THE APPLICATION OF TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE IN TEACHING ENGLISH VOCABULARY TO THE FOURTH GRADERS OF SD NEGERI 04 KRAJANKULON KALIWUNGU KENDAL

IN THE ACADEMIC YEAR OF 2006/2007 a Final Project

submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Sarjana Pendidikan in English

b y Yenny Octaviany 220140 2035

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF LANGUAGES AND ARTS SEMARANG STATE UNIVERSITY 2 0 0 7
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PERNYATAAN Dengan ini saya: Nama : Yenny Octaviany NIM : 2201402035 Prodi/ Jurusan : Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris/ Bahasa dan Sastra Inggris Fakultas Bahasa dan Seni Universitas Negeri Semarang menyatakan dengan sesungguhnya bahwa skripsi/ tugas akhir/ final project yang berjudul THE APPLICATION OF TOTAL PHYSICAL RESPONSE IN TEACHING ENGLISH VOCABULARY TO THE FOURTH GRADERS OF SD NEGERI 04 KRAJANKULON KALIWUNGU KENDAL IN THE ACADEMIC YEAR OF 2006/2007 yang saya tulis dalam rangka memenuhi salah satu syarat untuk memperoleh gelar sarjana ini benar-benar merupakan karya saya, yang saya hasilkan melalui penelitian, pembimbingan, diskusi, dan pemaparan / ujian. Semua kutipan, baik yang langsung maupun tidak langsung, baik yang diperoleh dari sumber lainnya, telah disertai keterangan mengenai identitas sumbernya dengan cara sebagaimana yang lazim dalam penulisan karya ilmiah. Dengan demikian, walaupun tim penguji dan pembimbing penulisan skripsi/ tugas akhir/ final project ini membubuhkan tanda tangan sebagai sebagai tanda keabsahannya, seluruh isi karya ilmiah ini tetap menjadi tanggung jawab saya sendiri. Demikian, harap pernyatan ini dapat digunakan seperlunya.

Semarang, 22 Januari 2007 Yang membuat pernyataan

Yenny Octaviany

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Fadholi A. Bun2. Inun.This Final Project is dedicated with love and gratitude to: ¾ My beloved father. Aik. Tiur. Ata. Resa. Dewi. Ika.Diandut. etc) ¾ My friends in English Department (Krist. Uut. etc) ¾ All my friends in the world iii . Elly and Yulies) ¾ My nephews ¾ Ferry and Blacky ¾ My friends in “Kos Daun (Ima. Fitri. Kathok. Abah. Mu’anah ¾ My brothers (Luxman and Adhiem) and my sisters(Ida.R ¾ My beloved mother. Cipto. Maryo. M. Dewi.

Verily! Along with every hardship is relief (QS. 94: 5) iv .

In analyzing the data. There were 34 students. 18 girls and 16 boys. The average of the students’ achievement in the first cycle was 87. The analysis of the data showed that there was a significant difference of the students’ achievement in the pre-test and post-test. To achieve the objectives of the study. The relative frequency showed that the mastery level of vocabulary in the second cycle is better than that on the first cycle. The students’ achievement in the post-test (90. the writer concluded that teaching English vocabulary through TPR is very beneficial for the students in order to facilitate them in learning English vocabulary. the writer used a descriptive qualitative and a simple quantitative measurement to find the result. The subject of the study was the grade IV. the writer conducted an action research. The writer carried out three steps. The last steps were the post-test and answering questionnaire.51%). This classroom action research was held at SD Negeri 04 Krajankulon Kaliwungu Kendal. The difference between these cycles was on topic of material used. The action consisted of two cycles. It was used to observe the situation of the class during the each activity of this study.ABSTRACT The objectives of this study are to describe the procedure of teaching English vocabulary to the fourth year students of Elementary School using the Total Physical Response (TPR) method and to identify the advantages and disadvantages of using the TPR method in teaching foreign language vocabulary.1%) was higher than that of pre-test (44. v . It is suggested that TPR in teaching English vocabulary is recommended for the English teacher. The second step was the action. The questionnaire was meant to answer the problems of the study. The writer also used field notes.56%. The first step was the pre-test. Each cycle consisted of teaching and learning process and a test. The main factor affecting this improvement was the students’ interest in teaching learning process through Total Physical Response.06% and in the second cycle was 89. Based on this data.

My thanks also go to all friends in English Department 2002 who have given countless beneficial experiences and admirable memories and all friends in Kos Daun who have grown up together in happiness and sorrow. and all family for all pray. I hope that this research will be useful to improve knowledge. love. and inspiration leading me to reach the completion of this final project. support. I would like to praise and express my high gratitude to Allah SWT the Almighty for the blessing. thank you very much. I also wish to express my sincere appreciation to the Principal and the English teacher of SD Negeri 04 Krajankulon Kaliwungu Kendal for allowing and helping me to carry out the research. health. Ahmad Sofwan.ACKNOWLEDGMENT First and foremost. mercy. Ph. At finally yet importantly. and encouragement in writing this final project. to all people who cannot be mentioned one by one and who helped me in writing this final project. and Novia Trisanti. and encouragement in finishing my study. SPd. My great appreciation goes to Head of the English Department and all lecturers of the English Department of Semarang State University for their guidance and assistance during the study. the first and second advisors for their continuous and valuable guidance.D. power. my big brothers and sisters. vi . MPd. advice. I would like to express my sincerest gratitude to Drs. I would like to give my deepest gratitude to my lovely father and mother.

......................1....................................................................................................................................................................... Characteristic of the Fourth Grade Students of Elementary School ................................................ 4 1.............6.. 6 2............ 6 2.........................................1.............. Outline of the Study ...................................................................... 9 vii . 7 2................1......... Reason for Choosing the Topic.................... 4 1............................... 4 1................... Background of the Study...................................................... vi TABLE OF CONTENTS ...... vii LIST OF APPENDICES .................... REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE ........................... xi I.................................................5.1............................................. Statement of the Problem ..........................................................................3..................2......... 3 1............. Significance of the Study ... 1 1....................................... v ACKNOWLEDGMENT....................3............... The Elementary English School Teacher .............TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT ........................ Teaching and Learning English as a Foreign Language in the Elementary School ...................................................................1......................................... 1 1.. Foreign Language Learning and Teaching ........ 5 II..................................................... INTRODUCTION .....4................................................1...................... Objective of the Study............... 6 2....................... x LIST OF TABLES .............................................................2............

.....................3...................1............. Field Notes ................ 15 2..2.................................................... The Step in Action Research. 18 2.................................................... Teaching English Vocabulary to the Fourth Grade of Elementary School .................................................................... Definition of Vocabulary .......4...................... 22 2.... 26 3......4........ Subject of the Study .................. The Objective Total Physical Response...2......................... The Definition of Total Physical Response ..........................2...3......................... 10 2............3..... Test .................................................3....................................................... 24 III......2...............................4.1...........3................... 17 2.......................................... 11 2........ 30 3............................................. 31 viii ......1............. 29 3... 10 2..3...............................1................... The Teacher and Learners Role in Total Physical Response .........................................2.1.. 24 2......4.....................................3............... 26 3.3.....................................................4.... Questionnaire ...........1.............. Identifying Initial Idea........4................................................................ The Benefit of Action Research ......... General Concept of Action Research .................................... 26 3.... Teaching English Vocabulary ................................3.........2............................................... 19 2..................... 27 3......... Data Collection .......................................................... METHOD OF INVESTIGATION.................2..........................3..................................... Action Research ...3........ The Principle of Total Physical Response ..... 27 3.....1..................................2......... Instruments of the Study . 30 3....... Total Physical Response ........... Research Design in Action Research .... 15 2.................. 22 2.........2...............................3.............

