to. Mostly you will use the polite syle, but in lrl rrtll e ituatiois you migt'use the formal style (which you will lmrn lntcr). and io close friends and young people or children llll llti8ht use the inormal style o the plain style. llrp rrrrnn you are talking about,however, will govern whether nonorlnc. lnere ls tnus llo ureorrrParrurrrry ,t ll()l lll ,,i,1 vou use an honorific. There is thus no incompatibiliry agme honorifics and informal speech styles. Imagine you are lrtwrcri"nu'ut" rel! lrr rrl l chil end eskinp the child where his granddad has eanddad l.llhrt to a child and asking j*tr' You would rlrr. rlu would use the informal or plain style (because you are irllrtrrr to a child) and you would us an honorific (because you ar. about grandad, who is an older, esteemed person)'

Use ofthe verb oe-

lhlllr. will be much mo suaighorward. If you are asking a child *lrrl hc is doing, you would use an informal style and, of course,

Uhprr vou are addressinq someone as 'you' and talking about them'

The verb toe- means is okay, (it) uill do, and it can be used aftcr verbs with the particle -do leuer tbough), to mean it's okay il, . . . Here are two examples:

lr' llrntrlrific sice the person you are talking about (the child) is llrrl rn honorific pern' In contrast' if you ale talking to a r rrlrrror and askins him what he is dourg, you might use the polite
lrr rvcrr thc formal ryle and you would cenainly use an honorific.

it's okay to go out (lit.; euen if/euen thou*l) yoi4 go or1t, it's okaylit uill do) mg_do toeyo? is it okay to eat this? (lit.z euen if/though I eat tbis, is it okay?l This is a very useful pattern and is often used by Koreans to aslr for and to give permission.



llrtr lrc a

Another meaning of the verb toe- is becomes. You saw it irr tbe dialogue wi the word mot ssu-ge (unusable\, meaning ll becomes unusable. You can add the ending -ge onto othe v;rl' stems, and follow it with toe_ to say that smething becomes rlr comes to a particular state. Here are some other examples: Mon mk_ke toessyo lt has become inedible (it's gone off!) Hanguk yia-hago kyrhon I came to marry a Korean girl
ha-ge toessyo

alrrch ltvlcs an honorifics. Make sure you understand in each rirr tho rocial level of the person being addressed and the social lrvrl rl thc person being spoken about: Minbo, uhat does your Mltthlr' harabii mwo granddad do hr rhl-ni? Minbo, ubat do you do? Mlnho, n mwo ha-ni? barabii mwo Professot, what does yout llnrrrnmim. ' granddad do? hr m-o? llhtrrrninim, Minho mwo Professor' wbat does Minbo do? hrr.y?

couple of examples of different combinations of

4 Speech 'Ve

styles and honorifacs

difference between speech styles and honorifics in Korean. lr is absolutely essential that you are clear about the distinctiorr, which is why we are going over it again and giving you a cw
more examples.

are taking this opportunity to remind you about the essenti;rl

Do you want to/do you eel lake? ltr nlncrn -(u)tlaeyo can be added to e stems of processive wth'brrcr (present'tense) to ask in a casual way if someone ttltlr to do-or feels like doing something' You met it in the rhtrm hen-bn ib-boshi-Ilaeyo, where it is added to the hrttrrllflc form of ib-po- (to ty on\ to give the meaning uould

wr llh. lo try it on? ther examples would be: lllp'l mrrhi-llaeyo? 2o you uan, to dink '



do you fancy some coffee? Houl about going o a noraebangi

Put the ollowing sentences into the plain style. a ol *] cl]J +o}ltl b l7} 9}'q. c B 4^I9? d "Jg En

l'ronslate the following sentences into Korean' t 'l'hat person who speaks Korean well is coming' I t dont like those ciothes you bought yesterday' c I le's a stvlish man.


flqg. 4a}n 9qg? EJ 7]4qE ul:z1 g * Eqs.. q4 "J qEl '^lq s?


d l . -


liven thugh the quality is better, it's four times

Co'n I try on those clothes you are wearing?



modifier forms you have learnt in this lesson. a clothes made of cotton b the beer we drank vesterdav c the book Mr Kim is readinl d the shin he is wearing

the following phrases into Korean using


I "

what did you say? ttl.".. t"k. .ar. when you are driving at night. even thoush vou haven't beendrinking. h Do yuiaue anything similar? Yott ore looking for a new bag and come across the following rirli. co-o"." ne with the oiher (price, qualiry, size, colour) il.l ray *itich one you would like to buy'

e the film we saw last vear the food I hate

Join the following two sets of information with _/a-do trr give the meaning'even if A, then B' (or, .even though A, B'). For example, the first will be: Euen if it looks good,;t *r't. a It looks good it isn't b It's expensive it'll be tasry c It's raining I want to go out d I don't like him I'll have td meet him I've got a headache thinking of going to a noraebang I4"k-. p a dialogue between two people arguing aborrr which film to see on TV tonight. one f them wnt."to ,"" ,r film which,the other one says they saw last year. He wart, to see a different film, but the other thinls it's on too late arrrl that itt boring anyway. To help you, here are rhree phrascr that you might like to use:
|!g;qs_yn uri-ga changnyn-e pon ynghwa-ianayo! YIdu shi-ga nmu nissyo? Musn ar-ieyo?i Chngmal chaemi mnun kt kat'ayo.

It's a bright


it doesn't suit you

Now say the dialogue aloud using the informal sryle for ;rll the verb ending]s and taking out ny honorific .ufi*". y,,,,
might have used.

D Do you have a spare room?

Mr Lo is looking or a couplg o rooms in a hotel'

l t! I

oJ g10l g? ut rtote. 3ilBJ=

-at Tllo?

EaJrl9, e=B=

3$B tuln gilLltl.


3=t* 6tLt

"Jat+ort gPJ8ol! eEBJe

^toJEgLlr+. cUEeJ = o^l]JlLlrl?


ld +s sg EE9. ]aln

o {r o o o o o

t+ II J


o CL o t' o q) o o o .T tr o o J o. o qt :t 3 o r1)
I -l

tpl irt

gg ots ql9+l^lE =e}tr.


] 9al


ol^'1^lE ggElo'l tlLlt}. , =E Il}^lcJoll 7t^lE gLltl' zl+B lo,rt tl u^ls g B'l^l Bll3E ^lol0ll f el! ol83oJ ll EgLlt}.

ole^l^tE EBEIOI


ll Eal=tll8. ^laJl] Etsll


tl E=IIE




]l^l qilolg. olLI9, ^l ^l30ll 91Llr}? ol ollE + ^lEol ll"J' -\aEBl +cs.

l}lJ l,pl

^lPu,9s, ]aln ^lcJn} s^]eJol 9lLlt}. goll llBl !} agJE ?lug?

=EgLlE}. , ot+


st J CL J o


ln this unit you will leam . about booking hotels and inquiring about vacancies and facilities

==lB. tE 1 eole. ol0l ?al ^laJE

]a|n 0lLlHlE llLlt}. ql9+l= 9g

=9J =ot-J




. .

about making mmplaints when things don't go quite as they should moe bout lhe fomal style of spech and thg futuro



Pin pang issyo? 'issyo. ch'imdaebang-ul trilkkayo, ondolpang-ul Ne, tilkkayo? Ch'imdaebang hana-hago ondolpang hana chuseyo'



quoted spch and reporting what othgr people said

ll llm |'llllln

Ch'imaebang_un haru-e om_an won-i_go ondolpang_un haru-e saman won-i-mnida' lma-dongan mugushigessumnikka? Usn sa-il-dongan-yo. Kurigo chom t mug-uljido mollayo.

o-il-iang yeyak ha-shimyn o_p'sent'u harin




Sonnim Chuin Sonnim Sonnim


A, krm uri chipsaram-hago chom ynon hae_ bwayagessyo. Ach'im shiksa-do p'oham toeitiiyo? Ne, mullon ach'im shiksa-do p'oham toe-issumnida. llgop-shi-but' yl-shi-sai-e chiha shiKang-e ka-shimyn toemnida. Krigo ich'n won-man t nae-shimyn sonnim pang-kkaji paedaFdo has-durimnida. Aniyo, chickchp shiktang-e ka-s mkkessyo. |-hot'gr-e tto musun shisl-dur-i issmnikka? suyngjang, sauna, oakshil, noraebang, sut'enduba, kurigo hanshiktang-gwa yangshildang-i issumnida. Pang-e t'ellebiiyln-gwa chnhwa-do innayo? Mullon-imnida. Kigominiba-do issmnida. o, aju hullyung ha-gunyo! o{l-dongan yyak hanun ke cho-ul kt kat'ayo' Ama uri chipsaram-do choa

yeyak haharin ha-


ynon ha- g|=Ul-

halin EIE


reserue, book

ve a discount discount

ach'imshiksa 0le4^l ach'im 0lg ch'im ha- 0Jg0ip'oham doe-iss- EgEol tlsai-e 1l0l0I chlha shiktang ll0l AIE chiha ll0l
Paedal ha-

ynon 9=



momin$ breakfast
have breal<fast be included


(abbreviaied orm)

between basem)t reshurant


suyng ha-

chikchp E|| shisl suyngjang +gl ^|fl sauna orakshil


basement deliver





Phrases and expressions

hout long utill you be



anusenens (electronic

games, c.)

mug-shigessyo? chom t muk-liido mollayo chipsaram-hago chom ynon


chikchp shiktange ka-s

cho_l kt kat'ayo

mkkessyo o_il_dongan yeyak hann ke

st4ng for? ue may stay longer (I don't knou if ue might . . . ) I'll baue to discuss it uith my utife we'll go to tbe rcsta ra?rt

sut'enduba hanshil@ng P!^l B ^E!EE] yansshiktang Pl^l El miniba oluHl

hullyung ha'

bar (standing bar)

Korean restaunnt (serving Korean food)

wastern restaurant


mini-bar is excellent, great

to edt it seems lihe it utould be a gool idea to book for fiue nights
empty, vacant, free (o seats and ooms)



pang t! ch'imdaebang g||EJ t'lmdae || ondolbang tEB

haru_e 0[0l lma_dongan gEl=E -dongan -=E

haru UJF

room room with bed bed room with bed on floor per day ons day (duration) how long more than

speech -style'^for. you situations, often by othclls or ltr lrnrn. tt is used in formal ,.uiriontativ.s (such as rhe hotel worker in the dialogue), bur it by anybody when some formalityis called for' It is rliiiio elightly more common among men than women ano' lllhtpl"t.a

The ormal style lhr rlrmal sryle is the last importanl

ll rlu lrc a man. it is a good idea to say some sentences rn the r,tni| ltyl. o..".ionally, as if you always use the polite style it

muk=isang 018

duing sW, lodge, spend the night

lalt tounA to Koreans as though your Korean is a bit etteminate' iii. ,i,iiti.o-*"" to mix orai and polite speech sryles in this my,'with some sentences in the formal sryle and some in the Frrltc nyle.

that the ending is spelt _(s)pnida, but pronounced -(s);mida. lo consonant stems you add the form _smnida, and to vowel stems -mnida:

To make statements in the formal style (that is, normal sentences which state facts, not questions. iommands or sussestions)you add the ending -(s)nida to ihe stem of the verbftther the present stem' past stem' or honorific Pesent o past stem). Note

You have already learnt how to make suggestions in the formal yl!, way back in the early lessons of the course: -()pshida. Mo that this form is never added to an honorific stem, as tlllllcltions (e,g, shall ute .. .\ always include yourself, and ltircnn never allows you to refe to yourself in honorific terms.

past bonorific
bon past





The future marker -kess




future marker -kess can be added to any presnt stem nrnral or honorific) to make a future stem. You can then add I vrrh rndings to this (such as the polite or formal styles' or a *httrc ending such as -iiman) in the normal way. You haYe wo llrrl(l cxmples in this unit:







lntl-dongan mugshgess-yo! How long ulill you be staying for?



Note that tbe past formal forms have a treble -s, and so are soelr for example, sass-smnida. we iust write two ss in romanization. however. You will recopize these formal statements from expressions like mian bamnida, choesong hamnida and algessmnida. All those expressioni are almot always used in
the formal style.
To- make- questions in the _(s)mnikka? as follows:


.kceg future marker is used in the ending -yagessyo (as which you have already learnt. It is tht ttlcd in certain idiomatic phrases like algessmnida and llttlu$crsmnida (l understand and I don't understand\,
Irr tho rccond example)


ynon o

uith my utife . '


haue to discuss

formal style, you add the ending

bny samnikka?

lll rlprcs probability), the most common way to put a normal rrttllncc into the future is with the -()lkeyo form which you hrve llready learnt. -()lkeyo is a more useful form than -kess

Althorrgh this form does express the future (it can also be used

sten past


ipipsmnikka? ibssmnikka?
ibshi_ ibss-


hrt nxrrt situations, and the precise difference between them is lrxclhing that you do not really need to worry about for this rtrttro, lt is suficient to be able to recognize the -kess as the Itrlttto marker, and to know that it can be used to make future rlrntr which cn then be used in other constructions.

ibshimnikka? sashimnikka? past ibshysssashyss_

don't know whether

ibshyssmnikka? sashyssmnikkal


Commands in the- ormal style always go on honorific present stems, and the ending is -pshio (pronounced rather as if it were

sten honorifc stem formal command

Yur lEn say that you don't know whether you will do something t'l lllh by adding -(u)lii-do moru- to a verb stem. The example ltrrttl thc dialogue was chom t mwug-ulii-do mollayo (l don't lnow whather ue ulill stay a bit longer, it mit be tbat we stay ,t lrlt lungctl, Here are a couple of other examples: l don't knou ubetber l'll r hrrlp ha-l|i-do mollayo }x l rrr ies-lii-do mormnida l dotl't euen knou; if
able to go or graduate (or not)








lf you do, it will be OK

The sentence ka_shimyn toemnida means if you go, it uill ba oK, and this pattern' one clause ending in -myn, plus a fornt of the verb toe- is a common pattern. In the context of thc dialogue it is used to say that breakfast is available between certain times, so that if they go to the restaurant between those times, it uill be OK. It can be used to ask for permission to do something: chigm ka-myn toeyo? (ls it okay to go


El4gE = gol=7ltt! tE^l aol otP EI1l]l g'ctl =E',Hi-lji'g3gJLi|Bo." tJ,olB. ol tl g'r o-}ol s=tilE g0l0ll9. ^{ 0}, nlPl =^l 5g l}Llo. g ad9 ^lEi lal l4l=lllE ]l3

A very similar pattern is used in the next dialogue, where therc

use would be pakk_e naga_myn an toemnikka? (can't outside? uton't it be OK if I go outside?|.
is a similar sentence to this: ch_hant'e mal ha-rryn an toeyo? lcttt't you tell me? if you tell me, uton't it be okay?|. A similar

+]lt38auo. n} =^l ^lc =sa=illl ratt E ?lolE. 9= ola +a'J0}gan +301 Lle clelfl'ol9.



The next dialogue is quite advanced in parts and you should bc satisfied if you understand the gist of what is going on. If you can understand the details of the dialogue then you can be surc that you Korean is coming on very well indeed.

ntg al

olE ge ol^lrtll a^E E il.ole. ]a 8 0lle9' a+7l Il=rlIl afl=6le. 'JI] =gl= u g9 glluldc !0l ]a Eol otLlol9.

latr u

^]Bl^l! ^lc ul9. I]aE LJ_lg ]xloJ lllPl =g$c oJtrg'oLl'l 9= E u]} +^lle. ^l*gLlcl'

|lI' BI Ee galIlE *4ot sailA ol ag

9=c ^lBe



is cold

D ttre towe! is


and the ood



t}^l !llE al7ltLltt




Unfortunately, the hotl didn't turn out to bg as good as it looked . .


