CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
Human brain is the most valuable creation of God. The man is called intelligent because of the brain. The brain translates the information delivered by the impulses, which then enables the person to react. But we loss the knowledge of a brain when the body is destroyed after the death of man. That knowledge might have been used for the development of the human society. What happen if we create a brain and up load the contents of natural brain into it? 1.1 Blue Brain The name of the world’s first virtual brain. That means a machine that can function as human brain. Today scientists are in research to create an artificial brain that can think, response, take decision, and keep anything in memory. The main aim is to upload human brain into machine. So that man can think, take decision without any effort. After the death of the body, the virtual brain will act as the man .So, even after the death of a person we will not loose the knowledge, intelligence, personalities, feelings and memories of that man that can be used for the development of the human society. No one has ever understood the complexity of human brain. It is complex than any circuitry in the world. So, question may arise “Is it really possible to create a human brain?” The answer is “Yes”. Because whatever man has created today always he has followed the nature. When man does not have a device called computer, it was a big question for all. Technology is growing faster than everything. IBM is now in research to create a virtual brain, called “Blue brain”. If possible, this would be the first virtual brain of the world. Within 30 years, we will be able to scan ourselves in to the computers. Is this the beginning of eternal life? 1.2 What is Virtual Brain? Virtual brain is an artificial brain, which does not actually the natural brain, but can act as the brain. It can think like brain, take decisions based on the past experience, and response as the natural brain can. It is possible by using a super computer, with a huge amount of storage capacity, processing power and an interface between the human brain and this artificial one. Through this interface the data stored in the natural brain can be up loaded into the computer. So the brain and the knowledge, intelligence of anyone can be kept and used for ever, even after the death of the person.
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1.3 Why we need Virtual Brain? Today we are developed because of our intelligence. Intelligence is the inborn quality that cannot be created. Some people have this quality, so that they can think up to such an extent where other cannot reach. Human society is always need of such intelligence and such an intelligent brain to have with. But the intelligence is lost along with the body after the death. The virtual brain is a solution to it. The brain and intelligence will alive even after the death. We often face difficulties in remembering things such as people’s names, their birthdays, and the spellings of words, proper grammar, important dates, history, facts etc... In the busy life every one want to be relaxed. Can’t we use any machine to assist for all these? Virtual brain may be the solution to it. What if we upload ourselves into computer, we were simply aware of a computer, or maybe, what if we lived in a computer as a program? 1.4 How it is possible? First, it is helpful to describe the basic manners in which a person may be uploaded into a computer. Raymond Kurzweil recently provided an interesting paper on this topic. In it, he describes both invasive and noninvasive techniques. The most promising is the use of very small robots, or nanobots. These robots will be small enough to travel throughout our circulatory systems. Traveling into the spine and brain, they will be able to monitor the activity and structure of our central nervous system. They will be able to provide an interface with computers that is as close as our mind can be while we still reside in our biological form. Nanobots could also carefully scan the structure of our brain, providing a complete readout of the connections between each neuron. They would also record the current state of the brain. This information, when entered into a computer, could then continue to function as us. All that is required is a computer with large enough storage space and processing power. Is the pattern and state of neuron connections in our brain truly all that makes up our conscious selves? Many people believe firmly those we possess a soul, while some very technical people believe that quantum forces contribute to our awareness. But we have to now think technically. Note, however, that we need not know how the brain actually functions, to transfer it to a computer. We need only know the media and contents.
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by the magical nervous system. 2. one has to know the three simple functions that it puts into action. in computer like calculations. It consists of three major divisions: The massive paired hemispheres of the cerebrum The brainstem.