......................3...... DATA ANALYSIS....................................................2...................................... Analysis of the Second Cycle ..................................1 Conclusion ......... The Situation of the Class .........................................................................5...... 55 V...... 38 4...............................................3.......... 56 5........ 50 4.......................................2 Suggestions ... 53 4.......... 38 4.............. 54 4.... Analysis of the First Cycle ..................6............................................................... 40 4...................................5.. Finding the Mean ..5.......6.. Concluding the Questionnaire Result............3.................................... 50 4.............4....... 52 4....5........ 56 5...........6...................... 58 ix ....1.................. 51 4...................... 57 BIBLIOGRAPHY ............. 47 4.......1.......................................................... 44 4...................................... Planning .....4............................ Analysis of the Pre-Test ..................................................................................................................................................... CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS .....5....... Participation of the Students ......... Matching the Mean to a Criterion . 32 3..................... Analysis of Questionnaire .... Grading the Items of the Questionnaire .......4..................................... 32 3....4.. Implementing ................................................ 54 4....................................2.......3........... Analysis of the Post-Test ......6........2.........................................5.......6........................................................................5 Criterion of Assessment .........................................................1................................................................................... Pronunciation of the Students ....2....................... Tabulating the Data of the Questionnaire ................................ 54 4..... 51 4...............................................3.......................... 37 IV................. Analysis of the Field Notes ...

........ Appendix 2 Instruments of the Research .................................... Appendix 3 Answer Key ......................................... 75 12..................... 67 4... Appendix 12 Questionnaire Analysis.............................. 76 x ....... Appendix 5 The Test for the Second Cycle ...................... Appendix 9 Score Analysis of Post-Test ................................... Appendix 10 Result of the Tests during the Action Research ........................................................ 69 6............................................ 74 11............................. 72 9........... Appendix 1 List of the Students’ Name ................ 68 5...APPENDICES 1........ Appendix 7 Score Analysis of the First Cycle ...... 70 7....................................................................... 60 2................................ 71 8.............................................................. Appendix 8 Score Analysis of the Second Cycle................. Appendix 6 Score Analysis of Pre-Test ........................... 73 10....................... Appendix 11 Questionnaire .................. 61 3..... Appendix 4 The Test for the First Cycle...........

..................... 46 5. Table 4.. 53 xi . Table 4.........................3: Result of the Tests in the Second Cycle ..............................LIST OF TABLES 1........................... 29 2.............. Table 4.......4: Result of Post-Test ............1: Classification of Graded Score ................................. 49 7...................6: The Point of Range .. 42 4...2: Result of the Test in the First Cycle ......7: Questionnaire Analysis ... 51 9.... 39 3.......1: Result of Pre-Test ................................................................... 50 8......... Table 4....................................................... Table 4......5: Result of the Test during Action Research ............ Table 4....................... Table 3................. 47 6.................................................................8: Category of the Criterion .............. Table 4............... Table 4..........

) since they learn it for the first time. Teaching English in the elementary school has been accepted in Indonesia in line with the government’s plan on the nine years basic education. Background of the Study Language as a means of communication plays very important role in social relationship among human beings. etc.1. English as one of the international languages is very important since it requires as a bridge of communication. The students of elementary school just learn English in the simple pattern (vocabulary. In the elementary school. According to the 1994 curriculum. In Indonesia. with the emphasis to have 1 . The aim of teaching English in the elementary school is to motivate them to be ready and have self confident in learning English at higher level of education.1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1. English is to be taught as one of the local content. English is the first foreign language taught to the students of elementary school. it is taught in elementary school and some kindergartens. the objective of teaching English to the elementary school students as a local content course of study is they are expected to have the skill of the language in simple sentence of English. English is one of the compulsory subjects which is taught in junior high school. In addition. senior high school and university as the first foreign language. grammar.

From this group (911). In this study. They easily get bored. the writer will focus on teaching English vocabulary considering that vocabulary constitutes the knowledge of meaning which is one of the components of language. losing interest after ten minutes or so. Teacher of this level need to plan a range of activities for a given time period. in this case is the elementary school student. According to Harmer (2001: 38). young learners especially those up to the ages of nine to ten learn differently from older learners. Besides that. motivation. students’ interest. the teacher plays important role since he has to be able to set students interest and motivation in learning English. It is very essential to improve the four language skills that are very useful in conducting . etc which are involved together in teaching and learning process. and adults. it should be considered some factors such as the quality of the teachers. 1995: 2) Teaching English to children. there are other important factors.2 speaking skill using selected topics related to their environmental needs such as tourism industry (Depdikbud. should be different from adult. adolescents. they are teaching technique and teaching media which play important role. Studying a language cannot be separated from studying vocabulary. In teaching English to children. Teaching English to the fourth grade students of elementary school means teaching the children at the age between nine and eleven years old. teacher can point out certain characteristics that he would be aware of and take into account in his teaching. In order to make the teaching English in elementary school to be successful. and be flexible enough to move on to the next exercises when they see his students are getting bored.

By using the Total Physical Responses. There are many methods used in teaching language to children. is one of methods in teaching language that may support to realize the expected situation. it will motivate them to learn it better. the writer will focus in applying TPR in teaching English vocabulary to the fourth graders of elementary school in order to prove the previous research.2. has proven that there is a significant difference of the students’ achievement in mastering English vocabulary by using TPR. . 1. a method developed by James J. the method she used in this study is different. If English is taught interestingly. which was conducted by Wulandari (2002). Reason For Choosing The Topic The topic is chosen with the following reasons: 1) Teaching English to the elementary school students is not an easy task since it requires a lot of creativity. they are able to master English well. it is hoped that the teacher will be able to motivate them to learn and pay attention to the material presented by the teacher. and finally. Nevertheless. The previous research. Total Physical Response. Therefore. Asher (1942).3 communication and studying other language. Their world is still full of enjoyable activities. This final project is also submitted as one of the requirements for the degree of Sarjana Pendidikan in English. It can also be presented by using a game that is appropriate to the learners’ characters. learners will be able to communicate in English. By learning vocabulary first.

4 2) The Total Physical Response activities developed by James Asher provide ideas to create the activity for the success of the English language learning. 2) To identify the advantages and disadvantages of using the TPR method in teaching foreign language vocabulary. 3) Vocabulary items are essential to improve the four language skills (Listening Speaking. the following questions are raised: 1) How can the Total Physical Response improve the fourth year students’ mastery of the English vocabulary items? 2) What are the advantages and disadvantages of using the TPR method in teaching English vocabulary? 1. 4) The students of elementary school have problems in mastering the English vocabulary items which they learn. Reading. . so it is important to find an exact way of situation to make students interested in improving their vocabularies. Statement of The Problems In order to get the objective of the study systematically. 1. and Writing) of the students. Objectives of The Study The objectives of this study can be stated as follows: 1) To describe the procedure of teaching English vocabulary to the fourth year students of Elementary School using the TPR method.4.3.

and instrument of the study. 1. 2) Teacher can use the TPR method as an alternative way to teach English to Elementary students. the writer hopes that: 1) Elementary school students can learn English in an interesting way and enrich their vocabulary through the Total Physical Response method. Significance of The Study By doing the study.6. Total Physical Response. The Elementary School English Teacher. post-test. significance of the study. Chapter I is introduction presenting the background of the study. second cycle. Chapter IV presents the data analysis of the research. It consists of data collection. Chapter III deals with methodology of the study. Teaching Vocabulary. Chapter V. first cycle. . subject of the study.5.5 1. and Action Research. research design. Chapter II presents the review of related literature. as the last chapter in this study contains the conclusion of the study and suggestions made on the bases of the research finding. Organization of The Study This final project consists of five chapters. and organization of the study. statement of the problems. objective of the study. Characteristic of the Fourth Graders Students of Elementary School. and field notes. It consists of theories underlying the writing of the study. questionnaire. reason of choosing the topic. They are analysis of pretest. they are Teaching and Learning English as a Foreign Language in the Elementary School.