BlT] -^H I|UllE + +^ll9. g0l^ll9? ssa ilIloJ' 0l g tl{l c c}ol flole. *s ^lHl^oll allloJ xi lEll oJo=l^ls EErte? =sa IlUllglEll 5{ "Jln {etlle. +s z! ]lt}al^llB. =LlEt. =Eawhile latr. A little


olrngprvon chosmnida.chamkkankidariseyo. An.whllelabr. Ne, chibaein-imnida. Malssm hashiiiyo. 0l brln

Chibaein chom Pakl(wo-iuseyo. shilly-jiman, musn ir-iseyo? |-hot'el sbisu-e taehaes ha-l mar-i issyo. choesong ha-jiman ch-hant'e malssum hashimyn an too-lkkayo? chibaein-hant'e chikchp mal ha-go ship'undyo'

munjea man_un kt kat'ayo' chigwon-dur-i pulch'inchl ha-go muttukttuk

|-hot'sl sbisu-



=lE=0l lan 9= 0l80ll ^190il ol ?19.olB. ^l olBlE ol8ltlgne. n[E ]alg? 8g Tlt}LlE}.
9l 0l El

IlBllEgLl tl. gl^lIle. 'g ,tlUl.^-oll en]} E}e 1 eolB. 0l


haeyo. Kurigo onl ach'im-a shiktang_e kannundg umhigl talnig-i"sssp. je-do mach'






angaji-ytoyo. Kraoyo? chngmal chosong hamnida. weil'-hant'o malssum hashyssumnikka?

ElEll "Jt11


Mullon chongpwon agasshi-hant'e yai haiiyo' Kurnde agasshi-ga pulch'inchlha_ndsdaga ch hangung mar-ul mot aradut_ket_tago ha_myns mshig-g amu munje_ga p_tago haessyo.

nshig-i tashigko mash_imnnde'do nur_ieyo.







A, chngmal chosong hamnida. Hangsang ch'osn_uy pongsa-rul ha-rygo noryk hanundg-do kakkum shilsu_ga palsaeng hamnida. ch6ga chkshi shiktang chongpwon{ul-ge yaegi ha{ssumnida. Klgo tto issyo. onl ach'im sugn-ul karadallago haBnnunde sugnl nmu trwossyo. Kigonag adl pang-un aiik-kkaji ch'ngso-do an haessyo' K{t ch'am isang haunyo. sonnim ch'rm pulp'yng hanun kyngu-ga chigm_kkaii psnnundeyo. K_gt-ppun-i anieyo. Nas pang_uy t'gllebiiyn-un kojang nat_ko naengianggo mun_un ylli_ii-do anayo. soliikhi mal has-s i-hot'el sbisu-hago shisr-un ngmang-i-neyo. cho6ong hamnida. Kurch'iman chhuy-do sonnim-ch'm pulp'yng mann saram-un p'iryo ps_uniKa onl tangiang naga-juseyo. Yogm-un tashi hwanpul hacdigessumnida.

hounl-e taehaos

chlbaein ebisu


,nangg (of hotl or facility)

-0l ^{Ul^ ulil^l

sv'c concern i ng (noun), about


malssm ha-

ha-l mal


ll E

spe' say

something to

honoriic, often in phrasg

(o someon

m.L.llm hasyo

-o -0ll

F{oh|lnchl ha-

al8l chigwon =n

lE! Eoit-

Wblem empwee

about, conceming

malBsum haseyo!) pleeF tell me, pktF- saY it (honoic)

muttukttuk ha-

shlgebs- {Ol 9lweit'


be unhdptul, be unkind, be impolite be strbbom, be blunt be o'ct, have gone ot' cold,
bg sarec. be the sama, be idantical


Phrases and expessions

. . . -e taehaes ha-l

-{nl(ulndodasa -= gl ElTl

ya6gi ha- 07|01-

olprlnfl B flo|E




I haue something to say

about . . . there's something I uant to

ara-dl- g0l=. . .lago ha-

on op of(clause nding' onto verbs, like ths -nunde pattem) U,dastand0^ Verb like t F, risen; ara-duryo'

ch&hant'e malssm ba_shimyn an toelkkayo?


,!.,ouldn't it be 4ll rigbt to

-Q! 0F

ara-d-ko c.)

sayhg Ghis pattem shows Wt cold


ie{o mach'angaii_ytgoyo
mot ara_dt_ket_tago haamu munie Ptago haessyo
mashi_mnnde_do mar_ieyo

tell me? cttz't yol iust tell me?

it uas exactly tbe sarne

yesterday as u.,ell say that (o?le) could?r't

shlkma3h-i ps- 9l0| ^lanoryk ha-



quoted speoch; soe note 4) nots 5) thll (s

be fastelgss, be unQleasnt
eftoft, strive mistake make a mistake

understand (she) said that there

uasn't atry problem

sugn_ul kara_tallago haessyo

food euen tasted bad

I'm saying (emphasis!) tbat tbe

I asked (her) to cbange tbe toutel

plsagng ha-


Lao}shilsu d+ ha- +0l-

chkgH sugn =^| +d kaF g-


occur, happen

immediate towsl

solchikhi mal hae_s

honestly speaking; to tell tbe tutb; i?' fact . . .

ka]a-a- to}E-



chang (a towel, a platorm' clothes etc.) change clothes change (platform, trains etc.)




ch'ngso ha_ eoF c'am epulpYng ha_

_ch'm kyngu

ajik 016l




mun ft yolli-ii an(h)- CAI| pJ: ngmang gg tangjang yogm 9!


na$yo I.|H()|e

-ppun koiang na_ Itu-


(harei occuence)

e dlry (polite: trwyo, p-verb liko kakkap- etc.) yet, still clean, clean up vety like complain c i rcu m stan c e, situ at i o n

the pattem, and likewise its literal lr?.xlnB on the right-hand side; (uords to say) I'ue got some rl'llrlltt c tachaes (hal mar-i)

llrr lrts to help you spot



l rhigan-i) toess yo?

tbings to say about tbe seruice (time to go) is it time to go?


(nrg_ul ksh_i) issyo?

(thing to eat) is there 4tytbirrg to eat at hoftel

(lit. has it become tine to go?)




braak down b broken down

on top othat

d@s not open

immgdiaty fa

rubbish, awtut, appa ing

hwanput ha-



Yrru hlvc lcarnt the word kedaga which means on top of that Ittrl yott can use a similar form to add to verbs. You use the |Olnrlo or -nnde imminent elaboration form plus -dedaga' so 1hrt lhc comp|eted forms look like cho-ndedaga |on top of lrlq yood|; ka-nndedaga |on top of going| and so on. Here Ill lwo cxamples in sentences:



Concerning I:,i. *r, say.what you are talking,
about. Here are sorne examples:
clr'onech'i-e,taehaes' iyagi haessyo soblsu_e- taehaes pulp'yng haessoyo nalss_e taehaes mur-bwassvo

l)ln clothcs rfnp

.l chir-i cho-ndedaga ssayo are good quality and, on top of that,


l 1l

o-nndcdaga ch'uwoyo h't nlslng and on np of that it's eold


ji5ff .#il:l*.!r**irm;:::"Jff
be) complained abou, tbe seruice (he) ashed about the ,aeatbe

discussing, wriring or


tzlked about bolitics

ltlr unh introduces you to the raer complicated matter of il*ffd Uccch in Korean. Reported speecb is when you say what ll;pqnt clac said to you, for example, 'He said he was going to lil fhopt.' lVhat the person said literally, of course, was'I'm fi; rc thc shops', but wben we report what he said we change ft1t to romcthing like, 'He said he uas goizg to the shop.' lllr rrction is designed so that you will be able to recogniz
ftptad lprcch l l tu dcrigned

Quotetlons and eported speech

The uture modifier

ll|t bl,

in Korean and use some of the forms yourself. to teach reponed speech comprebensively. I you lo lnow more' you should consult an advanced gammar Vhrt we tell you here is more than you need to-get by. rpcech in Korean you use the plain style of the verb

the noun which they precede. we've

!*"'#i:'.;il{:#.i{ffi:':'i'I,ffi t:;i*;ri modlhers are added to verbs which

,h." iliy';;.;;J;: pu;;i;;i''il#'i;

Ilnundr, sanda, kanda, chot'a etc.), plus ko ha-. Remember 3_ lhr plrin sryle can be formed on any verb stem' past pesnt I futun, end honorifics. Here are three examples: the first Sltcr jives you what the person actually said, the second one fil thr rcponed speech form, 'he said' or 'he says';


na-nun chiLe kayo chib-e kanda-go haeyo (plain style of ka- = kanda) saram-dr-i rnansmnida sam-dfu-i mnt'a-go haessyo (plain style of ma"(h)- = mana) nalsshi-ga choassyo

I'n going going home

he says be's going home

there are a lot of people he said there utere a lot of the ueather was good


Kim snsaengnim_i

(plain style past of cho'


nalssi-ga haessyo

(Mr Kim speaking) Mr Kim said that the

ueathet was good

choat-ta (from choass-))

Note that suggestions and commands can be quoted in the same

chib-e kapshida la's go bome chib-e kaia-go haessyo he suggested ule go bome (kaia = plain style suggstion of ka' pap mgra pap mg-uago
be told (bimlme) to eat bislmy food Questions are a little more complicated and you only need to be able to recognize them as having -nya_ o _nunya_ in them: you will then know what they are when someone uses the form.

emphasis than simply _do' Thus, noryk ha-nunde'do ct'il'-s" palsaeng hamnida (from e alogue) means o/r thougb we (realb) 4e trying' ocaasionally misukes l'ippon. lln other -nndae{o form &om the dialogue is a way of putting imclrl cmohasis on what you have iust said. You saw it in the ihrrrc mihig-i t. sbigtao mash_i mnnde{o-marieyo. The hlrr hrd iut told Mr lre that there was no problem with the tbd. rnd then Mr Lre adds: euel though (despite the fact tbat) - hod uos off ond uas tasuless. The mar_ieyo bit on the end -cm rcmethirig like that's what I'm sang and adds strong

l ltrcnlcr



to what has iust been said.


edt you ood!

} to rcponed speech again' Vhen you ask something to be or your benefit (by using a compound verb with chrr-' - ln hroiuseyo, please do it for mel and then report what

OuoteO requests

5it rule to ."-"mber.

ffi ,l!":;r:nJt,:ii:';'l'l;:i1'1l;;t*$;l ll a ni- b

do it for me|.

hrvc iilst iaid' as in I asked bim to (do it fo ?ne|, thee is ^ Instead of saying something like (hae'


You can say that you are doing something while you are doing something else by adding _()myns to the 'while' clause. For example, to say that you were talking (while you watched TV), you would say: t'ebiiyn_ul po'myns iyagi haessyo. Herc
ae a couple of other examples.

ltilr tlw this in the phrase su3n'ul karadallago haennunde rril okcd ber n charge the toutek for ne .. . ). Do not worry

thlr panern; this note is merely to explain what is going thc dielogue'and to enable you to recognize the orm.

Hangung mal paeu_myns mag-ul turyo I lkten to music while I study Korean Mg-myns mal hae_boseyo Pbase ull me u,,bile you're eating

rr thinking of sending your children to a new school in -have a meting with one of the teachers to r and you rbout'the school. Before you go' you iot down some ions you want to ask about the school. Can you put

lnto Korean in full sentences?

Eventhough: -nundedo

How many students? (halaaeng: srndezr)

You have leamt the imminent elaboration form -nunde which

indicates that you have not finished what you are saying yet end that there is more to come. You have also learned -do, added to the polite style minus -yo to mean euen though. The combined do form -nundedo also rnans eum thougb (so and sol, but has

Vhat facilities? lr it possible to study Korean and Chinese? How many studenis studying Korean? (hou' matyz



dme is lunch? it okay to go home to eat at lunchtime?

You go to mak e booking at a hotel with the following requirements. The_ receptionist asks you the following questions, for which you must prepare answers in

yorr are staying.


i there are the following facilities at the hotel at which

a Mwol towa-durilkkavo? b Ch'imdaebang durilkkayo? c Ai-dur-i my-sar-i eyo? (ai: child\ d Olma dongan mug-ushigessyo!

ch'im shiksa paedal hae-durilkkayo?

Put the following sentences into the ormal style.

a Mus-ul hashyssyo} b Ch'imdaebang hana chuseyo. c Ch-saram-un Kim snsaengnim-iseyo?

l'rlnslate the following into Korean. I low long are you booking for? I told the bank clerk immediately. What facilities are the at the hotel? 'l'here seem to be a lot of problems with my car. My son still hasn't got up. We'll go straight to the bar and have a drink. Mr Kim is an impolite person. It would be a good idea to stay for three nights. Ytxtr hotel room has a ew problems, as you can see in lhc picture. \7rite out a seies of complaints, making your
hrrguage as strong as you can.

d Na-nun paekhwaim-e kanda. Radio-rul tr_rnyns ch'aeg_ul ilgyo.

Translate the following sentences into English.

b c d

"Jq4^1E 9+g 4^] :*6ll EB + sqq. 8 erJ* 7il 4]9' ol


z]l "J6l1^] r{ ^}+g dqdl9. ota gr! P9E} flq9. eEB}g }+ol] ol Et}ol ol| 9. oJ^l"il
_"gq] rJll^]

"JoJ o].t q s}}^]E

107o oJ ll








lrr lr

lJr llr

llI llI

to Taegu I 59l caJrlg? 7ll]l 9/u9? q ol+ ]l= tll . F ]tll]t ?l=tllg' sc 5^l 30E0l! "l 48e 7^l 4sE0l0lle. golu 3ae? lgc 3^l ealn' Ee 4^l'J 30 ^tae SBLltl.

)l4eE? gue g.aaolI, 4c oJgdagu$' qBc *40l gDl tsXl eJ*LlEt'


o o. GI oo o Jt+ Fl. ..o J o So' o =o to


+ r4


l48 36t^1l9' 3s4= Bl^lls? JE40E +qgLltt. Erl9? Et Cg'Jte' 3== 3t9 +^ll9. Elt .0te^17!tolE? 9tr8J nqile. 6A1 30= )trt7t 91=til , gg0l0llE. tlEg qfl= 4B ]lIl= &=tllP. .]alB gag 9+0ll=R? 2^l 300ll 4 ]ll7} 91olP. Jl iseE. ] +dla. EF d0lElagLltl. 30ll/d t g gEiLlt}.711l7t {rurle'? Eoll g!!= g 0161 ^lz! *ll9 ' Lll ,t.7lto|9. !gLltl.

nalE al B+* + ?lgrle? oaet ]lt}d E^llE. +E = oll E7lLlt}' ol, L1l. ul lalrl ?lee!




ln this unit you will leam . how to buy tain tickts . how to ask oinomation about catching the train you



how to discuss going out o meals and drinks togthr


Mwol towa-dilkkayo? onl chnyk Taegu kann kich'a-ga innayo? Na. Tu-kaji-ga innndeyo. Wanhaong-un tas_shi samship-pun-igo chikhasng-un ilgop-shi sashipo-pun-ieyo. shigan-un ha-na kllyyo? chikhaeng-un se-shigan klli-go, wanhaeng_un ng-shigan samship-pun kllimnida. Kagyg-un-yo? Wanhaeng-un p'alch'n won-igo, chikhaeng-un manoch'n won-imnida. chikhaeng-un chwasg-i lma nam-ji anassmnida.