Fig. Pons.CHAPTER 2 WORKING OF NATURAL BRAIN
2.1. It also integrates signals received from the body with signals from adjacent areas of the brain. One of the world’s most “intricately organized” electron mechanisms is the nervous system. but its working through electric impulses through your body. and medulla oblongata The cerebellum. Medial view of the left hemisphere of human brain
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.1 Getting to know more about Human Brain The brain essentially serves as the body’s information processing centre. The human ability to feel. It receives signals from sensory neurons (nerve cell bodies and their axons and dendrites) in the central and peripheral nervous systems.500 grams (3 pounds) and constitutes about 2 percent of total body weight. hypothalamus. and in response it generates and sends new signals that instruct the corresponding parts of the body to move or react in some way. interpret and even see is controlled. Not even engineers have come close to making circuit boards and computers as delicate and precise as the nervous system. giving rise to perception and consciousness. epithalamus. sub thalamus. sensory input. The brain weighs about 1. The nervous system is quite like magic because we can’t see it. consisting of the thalamus. integration & motor output. midbrain. To understand this system.
1 Nose Once the smell of food has reached your nose. 2. which is lined with hairs. feel. in a circular way. around. and touched with our sensory cells. & smell? 2. or using any other sense. which translates the image and light by a set of cells. and finally to the smell sensory cortex of our brain.2. located between our eye and ear. 2.2 Integration Integration is best known as the interpretation of things we have felt.1. the sensory cells. also known as Neurons. which bends and rotates an image against the retina. the thalamus. a set of sensory nerves. This cherished action primarily conducted by the lens. into responses that the body recognizes. vitreous disc.2.2 Eye Seeing is one of the most pleasing senses of the nervous system. tasted. This action of getting information from your surrounding environment is called sensory input because we are putting things in your brain by way of your senses.2 How we see. also known as neurons.2. it travels to an olfactory bulb. This process is all accomplished in the brain where many. 2. send a message straight to your brain.3 Motor Output Once our brain has interpreted all that we have learned. tasting.1. which actually work to perform our requests and act upon our environment. then our brain sends a message through neurons to effecter cells. muscle or gland cells.1 Sensory Input When our eyes see something or our hands touch a warm surface. hear. many neurons work together to understand the environment. 2. where it is interpreted to be understood and memorized by the body. which magnifies a seen image.1.
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. The retina is at the back of the eye ball where rods and cones structure along with other cells and tissues covert the image into nerve impulses which are transmitted along the optic nerve to the brain where it is kept for memory. The nerve impulses travel through the olfactory tract. either by touching.
These buds have taste pores.2. which convert the taste into a nerve impulse and send the impulse to the brain by a sensory nerve fiber. 2. our brain classifies the different kinds of taste. salty.
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. Upon receiving the message. sour. and sweet.3 Tongue A set of microscopic buds on the tongue divide everything we eat and drink into Four kinds of taste: bitter. The vibrations of the pitches in the cochlea are measured by the Corti.2.2. This is how we can refer the taste of one kind of food to another. which sends it to the brain for interpretation and memory. This organ transmits the vibration information to a nerve. the sound waves are divided into pitches. In this snail like structure. it goes to a large structure called the cochlea.4 Ear Once the sound or sound wave has entered the drum.
The neurons sensory cells can be received through these transfer these electric impulses to the brain.
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1.CHAPTER 3 BRAIN SIMULATION
A comparative discussion of Natural Brain and Simulated Brain is given below. INPUT In a similar way the artificial nervous In the nervous system in our body the neurons are responsible for the message Passing. The interpretation in the brain is accomplished by the different values in these register will represent different states of the brain. So.
NATURAL BRAIN 1. artificial neurons and send to a super computer for the interpretation. that these neurons can receive the input from the These sensory cells produces electric impulses sensory cells.
2. the electric impulses from the which are received by the neurons. It has also been tested The body receives the input by the sensory cells. INTERPRETATION The interpretation of the
electric impulses received by the brain from the electric impulses received by the artificial neuron neurons are interpreted in the brain. The can be done by means of a set of register. system can be created.. INTERPRETATION The interpretation of the
2. means of certain states of many neurons.