Ramelan (1994: 4) states: “If someone wants to learn a foreign language. In line with this. a teacher should have an objective. the learners should have a great motivation. Consequently. The common objective of teaching a foreign language is to make learners to be able to 6 . and emotional response. the learners may meet all kinds of learning problems dealing with vocabulary. and the learning of the unfamiliar ways of arranging the foreign words into sentences”. Foreign Language Learning and Teaching Learning a foreign language is not as easy as learning native language. Indonesian learners also meet difficulties in learning English since their native language is quite different from English. intellectual. Learning a foreign language which is quite different from native language is very difficult for Indonesian learners. the learning of new vocabulary items. Like any other learners of English as a foreign language.1. Teaching and Learning English as a Foreign Language in the Elementary School 2. The difficulties have to do with the learning of sounds system. In teaching a foreign language. They should be serious in learning English because learning language actually needs a total physical. sound system.6 CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 2.1. In learning a foreign language. he will obviously meet with all kinds of learning problems. and how to arrange words into sentences that are quite different from those native languages.1.

the general characteristics of students in elementary school are as follows: 1) They are competence users of mother tongue. 2) They can tell the difference between the fact and fiction.7 communicate by using the target language orally and written form. ability. it can be concluded that the material which is going to be presented should be based on the learners’ age. According to Scoot and Ytreberg (1990: 2-4). and previous language experience.1. That makes teaching elementary school students is not the same as teaching adults because the students of the elementary school may have low motivation in learning. ability. teacher has a challenge to motivate the students in learning something new. enabling. and setting the condition for learning. They have different characteristics and motivations from the students of junior high school. According to Brown (1980: 8). In this case. By that statement. and university. 2. Characteristic of the Fourth Graders of Elementary School The range age of the Elementary School students is between six to twelve years old. senior high school. There are some factors that should be considered before teaching a foreign language such as English. native language. but they also take themselves seriously and like to think what they are doing is really work. teaching is guiding and facilitating learning. and previous language experience” (Finocchiaro. 1974: 14). Those factors are “age.2. 3) They love to play and learn best when they enjoy themselves. aspiration and need. aspiration and need. . native language.

7) Their own understanding comes through eyes. and ears. 4) They intend to praise themselves. 6) They are able to work with others and learn from others. hands. Children can understand the difference between real and imaginary Children can be reliable and take the responsibility for class activities and routines. Children can plan and organize how best to carry out an activity Children can work with others and learn from others. Based on “Psikologi Perkembangan” written by Tim Pengembangan MKDK IKIP Semarang (1989: 102). (IKIP Semarang Press. 8) They have very short attention and concentration span. The elementary . eyes. The fourth graders of elementary school are in the range age of nine to ten years old. 1989: 102) Concerning those characteristics. Young learners refer to the students of elementary school. and ears. 5) At the end of this phase. They often show what they know and are proud of it. 3) There is strong correlation between physical condition and school achievement. They still like to play and learn through their hands. the characteristics of elementary school students are: 1) The elementary school students are the children between 7 to12. 2) They are in the smart age. Children are developing as thinkers. a teacher needs to make his teaching be more interesting like their daily world and motivate them to learn. Slattery and Willis (2001) state that the children from seven to twelve are: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Children are learning to read and write in their language. 5) They rely on the spoken word as well as the physical world to convey and understand meaning. they begin to have an interest in special subject. in this case is the fourth graders.8 4) They are enthusiastic and positive about learning.

Explain thing about language. and to educate them on how to absorb. Therefore. (Slattrey.3. The Elementary School English Teacher Teacher is the important factor in teaching and learning process. to analyze. 2002: 5) According to the statements above.9 school students still need a specific guide from teacher and people around them in order to follow the lesson well. . Use a wider range of language input as their model for language use. There are some characteristics of the elementary school English teacher. He has a great responsibility to transfer his knowledge and skill to the students. 2. to guide them in developing their mind. The fourth graders of elementary school whose age are still in the critical period are in the perfect time to study English vocabulary which will be presented in live presentation using the TPR method. comics. reading games) Encourage them to work meaning out for themselves. Encourage creative writing and help them to experiment with the language. and to expand their individual knowledge and skill. for example by using some interesting media and method. since the TPR is full with real situation being demonstrated. It is a supporting point for teaching them using the Total Physical Response. the students will enjoy the lesson more. they like to see how things operate and they are interested in learning something by making them being active in the classroom. Based on the explanation above. They are: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Encourage students to read in English (stories.1. it is important for the elementary school English teacher to be more creative in teaching.

2. written or spoken. although not necessarily used by him (in full. ‘sometimes’.2. usually arranged an alphabetical order and defined: a dictionary. or lexicon. Similarly. They students will get difficulties in using English if they are lack of vocabularies. 2) All the words of a language. subject. profession. etc.1. glossary. 2) All the words know to a person or used in a particular book. Hornby (1995: 1331) defines vocabulary as: 1) The total number of words in language. phrase. Webster (1983: 2046) defines vocabulary as: 1) A list of words. Definition of Vocabulary Vocabulary is one of the language components which has to be mastered by the students in learning a new language. and sometimes. vocabulary is the total of words you know in a particular language. etc.10 2. 3) A list of words with their meanings. . class. especially one that accompanies a text book in a foreign language. passive vocabulary). Teaching English Vocabulary 2. with meaning that considered as cultural meaning used by group or individual community. Based on BBC English Dictionary (1992: 1316). 3) All the words used by a particular person. all the words recognized and understood by a particular person. According to the definitions above it can be concluded that vocabulary is a stock of words in a language.

speaking.2. Teaching English Vocabulary to the Fourth Graders of Elementary School Teaching elementary school is considered as teaching children. In this case. teacher should pay more attention to the teaching and learning English vocabulary to children as the learners.2. 2) It makes the learners give attention to the form meaning or use of the words. Teaching vocabulary plays important role in language acquisition because the mastery of vocabulary will help students in mastery all the language skills. that the best way of teaching vocabulary is not teaching . For this reason. As stated by Charty (1995:64).11 2. listening. it is useful for the students in order to communicate in daily life and will strengthen belief that English can be used to express some ideas or feeling they express in their native language (Finocchiaro. and writing. It will make the students know the words just the way they are without understanding how to apply the words whether in spoken or written into sentences or paragraph. Vocabulary will make the students practice the structure more easily. 3) It gives a chance for repetition. Teacher should choose and apply some teaching techniques and media which are suitable with the students’ needs based on the curriculum. teacher should not give it separately word by word. reading. 1974: 38) In teaching vocabulary. vocabulary is very important to be mastered first. Notion (1978: 27) states that a good vocabulary teaching technique has the following things: 1) It attracts the learners.

a teacher has to be clear about the aims of teaching learning process itself. Vocabulary should not rely on the spoken words only. dramatizing. illustrating. 2) Students’ need The words needed by the students are usually worth and important to be taught to the students. He has to decide on what is involved in vocabulary . to spell. He has to be able to manage the teaching vocabulary effectively in order to achieve a target. there are six principles on which teaching vocabulary is to be based. He has to select the suitable words to be taught. Haycraft (1983: 44) states that the choice of words should be based on the following consideration: 1) Comments words They are words which are commonly used for the worlds that students need. teacher should pay more attention to the teaching vocabulary to children. or giving the similarity with their native language. paraphrasing. According to Wallace (1982: 27). they are 1) Aims In teaching learning process. It is very important to master vocabulary first by children who are learning a foreign language. and to use it in context. teacher should be able to distinguish the students’ level. For this reason.12 the students to memorize but also teaching them to pronounce. In teaching vocabulary. teacher should try to give as clearly as possible the explanation of the meaning of the words being taught by showing picture.

They have to repeat them to make sure the students have already remembered and understood them. 2) Quantity Teacher may have to decide the number of vocabulary items to be learnt. 3) Need In teaching vocabulary. He should consider how many lists of words he expects the learners to achieve and what kind of word they are. i. There must be a certain amount of repetition until there is evidence that the students have learnt the target words 5) Meaningful Presentation The learners must have a clear and specific understanding of what it denotes or refers to. . He has to decide the words which should be mastered by the students. discouraged. The students should be put in situation where they have to communicate and get the words they need. teacher has to choose the words really needed by the students. they may be confused. This requires that the words can be presented in such a way that its denotation or reference is perfectly clear and unambiguous. 4) Frequent Exposure and Repetitions In teaching vocabulary of a foreign language teachers can not only teach new words once.13 learning. If there are too many words. How many new words in the lesson can be achieved by the learners.e. and frustrated. its meaning involves many other things as well.

. When teachers presents new vocabulary. in this case is the fourth graders. Since the function of the teaching English at elementary school. the teacher should understand the aim of teaching and learning vocabulary. needs. they should primarily try to enable the students to recognize the words and their meanings perfectly and clear. When he presents a new vocabulary he should primarily try to enable students to recognize the words and their meanings perfectly clear. According to the explanation above. Therefore. to use the word appropriately well depends on vocabulary that is very useful for a foreign language (English) learners. Moreover. and meaningful for the students. so the teacher should consider to select vocabulary when they are teach teaching.14 6) Situation Presentation The choice of words can be various according to the situation in which we are speaking and according to how well we know the person whom we are talking to (from formal to informal). teacher has to understand the aim of teaching vocabulary. is to introduce English as the first foreign language to the students in order to make them have ability to communicate in simple English. students should learn words in situations that are appropriate to them. the words should be quantities. In teaching vocabulary. it can be concluded that teacher should teach vocabulary to their students in classroom though it can be gained through experience.