Mr Pak

Mr Pak Mr Pak


Maep'yowon Maep'yowon
Mr Pak

Pak Maep}owon Pa.k !l4 Maep'yowon !r Pat


NB'chari_rul hamkke-yeyak hal su iss-lkkayo? chamkkan-man kidary-boseyo. Hwagin chom hae'bogessmnida. A, ne. Ne chari_ga it-kunyo. Hbynsg-ul wonhaseyo, kmynsg_ulwonhaseyo? Kmynsg-uro put'ak hamnida. P'yndo-rul turilkkayo? Wangbog-ul turilkkayo? Aniyo. Wangbog-uro chussyo. onje tora-oshigessyo? llyoil chnyg-eyo' Ys-shi samship_pun kich'a_ga innunde' wanhaeng-ieyo. llyoil chlnyg-enun chikhaeng kich'a_nun mnundeyo. Krmyn ilyoil ohu-nun-yo? Tu_shi samship_pun-echikhaeng kich'a-gaissyo. K-g cho-k'unyo. Ku_gllo chuieyo.





chngwangp'an eal! electron i c noti ce b oard please look at pwa-iuseyo Hl+l{19

-S ha- -ll0l-


single retum plattorm depafure depaft


-lllkkayo to ask questions


ln romc of the earlier rrnits of this course you learnt _lkkayo as I pottcrn meaning sball ute? As youwill have seen in this lesson, ll lr e lgo sometimis used to ask a question: ne-chari-rul hamkke

Mr Pak'ulbalsigan-jn-
chnkwangp'an-ul pwa-juseyo. Ne' algessyo. Komapsumnida.

Myt-pn hom_es kich'a_ga ttna-jiyo?

isslkkayo? (is it possible to book four seats lopther?'). There are several patterns like this in Korean where lpitnln verb endings do not always have their basic meaning. 'l'hc context will always mak clear to you which is the correct lllclning and in most cases -()lkkayo does mean shall ue? and '

ylylk ha-l su

Phrases and expressions

olrna nam-|i

rued to make suggestions.


hou.t can I belp you?

there are onl a'fetl', left

a Korean city slow tnin (also called

Making nequests
(as in do a fauour for someone|,

Taegu tll+ wanhaeng Eg

nutlk and you saw it used in the sentence kmynsg-uro burk hamnida. To say I haue a fauour to as, you say either
lcho-ga) put'ak issyo and then say what the request is or else my tc raquest, and then add put'ak hamrrida or Put'ak haeyo lihase, I ask you ,o do it as a fauourl.

Korcrns have a wo td ot fauout

kagyk 7l4 chwask E4 nam- Elchari IIA hamkke gllll hwagin ha- gtEolkmynsk
halpynsk wonha- E!01-

mwugwunghwa) price

fas ra;n, express rath (also

caled saemaul(ho))

seating, places be left (over), remain

Beore and after

sea together

Eg!4 E|g4

check, confrrm smoker (compartment) no smoung compaftment

want, require make a request

You have already learnt the nouns chn and hu which rnean hore and after, respectively. They can be used with nouns, ll in ch'ulbal shigan-|n-e (before tbe time of departure), or
rhlkrr-hu-e (after tbe meall. They can also be used with verbs, rlthough in a slightly different way. '|'o zay before (verb) you add -ki in-e to the stem, as in the ollowing examples: shi|ak ha3i in-e (before ue begin . . . I or hrkkyo-e kagi in-e (before (I/you) go to school\.

p'ak ha- + Elol-



say after (verb) you add -()n hu-e (or _()n taum_e, which has the same meaning) to the verb stem o a processive verb. This -()n is the past modifer which you have already learnt (the present modi6er, you will recall, is _nn, as in kann), e.g. mg-nhu-e (aftet eating\;hal&-yo-eka-n talm-e |aftet going to



In the next dialogue there is more new ganrma' but the most important thing is the colloquial language that is used. There are several examples of constructions being used in ways similar to, but not quit the same as what you have seen bfoe and your aim should be to get the drift ofwhat is going on, and not to be put off by tbe colloquialisms and (at times) seeming lack of grammar rules! This is what it will be like when you fust go to Korea and listen to Koreans alking with each other. With a little practice at concentrating on the drift o what is being said' you will find that the Korean you have learnt in this course will stand you in good stead.

Il tr.f
It Yut

d8e olms? aol rt^lTJlolE? rl,kl -fle, r1E 7ln {eBl, r{ts Edoll E! 85l=qI !eqle. 0il0t , E8e Ll+ c9ls. ]alI 8da= 9 L1+ UllI9. lllcllt n= a5at = qole. c019, 501. :lg oll E 4alqle. q= + 9lc IlE Ge+)ll =I]l0ll
t0ll ilule


onl chnyk il kknna-go mwo ha{keyo?


ll kknnajo-yo? Mogessyo. Ajik kyehoek

f ?l.t

chnyk-ina kach'i mg-ur ka-Ikkayo? kayo?

Cho-un saenggag-ineyo. Krnde uri tl-man

Tan saram-do pur-iiyo. Kim snsaeng_hago l snsaong-hant'e yaegi hae'bolkkayo? cho-ch'lyo' i, Kim snsaong, l snsaengl on| chnyk pap mg-myns soju han jan ttaeyo? choayo. Krnde di ka-lkeyo? Kulosoyo. Knyang pulgogi-hago soju han-jan

Ilt llm

don't want to go there!

gts I1q g un q g}0ll9? g unE? Ee olE. 0t4l }lq g.ole. IlcolL} 0l q oal 3r}E'? ]le? 840lulg. ]ql +al =e =sJ El
^lE a ddlI

some collgagues are discussing what they will do atte work.


aa llg





Il l..I

e adg e qc

=Ile. 9= q

ilds a{{

ftll oltltr ^+ 3 )0ll9? =0l9. fts laJn9. 3'tllE' =n]ll? ^+ !! faln uA batgoilE ltIE. 0l^l= a =cBl'q 11= =!]lts gtrol|9' ]aln lallts a g^40l0ll9' 0l' ] !]l 92 uE } qos 5180tE'. ]all leillll gn ]g E]lgJ 6l^119. fl &Be a+0tulE. ldBt e= Eot gr g.=cit.... 4ol^llE. 9= Ilqe u]l }q gng. 0t ]B'

=tr^lE. 0$]l|l Eirle? 0l dEll , a da, 0t d8! !+ qog^t E!& otultg?


n Xlm Ill..t lr.tro l' f..t

Xr Yur

he-rygoyo. Kigonas noraeban9edo kao-yo' sul mashinn kn cho-ndg ch-nun pu|gogi-nun pyllo-eyo. Kigo norae hann kn ttak chllsa6g-ieyo. A' kurm pulgogi malgo tarn k mg_myn tor_lanayo. Kurigo noras ha-ii malgo knyang lt-klman haseyo. K-9 ko8nch'anun saenggag-ineyo. Kurnde onl ton-l pyll mnndo ' . . Kk|ng maseyo- onl chnyg-un nae_ga han t'k nae lkkoyo.

A, krlm. chosmnido. l rnsaong-un ttagyo? Kach'i kashiggssyo? Kl8syo. chdo ka-go ship'unds, ch_nun lnch'n-e ke-8 shingshing han saengsn hoe'rul mk-ko


rhlp'ndeyo. El, lnch'n-un nmu mrlyo. Kurigo saengsn ho_nun yoim nlmu pissa_goyo. Kodaga ch-nun saengsn hoe_rul mon mgyo. Choayo- Choa. Knyang hao-bon soi-syo. onr_un ch{o ttara-ga-s pulgogi_ soju-na mg-ul su Pakk-g pkonneyo.

Phrases and exprcssions

a|ik kyehoek psyo cho-n saenggag-ineyo uri tl-man kavo? knyang soiu han ian harygoyo chnnpulgogi-nun norae hann kn ttak chilsaeg-ieyo norae ha-ji malgo tt-kiman haseyo knyang hae-bon sori-eyo soiu-na mg-ul su pakk_e p-kenneyo han t'k naelkkeyo

il kknnago


after firisbing uork I don't baue arry plans yet tbat's a good idea is it iust tbe ,r.a/o of us going? we uere just thinking of hauing a soju I don't really like pulgogi I really bate singing


Morc ways o saying 'atelwards'


rnh l,tm to mean aTter (verb): ll h,r prl rrn'rr sul han-|an hapshida \|ll |tnllng uork let's haue a drink |rl tr r enn be abbreviated to -kos, and sometimes even to lrut lu,


ctt llrl(l the ending _ko na-s to any present tense processive

don't sing, just listen instead

I uas just saying it (don't tlke it too seriously) there's nothing for it (no ahernatiue) bat to eat soiu

lttormal aentences

I'll pay (for eueryone); ii's on me

kyehogk l|q p/ans) puii- +=- cal/ i 0l0ll heyl (used to call close fends
pap mk- El kigo nas

a'?I tha aor (added to veb stms) not par7iculaly, not rally (fond of) ttak chil8aeg-iyo hate, is awfut (to me) (noun) malgo

f clJ u^l -ko nas -tr ul| p]'llo a= _' . '

krryang :lL' simply, just


and colleagues)
have a

lhlr rllrkrguc ohows the way in which Koreans can add particles n lh rnd of verbs in colloquial speech to give extra nuances to dft thry rrc saying. They can also make incomplete sentences f*fh thry complete simply by adding the polite particle -yo. It Jc not nccd to worry about learning rules for this kind of ln most circumstances you will want to se a more gsmmatical style of speaking when you fust begin in Korea. It is very useful to recognize what is colloquial speech, however, and as you spend more ng with Koreans you will quickly leam to do this
or yourself.


mlr out

q {qooile

-kiman hasyo -]lE


do (veb) Ello ops- E!= E[- tBtrnos n\e, sercdy have any inch'n Korean port nar seoul sshlngshing ha rss/,

not (noun), lhsead of (noun) (whsn suggting another alternative)

ere two sentences from the dialogue with an of how they have been constructed.

rtcly familiarize yourself with the dialogue, almost of bcing able to say it by hean. For the advenrurous,

seem a bit complicated. Your main task should

the rest of this section

if you wish, as


EE cgulgaongsn 8

harygoyo prcviously met the -()rygo Patten' with the ulth the intention o/. Normally it is used in the pattern
(clause B), as in hangung mal paeu-rygo ch'aek


-(u) su pakk_g

ps-(9)E + Jil a-

kedaga tllElTl on top of that ttar- lI}E- folow

'ish hoe gl raw meat ei 0|0l hey' come of it!

ther is nothing


t bU to (veb)

b lbr

} but hcre the pattern is simply (clause A)-urygo-yo. I lur becn omiaed in casual spech and the polite particle rcund the construction off. The full form would have lilrrthlng like so|u han ian haryog nu-sulchib'ina )'/tlo (we utere tbinking of going to some pub or otber I a tl?lnkl, but this is cut down to what would translate e drink - or, in better English, rze utere iust thinhing t a dink andis made into a sentence simply be adding

.(}ry8o pattern.

Krtgp na- nae6,ng-a-do kago-yo This means afta that (ue utere thinking ofl going to o noraebang loo. The ao at the end is the clause ending -ko that normally means azl when you are going to add another clausc. However, in this case, the meaning is as rzell, in addition. "his to indicate that this is also part of the plan as well. Then thc panicle yo is added to round it all off.
sentence is being added to the one that has been said previously


H*#'nY:rt "-iliilL,.-n ins hstead } H:l *r'r* If;#!#-!"hilii^,"r,

means iust llNr tut'triman haseyoverbs means 'lstal'! F"or foT ,"s' (veb, ol'} to processive l hrr rddcd ll l rrc cxamPlest

Negatives wifthwt/o

modifed by insening the word pyllo in them, to mean flo' pa?tiIab.This will be clearer with examples; kogi_rul pyllo an choa haeyo l don't particula y like meat pyllo ka-go ship'chi anayo l don't partialhrly uatt to 8l) pyllo chaemi psyo it's not ptftilarb ifltfiesting The alogue also has a pyllo sentence in it, which is slightly different. Ch&nun pulgwi_nun pyllo-eyo. This is a morc cotloquial form, puning the copula onto the end of the word
pyllo. But you can see that it is in a sense an abbreviated form
o chnun pulgogi-nun pyllo choa ha-ii anayo, so the panern is essentially the same. You should stick to the full orm with a negative verb most of the time and leave the colloquial, abbreviated orm to native speakers.

Sentences with negative verbs in them (with an and mot) can bc

lr.ll'o mk-kiman haessyo -li\ rY atrYthing ue itst ate



tlrurri"t (ratber than partieipating)?

nothlng or it' but to . . .


you have no option but to do something or y",-*" stig"{ t do someing, you can use the ni pr[*-e pJ'. Here are examplesl

Not one thang, but another instead

lorit but to

go; I'lI haue to go

You can stay instead of (noln)' o o' (noun) by putting thl word mgo after e noun, as you can see in ese examples:
Sagwa-malgo kogi sa-pshida La's lot buy apples, la's buy medt: instcad of apples, buy meat


ru pakk-e psy cpri"tr", there's'nothing fo? it but to b', it


Chapii-malgo shinmun-ul ing_nn t choa haeyo

It's not mag*zifles, it's ,rauspapes I errioy eadirrg

Pulguksa_malgo san_e ka_nn ke ttaeyo? How about goittg to the mourrtain instedd of Punlguhsa?

You can use a similar pattem to say insr?ad of (verb). Simply adtl -ii malgo (tbis is the same -ii that you use in the long negativc, or in -ii mascyo). Iook at the following examples, the first ir from the dialogue:

.l {E}Bxl 9}9t"1S. il q-o-E "J{s. EgTts.? r d E a4lqls.

thc fottowing sentences into English'

{** {4'1ills.

For each of the following say at you will so out be{otl, doing them and then that you will g out afte doing thm'
b Telephoning your mother. c Having fun (nol-). d Reading the newspaper.
l,ook, at the following information about train availabiliry and then answer the quesdons. a (Eating) lunch.

Mrlrr rrp a set of sentences, each one using the following sets {rl lnkrrnradon and using (noun)-malgo or (verb)-ii malgo. ttt lxlniple, for the first one you could make up a sentence *hh h rnid I uaflt to eat fruit, not rneat.


^J rJ

20:00 10:00 14:00

^ls Jd


8:00 7:00 13 :00



23 :80
1 1










s{ a


c d

rJq 2} d]9' 7l},'} 4* 4{e H^].l1 trJ+g? ^l"il



rrnrhte the following sentences into Korean. I tuy romething to eat before th dePartue time. I thrll we have a talk to your parents? I d llke to go too, but it's a long way. l Grn l book ree seats together? Ltt'r go to Inchn, not to Seoul.