TPR is a language learning method which is based on the coordination of speech and action. California. to aid learning foreign language.com) Richard and Rodgers (1986: 87) state that TPR is a language teaching method built around the coordination of speech and action. Definition of Total Physical Response Total Physical Response (TPR) is one of new methods developed by James Asher.wikipedia.3. it attempts to teach language through physical (motor) activity. In TPR classroom. which holds that the more often or intensively a memory connection is traced.3. The first concept deals with the idea of introducing second language by giving action response which has been influenced by the way people acquire their first . Asher defines that the method of TPR relies on the assumption that when learning a second language or a foreign language. It is linked to the trace theory of memory. that language is internalized through a process that is similar to first language development and that the process allows for long period of listening and developing comprehension prior to production (www. USA. Garcia (2001: 1) explains that the two very important concepts in TPR are the notion of Total Physical Response involvement and the role played by the right hemisphere of the brain in learning a second language by action.1. students respond to commands that require physical movement. the stronger memory will be.15 2. Total Physical Response 2. a professor of psychology at San José State University.

16 language. Asher looks to the way that children combine both verbal and physical aspects.htm). Our brain is divided into two parts. A baby would not memorize a list of words or try to speak immediately. students listen and respond to the spoken target . In the next period he would speak if he was ready to. Nevertheless at first. The responses of the child are in turn positively reinforced by the speech of the parent. They just listen first to the other family members and then act or do thing in response to their utterances. For many months the child absorbs the language without being able to speak. The second one relates to the brain hemisphere. With TPR the teacher tries to mimic this process in class (www. TPR is also named the comprehension approach since of the importance given to listening comprehension. 2001:1) Garcia explains further that the TPR approach is a right brain method of learning a language because the language is taught mainly through actions. In the other words. left and right hemispheres. In TPR. TPR is based on the premise that the human brain has a biological program from acquiring any natural language in the world including the sign language of the deaf.com/organizing).tprsource. A child responds physically to the speech for the parent.tprworld. Scientists had found that the left and the right hemisphere were two independent neurogical entities having different functions both account for different responsibilities (Garcia. commands play as the core of the course. The process is visible when we observe how infants internalize their first language (www. he would listen and carry out actions or respond physically to him.com/asher.

where a command is given in the imperative and the learners obey the command. it will be easier for the students to recall the words they have learned if they use their body in learning vocabulary items. Teachers who use TPR believe in the importance of having the students enjoy their experience in learning to communicate a foreign language. Richard and Rodgers (1986: 91) say: .17 language commands of their teacher. the writer concludes that TPR places more emphasis on the link between word and action. TPR was develop in order to reduce the stress people feel when studying foreign languages and thereby encourage students to persist in their study beyond a beginning level of proficiency. is the main activity of TPR. or a pattern drill. The activity. Therefore. If they can perform the teacher’s instructions it means that they know the meaning of the words. The Objectives of TPR A method or technique in teaching and learning process must be developed in order to get a better purpose for a better life. 2. dialogue. According to Larsen-Freeman (2000: 113). The powerful method of TPR is best applied to introduce new vocabulary and new grammatical feature at any level. TPR can be varied in any different activities such as storytelling.2.3. games. TPR was developed in order to improve the better result of teaching learning process of a new language. From the explanation above.

3. and the ultimate aim is to give basic speaking skills. Comprehension is a mean to an end.18 “The general objectives of Total Physical Response are to teach oral proficiency at a beginning level. 2) Using comprehension as a means to speaking 3) Using action-based drills in the imperative form 2. 1) Learners Role Learners in TPR have the primary roles of listeners and performers. TPR aims to produce learners who are capable of an uninhibited communication that is intelligible to a native speaker”. They listen attentively and respond both individually and collectively. There will be a role reversal with individual students directing the teacher and the other students.3. there are some objectives of Total Physical Response: 1) Teaching oral proficiency at a beginning level. . From the statement above. According to Larsen and Freeman (2000: 113). the students are imitators of the teacher’s nonverbal model. They have little influence over the content of learning since the content is determined by the teacher who must follow the imperative form for lesson (Richard and Rodgers 1986:93). the learners and the teacher play different roles. The Teacher and Learners Role in TPR In the teaching learning process using TPR method.

(1986: 93) states “The instructor is the director of a stage play in which the students are the actors”. Asher (1977) as quoted by Richard and Rodgers. Teacher is encouraged to be well prepared and well organized so that the lesson flows smoothly and predictable.3. in this case is English. they are: 1) Second language learning is parallel to first language learning and should reflect the same naturalistic process 2) Listening should develop before speaking . and who selects supporting materials for classroom use.19 In TPR. a teacher should understand its principles well so he will be able to use it properly in the teaching learning process. 2) Teacher Role In the teaching learning process using TPR method.3. Asher as the developer of TPR elaborates the principles of this method. teacher plays an active and direct role. 2. According to Larsen and Freeman (2000: 113) teacher is the director of all students’ behaviors. The Principles of Total Physical Response Before applying the TPR method for teaching a foreign language. It means that teacher is the one who decides what to teach. learners monitor and evaluate their own progress. They are encouraged to speak when they feel ready to speak that is when a sufficient basis in the language has been internalized. who models and presents the new material.

20 3) Children respond physically to spoken language.tprsource.com/asher. 3) Students can initially learn one part of the language rapidly by moving their bodies. (www. The target language should not be presented in chunks. Larsen and Freeman (2000: 111) describe several principles in teaching learning process by using TPR upon which the teacher’s behaviors is based. The principles of TPR are as follow: 1) Meaning in the target language can often be conveyed through action. 6) Feeling of success and low anxiety facilitate learning. and adult learners learn better if they do that too 4) Once listening comprehension has been develop. 2) The students’ understanding of the target language should be developed before speaking. 5) Students can learn through observing actions as well as by performing the action themselves. 8) Correction should be carried out in an unobtrusive manner. speech develops naturally and effortlessly out of it 5) Delaying speech reduces stress. Memory is activated through learners’ response.htm) Moreover. not just word by word. 4) The imperative is powerful linguistic device through which the teacher can direct student behavior. 7) Students should not be made to memorize fixed routines. .

an English teacher must be able to create flexibility in the class room. Therefore. 13) Students are expected to make errors when they first begin speaking. 11) Spoken language should be emphasized over written language. Correcting the mistakes improperly will make the students fell desperate. students should feel successful and they do not feel pessimistic. 10) Language learning is more effective when it is fun. . 12) Students will begin to speak when they are ready. A teacher should be careful in correcting the students’ mistakes. They need to understand more than the exact sentences used in training. According to the principles above. Work on the fine details of the language should be postponed until students have become somewhat proficient.21 9) Students must not develop flexibility in understanding a novel combination of target language chunks. Another important thing is that the new vocabulary should be presented in a context not word by word. In the learning. it can be concluded that students will understand the meaning of the vocabulary items easily if they use their bodies while they are learning.

While Harmer (2001: 344) argues that action research is a series of procedures teachers can engage in. without changing the phenomenon under investigation. Kemmis and Mc Taggart as quoted by Nunan (1992: 18) state that action research is a group of activity and a piece of descriptive research carried out by a teacher in his or her own classroom.4. as well as their understanding of these practices and the situation in which these practices are carried out”. General Concept of Action Research Action research is a kind of research which is becoming increasingly in language education research.1. it can be concluded that action research is a series of procedures. According to Kemmis and Henry as quoted by Allwright and Bailey (1991:44): “Action research has been defined as a form of self-reflective enquiry undertaken by participants in social situations in order to improve the rationality and justice of their own social or educational practices.22 2. either because they wish to evaluate the success and/ or appropriacy of certain activities and procedures. By the definition of action research above. Elliot (1991: 52) has opinion about it. Action Research 2. He states “I’m anticipating that action research will become highly recommended as a strategy for helping teachers to maximize pupils’ achievements of national curriculum targets”. a group of activity and a piece of descriptive research carried out by a teacher in the classroom in order to improve aspects of the .4. There are some definitions of action research stated by some experts.

23 teaching or to evaluate the success and/or appropriacy of certain activities and procedures. without changing the phenomenon under investigation. . it is aimed at changing things. Furthermore. Elliot (1991: 50) adds the central characteristic of action research is the join reflection about the relationship in particular circumstances between processes and products. Elliot (1991: 49) states that “the fundamental aim of action research is to improve practice rather than to produce knowledge”. it is collaborative. Its characteristic is stated in Kemmis and Mc Taggart definition as quoted by Nunan (1992: 18) that action research is a group of activity. and thirdly. From the definition above. They also argue the three defining characteristics of action research are. it is carried out by practitioners (for the purpose. it also can be identified the special features characterizing an action research. “the aim of action research is to improve the current state of affairs within the educational context in which research is being carried out”. classroom teacher) rather than outside researchers. secondly. Each kind of research must have goal in order to solve the problem which is being researched. Allwright and Bailey state that “the goals of action research are achieving local understanding and developing viable solutions to problems”. While according to Cohan and Manion as cited by Nunan (1992: 18).

interest or problem Seek knowledge Plan an action Implement the action Observe the action Reflect on your observations Revise the plan Moreover. The Steps in Action Research The step in action research means the way to conduct an action research. Benefits of conducting Action Research In doing something.4.24 2. people must have aims and expect some benefits from it. in conducting action research a teacher must have special purposes and hope to get the benefits.2. Strickland and Bailey (1991: 44) explain that the steps in action research are: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Identify an issue. . Allwright as quoted by Saleh (1998: 1) argues that the procedures on conducting an action research are: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Collecting the initial data Planning an action Carrying out the plan Observing implementation Reflecting Revising the plan 2. Therefore.4.3.

5) Improving research tradition among teachers. .25 The benefits of action research are: 1) Improving teachers’ self confidents because they have more knowledge experience to solve problems. 3) Developing curriculum. 2) Helping teachers to understand the essence of education empirically not theoretically. 4) More effective when we compare with other trainings.

interviewing. inventories. running commentary. profiles. and analytic memos. 3. the techniques and methods which can be used to gather evidence in action research are as follows: diaries. For that reason. There are 34 students. questionnaires. triangulation. Asy’ari Kaliwungu. They were: 1) tests. check list. Data Collection All kinds of researches need the data to support the investigation. This study used research with some appropriate techniques based on the students’ condition and environment. tape or video recording and transcript. Based on the Elliot explanation (1991: 77-83).2. the subject that was observed in this study was the students of elementary school. 18 girls 16 boys. shadow study. 3) questionnaires. use an outside observer. Kendal. Those techniques were applied to support the action research in this study. document analysis. The writer chose the fourth grade students.26 CHAPTER III METHOD OF RESEARCH 3. 2) field notes .1. 26 . The writer held the action research at SD Negeri 04 Krajankulon. Subject of the Study This study aims to describe how the activities in class using Total Physical Response motivate children to learn English vocabulary. It is located on Jl KH.

multiple choice. They were 1 pre-test. 3. They were applied to find out what extent was the students’ achievement in mastering vocabulary using Total Physical Response and their progress. interview for proficiency test.27 The aims of using these techniques were to know the students’ responses during the activities. d. matching.2. b. These tests were used to measure the students’ achievement in mastering the vocabulary item. Test 1) The Construction of the Test There were four vocabulary tests in this study. 3. To make a TPR testing. and 1 post-test. The purpose of the test was to know whether the students mastered the vocabulary given or not. they are: a. command lists. . Garcia (2001: 8-38) has suggested some types of test. 2 tests in each cycle. Instruments of the study The instruments of the study in this research were tests and questionnaires.1. From the four choices above to test students’ vocabulary using TPR method. the writer decided to use the command lists and multiple choice to get the data. which are suitable to measure students’ ability during TPR lessons.3. c.

. In the pretest. the writer concluded that the vocabularies which would be made based on the classification of the test items were 50% materials from topic At School and 50% from topic My Body. the writer would begin the cycles of the action research by using material in the pretest. After that. If the result of the pre-test were same or higher than the criterion. they were At School and My Body. The specific arrangements of the test items were like this: . 2) The Latticework of Vocabulary Instruments Before the writer calculated the scores of the test. Firstly.28 In the end of each cycle the writer used the test in the form of command lists.The vocabulary test of At School was spread on items number 1 up to 15. the students would be tested by giving them 30 items in multiple-choice form based on the theme’s classification in curriculum of elementary school. she stated the classification of the test items of vocabulary of At School and My Body.The vocabulary test of My Body was spread on items number 16 up to 30. The latticework was made based on some handbooks and English Curriculum of elementary School. In pre-test and post-test the writer used the multiple choice test. the writer made a latticework. They were divided into 30 items. the words tested had to be changed. . If the result of the pre-test were lower than the criterion as what have been confirmed by the Department of Education and Culture.

2) The advantages that the students gained after the teacher introduced them English vocabulary through TPR. like and dislike about teaching and learning process.2. Classification of Graded Score Range of mean 0. The result of the questionnaire data analysis of each issue can be classified into a range of mean below as stated by Heaton (1975: 172): Table 1. the questionnaire was intended to find out some additional information from students after being taught by using Total Physical Response.2. In this action research. There were five information questions about four things.01-2.00 2.00 Students’ interest Low Medium High The advantage Not Helpful Helpful Very helpful Students’ The achievement relevancy Not relevant Not relevant Relevant relevant High Very relevant Sustain ability Not necessary Necessary Very necessary . It was used to support the primary data.01-3. Questionnaire A questionnaire is a list of questions to be answered by a group of people to get information. The questionnaire collects data/ information from the students based on the needs.29 3.00-1. 4) The sustainability of the action research program.00 1. They were: 1) The students’ interest in some activities in TPR given by the teacher during the action research. 3) The relevance between the vocabularies offered in this action research and the vocabularies that the students used and needed in their daily activities. interest.

she would not take any scores of it. they were: 1) The Class Situation If there were a lot of students enthusiastically raising their hands when she asked them. she would conclude that they gave much attention to her explanation during the study.4. However. Field Notes In research. . she would conclude that they were motivated to be active. Before conducting the teaching and learning activity. Both cycles consisted of teaching and learning process and tests.3.2. the writer gave a pre-test. 2) The Participation of the Students If the students did what the writer ordered. there were three components that the writer would observe. 3. field notes are used to observe and to know the situation and the activities during the teaching and learning process. she would conclude that they were in progress.30 3. while a post-test and questionnaire were given at the last activity of this study. Research Design in Action Research This action research would be carried out through two cycles. 3) The pronunciation of the Students If the students could pronounce the vocabulary given in the last of each cycle better than in the beginning of each cycle. Each cycle was consisted four meetings. In this study. such as how the teachers carry out the material and the students’ response.

The activities can be elaborated as follows: 3. In this study. the initial idea was thought that there would be an improvement on vocabulary mastery by using TPR by the students of SD Negeri Krajankulon 4 Kaliwungu Kendal.31 In order to be clear.1. It can be depicted as follows: INITIAL IDEA ↓ RECONNAISSANCE (fact finding) ↓ General plan Step 1 Step 2 IMPLEMENT 1 Implement Step Evaluate Ammanded plan Step 1 Step 2 Implement Step 2 Evaluate Etc Based on the model above. Identifying Initial Idea The initial idea refers to a state of situation one wishes to change or to improve on (Elliot. . 1991: 70). 1991: 72). there is a basic cycle of activities in conducting action research. the writer would like to present the Lewin's model of action research interpreted by Kemmis (in Elliot.4.