41 +6119? rJ d .il 7l= + J

zit sJ


9i ol


l{*. truttO...

uo thre sentences saying that there is nothing for



b pay the money c get up at six in the morning

a go home

Vhrt shall we do after finishing work? Vhcn arc you going to come back?
Do you like eating raw fish?


with Korean wllcncver you visit Kore o communicate


)ath tlllnB nPPointments

trlvrttccrl phone conversations other people

So, you have virtually reached the end of this course. This unit contains more exercises which practise the situations and gramma you have been leamng in the last six units. Most of these exercises are Korean to Enlish or English to Korean translations, since that is the best way to check that you havc really mastered the material in the units. Make sure you arc comfonable with e topics in the list that follows and be surc to revise the ganrmirr notes for any of the maior patterns you are not qte happy with' It would be a good idea also to rearl through all the dialogues in the units once again. You will find
there are things that you felt a bit uneasy about at the time thar ae now cleafe to you and you are sure to understand more fully what is going on grammatically in the alogues. Even though

i.illto .ila.'"iti"g about rbl rlhlng, what You did

lrttyllp prcscnts

'Jlilll"',":" and traffic offences


&r ilblns
hrllnr lll


obiects ring clothes and asking about acilities

a a a


I HnlPlrlninB


I llllll h'uncys I atltlulng to go out


| 'llrnrlrtc

rhe following into English' aeshin bidio mni-ga ynghwa-rul choa ha-nikka abii

you have reached the end of the course, you will 6nd thar sirnply reading through the dialogues every so often will help
you to retain the things you have leamt,


m.mvn toeyo. lut'uiccu-ga wonin-in kt

han sryu-ga rr-issyo' iiit'ri "it'-gyo ssge toeossoyo' mot Ch'n3paii_ga


Topic revision
The following list shows the main topics that have been coveretl in the last six units. You should feel capable of handling thesc topics at a simple level should you need to when you are irr Korea' If you feel unsure about a paicular topic, you should grr over the dialogue again more thoroughly, and should revise thc expressions and vocabulary that go with it. Of course there will still be many things that you are not able to say in Korean, bur with the tools we have given you you should be able to succeerl in carrying out many language tasks, some at quite a high level, and should have a more fascinating and enioyable experience ari

*lil$:'-{i.qffi!pjT#.:j ff iiii::f :

ma mashyssyo? koi'e 'u"ut yuhaeng ha_nun sut'ail-ieyo' oio "p Mynhcchng chom poyo1useyo'


ti[ifr :lji:}:: .-,,'#*#;{:##i',#Lil{:l



Ygur frlcnd has a new girlftiend and you quiz him about fun Mrke up questions io fill in the ollowing fact file:





llow mc
do together?
the following into English.



Y1t.Y!^:-. "on."priate esPonse to e following questions or requests.

a Jd^Jts E}] +^n9. b s+ac +"}+^J9? c 4]ltr q -{E qq 7}^]l,s.? d ol d tsIzl e"l qlg? "l e ++g xi a^4E ^}Bol^{g?

r **tE o} 9tg.glqs? b +4q dg "Jol t a +4rl tstgt -=-Bq4. d q{ q7l *fl*E{s. ets} r' *q9. r lz}.ltl7} aol +4 ilqg. a Ao}9. I ol^l t!+ {2^l ol"J 4z}*g. o}7l E7l ".} 6}4 r +xl "J!'}+ + d .{9. .J4 h l ol4 4. ao] B9}+"}. I +^l qq *=zl o)4e? I ^t rlEiBldeqBzls-? 4l+ Ei l 9El*"4E li*al '}9.

(lmplote the following dialogue.

A You A You A You A

Translare the following into Korean.

Naeil chnyg-e shigan-i issyo? lNo, dn urgerrt manet has come uP. WhY?\
Knyang naga-go ship'nnndeyo. (How about Monday?) Volyoil-lar-un abji-y saengshin-ieyo.

It looks a bit smalth I thought so. i I'd like to go to Inchn and eat raw fish. i What does your car look like? k Would you write a letter for me? I My head huns so much I can't sleep.

We bought him socks

a I really didn't see the sien. b You can wear it with iens. c I'm. ringing to cancel my appointment. d ls thee a telephone and TV in the room? 'l
he service is rubbish! lasr vear.

lReally? Will tbere be a ParE?\ Aniyo. Knyang shiktang-e ka-s kach'i chnyk ha-nn kevo.

A You A You

lwhat are you eoing to buy for him?l Yangrnal-yo. Hangsang yangmal sayo. (Holl about Taesday? Do yol haue time thm?| c, choayo. Nait'-u kaJkkayo? (nalt'u: night club\ (That's a good idea.\

Rrwrltc the dialogue in question 7 using the informal and phln rtyles of speech.




:l -.::ou"t of what you did., puning i, ". ;"ryf;"ii;,,, you can according to what the pictures suggest.

The following_pictures tell what you did last saturdav. '!lit

d Ppalli hae-juseyo. Ch-saram_un pulch'inil han saram-ieyo.

Put the following sentences into the formal style. a Chigm di kaseyo? b Chumun haessvo! c Ilgop-shi-e irnayo.

"+ qI

J v, r-l

Unll t

) -

t|lt rr

you oto? lrcmin! Hello/How are You! fi.iioi uo* t'"u. you been gfting along?


Pinc. 6ne. Where are You gotng' R.iqht now I'm off to tie ciry cenue' Vf,"i v"u going to do in the city centre?

il* :iT?;i'!11 i'".T'oliiio' *. kt's go together!



o ."'.,..

11 Translate the following into Korean.
a I started meeting her often from that time. b even if you have no energy (srrength). !,"_.-ttllt:"a c ?::'lnetp tnls ttme. r ou d Although it might look similar, it isn't. e Be (more) careful from now o. f We'll go straight to the reshurant and eat. I It's tumed out well then. Goodbve! h Ths evenins I'll oav' i what.time- id yu'l."u. our depaffment store? j Mrstales do happn. k Shall I introduce vou? I Vould you like t try it on?

Ycs, let's.

o o {l

Excuse m'Vaiter! Do you have any solu.l. arr Ycs, yes. Ve have. Soiu, beer, western sprrlts of them. \'i';i;.' give us a beer and one soju' please' Yes. t understand. l. *l"r." '."a some snackside dishes' what do vou have? a.y snacks, p'aion - we've got all of

CL II s)

"idi"j' those. 'i*'gi". me some fruit


and some squid' please'

Hcre vou are. h"nyo". Enioy it! (Good appetite!)



o o

Unit 2
Long time, no seet Mr Pak Mr Kim! How are you? MKim ' Mr Pak! Hello'there! Mr Pak r_ong tlme, no

No. You've dialled the wrong number.

I'm sorry.
please? wlo Wait a moment, please.

Hello? I'm sorry, but can I speak to M Kim'

M Pak M Kinn M Pak

M Kinx



Mr Pak's wife

tles' It's so-so. This is my wife. oh, reall? Pleased to meet you. l,ve heard a tot about youPleas to'met you. I'm Yunhuy Jang. r m Jmyang Kim. I'm pleased tht I've"met

"Tj':|it How's business fine. i|*!;i 'lffi ;,'."*,''"'

ese diys?

M r,e


Mr Le


lt's not mt
Excuse me! Yes?



Yes? Speaking. h, hello. I'm Tony from the British cmbassy. h' hello! Long time' no see! Do you have any free tirne this lunchtime? Yes, I do. Then I'd like to buy you luneh. Yes, 6ne. Let's meet at 12 in ftont of Lotte


h| 'Ldy to oder yet?

h.," .?''

Great. So, I'll see you in a little while.

M re

$jri;[[g:*ri"-":":,**:.,,." t'm
+l' aepartrnent's ofdcel
sor.ry. Isn't


lTelcome! Please take a seat over here. Thank you. \ould you like anything to drink? Ve'll h:ve some beer fust, please.

is the Korean

Mo Mo Mo
M Lee

r*:,;:"'.*Hffi RiJt.
Is over there-

department' This is

ithe Korean department


Ycs.^WJrat brings you here? (Can I help yout) to meet the Korean language :^:e-rTme teacher-

P;:r1. omcea


is this the Korean depanmenr,s


Do you like Korean food? Ycs, I like it a log but I can't eat spicy food eo well. Then let's eat pulgogi or kalbi. Ycs' 6ne. nd l'd like to eat some naengmyon as well. Would you like to order? Pulgogi for two people and two dishes of

Vould you like water naengmyon or pibim

naengrnyon? Water naengmyon, please.

naengmyon, please.

Unit 3


Enioy your meal!

Waitress! More water and more kimchi,

*_P"k rony

sory' wong numbert

Isn't that 3gg 2Si6?

t,. sorry, but can I speak to li:It"..r, here is no such person here.

Mr Kim,


llr mloh

Atsnanl htlt

lr lt all togethor?
What are you looking for? Do you have dictionaries?




Chris Assistant Chris



Yes. A Korean dictionary? Yes, I'd like both a Korean-English dictionirn and an English-Korean dictionary. Here you are. How much is it? Each volume is 10,000 won; 20,000 won all


or Tongdaemun marketil
Excuse me, is there a bus for Tongdaemun market here? clue, I'm not from seoul' ffi;;;;


also? 'We have tfuee kinds of Chinese character The cheapest one, please,

Do you have Chinese character dictionaries

Excuse me, is there a bus to Tongdaemun market from here?


Chris Assistant Chris Assistant


i*liiii'i ilrl


Justa moment. .. here it is. Thank you. How much is it all together? The Chinese character dictionary is 30,000 won . . . therefore all togerher it's 50,000 won. The cheapest one is 30,000 won? How much
is the most expensive one, then?! 100,000



market io it o'ill take you to Namdaemun marxet' ;j;;;" market? Vhat is there at Namdaemun market? nothing thev don't sell

get -'', here' a busif to Tongdaemun , But you get bus numDer from

\iil, b:il;tThere's

*ltm llfio
It llm
Mntt llr llm
Mlr o Mt tlm

at Namdaemun market'

goods than at Tongdaemun more

in'ni"'opinion Namdaemun market has oo"l. iri"" r"ngdaemun, and is more



Chris Assistant Chris

receipt? Yes please. OK. Here it is. Goodbye! Goodbye.

Oh, I'm sorry; I've made a mistake. It's 30,000 won all together. \ould you like a

need r'.",r'"i ".li l't't'ough ' ' ' I don't monkev. 't'.n t. the number 20 bus' !here do I get it? across the road' in"J'p "'"igt" much is the fare? How (country i"".'*" '" be a real stranger here

Finding the way


M Pak
Bank Clerk

around here? Tlrank you.

Excuse me, can you tell me where the bank


ltr (l

I you go left at that post office over there,

M Pak M Pak
Bank Clerk B

there is the Sango'p bank.

llr llm

uuit<in)t lt's 400 won' Thank vou.

Hurry p. The bus is coming! look too goodl

How much are the aPPles here? One box is 30,000 won'

Mr Pak

Bank Clerk B

Mr Pak

Bank Clerk B

I'd like to change some English money into Korean money. We don't deal with foreign currency at this bank, Please go to the Korea Exchange Bank, Where is there a Korea Exchange Bank? Cross over the road and go towards Chongno. t the crossroads in Chongno, if you go right there is a Korea Exchange Bank. Is it far from here?

illl do..n't


I hfiruwon


b|l]'r.' .".

\rill you cut the price

I hatmwon


I hltrnwon

No. It's about five minutes on oot.

take a box or 28,000 won' exPensive. It's still Then lo and try somewhee else! **ing (today, since the


Minla Minia Minia Minia

Chmwon B

Chmwon B Chmwon B Chmwon B

These apples don't Iook too good (resh). Some of them have gone bad. Really? Then I'll cut the price a bit for you. How much will you give me thern for? Just give me 31,000 won. What?l That's even more expensive than the

ijjiil is hot.

j}yj'ff ::$:JoTi1JJ.';**,n"
l have stomach ache as well'
t}'e chemist to buy some




stall next door! All rigbt. Then lust give me 27,000 won. Please cut me a bit more of the price. All right, then! Just pay 25,000 a box. Thank you. Three boxes please.

tr it bad? Yc8. lt huts a lot'

iin i.c. g" t"


my no energy (strength)' Besides'

Unit 6 o to fie mountains MKim The weather's



itrr [l*lf**im*q'"::*!.*l: mcdicine. arcohor!



Yes. The weather's bener in Korea than England. 'What are you going to do tomorrow? If you don't have anything on, shall we go to the

really good today.

i,;;f;;,h"; -.dicine,j' i'i''[ fngY-! j'n "t"'hol' ln1'rr il"T'ffj"'il'*' t'o'pit"t' Jio t th'

ilfi'JJl'i .**ar T:{"* !:T.:-:.::,s r9u


M Kim Tony M Kim

Tony Tony



mountains? ! do want to go, but tomorrow I decided to go shopping at Tongdaemun market with my wife. How about next Sunday, then? Next Sunday I'm thinking of going to Pulguksa with some ftiends ftom university. Next Sunday won't do either, then. When would be okay? The Sunday after that would probably be fine. All right. Then let's go at following Sunday. I like mountain climbing too. But ere aren't many mountains in Britain so I haven't been able to do much. By the way, which mounain shall We go to? Tobongsan mountain would be convenient. Then shall we meet at the enrance to Tobongsan mountain?


lrrt gone out

lrrnol llt Yun


any idea where she might

8il"rl t'""" ,"'

wifc will know'


ffl', h"o" a clue' Just a moment'

i.igiii'cn"'g''n with her boYfriena' tl'jir'i "1;.

Maybe my


has gone out to see a movre

she was supposed

l'Ye got a nasty headachl


Jaehoon I'm going into town. Shall we go together? Yongt'ae I don't know. . .l don't feel too good. Jaehoon You don't feel well again? You're always

pretending to be ill! No I'm not. That's not true. Today I really am ill.

message for Chongrruni No, I don't. GoodbYe'

what did you do last niglr?

Yongt'ae Taegyu Taegyu Yongt'a


Taegyu, how are you doing?! Hi there! How are things? Nowadays I'm a bit busy. I've (iust) got a girlfriend, so I'm even more busy! I thought so. What's her name? She's called Kim Chongmin. She graduated last year from Seoul National University. Now she's

ill'l'ill;Xl''.3l;i,lil:!:J.lii:#}T,"'.'.. llc s got ten .rr!'sI ' ' ^- ' l{c's gol rstl
lret"about a shirt then? a shirt either' ._"..n't

"".a t"Til*o" o*::^l|:_::,.d1fud



working for Hyundai cars. How did you meet?

be oK w( Since crandma likes reading rt rhc red it instead! suggestton' n]t ioke. Try making a bener



My iend did an innoduction for me. t fust I didrr'r like her at much, but a month later we met by
chance at a party. We staned meeting regularly rom then on. And now you're meeting her and dating nearly every day, are you?

umbrella? boo. "o doesn't go out when tt rams' Hc Some socks, then? Ve bought him that last Year' . How aut a new electric razorj

Taegyu Yongt'ae Taegyu Yongt'ae Taegyu Yongt'ae


More or less! I tried to ring you last night, but you'd gone out then too. where dd you go last night? Last night? I don't remember. I expect we wenr


lj,'.i#::"t*::ffi':'i;"j ou see?I You don't lke my-s}rggest'ons' ii"'a ""i j*iae, like I sid t 6st!


You don't remember?! Had you drunk so muchll You mean rze drinking? (lit. utho was drinking!) You're the one who dris every day (on the

somewhere or other.


Taegyu Yonae Taegyu




Unit 9

went to a noraebang, my girlfriend really likr,'' noraebangs. Vhere did you go after coming out of the noraebang? \e played a bit of table tennis. Is that all? Tell me honestly! lt's true! Nothing happened!

Anyhow, where did you go?

we bought him that last yeal


Wife Husband Vife


lt's granddad's birthday tomorrow. What, already?


Yes. \tre're going to have to decide what to buy him. Can't you decide? I'm busy. I always decide. Please help this time.


sra you do with



some Excuse me, I was here yesterday with bag behind' t left my .i.J'




l1;ll.",-, qescrtb

*. S","na



Yes_ . ' is uery Eig, black and made of leatner. There a briefcase. ]s that it? l\o, rt's not a briefcase-

your bap?

have a look. Can you

lll lll I rlu
lfu Frh

$:;.T:#"'-: f]l""',"l",'i." :,1'"l''' res,- actually.


There were .orn-"-irnpor,"n, "';,, d

l r

You can take one every four hours while it's very bad. When it gets a bit easier, then iust take one tablet after meals three times a day. Are there any side-effects? rJhen you take the medicine you will feel drowsy so take care. Don't be surprised if you feel tired easily. OK. Thank you very much.

Sajang Sonnim Sajang Sonnim Saiang Sonnim


i&n:: ,:: ; :tr;;:!1,,},x* *""l''n:||'''',i l'" u' ti' " i"" t" u'"nt l

Hello, how can

"'.ffi1H5 nfi *r ltl:i

I help you?
a n

um tr
l*{rl l{ hhl
you llke to try it on?

tt lrrllr

Look at that shirt; it's really nice I tt'i"[ tt'. "sig' ls J bit oid_fashioned. No, I like them. Agassi, how much are those




did yJu do with it? -!hat


tT*:{": :T ; ;*l';:' J::Ll[i:;*

the police station. They are keepirrl,

! lRrttw rt A

lltlhl lt rl l.

Sonnim Saiang Sonnim

shirts? 8,000 won. \i[ow, that's really cheap. Yeah, but look at it, the quality's not very good. Oh, I don't know. Shall we go and look somewhere else then?

Nasty headaches

9:: :"^:'^:-: *here the police station is? I*..j:":1,,|. ;.il;;#fi il1ljil,l j,,,, g:j;ix#i ;1i,:lT,r,;Ti {,i"il you Thank l*,,:::1 il;h];T:. '.'y

ll tlhr

lnlrworr ll

I hnlrwon
I h0rrrwrn


Mr Pak Mr Pak li


Hello, can I help vou?



lltrrllll 1l lltlhl

What are you looking for? Yes, I'm looking or casual shirts. (Something ir) a bright colour. Something stylish and good quality which I can wear with ieans. !hat about these? This style is very popular at the moment. rJhat is t made of? 700"/o cotton. Would you like to try one on? Yes, please.. . Does it suit me?
Alr, that looks very nice. Do you think it suits me?

he you thlnk lt suits me?

Yaksa Mr Pak Yaksa


Mr Pak


r*fr*i "*l!'i:mru"
ow often should
and so I can'r

lltrhr ;tln1rrr t lnlrnon lltlrhr


Mr Pak



nled to srress' then.

I take them?

l';nl1ru I hnlrwolr tltllro


Yes. But it seemlooks a bit small. !7ould you like to try a bigger one? Yes, please. Here you are.

That looks a bit better. Ah, that looks super. By the way, how much is it?

Chmwon Minho Chmwon




won. What? Whyl fiat's a very good price. Only 32,000 won.
It sounds a bit expensive to me! At Namdaemun they had a similar one for


Oh. that's excellent' It would

probably like that'

then' My wife will

be better



only 8,000 won. h yes, at Namdaemun. It looks the same, btrt the quality is very different. If you buy clothcs


"''-::: ff,',TlJ'"' ll'lr**


to the man'e'
the hotel

Chmwon Minho

or three months, so you have to buy new oncr. Tell, I don't know. Do you reckon this shirt

at Namdaemun, they become unusable in just two

s;tol*on :*iin l*:u|l'"; ff:'ffil srvlce'

llmdlpwon ii tiitt

will last four times as long, then? Oh, at least. And it will be a much better 6t. Mmm. I'll go and think about it, I think.

l#so*un i;'""ilimr:l'n;T"rn*:lfi:"1!:" "


Do you have any free rooms, please? Yes, we do. Would you like beds or sleeping
the loor?



"ny ls'

ttt"n"e vou can tell me what the


r'.:*r.*,n':,'"''*l iij;i;:l'ir'
**"t*','*l :H'ur*: x* f"'iilii''J.,[ff ::i,i'#i:r that. Did vou

Do you have a spare noom?


Sonnim Chuin Sonnim Chuin








Cbuin Sonnim

with a bed, and 40,000 for the room with l<x'r sleeping. How many nights are you staying? Three nights, please. We may stay a little longer than that (l don't know). If you book for 6ve nights or more, we offer n 5% discount, Oh, I'll talk about that with my wife. Is breakfast included in the price? Yes, breakfast is included. Between 7 and 10 a.m. pleas go to the basement restaurant' Or you can have breakfast brought to your room for 2,000 won extra pe person. No, we'll Bo to the restaurant, thank you. Vhat other facilities does the hotel have? we have a swimming pool, a s.runa' a games room, a noraebang, a bar, a Korean estauantand a western one. Is there a TV and a phone in the rooms? Of course, and there is also a mini-bar.

one wi bed and one with floor sleeping' Certainly. It will be 50,000 won for the roonr







iffi#,tl,", sorry, sir' w.e afvals "v t-" I'i " Hi5li.'ili:iT:T':',fl i?[ilil:x$l*'


Tiji**r:f;il'*.p.""xl room.
mv son's .ve don't usually Bt any is strange.

all' This morning I asked for


comolaints like this' ru. th"t is not all' The television tn our and e fridge door l have to say that quite. . ,'"1i i"."

";;H;;;own l.g*T"

t hthroln


j;*:tit,:xjri,1l;i[x"' }ni:*


llt lrrlr

Two to Taegu Maep'yowon Can I help you? Mr Pak Are there any rrains ro Taegu this evening

Mr Pak Mr Pak

Maep'yowon Maep'yowon

M Pak Maep'yowon M Pak Mr Pak M Pak

the fast one.

and a fast one at7.45How long do they take) The fast one rakes three hours. the slow one four hours 30 minrrtes'What about the price? Yes, the slow one is 8,000 won, the fasr 15'000' and we on|y have a few seats left or

please? Yes, there are two trains, a slow one at 5.30,

Hn llrrr


Mt llnr

Yeah. sure! Hey, Mrs Kim, Mrs Lee! Do you fancy going oui for a meal tonight? OK. but where are we gotng to/ vet"uld qo and eat plgogi, and of course we could drink soiu and then go out to a noraebang or something. i_iit. lng, but l don\ parricularly like pulgogi, and I hate singing. Well vol don't have to eat Pulgogr' you can have omethngelse. And you can iust listen instead of sinsing. Yeah. that's firinough. But I don't have much ,pa.e cash right now'




M Pak M Pak


That'll be okay' !e'll take the fast one,


Sunday evening. There's a train at 6.30; but it's a slow one. There is no ast train on Sunday evening. what about Sunday afternoon Yes, there's one at 2.30.

No, return please. When are you coming back?

Non-smoking or smoking? Non-smoking, please. !ould you like single tickets or return?

yes, that's fine. There are four seats available.

Can we book four seats together? Please wait a minute. Just let me check . .

Mrr lhn






Don't worry. I'll buY. Yes. okav then. That's nice of You' you, Mr Lee, would you like to wht "bout come? I would like to go, but I'd prefer to go out to
Inchn and eat raw fish, though. No. it's too far and it's too expensive' Besides. I canlt eat raw fish' x. ort' it was only an idea. I guess I'll just have to iome and eat pulgogi and soju!

Ml holr
Mr Yun Mtr t,oo

Maep'yowon Mr Pak Maep'yowon

Mr Pak

That will be 120,000 won altogether, please. 'What platform does the train io froi l donl know yet. Beore the re of departure look at the electronic notice board. Okay, thank you very much.
What are you doing after work this evening? I haven't got anything planned. Vhat about going out for a meal? Sounds a good idea. Just the two of us? We could invite some others. Vhar abo r Mr Kim and Mr Lee?

don't want to go there!

After work? Don't know.

Mr Yun Mr Paek
Mr Yun Mr Paek Mr Yun


B x o
t.|. O

6 Mannada 8 Hakkyo 10 Chmshim

nrck|u issyol

o z}g'

llbon+ kavo.

Exercises on Korean alphabet

'r kagc_e kayo?



2 4 6 I

Denmark Poland 10 America

The Netfierlands


t!{ol 4s? oiing chuseyo. q +.qe.


ll+E 4s.

2 piano 4 television 6 axi 8 ice cream

10 sandwich 12 tennis 14 tomato

it q!ol B} + 9lolg' ta issyo' gJ -"*l*t'ago pap l q+4a "} E} 9lqg'

1 3

Erercises on romanization

1 zlt 3 zl 5 p}E "J 7 r'l^l+


Execise 1

4 "J+ 6+
2 4
10 +J

2 ,lg

lhinacssyo. nrrhi-r sulchib-e kayo. soiu cuseyo. Chigm hakkyo_e kayo'

Soiu issyo?

E)(eci36 2 naeyo?


Mwo saYo?

d mgyo e psvo heyl g aniayo a ,

Exercise 5


Mwo ha-r ulchib-e kavo?

5,fftgg* ppang mgyo.


Mwo sa_ro kage- kavo? mwo sayo?

t l

$*r hrrot



ll a' o

c d c


nun, I



lf'_i";lm.*:il-hago ppang - ta issyo!




I llit-u-tli annynglraseyo! Hakkyo_nun Prlq annyng haseyo? Kngang-un

n-ieyo. Chal chinaessyo ? [=is good at the moment]. manna-r kayo.

p rnrrcngrim annyng haseyo! Hoesa-nun ttaeyo? tl|rlru Cho annyng haieyo! ab-un rtaeyo? !l mrcnglim puin annyng haseyo! Kalog-un taeyo?


E (erciso 6

I l

: fsi;r:i#$;

Execise 8




tltlt'a-eyg. lllnmun-leyo.


*: s'{'ch-"seyo? di kayol

ding&ga anieyo. clucg-i anieyo. rgwa-ga anieyo.

ip-e kayo' lDC' ere you

A: Chal chinaessvo? B: Ne. Cha| chinaessrr., A: (to the.watert e;8.'i,

1v*'t5'. N.. lgessyo.

fi $i#{{*:'i:*ff.1ffi r sulch

thinmua-i anievo.

cJrapchi_ga aniyo.

hana hago soju honl


drparonent is?
together then.

not Mr Pak, Mr Pak is the Chinese teacher. Chinese department off,ce. rcrry, Excuse me, but could you tell me where the
therc. I'm going to see (meet) a teacher (someone) at

M Pak?

[n department also.

a . b _ c

Exercise 6
Ne, miguksarar_ievo.




Ne, I snsaen5im-ievo|1uro' I snsaengnini-i aoieyo. chungguk snsaengnim-i aniseyo? ttte' chungguk snsengnim-ieyb.
-Ne' aek snsaengnim

l snsaengnim-iseyo?

iguksarar-i anievo.

finlrrlr rnol snsaengrrim-i psyo.

nttn chunguk hakkwa samushir-i anieyo.



d #u''.;lgffH;.:ffi:,ffi _ e
rae| snsaennim

Ne' hakkyo snsaengrrim_ievo. Anio' hakkyo snsaeirgnim-i anieyo. Mannas pangapsumnida.

$1jg, r-akl(yo snsaengnim anisevo!

"1iill;,,,.",or adur_ieyo. adur-'i anieyo'

lhrnl.hego kwail sa-go ship'yo' frthnl-hago kalbi mk-ko ship'yo. llirlo rnsaens"im-hago ilbonmal snsaengnim kidari-go Mirlu-hago wisk'i mashi-go ship'yo. l|tnlil.hrgo naengrnyn chumun ha-go ship'yo. lrr trttd part' Pak snsaengnim-ina Misisu Kim manna-go rhlp'ilyol ppang-ina kwail sa-go ship'yo, etc.

rnrecngnim-hago Misisu Kim manna-go ship'yo.

Exercisg z

; i$##iil;:ffitH:?"?


|illJe'haTPlgaj Ilbonmal snsaengnim_iseyo?

l tl^lts:99ol-9l*


h i '" '11::P.TFtm i' fi :t;: lffiy;9iu.7".,, A B A


mani trssvoIlbon kase.eo? td: hinguk snsaengnirn manna-r kavo. puin.manna-r wassyo..

ffi'&;1$*:*"';tl"T*'",xt chun-gguk


{|t o|q-q^igo| ll lhrlmln: i-gu-il-yuk-sa-p'al-i.) qrh +qq-tol+oJ


rnraengniml o-p'al-i-o-gu-i-gong')

mal snsaengnim-iseyo. Kraeyo? Malssrtt

ll lyrrr yuk-yuk-yuk-gong-i-sam-il.)

{|ll +{qol+-ol4L lt'ah Long-il-yuk-i-sam-gu-yuk-kong.) rl tl { B: *Eg"J+ge"J8ol


l I t l l l l

rnrrenglrim: kong-il-o-il-yuk-p'aI-ch'il-gu-il_gong-i.


nnyng hasevo? ! Annytne bsevo? Oraeganmai-ievo.



Yoim sab-un ttaeyo?


mchik choa haseyo? ihll-nun Hilton Hotel-uy Sangmin-ieyo. Y{lhhl.r hekkyo ap'es mannapshida. (ln!l chmahim-e ligan-i issyo? Un mul chom chuseyo. Mrrun k chal mot (pron: mon) mgyo. lrlbl uminbun-hago naengm'yn tu-kurut chuseyo'

Hl.nun llbon tesagwan-e mot kayo.


f i*::J:':';n?oY,:i"oo*-*,.

Jllln-rri-nun Sangmin-ssi mot kidaryyo (or, kidariseyo). E }ntmln.rri maeun k mon mgyo.


chmshim mg-uro shiktang-e mot kayo.

e Misisu Jang mon mzrnnay(', -al_*!-":**an_ap'es) raeKnwatom-e mot kayo.




chumun hapshida

Yl trr-rhi-c hakkyo aples mannaPshida'

B mannaseyo

b chumun haseyo c POSeyO d aniseyo e kidariseyo




sapshida mannapshida




tht. atl.





E (ercis

E.g. Kim snsaengnim chamkkan kidariseyo. Ylshi-e hakkyrr

oshippun uy



sentDce srrys something is good (irresoective ,,l 'fust wnetn o.not you personally like it} an the secon savs rh,,i you llke lt ([respctive of its quality).


..p rhiyo


Exercise 7
a Chunguk mal-lo malhaoshida. b Paekhwachm-e kaoshida. c Maekiu-na wain mshioshida. d Viklk-e kago ship-iiman, mot kayo. e W.iski.cho<h'ima, mon mashyyo.

Kim s'nsaengnim-hant'e chnhwl hago ship-iiman, chaInrrt (orossoyo.

Kim snsaengnim chom pakkwo chuseyo.


a97 b53

Execis 8 207

aesakwan anieyo?


d e

867 34495

issyo? umshik choahaseYo! mashi-go ship'yo?

c paek won-ssig-ieyo.


Execise 9
b Excuse me, where is the British embasry? c Please sit down over here at this side).ould you like any. thing to drink? d (somfree) time? kt's meet later, then. P,o T:" l'l* e mr rtrmt Just a moment. . .I'm sorry, but there is no such person here. You've misdialled.
Is rat 863-0542?

ill*:ti: tood, but r.cant.egt Korean (weil). or, Althou6h r rrKe sprcy P:+ I can't eat Korean.

ch'il-paek won-ssig-ieYo.

modu sa-baek won-ieYo.

modu ch'n-sa-baek won-ieyo. i-ch'n won-ssig-ieyo. modu man-lch'n won-ieyo.' r'n-o-baek won_ssig-ieyo. modu sa-ch'n-o'baek won-ieyo.

modu man-p'al-ch'n won-ieyo.

yuk-ch'n won-ssig_ieyo.

! l

asuroI bIees c ul uro d un/i rul e nun ul nunI g ul ina


Exercise 5

lnrecngrim-i nappun saram-ieyo? iii-Ji"' Cayo' Annynghi kaseyo'

gh'asuseyo? igsyo? lseyo.


tu-v"ng h"go ppang chom chuseyo' ch'n won-ieyo.

Exercise 6
a Chaek se kwon, chaek ydl kwon, chaek sumul-du kwrrtr b tr-rl, sam-it, yukship-ch'il-il. c !l1n saram, ilgop sram, srn-nesaram. d r.r'tng se mari' ojing ahop mari, ojing yl-ne mari. e l u Pyon8' yol pyng. Kae ahop mari, kae han mariI Chn won, man won.


ii"d itT;g"

sagwa hago kimch'i-do issyo?