There were 30 items that would be tested in the form of multiple choice. Therefore. a questionnaire was used in the last activity. in this research the writer conducted basic cycle and then if the target was not achieved. 2) the students’ improvement of vocabulary mastery. 3. To know the students’ response toward the activity in teaching learning process. post-test. To make the steps in this research more clearly.2. Implementing Implementing is the performing of planned action.32 3.3. . This study was intended to find out: 1) the students response during the learning process. in this planning of the activity. The writer was going to conduct two cycles to know the improvement of vocabulary mastery. Planning Planning is follow up for the identifying media to find out solutions for problems. and questionnaire. the writer made the elaboration of the activities in this action research as follows: 1) Pre_test The pre-test was conducted at the beginning of the research before the two cycles. Based on the model above.4.4. the writer would conduct the second cycle after revising the plans (amended plan). The aim of this activity was to check the students’ ability in mastering English vocabulary whether the students were familiar or not with the words that would be presented. the researcher can change the plans when it is necessary.

they would be the models for some commands. The teacher asked 4 students to come forward and sit with her on chairs that were lined up facing the other students. stand up. etc. She also provided some teaching aids to help the students to know what they were going to demonstrate with. chair. The explanation was in two ways. window. draw. . blackboard. bag. She repeated this activity for several times. door. the teacher explained the procedures to the models and uttered some commands related to the topic by performing them slowly because the objects of the study were in the beginner level. broom. The procedures of teaching learning process in the first cycle were as follows: Activity 1 The teacher explained briefly about the method used in the teaching and learning process. that was At School. she introduced new vocabulary in the form of commands or short sentences not in a word by word. The other students should listen and pay attention to the performance. The words given in this cycle were book. cupboard. touch.33 2) The First Cycle In this cycle. point. The activity or command given used some verbs such as open. Because in this research the writer applied TPR. sit down. floor. and then asked the 4 students to imitate her. pencil. eraser. clean. pen. bin. Then. the students were given vocabulary related to the topic . students’ native language and English as the target language so that the students had some ideas about what they had to do. table. etc. close. write. ruler.

T asked them to practice with their partner. she acted those out. She also explained pronunciations clearly and the students repeated after her. . the teacher was helped by the other teacher in order to manage the time. who had been sitting while observing her and the 4 student. The rest of the students watched them. Activity 3 In this occasion the writer reviewed the words that were taught before. In conducting this test. She also added some new vocabularies related to the topic. If they still did not understand. One by one student had to perform what the teacher said. she performed it and next they performed like what she did. Activity 4 After the treatment process. Each time she wrote those items. To practice the students’ understanding. There were 20 command lists for each student. Acitvity 2 Teacher wrote the vocabulary items and commands which they had just learnt on the board.34 The teacher asked the models to perform what she said collectively and then individually. she asked them to make a group of five to create some commands and those commands should be told to the other group in order to perform those commands. To check the understanding of the student. especially the words that were difficult to memorize. The test was in the form of command lists. the teacher gave a test about the material that had been given in the first cycle.

the teacher reviewed what they had learned in the previous cycle. The words and activities presented by the teacher in the second cycle were related to our body and its functions. smell. hand. hear. white. slim. etc. In this cycle the teacher also introduced some adjectives. . foot. curly. they were tall. they would be the models for some commands. She kept providing some teaching aids to help the students to understand what they were going to demonstrate with. The verbs presented were see. handsome. tooth. The teacher asked 4 students to come forward and sit with her on chairs that were lined up facing the other students. The explanation was also still in two ways. eyes. count. Before conducting the lesson in this cycle. kick. that was My Body. mouth. ears. etc. fat. arm. straight. The other students should listen and pay attention to the performance. neck. short. cheek. bite. The procedure of activities in the second cycle was almost similar to the activities in the fisrt cycle. beautiful. the teacher presented new topic. students’ native language and English as the target language so that the students had some ideas about what they had to do. The procedures of teaching learning process were as follows: Activity 1 Teacher explained briefly again about the method used in the teaching and learning process. nose. black. The teacher explained the procedures to the models and uttered some commands related to the topic while performing it slowly. She repeated these activities for several times and then asked the 4 students to imitate her. eat. sharp. leg.35 2) Second Cycle In this cycle. hair. They were head. taste.

The test was to measure the students’ understanding with the material given. the teacher gave a test in this second cycle about the material given. Acitvity 2 Teacher wrote all the vocabulary items and commands they had just learnt on the board. the writer reviewed the words that were taught in the activities before. To practice the students’ understanding. She also added some new vocabularies related to the topic. especially the words that were difficult to memorize. Activity 3 In this meeting. If they still did not understand. She also explained pronunciations clearly and the students repeated after her. The test was in the form of command lists. There were 20 command lists for each . the teacher asked them to practice with their partner. Activity 4 After the treatment process. One by one student had to perform what the teacher said. The rest watched them. she acted those out.36 Then the teacher asked the models to perform what she said collectively and then individually. To check the understanding of the student who had been sitting and observing her and the 4 students. Each time she wrote those. she asked them to make a group of five to create some commands related to their bodies and those commands should be told to the other group in order to perform those commands. she performed it and they performed like what she did.

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student. In conducting this test, the teacher still needed the other teacher’s help in order to manage the time.

3) Post-test and Questionnaire In this post-test, the students had to do 30 multiple choice items. The test was the same as the pre-test. The test was consisted of all the words which had been introduced in the action research. After doing the post-test, the writer gave questionnaire to the students. Students should answer 5 questions.

3.5. The Criterion of Assessment The writer would know the students’ success and the failure in doing this action research by referring to the criterion of Department of Education and Culture. The criterion says that the students can be said to be successful if he or she can achieve 65% of the material and a class can be said to have mastered in learning if it can achieve 85% of the material presented (Depdikbud, 1994: 29). In this action research, the writer would use that indicator to determine whether a cycle could be continued to the next cycle or should be repeated by applying the amended plan.

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CHAPTER IV DATA ANALYSIS

In this chapter, the writer would like to analyze each of the data gathered from the action research activities. The data was attained from the teaching learning process and evaluation. One of the aims of giving an evaluation was to know how far the students mastered the words given in this action research. The analysis of each activity started from pre-test up to post-test, and the analysis of questionnaire. To find the degree of the students’ achievement in each activity; from the pre-test up to the post-test, the score of each student was counted individually by using the following formula: The percentage = The number of right answer The number of item x 100%

While the average of the students’ result was counted by using the following formula: The average of the students’ test result = The total of the percentage The number of the students

4.1.

Analysis of the Pre-Test The pre-test was conducted at the beginning of the research. The purpose of

this test was to check to what extent the students were familiar with the words that would be presented in action research.

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The pre-test was conducted on Tuesday, 14 November 2006. There were 34 students who followed this test. They had to answer 30 multiple-choice items given by the writer. The items consisted of two themes; they were At School and My Body. The result of the pre-test can be seen in the table below. Table 1. Result of Pre-Test NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Test Code A-01 A-02 A-03 A-04 A-05 A-06 A-07 A-08 A-09 A-10 A-11 A-12 A-13 A-14 A-15 A-16 A-17 A-18 A-19 A-20 A-21 A-22 A-23 A-24 A-25 A-26 A-27 A-28 A-29 A-30 A-31 Total Score 15 17 14 14 13 12 16 10 20 11 12 15 13 14 11 14 9 13 10 18 15 13 16 12 15 11 10 13 11 15 10 % 50 56.7 46.7 46.7 43.3 40 53.3 33.3 66.7 36.7 40 50 43.3 46.7 36.7 46.7 30 43.3 33.3 60 50 43.3 53.3 40 50 36.7 33.3 43.3 36.7 50 33.3

bin. cupboard. etc.51% The average of students’ result in the pre-test was 44. According to this result.3 The average of the students’ result = The total of the percentage The number of the students = 1513. chair. This result is much lower than the criterion that has been stated by the Department of Education and Culture.54%. the Total Physical Response was introduced to the students. and etc. pen. table. the writer concludes that the students are not familiar with the words that are presented in this action research. . close. pencil. draw. It was followed by 34 students. Analysis of the First Cycle The first cycle was conducted on Tuesday. floor.2. write. treatments in each cycles are important to improve the students’ result. point. The activities or commands which were given to the students used some verbs such as open. 21 November 2006. The words given in this cycle were about At School. clean. The topic used in this cycle was At School. bag. teacher. eraser. they were book. Most of them were presented in the form of simple commands or sentences. 4. touch.7 53. Therefore. ruler. In this activity. door. sit down. window.3 1513. stand up. blackboard.3 % 34 = 44.40 32 A-32 33 A-33 34 A-34 Total of the students 12 14 16 = 34 40 46. broom.