Exercise 7 a Marun anju an chumun haevo. b o-bun an kllyyo. c Maekju an tuseyo.


d Snsaengnim an kidarisevo. Chaek an ilgyo.

^i"1^'l4,+EJE ^l:|l a|l].. 4 E ^]+"il= "J 4=E}g.$.qs. dLJ a"il^] Nr-nun mot kaYo. ilun shiiang-ai'es Kim snsaengnim mannayo'

*4E ^l+"'| Er{ g:l_s... g+ol= oJ ^l+trE}







L Sillye-iiman, ygi shiktang issyo? b !,aengrnyn mon mgyo. Kalbi-do mon mgyo. c glTa::y:? Han chpshi-e i-ch'n won . . . , kurniklta modu yuk-ch'n won-ieyo. d Ygis! oencchog-uro kaseyo. o_'bun kamyn, Chongnrr


te-e ka-boseyo. ochip won-ieYo.

t'"ngungrna l chaemi psyo'

sagri-ga issyo.

m(uy) kae-igunYo!

I !gi h

Krs ship-pun cch- kltvvo.

!'.15,*"s- 1rt".|.' nhaeng_i orncchog-e issyo. Lhell ssan ke lma_evo?

Hanguk oehwan nhag chiim_i psvo.


unhaeng-igunYo! snsaengnim-ishigunyo

;?#:il',x"',',"}#*'o''' ttanguk mal sain-ul turilkkavo? i iiidls",{'|slff"',H,1fi k Ottn chongnyu_rul turilkkav?


Cheil ssan k chuseyo.

mshie-i ilbon mshik-poda t mashi issyo' l kgi--poda t man(h)ayo'

c Kich'a-nun bsu-poda t pallayo' d Kim snsaengnim-i Pak snsaengnim-poda chaesu ttl man(h)ayo. e Namdaemun shiiang-i Tongdaemun shiiang-poda pissayo.
next door shop). b They do sell them here, but if you go somewhere else (to l different place) it's cheaper. c where do you catch a bus or (going to} Seoul city centrc} d I haven't had any luck all morningl e Japan is more expensive than Korea. Mind you (how ever . . . ), Korea is expensive too. f There are more English people in Korea than I thougbt. E I'll cut the price for you. You can take a box for 1 31000 won h \Vould you like to order? I Since this isn't Korea (since we're not in Korea) tlere are fcw places selling kimchi.

llillt c

Execiso 6 a Wow, it's expensive here! Let's go and try next door

(at thr

lloL. 1 r rp'fillrlcyo I lininlk,ttcYo r nrbllcyo l |i'rlr.l haasyo r t llrrl hocssyo l nll'klro haessayo

I Eiirilil:i: I blllrvol


rhYoP'ing halkka haeYo'

Tongdaemun market!

You want to know if we've got monkeys? Go and try lt

(rcis 7
The acceptable sequences ae: a, c, d, h.

in choa haeYo. 't}r'"tr:'r'J.r*ohaes'syo' .p'

r. Irdeni aP'aYo.

Execise 8
^ b Taegyu-ga o.neyo. c Mwo ha-neyo?

I sain_i pissa-neyo.

ver-ul sar yakkug-


'nt keyo. Ta_do aP'ayo'

tulut'og yag_i issyo'


d I shinmun_i chngmal chaemi in-neyo.

Execlso 9
I saram-i Pak snsaengrim-igo ch saram Kang snsaerrgnim


b mni ch'aek ilk-ko abii ellebrul pwayo.

c Kogi(-do) mon mk-ko sagwa-do mon mgoyo. d Shibil pn bsu-ga Namdaemun shiiang-e ka-go iship bsu-nun Tongdaemun shiiang-e kayo. e Sangiun(_do) bsu t'a_go Myngt'aek-do bsu t'ayo.

rannircyo (o' chaesu mnyo:' te augwunyo



(or, shikkurw-oyo)


o? (r, shikkurwoyo


Shipp'al pn bsu_nun

o_ship-ch'il pn bsu-ga hakkyo-e kanun bsu-eyo. shinae_e kayo.

hcssyo tnayo let'ayo hrli maseYo

Exercise 5

or' Ydl-shi I i'nil}li'l'n""-nr"' ra'ship-o Prrn-leyo'

b Shigan-un in-

a ppalli t'apshida


c an choayo d kach'i kalkkayo? e k sararn puin_i an choayo

l rhl


I atl".hi'hip' P*-'"yo'



b klsseyo

a kedaga



c krch'iman (kuraedo would be even becer) d krch'iman e krigo

r [ili;, I !'rtrYo' | lrltl"o' I lmlltyoyo'

tat-ko' y'al-go
PaPPU-8o' umiigt-go'

tat-uPshida '

p'a-Pshida. . pappu-pshlda' umiigi-PsnIoa'

Exocbo 7
a Kogi-rul choa haii anayo. b Chism kaii mot haeyo. c Chumun haii anayo. d I sagwa-ga shingshing haii anayo. e Bsu t'aii mot haeyo.



Mri-ga aplayo. Tari-do ap'-ayo. Umshig-ul mot mg-ylr'


o m-r kage_e



Unit 7
E (ecis

ra-r kayo'

a b

Then let's go together. Do you have (free) time today Iuncbtime? c It's really been a long time (since we've seen each other). d I'rn not the Japanese language teacher. I'm sorry, I made a misake. Next Monday will perhaps be OK, s Since I'm not from Seoul either, I really don't know. h So your whole body hurts, tben?! Is there anywhere thtt doesn't hurt? i I'd like to change English currency into Chinese, i And I'd like to eat some naengmyon as well. k Give us some dried snacks and some Korean pancake, plearo, I You can take them for 20,000 won a box.

tE$^}it%1Bsi* "'u"

ti**119i"' .l xtg.


Exercis 9
b c




d unegwaim_i mrvo_


ii$,l* Iitr*,ni"ff nheng



., ll'll|l r" . . . -kiro haessyo l l r l t |r lt t . . - ha-rygo . . .

r t r t

'.. kurch'iman... saengyso... haessyo... chik'yssyo

ysp'_;gy6. _

lrrr rrlrc 4
nu,' u u,,,n,,, l

;i $"' E

E)(ercise 1



7t olS7|eg. * 719. 7}-q. ll'll q|^l.{q *"l4 4c ++"l 9ia=g. ,J h ,l E * a9. 9o] }-q7] ^]4fl2=9. ', '1l,J"! 7}9? L}* oJ 7}9. Yrl* dq6a=9. ,l ,ll i.! .i z}9? rd *'l]_s. L}E * 7t2E9.

1, o; ;roll

b c

i i k

f I

+'ll 7} 4z} {z] 497

s. 4l7i +}9. $ }n-'-qLo d^Jtsc

s ^}ge

JI$J:I',i"d cg Eg"1 +.;qs.'*, J !}lLd"J r{4i e_ d9 adg.



"J +4


ol4 e?

l lrhnk tongch'anghoe-ga issyo. lr trhy, 1Oth, June. t lrtprnram hago shyop'ing harygo haeyo. I l l tlxlngsan-e karygo haeyo. 'l I'rorn Friday, 17th, June l l rrlry hago chmshim_ul mgssyo.



tl.ola. 0

Unit 8

I h r r

lrnrc try the soup! (Have a taste of.

Hakkyo_e kassvo. b Maekju mani mshyssvo. c Yakso8-ul mot chik'yssvo. d mannassvo.'


llrrl5rrksa han bn ka-boseyo. l{vrn though you're busy, go and see. l lrvc you never tred playing table tenns? Then have a go! |rlrnilr-ssi ajik an wassyo? Kurm chogum t kidary-boseyo.


-Lh'rn8u_ru| nghwa-rul po_go ship'ssvo_ l obongsan_e kalkka haissv.i.

Exercise 2

I l'rppn ir-i saengy-s, mot kayo. (or, kal su Psyo). l (;hlb-c mshig-i ps-s, shiktang-e kayo. r lrp.ian choa-s, ton-i psyo' l rll-c naga-s kidari-pshida. 1 lrn3rnin-ssi chib'e ka-s mwol halkkayo? l llnrc-c ka-s kwail chom sa-o'seyo.

a Hae-iuseyo. b r-on'ing hae-luseyo.


Lnomshim sa_iuseyo.


ag-ut sa-lusevo Shijak hae-iusyo.


chnhwa hae-iuseyo (or bertt'r,

l ) t

Yrlll<l6-ul ch'wisoha-rygo chnhwa haess-yo. Ir-i uonggyt-kdunyo. lrnpnin-ssi-nun t'akku ch'i-r panggum nagass-yo. ( hrrm-cnun Kimch'iga kurk'e maum-e tul-ii anan-nunde

(()r, Kimch'i-rul pyllo choaha-ji anan-nunde), iksuk


l r


lrrlchiees uynhi manass-yo.

Exercise 4
a (rnaD. ha_li maseyo' b H*-;:i::;:'.m1aen c Jhmae_eta_l ttae na_hant'e ch'wa hae-iusevo. d

#ffit'#;1$l"::'."'#*:ff !'s*
r course thev're imponan

Exercise 5
b c d

l l!i1'T,?iq.7} ll t$to uu, {q? Ftr l

l i

ll q glEt.


:: *t i

l n-r."ngni_i il_ko


innn chaek'

H:"*:i, #f;,t:*:oi:T.. iH g;";,,,

t I

I H.#n*i:rmT,*P*'

#,t' f ff n w hav a date, we ften wh


' d _

Execlso 6 a K'un shilsu-rul hasyssvo. b .am nutke.toshi-e lamy8n wihmhaevo_

Musun .u"ie-i" Nae

go to see a movie.'l-*ffl,"i,t" nagp-go ship'yo'

choaha-|i rlm'ul,

ana-do' manna-yagessoyo'


oooshida. uii-'ga changnyn-e pon ynghwa-janayo' I nooshida. I popsnloa. rhicn-i nmu nuioyo. hi- namu nuiyo? Musun mar_ieyo?!

lf, ilu"i"'.T"Hl"','iigessyo? 1as-ui'b.i-n kt k"t"yo.


i |l $i^1?"['!ffi:i:?ffnntur

st'uresu-rul nmu mani paa--s, -Io'um cham-ul chal su psvo. PjT-e



mwol hashyssyu?



chngmal chemi mnun kt


ff: ;.'".'*Ty":Tn*Hixllt
Exercise a ol *"1 c "J +EL b tsl7l e4.

iff x"o,:;


uii-la changrryan-e pon ynghwa-|ana' 'r[lJi,,-i na-o

Unit 1

]'l'"'#til*;i Y;;H"J-jHl!a,"'*
chal hanun saram-i waYo. or-ul choaha-ii anaYo. n-un mshinn saram_ieyo.






nsot hankJiJsiyot

.mashi-ji closhimhaieyo.


i-tag;;9'm;*1t 1#i,'


ne bae_na pissayo.


anass-do, pam_e unjnhat ttae


l Ar h'im shiksa-rul naedal hae-iumnikka? paedal hae-irrmniL r l ltrrt'er-c suyngjg-i issumnikka? liloL.6
Myllch'il tongan yeyak ha syssumnikka ? ihukrhi unhaengwon-hantte yaegi haessumnida. t l hottr-e musun shisl-dur-i issumnikka? a Nlr ch'a_c munie_ga manun kt kat'_ayo. Nrr rdur_un aii-kka|i na-|i arrassy. I llrl.nun chshi ba-e kas su.l mashil keyo. llrn nsaengnim_un pulch'inil han sar_ieyo.

lrrroL.6 1 l lrrrt'cr-e sauna

shisr-i issumnikka?

(gcbg l


chunggungmar-ul konsbu hat su

i Ilgopsal .:,s;n:r*g:*tr:: a s"--il t e Anio. chiklt'siktang_e kas '"-liJ


a b q


iitffi*imT :;*-",

I kmJl

tongan mungnun ke chok'essyo.

Pin pang issvo? Ne.


lhlr rc

ttc not many seas left. cm't cat somethins differenttd you like a retu ticket?

E)(oclso 3 a Mus_ul hashysssumnikka ? b Lnmdaebang hana chushioshin

dfun-bin8 is really awrrl. (l really hate it . . . I likc I'll havc to go, then. iust going to have (intandhg to haue| a game o

for more than a week, we, give you a

r dccent idea 2

e train going to


Mokp'o this afternoon?


: 1*;F-

mg_un taum-e. t'e chnhwa ha-gi chn-e. e chnhwa ha_n taum_e.

mk_ki chn_e.


ilk-un aum-e.

ilk-ki chn-e.

(10.00 p.m.) thcrc isnt. thorc is.

B(ecise 4

.flb:_: toraga_l su pakk_e psyo. ; i:ill ;ffiJ :t'r*;:":''.".'ru_e

Exercise 5
c d
a b

olr.2 r t nltt hae boshyssyo?

| ',rlrrr hae

ltn" l lne b*assyo. ashir-un je hae bwassyo' trrvtltr hae boshvssyo? t lu' l t'i" b*".'oo. Saihir-un je hae bwassyo'


ilu' l lnc bwassEyo. Sshir_un ie hae bwassyo' I l lt'tttn ch'wo boshyssyo ? Nr' l lne bwassyo. Sashir-un je hae bwassyo'


Exercise 6
a b Pumonim-hane yegi halkkavo?

a..roh. 3
Ch'ulbal ha_gi chn-e),




llrtllyc-iiman ygi kurn saram psyo'


ff 1Tl $"':*".mwl saengsnhoechoaha'-seyo?

l-rrlchtclub) |'vrl cho-ch'i an-un kot kat'ayo. I Airlyrr, yaksog_uI chal chik'yyo.

Arrlvil. shir hamnida. ii.i'u't'"-t ttae-nun pot'ong nait'u'na shiktang-e kayo'

halkka yo ?

a..roho 4




watching movies, she can warch the vicrc.


t hngmallo p'yoiip'an-ul mot pwas_syo' ( 'lrlrcbaii hdo kch'i ibul swu issyo' I Yrlrr-u ch'iso ba_rygo chnhwa haessyo' t rnj-chnhwa hago t'erebi-ka issyo?

c '

: b


tn tact (actually) there were some very important papers

lt's.probably due ro srress-


t11hlru-g nmang-ieyo.

;Hn";:,on """ning
after work I'm planning to go to the

'hrngn-e ku arm_hant'e yangmar-ul sa iussyo' ( |hom chag'un kt katlayo. lrrrlln chul arassyo. irrsh'ln-c kas saengsnhoe-rul mk-ko shiplyo' ( ihr-re ttk'e saenggyssyo ? P'yi han-iang ss iushigessyo? Mnrl'ra noo p'as cham_ul mot chayo'

Lrch. t
Nrmcr (hcupetionr

:l{{.#*fr.:J;.n *t"se (lit:,


Irm-i mwo-eyo?



tlhrr's name:

Myt-sar-ieyo? Chigb-i mwo-eyo? Abii irum-i mwo-eyo?

fii'J'#*;,.ifi ,1'jil",i,i"i:"


!hrt do

lrrw mct:



nk'e mannass_yo? Hamkke (Kach'i) mwol haeYo? Mwol choahaeyo? Mwol sirhaeyo?

E (ercise

a I you do it wrong (if you don't do it properly| it's very

y_ou have a message for Poktong? c Ve deliver it to your room (lit:, thguest's room). d I was here yesterday. I let my |umper. e The girl said that it was good quality.