The examples of the commands given were Sit down!. Open your book!. Teacher helped the students when they got difficulties in practicing and pronouncing the words. The teacher repeated each commands for several times and then asked the four students to imitate her. she explained in two ways. It was hoped to make the students had some ideas about what they had to do. the teacher asked four students to come forward and sit with her on chairs facing the other students. the teacher explained about the method used in the teaching and learning process as briefly as possible. Because the students were in the beginning level. etc. The other students listened and paid attention to the performances doing by their four friends. so she could see how their students’ understanding was. Close the door!. The teacher did not ignore the students who had been sitting and observing her doing activities with the four students.41 Before starting the activities. she performed it again so they could perform it like what she did. The rest of the students watched them. Standup!. She also involved them in the activities by asking them to practice with their partner. the students’ native language and English as the target language. . She asked the models to perform what she said collectively and then individually. The teacher explained the procedures to the models and uttered some commands related to the topic by performing them slowly and clearly. If they could not do it. She also provided some teaching aids to help the students to know what they were going to demonstrate the activities. Clean the blackboard!. In starting the activities. They were the models for some commands.

The students paid attention seriously when the lesson was presented. 1 student got 95. The Result of the Test in the First Cycle No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Students Code A-01 A-02 A-03 A-04 A-05 A-06 A-07 A-08 A-09 A-10 A-11 A-12 Total Score 18 20 18 16 18 15 17 20 14 20 16 20 % 80 100 90 80 90 75 85 100 70 100 80 100 . The pronunciation of each words was also explained clearly. Any mistakes happened were tolerable. and 9 students got 100. The teaching and learning process in this cycle could run well. to check the students’ mastery in this cycle. There were 20 items in the form of command lists. the writer evaluated them by giving a test in the first cycle. The result of the first activity is that 3 students got 70. The result of the test in the first can be seen in the table below. 1 student got 75. 7 students got 90. She acted those out each time she wrote those so that the students really understood those. they tried to make some commands and gave those to their friends. They were getting to speak when they had already been ready. 10 students got 80. They practiced it both individually and collectively. Table 2. The students repeated after the teacher.42 The teacher wrote the vocabulary items and commands which they had just learnt on the board. In group. Finally. 2 students got 85.

65% was to be successful.06%. . which is stated in the previous chapter. This result is higher than the result of the pre-test. it can be concluded that the first cycle is successful. Therefore.43 13 A-13 16 14 A-14 14 15 A-15 20 16 A-16 18 17 A-17 16 18 A-18 18 19 A-19 16 20 A-20 16 21 A-21 20 22 A-22 16 23 A-23 18 24 A-24 16 25 A-25 20 26 A-26 18 27 A-27 19 28 A-28 17 29 A-29 14 30 A-30 16 31 A-31 20 32 A-32 20 33 A-33 16 34 A-34 18 Total of the students = 34 80 70 100 90 80 90 80 80 100 80 90 80 100 90 95 85 70 80 100 100 80 90 2960 The average of the students’ result = The total of the percentage The number of the students = 2960 % 34 = 87. Based on the evaluation. According to the criterion provided by Depdikbud. some students still made mistakes when they performed some commands given by the teacher.06% The average of the students’ achievement in the first cycle is 87.

white. the students were getting adaptable with the activities. The verbs presented were see. slim. handsome. mouth. bite. fat. smell. foot. It was followed by 34 students. taste. They were head. The teacher explained again to the students about the method that would be used was same like the activities before. etc. eyes. eat. Open your mouth!. beautiful. arm. straight.44 4. In this time. The topic in this cycle was My Body. The teacher explained again the procedures to the models and uttered some commands related to the topic while performing it briefly and slowly. Analysis of the Second Cycle The second cycle was conducted on Tuesday. count. nose. tooth. The commands which is given in this cycle were related the part of the body and its functions such as. cheek. Smell your hair!. The teacher asked four students to come forward and sit with her on chairs facing the other students. leg. The other students listened and paid attention to the performances seriously when the teacher and their four friends performed commands. . etc. hear. They were different students from the student who were in the first cycle. neck. hair. etc. curly. black. they did it voluntarily without pointed by the teacher. ears. kick. They would be the models for some commands. The procedure of the teaching and learning process was same as in the first. etc. In this cycle the teacher also introduced some adjective.3. The words and activity presented by teacher in the second cycle were related to our body and the functions. Close your eyes!. short. Raise your hand!. they were tall. 28 November 2006. In this occasion. hand.

they could produce their own commands. . 4 students got 85. Then. In order to improve their memories with the lesson. the teacher asked the rest students to practice with their partner. After the teaching and learning process in the second cycle. 1 student got 75. 12 students got 100. The result of the first activity is that 2 students got 70.After the four students succeed doing all commands. She also explained those pronunciations and the students repeated after her.45 The teacher repeated these activities for several times and the four students had to imitate her. 2 students got 95. The teacher also guided them when they got difficulties in practicing the commands and pronouncing the words. to try making some commands and gave those to their friends. 7 students got 80. they were not afraid and shy anymore in performing any command even though they made mistake. 6 students got 90. the models performed what the teacher said collectively and then individually. the writer gave a post-test to evaluate the students. There were 20 items in the form of command lists. Therefore. The students had become accustomed with the activities given by the teacher. Finally. They asked to work in group. The activities process in this cycle could run better than the previous cycle. The teacher always corrected if they did not understand or made some mistakes . the teacher wrote the vocabulary items and commands they just learnt on the board and she acted those out again so that students being more clearly.

The Result of the Test in the Second Cycle No Students Total Code Score 1 A-01 17 2 A-02 16 3 A-03 20 4 A-04 18 5 A-05 20 6 A-06 17 7 A-07 16 8 A-08 20 9 A-09 18 10 A-10 19 11 A-11 14 12 A-12 16 13 A-13 20 14 A-14 15 15 A-15 20 16 A-16 18 17 A-17 18 18 A-18 16 19 A-19 17 20 A-20 16 21 A-21 20 22 A-22 16 23 A-23 20 24 A-24 17 25 A-25 20 26 A-26 20 27 A-27 18 28 A-28 19 29 A-29 20 30 A-30 18 31 A-31 16 32 A-32 20 33 A-33 14 34 A-34 20 Total of the students = 34 % 85 80 100 90 100 85 80 100 90 95 70 80 100 75 100 90 90 80 85 80 100 80 100 85 100 100 90 95 100 90 80 100 70 100 3045 .46 The result of the second cycle can be seen in the table below Table 3.

It was conducted on Tuesday. According to the criterion as stated in the chapter three. Analysis of the Post-Test After the two cycles had finished. the students’ ability in mastering the vocabulary in English was evaluated by giving a post-test.3 .3 93.47 The average of the students’ result = The total of the percentage The number of the students = 3045 % 34 = 89.3 70 90 86. it can be said that the second cycle is more successful since the result is better than in the pre-test and in the first cycle.7 100 90 83. 5 December 2006. there were 30 items that were similar as the pre-test.56% The average of the students’ achievement in the second cycle is 89. the writer reviewed again all the words in material given during those cycles by performing some activities or pointing some objects and asking the students to guess it. In the post-test. Table 4. The result of the Post-Test No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Students Code A-01 A-02 A-03 A-04 A-05 A-06 A-07 A-08 Total Score 25 21 27 26 30 27 25 28 % 83.4.56%. The result of the students’ achievement in the post-test can be seen in the table below. Before giving the post-test. 4.

1% From the analysis above.7 100 80 93.3 93.7 100 90 96.7 100 3063.3 96.7 100 83.3 100 90 93. To prove this statement.3 The total of the percentage The number of the students = 3063. .7 80 90 76. the average achievement of the students’ post-test is 90.1%. It can be concluded that the students’ achievement in learning English vocabulary by applying TPR has a significant improvement. the results of the test in this action research are compared in the table below.3 80 100 86.7 80 86.48 9 A-09 10 A-10 11 A-11 12 A-12 13 A-13 14 A-14 15 A-15 16 A-16 17 A-17 18 A-18 19 A-19 20 A-20 21 A-21 22 A-22 23 A-23 24 A-24 25 A-25 26 A-26 27 A-27 28 A-28 29 A-29 30 A-30 31 A-31 32 A-32 33 A-33 34 A-34 Total of the students The average of the students’ result = 27 30 26 24 27 23 24 26 30 25 28 28 30 27 28 24 30 26 30 27 29 30 24 28 29 30 = 34 90 100 86.3 93.3 % 34 = 90.

3 60 80 80 93.3 40 80 85 80 50 100 100 100 36.7 70 75 76.7 33.3 2960 3045 3063.3 33.3 33.3 44.3 90 80 83.7 70 100 96.1 .3 80 85 93.3 66.7 90 100 86.7 100 95 100 40 80 70 86.7 50 100 80 80 43.7 70 90 90 36.49 Table 5.3 46.7 53.51 87.7 30 80 90 100 43.3 90 100 100 40 75 85 90 53.3 56.7 50 80 90 100 33.3 100 80 80 40 100 100 93.3 100 100 93.56 90.7 90 100 90 46.7 80 90 86.7 100 100 80 46.3 80 80 90 53.3 95 90 100 43.06 89. The Result of the Test During the Action Research NO 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 Test Code A-01 A-02 A-03 A-04 A-05 A-06 A-07 A-08 A-09 A-10 A-11 A-12 A-13 A-14 A-15 A-16 A-17 A-18 A-19 A-20 A-21 A-22 A-23 A-24 A-25 A-26 A-27 A-28 A-29 A-30 A-31 A-32 A-33 A-34 Σ Mean The Result of the Test (%) Pre-Test Cycle 1 Cycle 2 Post-Test 50 80 85 83.3 90 100 93.7 100 80 70 46.7 80 70 96.7 90 90 86.3 85 95 90 36.7 43.3 50 100 100 100 43.3 90 100 100 1513.3 80 100 90 46.7 36.3 85 80 83.

Analysis of the Questionnaire In the last activity.5.1 V 89.51 E 0 Pre-test 1 st cycle 2 nd cycle post-test 4. 4. the writer distributed questionnaire sheets to the students. Each option was given a score that showed the quality of each indicator. each of them had three options namely a. The writer only gave them 5 items to be answered. Grading the Items of the Questionnaire The Questionnaire consisted of 5 questions.5.1. b. The Point Range Option A B C Point 1 2 3 Meaning Low Medium High (Oppenheim. and c.56 E 87.1992: 264) . They are discussed in the following sections.06 R A G 44. The score ranges from 1 to 3 as shown in the table below: Table 6.50 The following is the graph of the test during the Action Research A 90. There are certain techniques to analyze the questionnaire items. The purpose of giving the questionnaire was to answer the problem of the study. after doing the post-test.

3. the score is 1.2. 4. = the sum of the item scores. test codes.51 The explanation of the range from 1-3 are as follows: If the students choose a. M ∑X n = the mean. scores per item. the score is 3. Tabulating the Data of the Questionnaire The purpose of tabulating the questionnaire data is to make the result of the grading clearly readable. Table 7. The writer uses the table that consists of these columns. If the students choose b. If the students choose c. the score is 2. Finding the Mean The formula used for computing the mean is as follows: M= ΣX n where. and = the number of the students.5. total scores and the mean of each item.Questionnaire Analysis No 1 2 3 4 5 Students' Code A-01 A-02 A-03 A-04 A-05 Score per Item 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 Total Score 15 15 15 15 15 1 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 2 3 3 5 3 3 3 3 3 . The mean of each item can be seen in the table below. 4.5.

Matching the Mean to a Criterion To get the additional information about the students’ responses in getting the action research program.52 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 A-06 A-07 A-08 A-09 A-10 A-11 A-12 A-13 A-14 A-15 A-16 A-17 A-18 A-19 A-20 A-21 A-22 A-23 A-24 A-25 A-26 A-27 A-28 A-29 A-30 A-31 A-32 A-33 A-34 Σ Mean 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 100 2. . here is the analysis of the questionnaire’s result.5. the mean of each number is matched to a criterion. 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 98 2.88 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 99 2.94 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 100 2.4.91 15 14 15 15 15 14 15 15 15 14 15 14 15 14 15 14 15 15 14 15 14 14 15 15 15 15 14 15 14 499 4.91 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 99 2. Based on the range of mean above.

88 2. The relevancy between vocabulary offered in this action research and the vocabulary that the students often used and needed in their daily activities is very relevant. it can be concluded that: The students’ interest in the teaching learning process using TPR is high.91 Category High Help the students very much High Very relevant Very necessary 4. The program is very necessary for the students. It can help the students in mastering English vocabulary. Concluding the Questionnaire Result Based on the result of matching the mean to the criterion above.91 2. TPR has some advantages.53 Table 8.5. The students’ motivation in learning English after having activity by using TPR is high.94 2. Category of the Criterion Issue Students’ interest The advantage Students’ motivation The relevancy Sustainability Mean 2.4.94 2. .

Many words. they always asked to the teacher. If they forgot something. The Participation of the Students Most of the students were interested in following the study using TPR since they should not only memorize the words and commands but they also should perform them. the students looked confused with the method used. Analysis of the Field Notes. Therefore. she explained the procedures to the students and asked them to relax and enjoy the time during the study. At first. not straining so the students enjoyed the situation.6.6. most of them did it seriously. From this point of view. . Most students were enthusiastic and interested in the teaching and learning process. sentences or commands were always followed by actions. The Situation of the Class At the beginning of the lesson in the first cycle. it could not be denied that sometimes there were some students who did not give much attention. However. Those made the students always wanted to try what the teacher did. 4. 4.2. the writer concluded that the students gave much attention to the teacher’s explanation during the study. When they asked to practice with their friends to give their friends some commands.6. some students looked enthusiastic of the writer’s coming. They were so fun in the teaching learning process since it is such like a game. She would answer their questions if there were something they did not understand.54 4. phrases.1. but they were able to adapt to the situation during the activity of the first cycle until the last cycle.

If they were still not perfect or made mistakes in doing those. 4. their pronunciations were getting better. In this case.3. the teacher also emphasized on the pronunciation of some words related to the theme. they are motivated to be active. To know whether the students had understood the words given. Seeing that the students can pronounce the English vocabulary given in the last of each cycle better than before. The Pronunciation of the Students During the lesson. The teacher also corrected their pronunciations. in the next cycle they could pronounce the words and caught the teacher’s words better than in the beginning of the cycle. Nevertheless. they got more difficulties in pronouncing some new words. the students can be more attractive in learning new words in English.55 From this point of view.6. From one cycle to the next cycle. it can be concluded that by using TPR. In the first cycle. . they were asked to make five times repetitions. the writer concludes that they can achieve a better progress in pronunciation. They also enjoy in making cooperation with their partners to work in group. each of them was asked to pronounce some words represented by teacher’s actions.

56 . 4) These kinds of activities are very necessary for the students and they expected that the program is given regularly and continuously. They do not sit on the chair only. the writer concludes that the advantages of using TPR in teaching English vocabulary are: TPR motivates the students since it is enjoyable. 5) After conducting the research. 3) The main factors affecting this success are the students’ interest in the teaching and learning activities given using TPR.56 CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS 5.1%).51%) that is lower than the result of the post-test (90. The students’ mastery in English vocabulary can be improved.1. It is supported by the result of the pre-test (44. the relevancy between the vocabularies offered in the activities. The students’ motivation in learning English is increased. and the vocabulary that the students used in daily activities. the writer concludes that: 1) The students’ progress during the teaching and learning activity by using Total Physical Response is better. Conclusions Based on the result of the analysis in the previous chapter. Students are enjoying getting up out of their chairs and moving around. 2) Most of the students said that the activities in teaching and learning process using TPR could help them in mastering English vocabulary.

especially for the elementary school teacher to attract the students’ interest and motivation in learning English. It is proved by as stated by Asher “No matter how exiting and productive the innovation. such activity should be conducted in other classes of other school. 5.1. 2) 3) The program should be done regularly and continuously. and the writer hopes that there will be many researchers explore about how to apply Total Physical Response more effectively in the future.” It is limited in terms of language scope. Certain target language may not be suited to this method. people will tire of it.57 - In TPR class. Suggestion Based on the conclusion above. they are: 1) Using Total Physical Response in teaching English vocabulary is recommended for English teachers. . the language is directly used in context. TPR is memorable. Students’ memorization will be stored longer since they use their bodies to acquire the meaning of the words. TPR also has some disadvantages. they are: It is easy to overuse TPR. the writer would like to offer some suggestions. To get a wider generalization of the result of this study. - TPR is a good tool for building vocabulary.

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