Volyoil_tar-un abii saengshin-ida'

b Do


H''::: ljll"'':t_,l'n'. kas

kach'i chnyk hanun

h Take one tablet twice a day after meals. i Look at this! The qualiry's pretty bad, j You wouldn't know where hshe has gone, would youl k How would a new television be? I similar tlring is about twice as cheaP at Namdaemun.

alew girlfriend and it Dont talk; iust listen. s

I've got

seems like we're out every rlay

r.e (hllm
l I r

di kashimnikka (humun haesssumntkxar llrlo rhi-c irnamnida'

(ercise 7 nio' pappn ir-i issyo. waeyo? Volyoir-un tueyo?

Kuraeyo? P'at'i-ga issyo? bii-hane mwol sa-durilkkeyo? Hwayoir-un ttaeyo? Ku ttae-nn shigan issyo?

! liill*il-"'fiijiinchl tr$r. 0
$nlilo'h'"-'' t'ago

han saram'imnida'

llah'lm igopshi-e irnassyo'

Cho.un saenggag-ieyo.

filli.;il';H"o"Hf; ;J"n!;'?":lr'.|Ti:i;'"'
lljlp.rhi+ ynghwa-ul pwassoyo'
Pusan-e kassyo'

Execise 8
Informal style: A Naeil chnyg_e shigan-i iss? You ni, pappun ir-i iss. wae?

A You

Cho-un saenggag-. Plain style: Naeil chnyg-e shigan-i iss-ni? You ni, pappun ir_i iss-ta. wae?
ship'nnunde. wolyoir-un tt&ni? Knyang naga-go

A You A You A You A Iou You

bii-ha'nt'emwol sa_durilkkya? Yangmal. Hangsang yangmal si, Hwayoir-un ttae? Ku ttae_nun shigan iss?
Ung, choa. Naitu kalkka?


Volyoil_lar_unabiisaengshin_iya. Kurae? P'at'-ga iss6! ni. Kunyang shiktang-e kas kach'i chnyk

Kunyang naga_go ship'nnunde. TVolyoir-un tte?

l.ilh. 1r I tn nre-toco ku yia-rul chaiu manna_gi shi|ak haessyo' maseYo' I llm.l lPo-do n"lla-ii towa.;wuseyo' t"ng.hin-i i l.lxm'c'non I llrut hrc poy&do pisut ba.1t anayo'


mgut I'LT'f,'ili,*iiTliq keseyo' Annynghi

l l l i


iiiil-ni .i'J ..reyo'


'ap ijii.trnvog_un nae-ga naeJkkeyo'

rhtliu.rr oalsaeng hamnita'

;ffitt;i"_J my_a+hi-e


l I

unoh[n-l sogae halkkayo? ib}orhigcssyo?

J -

d o

x o

a LJ


bnting, painfil (adi*tivel uaderund (Ut verb like nl-, li*eni ata-&royo, ara-dut- ho
etc. )

double, (tuo) times


lnnbet ltine)

lTl rl
GI E J -

ach'imshiksa adul


rzr (shon form) looh for to baue a look, to look fot

uery bed


breakfast ' son ya, still uaiter!

v9'ning; breakast labbreviated foim) haue breakfast


uindou, cashier uindout

roon, uith bed

to play (ten rb, table tennk etc.)

-r aru 6';j"'
algesssmnida ama an



sbt, unmatiort

bluc jeats clean, clean up




coxntry bufipkin, yokel dt ftrst






o o

anian p'ann te

o K' n g h t' rn c perhaps' probab!




(used to makeerb,s nqativl|


annynghi kaseyo annyonghi kyeseyo




srl (srcm)


"., '.,r,

tbe year before bst year is irercsting' k fafl stuff, (raut) material


oftm, frequertly sood, u)ell (adverbl

urtongly, mks/eep (noun)

haue no luck, baue bad luch



hu* boite stylel nurLs


n lront of

t'" *-"one ubo it


iumpet a little (ubile) ple^se dit a ,notner't


last year tnagazine try eating (honorific form) aa honorific equivalent of mok-



'f9;*ss"c-"nchigwon chiha chiha shiktans chijm chikchn


chegwaim chjbaei


tttanager (of hotel or facitityl nora


(burnble form) tn ,rry opinion the moit




extent, ab out

electric shauet

(aWrc xir?rau

ly )

really Chongno (one of the main Han river) We, son, kind
streets in Seoul,

nonh of the

cful chilseeg-! chinccha



basement restaarant b?ancb

bus stop uaiter, assistarrt

(rally) hatc


electro c noticeboard ulephorc ulephore (verb sternl

the whole body


cho-ch'i anhcho.un saenggag_ineyo choayo
choa ba-


chip chiparam




ob dear!, o my! to gradudte

choesong ha_iiman choesong hamnida chg_do

good, fne,




!"?,K4?jTr-^YawaY'orrr s not good (fton choh)

3rue (stem)

be careful, be cautious

sle ep ine s s, dr ou.,s ine s s

parked n parh



I'a sorr!; I alologize; exc.utl

(wer) thcre at lcdst a littb, a bit a littb ubih ago


.OK lpolite solct




hUlo l*rro *ryo


sleep (honorifc equivalent cha-)


order (steml

be imPortart impotunt (modifrer form, like an adiective) please giue (polite request


chn ha_ chn ha-t ma| cbn_c



chohchohy cbom

chogurn cbn




rhor|n han taum-e



aftet doing a left


before cotrttaaniczte something to saylgass onl comn anic4te


lro hr-

seating Phces


fil'u hl.


to date

doisn no, ako (panicle, attaches to



duing lao (pure Korean number)

-e -e -e -e taehaes


abo t, conceming
bey, come off it! location particle (place in which

nouns) about, concenzing

at (a ertaifl time) each, per o (preposition, ataches to


maybe, pethaps, possibly

alone, on one's outt

mtoker (compartmett)
check" cottfnm



something happens); 1orz

haessvo haeyo '


haha-l mal

-h"go hakkwa

and departmmt (of co egel

in odet to do did (past tense form of ha- do) do (stem plus polite ending -yo, [regular form)

somethirrg ,o

do (verb stern)

hwrldongi0t hwrnpul hahwoluhin


modifier form of the below (like an adiective) casual, aaiue


sal -

hullyuns ha-

Hyndec chadongch'a

by ar, far aad away after k accelbrt, geat Hyundai car (comPatry)


l. |.bn

hakkyo halmni hamkke han

han (num ber/time -hant'e




hanguk hanla
-hant'e harab|i

hana hangsang hangungrnal



o''' (Pue Korean' when used wlth a counte o measure word) about, arourrd, appf oxirnateh to' ot (4 peftorr)


ll hrll klrnnago llbrnB t'onghaeng llbrn3 t'onghaengno

this one (+ nouttl, thk nont this time tnatter, buiness, uorh
aror& (verb stem)

after fnishing work

llbon llbonmal llcchik

eab read

uOy one-uay stteet


Japatuse hnguage


alucys Korean hnguage

(n )

llyoll llyolllrl lmh'n

-lnbun lpku


an nese cbaracte"s

lV ronounced b an

Sunfuy Sutday (longer orm| Koreci port ,rea seoul portion


hoe hoesa



harin harin haharu

per day

giue a dbcount one day (durution)

gandfatba dkcoum

Korcan food) to (a person)

Ro?can rcst^udrrt (serui?'P

llbriltk'c Irlm


uritb l-rang aker vowel) lose like this



lnng ha-ne(yo) br.




sttetzgth, mergy au, ,rreat

strange, biz.zare b'oe (it b) stdrrge! 7 exist, tbere islarc (steml 2 haue (sten\
as above, polite style



baue (honorifrc o iss- in its meaning o possession)



in a little uhib (used to check iormation. 'you mean?')

please a card

' *lro haessyo


decided to

llrlik"-iullocbyng-ul puriiiyo kok lunnallunnaelkwocbyng


aat the pice (for someone's

-tr maseyo


kagyk kaji kajok kaiuk



kabang kabo-

k'adu k'n ka-


go (verb stem) a briefcase, a bag go and see, uisit (a phce) together shop



beneft) you're makirrg it uP! (feigntug an ilhess)

exaaly, ceruinb, PreciselY uith out fail, defititely

ilzls (verb stem, to 6nish


something) a feigned illness thing, obiect, faa (abbreviation

kind, exemple (counte fo thc noun chongnyu)


-lo .lo naso

of or, spelt &os) azd (to ioin clauses) aftet (added to verb stems)
(see page 110)



leathet take
change (a touel, a platform, clotlres etc.) marituted and fried meat. *sually beef or pork gorrrg to, bound for change clothes charrge (platfolrn, trairrs erc.l teach be the same, be similat seem



kann kara-ipkara-t'akarch'ikat'-

lolrng nalo|rng nassyo lkchng ha-ii maseyo


ouer there (nearet than chogi')

break doun be btohea doum dorr't uory! (colloquial forrn: kokjong naseyo)

kao kyeshi_
kat'n kat'n kt kayo
kedaga lcidari-

kyeseyol grme

haue, possess (for honorfic person; polite sryle katko



llting halllilllyyo lolmog lomapsumnida

lrming kn

uo|ry, cortcern be uorried

rzas (time duration) raes (polite style)

alle!, small toad thatk you bhck tbing, ofiect (abbev o kot topic panicle)

stmtlar go (stem plus polite ending


simihr thing, somethirrg

lngang knnp'yn lrs krssyo


opposiu side
on foot

dialled (past tense o kol-,

irreg. verb)



-ki-man hasevo


on top of that ,aait road, route iust do lverb) chssic Korean side dkh, manated cabbage ,nemory



nea y, alnost

Lk-daum-e lr-gn k1t poragu! kj kuraeyo

that onc (nearer than ehol after that that thing (topicl

yot see!
so-so soup




I dunno, I'm not s*te,



no smoking compartneat look super, look good simply, just boulever' ncuetheless' bxt sritl
so uhat?





hrn daero


uords, sleech


satu!, tike (I)



knsa ha_ knyang


area, uiciniry ha-

bonorific, often rn Phrasc tnaksm haseyo|\

sPeak, saY (of sorneone

iulrlm haseyo


kraeyo (?)


rcally (?), is it / it is so



krigo nas krhch'i anhayo


krn krn p'yn-ieyo. knikka krt kushik kwail kwaro kwallyn kwon kyehock

after that of cowse not lihe tbat then, h that case *ch a" that (paaiadar) (we) tetd to be so I ilo so (it's $laally lihc tbat, etc,) thercfore, becatse of tbat

and (also) (used to begin a sentence)

ln ,nln

m mani furssyo

blease tall ?ne, Please sd! it i t'm l*tei;ttgt 1 (honorifi c) i'ue heard a lot about You




is tatty (h is not pronounced'

polite stYle

n.n(h)i nan{h'i anas


n.nbyn$'ongch'iyak nrndulrndurssyo


ft it

old style, oA fasbioned ouerutork


relotion, Iink


uoJ*nre (measure word)



existerrtial there iarc meaning)

(honorific of is in its

kytng ha_ kyngch'al kyngch'als kyngu kyu

mach'angali-ieyo -mada maeil


policenwt police sution oaly

ci?afirrstarrcc, sit l4tion

be the same, be idertical each, euery


eueryday beer

?Bet (stefr.l bbascd to ,n et Yut llunnr p'8ap6umnlda itricd stus run aniu be at&,bss, bc tifut?rsdn (to edt M.h'i P'6_ rlinh n.rhiartt rna-leyo I'm saying lstsl tbat nlrhimnunde-do thc fod usud bad miad, hett naum I bedb) like it tuyo naum-G (kkok) l t]ot like (ber) |maum-e al naum'c tul-ii anayo utoyo\ Ameicl mbur mini-bar mlnlb. all togah er, eu erYth ing' modu cryona I don't know molhYo boily

,fi1ch, rnarry' a lot since thae arm't matry w ntten matrh -i i ath asol 'utithht j in otlY (2 or motttbsl miraelc d're anre-all mediciac, rzae (l- irregular verb like b'al, nol- etr.l 'be ttude b-fu of (p t "seo 1past nan&tl-, l- irregular verb)






to fit well (maj




m&yo norllorgasyo mrhlrc'


zr (polite style, irregular

not k row (steml

mal ha-


I don't kttou be stylkh, be bandsome


mot ara_dt_ket_tago ba_

carnot lnb mot + ,rr- = n on sa, that (one) couw?r't




make un of
maseyo tease too (mxcb) lota (noun) loes (verb) 4 song


don't'ioke,'don't kiil ne, don't

mkmukmul mul naengnyn

mulgn mun munie mus muI_bomusn muttukttuk ha-

spicy and rcfresbing! goods

stay' lodge' sped the nit ut tet thin noodbs in cold soup,

lmu ffiqdam nonc

nnldem ha-




myndo(_rul) hamynhcchung

mwo mwol _nyn myn

ask ubat (kind of), uthat, uhich be subbora, be blnzt uhat? uhat (ob1tt orn)

ulhat (ull form of rnwo)

MrnGhenoyk hankkintkc


'karuoke' singing room

nake effort, stiue

to feel


lau raloi

nulu Iun

(subiect form) u',bo 4fl eye


r'chrcttun dl

come (stem\ 4?yaay

myt (myoch') myt shi na -na

utbat (rutnber)?

while (*e p. 772)

(diuing) licence

lhll kannunii aseyo? ildlnga rl.hwsn

rrhlry l

uhere? do you krotu wbete (she) has

gone? someuhere ot othet exchange

uhat time

lhw6n unhaeng (rn

Korea Excbatge Bank

ne nae-

get better

4p porirn4te ly, ab oat ;




lt| mach'angaii_ytgoyo ollng lllme

left athe,oI tbe conttary ay! (used to call close friends and colleagues) it uas etactly the same

naganalssi nam-

naengtanggo naengrnyn

thh noodles utith uegetables go out

be left (ouefl,


yesterdt! as squid
hou., much



namla ch'ingu naone




Great South Gate (in Seoul),


lllmr nam-ii anassumnida ilhnr-dongan lmr-dongan mwug_

ilmmu llmnun kt kat'unde ondolbang
n|c urhigessyo

there are onlY a feu sPaces left

hou lons hotu loig uill you

business, seruice



busband come out

it doesn't look as ough there k atntbing I are atry roo urit bed on floor rubbisb, aufuL aPPalling



put doum, Ieaue


to be strprked, be shocked

nu onl

ubich one


oakshil orn


amxserrrerrts (electronic gomct, etc.)

long timc no see!



di?ection rice (cooked ce)

baue a mcal

a oseyo


to ''n t.



ttk'c nk'c saenggyssyo? ttn


hou b it? hou would it be? hou? ubat does it look like?



basY busy

Tc m

to eccive

rahs, k rainfug mixed bortou

ccttairr, sorrrc (as a question





Iend errr7t!, udcrrt, free (ol seats

p'iryo hay'oham doeiss_

p!ndo pln|i

is needed (p'iryo ha- also exirtr but is less common) be included single (ticket, way)



ard rooms) is erbens;e ex\irsiue (adiective)

Nrft hr-

p'ain aliiman p'ann ke p'arayo p'at'i P'io p'iryo isp'iryo psp'senu


hlrom illn

looh similu s?' loo& (sometimes morc tban



Korean-styb patcake tbey sell, fut . . . item for sale, items sold


frrc, a penzlry

counter for clotlres)

anp seril


sall (polite style form, stem is irregular) fatigue, wealess

time, manY times) throw auaY m show retl

(as in first time' scond


is ,rot necessary, is not needcd, has to need of

b necessary, b tpeded


F t!.iu-

p'yo p'voii p'yoirp'an p'yn ha_

pae paedal ha-

paekhwaim pakkupalgn pam panS

p cer't ,icket a sign, d signpost d signpost b comfortable, b corraenient stonacb fuliuer deparunett store


quick bead onh





Kiteal oiced main4t'd bee|

puly'yng ha_


palsaeng ha-

bright nigbt

cDn pbin n kute

nea Kyongiu)

(Korcaa Buddhist

ocanr, haPPen




pleased to meet you


irurk 'pup pw.yo



a reqtest



'nbase look at 'se", took (polite style' irgula)


pyllo ps_ pyngwon


(+ negative) haue almost none, scarcely haue atty

specato?r,.. aot panicuhrly, not really

patrc laf if you don't haue anything

a special mattel sometbing



get cow


rhllhu rhlkkurwoyol rhl|rr ha-

afut meal


rhlllyc hamnida rhlllyc-iiman . . . rhllru harhlm he-

shut up!, be quiet! haue meal festaudnt ,ne, Please

in order to

*anse ne, btt . . . mkt4ke mtke a mistake

be serious

sasaek saenggak saenggak saenggng na_ saenggisaengshin saengson



sagri sagwa
sai-e sa|n

san sangra


betuem nznaget (honorifrc orm\ dictionary offce box

C-am mer

crossroads apple


birt h dry (honor|c otm|

Iooh lihe birthday (normal orm\

thought idea remember, it con es to ,nirrd to occur, bappm, take place:


(verb stem)


taufi cente


.hl he-




n dislike fa"ilrty edsib sbirt

sh opp

rhyop'ing (ha-)


ing ( ilo /go





(stem) setrice

to introdrcc i\ Ko?etr, wincluodha

olchikhi mal hae-boseYo rrlchikhi mal hae-s

rmnim ryu

frankly' honest

tell me the uuth! honestly sPeaking; to tell the

trah; ia fact
Custorne Seord

.. .



sangp Sangp nhaeng sap saram sarang hasashil sauna sayo shi shigan

business persort

rlB an

trade bank)


k (literallv.



b chea7 eap bdieaivel-


each' per se notes\ bas gnl bad' has gole (polite style, past tense)


faa (the faa gr n4


is . . . )



uable bar (sunding bar)

style sttess


shig&issshiiak ha-

time, hour be bad, haue gone off, be stalo

begt t, start

thfee (p!e Korean) o'clock

lry (stem plus polite ending -yr)

rril rlurtcu ruto haseyo .u!n ru$n-ul kara-allago


uork bard! (said to someone

doing their iob)


I asketl (her) to c'hatge the


suyng hasuyngiang




sutinming pool
tahe (t?arrsport), ttauel (t?ar'spot)



hate, is autful (to





dgdifli moreouer, also exactly, pecisely (often used



all, euetytbing
crr ^o|edn about, coicening (noun e

table tetnis


llnpan llr


|t o-

tangjang tangshin


taesagwan taeshin




and wife) leg

inmediault yot (often 'between husband



insttad, oz behalf






luttonB uch'e8uk uhocin uhocin han taum-e

,rrorlrruifl clifibiflg uould you like? (lit., shall I give you?) be contained, be included to erttSt headache post office

aao (pure Korean number) two (when you mean 'the two of em'' 'both')

with kat|l

igbt urn


after doiry a

Tobongsan toks ton tongch'ang


t isang

tartn tashi tam (daum) te

ullayo) atother, different

afte4 next

be difermt (po|ite sw|e

tnryosu hashigessyo?


rit tutz


dnk? food

ulould you like sometbing to

yes (casual form) a driuet

?lace Toborgsan (Korean mountaitr in Seoul)

reading morrqt colleague (fellow student in

0nhecng nhrcngwon

bark clerk uelour is it iust the tuo of * going? towar&, fu the direaior of tmbrelh
(-ro, after vowels)



url url tul-man kayo? .uo





come back,

this case) Gredt East Gatz (itr Seou

0pyn lynhi

0ynon 0ynon ha-

suggestion, opfuion

belonging to





yoa're hot

verb lke hakkap- etc. ) to help bectuse it is hot, because

teunz dirty (polite = ,oouo,lo. b-






wrln w.nSbok


titne (whet)


rct n,


slou., trabz came (past ten* orm|

wayo weit' wihm ha-

cozre (polite style form)

won won hawonin

uaitzt be dzngrols

z.roz (unit of Korean currency)

uarrt, req?e

-l about,
-e: -e taehaeso

) -

yaegi hayag_ul mgyagessyo




) -



medicine cbemist, drugstore

ulk, tell I'll han n uke sone medicina

yanglu yangrnal yangshiktang


phdrrracist, cbemkt

appohtmmt s?iits, uresteln liquo?

socks uestetn esuuant yes (politer form of ae) here

r/lrr (after, next)

out!arould, apptoxi'nte'l
urthcrmore) tlL avcrYthing


al4ltt (moreover' also'

hu (taudaum) tashi, tto

bn bumberhime|


yeyak hayboseyo

esefle' book hello (q the telephone)



ygi-so yoitm

yocm yia ch'ingu yoim chaemi-ga nseyo? yoim sab_un naeyo? yl yldu

fron herc (abbrcv o yo-eso|

fee, fme


ct lfnend nowadrys

ylli-ii an(h)yng-han

hout are you dobryl, hout are tbtugs thae dcys? how is business these days? az (pure Korean number) tutelue Koran number) does ,rot ope?,


lhogeth er, a'eytbing, acyone drucys




6 qt


rrd r


English-Korean film, mouie

.PPtc tobohtnent, Promse itia, a;tt ;a, u;a*tY

a, (a certain time)

(to ioin clauses) ialso) (used to begin ccntence)


ynghwa yngp yngsuiung

Ergbrdlkh, Briuklisb
receipt next door

,rt (bk clerk)


lut. biefcase

"Xffir kabang




yuhaeng ha-

be populat, be in uogue

brd: (room with a bed) ( ]'on the loor, Korean style)


O c' ch'imdaq ch'imdae bnns' F


bqin, sutt


(t-n*in to'^|

itHi::.--.*. .B ga;ngrllsaensshin) f(


bonout boylgirlfriend bread

bteakfast br e a kfas t ( abbreviated form
(to have breakfast)


blue jeans

pillinamjyia ch'ingu







bteak dowtt


ach'imshiksa ach'im; ach'im mk_

bsu chngnyuiang saP Papp-

koiang na-

lhtctly lhcouat

chikchp/paro harin krt

shir ha-

illrtrict, ar ea, t)icirritY l (vcrb stem) door


brcy zy (verb stem) by far, far atd autry call



bus stop


sryu mun

hwolssin purch'wiso ha-




oubla, times

arch, e|)ery (each, Per)

mashiuninsu -dongan -mada, (-sshik)

cheap check, confrm

car (short form)




ch an ge lclot\esh rains etc. )

chshim hapakku- (kara-ip-/t'a-) hwagin hachungguk ch'ongso ha-

',',r!' ul,


ilcchik shwip, shwipke mk-


,llort, stiue
','tbassY nPloYee

(honorific, equivalent o mok-\i Qry eating| (honorif,c form)

chapsushi-; chapswo Po-


Chinese cbaraaer

clean, clean up come (out)

hania kyohoe



cottort courrtry bumpkin, yokel crlp custorner dangercus decide deliuer



ch'onsaram chan sonnim

pulp'yong hamyon

saek o- (nao-) p'yon hahoesa

al',.tgY, strerrgth


Englard, Briuin English-Koreatt

eu eryone, altogeth e

chigwon pin him




arrhng' oa, snow

maeil modu nun

cbaice (Korea Excbange Baak) axcase me, sorry, fut . . .

(honori6c) (stem) atqcnsiue
acuse fie, please axi't, therc isl^e atDtcss t74il

ira ctlv, cztuinlv, Pr e cise IY

kkok, nok

oehwan (unheng) shilye hamnida

iss- (kyeshi-)

cboesong ha-iiman



depattmeat (store)


wihorn hachng ha_ paedal hach'ulbal hahakkwa (paekhwaiom)



anrything, all

ltime as well as meal)


feel frtb



flm, mouie (at) frst

(on) foot

ynghwa ch'm


t hporurt

ht order to do

ltpan (l aPanese hnguage)



frequertly, often (in) front of from (location particle, place in _ which something happens)

krs chaiu


-myn chungyo haha-r chaemi isssogae ha-

ilbon (mal)

ap'es _put'' (_es)

ltnpcr lt.l, sirnply

chuka- (naga-) choh-


nongdam (ha-) chamba knyang panggm

good (stem)

giue go (ott)

)ltd, type, exanpb Xorcar-Etglish

Korcaa language hsguage, utod (to sPeaHsay) year


graduate grandfatber, old mer in geteral grandma, old uomen in getural bandsotne head bealth
haue (stem) Daze (honorific form)

goodbye lto somane who is staying)

good, fne, o (polite style) good, utell (adverb\ good.bye (to soneone who is leaving)

choayo chal

hanguk han-yng hangungrnal mal (mal ha-) yo|m

chgo_do on

annynghi kaseyo annynghi kyeseyo

cholp haharabii halmni


hbly, nouadays hatt


bnd bttct





lzal/o (on the telephone)


help bete (from here)

hou? hou is it?

pyngwon hip

kngang yboseyo to\r'a-iuygi (yogi-so)



l/fu (stem), I /i&e (polite form) llfu that


-ch'rom krk'e irok'e

choa ha_, mam-e tryo

lltle (while, tlme);

llttlc, please


lhtb, a bit (quantity)

tu a little



lool, see (sornetima look for hnk, to look for lotc hnch

ta meet')

chamkkan; ittaga chogm chom Poch'alch'aia po



sarang ha-

boueuer, neuertheless, but still hou., mtcb, long



lrrs (polite style)

rrrrs (stem)

Irutthg painful (adive) busband

ap'ayo ap'ap'n narnp'yn

lma, _dongan

p'al, nol etc.l mauget (honorlfic otm|

(l inegular

verb like

chapchi mandlsalang (nim) man(h)-

norry ( is not pronouced)

,rrafket maybe, pe"haps zra (humble form) medicine (p haffiacistl, (drug*orel meet (steml (pleased to meet you)

morc tban morning mos, ,nountain klinbing)

more (any norel

morcy month

mingte mb-, wrongly mixed

mind, heart

manna- (mannaso pangapsmnida) mam

hokshi na (ch) yak (yaksa) (yakkuk)


sidc gtdtt; would you like to order?

o',r, ure

chumun ha-; chumum hashigessyo!


the?e ou '.re

(bumble fotm o uuri|



Pun chalmot pibim ton tal ach'im cheil

isang, -poda


Oer, cach 'puhaps,


(not), (not) really

chuch'a ha-



zly (humble form)

san (tungsan) che

Ptobably PaBon Placc Pbn play (turnis, piano erc.)

am saram



ollasedot..' ilaat" gi* (polite



,urn e ?reeded (not ,reeded)


neuertheless, bouler, but still

irm p'iryo ha-/iss- (ops-) kraedo

police (rrranlsution) p?aviousb

post office

request form)

-!i maseyo

number (mes| number (time as in .first time', etc.)

,rou) notuadays, Iately

not (opposite of -(i)eyo) not auaibble, sometbi?rE uhich is not sold not know (stem)

nood,les in cold soup

aigbt no




chuseyo kyngch'aU-s -inbun uch'eguk chn-e



aniyo mul naengrnyn

an p'ann ke

promise, dppoint nern



quliD quickly
raally (colloquial) Cally lc4lb@' is it(?), is tbat so() raad fcason, aruse rcceipt
rccaiue rains, is ruining

chil ppalli
pi-ca ochinccha chngmal

chigm yoim
pon, (pon) -shi samushil


kraeyo(? )

often, ftequently





OK, ight, fne (fornall


one day

opi?rion (in ffiyl (humble form)

algessmnida hana haru -man, -ppun

che saenggag_enn



cd tcfrigerator
rcserue, booh



nen|anggo put'ak hayeyak ha-


road toom

ricz, cooked (urcooked) igbt (direaion)




wangbok pap (ssal) orn


llk, tell Agltusteless


(time duration)

trauel on (transport)


seat shaue


see, look (sometimes = to meet)

side dish for drkks or simply, i*st

sJcqp (honoric)

sit sit (stem) side




kage an ani-

hakkyo chari Pomyndo (-rul) ha-


,acl, hbPhon

yaegi hamash-i iss-/ps-


Sthphone (verb stem) lhank you

lbat one llongway away) )haa one lnearet than cho-\ (oacr) tbere

chnhwa chnhwa hach_



lhorefore, becatse of that lhlng, obiea, fact (abbreviation lbought, idea (remember, it comes to mind) lrae (pure Korean) 3hb ore (+ noua), tbis notn llmc, bour llmes/double lo (preposition, ataches to nouns) to tolfor (a person\




shgh (ticka, ury)

szroter (compartment);


norr-srnoking corrrpart nent

chachumushihpynsk; kmynsk



(marn) an|u

o tol spelt os)

saenggak (na-)


bae -e



(I'm) so-so

somabing to say so'l song, 'karaokc' singing room

sock dinks

ntry, I cpolo, ercuse


norae (ha-), noracbanr choesong hamnida lncun yangiu


hal mal

fngnal umryosu



naeil -do



s'op (veb stm)


start, begit stay, lo4ge, spend tbe night stomach

irit, sqtid



kio kracyo

ut e s tcrn

liq uor

oiing shilak hamuk-

strcngt, enetgy styIshlharrdsornc suit (a person)




together ,ornofiott) toq also (particle, attaches to nouns) too (much) lowards, in the direction of toutel lou)n t2ntre tumed out uell, it's all for the best




sugn shinae chal toenneyo du,


isang ha-


mshiss_ suyng ha_ (suyngiang)


surim (sutimming pool)




undersund (1/t verb like



tul - lixen4 ara- &tr oy o)

ara-dlan togenneyo

taehak, taehakkyo

until Us
u i ciniry,

ar ea,





aiq ch'am

utrongly, mis-



uritb (irang ateI consoni xts) uord, language 1to spealsav) (polite form) utork, natter, b*iness


(subiect form) rrz'la (not a polite frm)


wbat (obiqt om) (full orm) uhat (hjnd od which) (numr) uhe uberc uhich ore? uhile, a littb

utelcome! well, good (adverbl

we, ou ttteathet

uait?ess! (lit. = gid, unmarried woman) want, requirc water

wait a momerrt (please) waite


alossr agassi

chamkkan kidariseyo


Vcbsites that can be used for leaming Korean: r Korean@Monash; r Korean studies at sogang Univsity:

E +


won ha-


mwo (mwol) (muos) musur4 myt/mych'





chipsaram ch'anggu


http// At lntroduaion to Koreat by J. David Eisenberg:

hnp/angintro.comlkintr *otott ,1lrq"gh English with the Korean Ministry of Culture and Tourism:

I = -

t {r

Korean Language Institute at the University of Bridgeport: hnpr'/www.bridiepon'edu/IndexhtmVCenters/Diste

a a

-lng mal (mal ha-); malssm k}chng

crsmaterialsAoml0l/ Mr oh's httpy'/www'learnkorean.con





Korea for kids: hnpr' Snapshots of Asia (Korea) at Access sia: httpr' accessasisnapshot/lore


year befote last couples)

yet, still


(oten benr'een married

chaeiangnyn tangshin


korea.htm Learning hangul with Soyongdori: hnp;//library.think guest.o 207 4 6 l Auo files of Korean conversations and narrations at lndiana University: hnpJ/languagelab. bh.indiana.edurtoreanl 0 l.htnl Korean folk tales for kids at the Korean LG company website. This is not designed for language leaming but it has an English version as well as a Koean one. Go to bnp/ and click on 'LG Korean

Folk Tales'.