To remember thing we force the neurons to represent certain states of the brain permanently or for any interesting or serious matter this is happened implicitly.
5. And when required these information can be retrieved and used.
5. OUTPUT Similarly based on the states of the
brain sends the electric impulses representing the register the output signal can be given to the responses which are further received by the artificial neurons in the body which will be sensory cell of our body to respond. PROCESSING In a similar way the decision making can be done by the computer by using some stored states and the received input & by performing some arithmetic and logical calculations.
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. There are certain neurons in our brain which represent certain states permanently. The past experience stored and the current input received are used and the states of certain neurons are changed to give the output. Logical and arithmetic calculations are done in our neural circuitry. MEMORY It is not impossible to store the data permanently by using the secondary memory. PROCESSING When we take decision. or make any computation. received by the sensory cell.
4. OUTPUT Based on the states of the neurons the
3. think about something.3. In the similar way the required states of the registers can be stored permanently.
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.CHAPTER 4 HOW THE BLUE BRAIN PROJECT WILL WORK?
4. This is also possible due to the first growing technology. Now there is no question how the virtual brain will work . visualization and automatic knowledge archiving by 2015. Thus the data stored in the entire brain will be uploaded into the computer. Biologically accurate computer models of mammalian and human brains could provide a new foundation for understanding functions and malfunctions of the brain and for a new generation of information-based. Uploading human brain: The uploading is possible by the use of small robots known as the Nanobots . when entered into a computer. and to build a complete theoretical framework that can orchestrate the reconstruction of the brain of mammals and man from the genetic to the whole brain levels. The mission in undertaking The Blue Brain Project is to gather all existing knowledge of the brain.But the question is how the human brain will be up loaded into it. they will be able to monitor the activity and structure of our central nervous system. This information. Nanobots could also carefully scan the structure of our brain. could then continue to function as us. Traveling into the spine and brain. providing a complete readout of the connections. They will be able to provide an interface with computers that is as close as our mind can be while we still reside in our biological form. in order to understand brain function and dysfunction through detailed simulations. into computer models for simulation.1 Goals & Objectives The Blue Brain Project is the first comprehensive attempt to reverseengineer the mammalian brain. accelerate the global research effort of reverse engineering the structure and function of the components of the brain.These robots are small enough to travel throughout our circulatory system. customized medicine.
6 GFLOPS = 11.8 GFLOPS in non.2 GFLOPS.8
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. the other CPU being used for processing the I/O (input/output) of the main CPU) or in “virtual node” mode (in which both CPUs with 256 MB each are used for computation). This leads to a peak performance of 5. A rack (1. The two CPUs (central processing units) can be used in “coprocessor” mode (resulting in one CPU and 512 MB RAM (random access memory) for computation. with no use of SIMD mode).024 nodes = 2.1 NanoBots in Blue Brain 4. multiple data (SIMD) mode. or 2.SIMD mode. So. the aggregate performance of a processor card in virtual node mode is: 2 x node = 2 x 2. which means that the peak performance of the chip is 8 floating point operations per cycle (4 under normal conditions.6 billion floating point operations per second (gigaflops or GFLOPS) per chip or node.8 GFLOPS = 5.6 GFLOPS and its peak performance (optimal use of double FPU) is: 2 x 5. This ASIC includes 2 PowerPC 440 cores running at 700 MHz Associated with each core is a 64-bit “double” floating point unit (FPU) that can operate in single instruction.2 Architecture of Blue Gene Blue Gene/L is built using system-on-a-chip technology in which all functions of a node (except for main memory) are integrated onto a single applicationspecific integrated circuit (ASIC). Each (single) FPU can execute up to 2 “multiplyadds” per cycle.Fig:4.048 CPUs) therefore has 2.
with a peak performance of 22. as well as the total numbers of neurons in the microcircuit and the relative proportions of the different types of neuron. equal to 8. The Blue Brain Projects Blue Gene is a 4-rack system that has 4. A 64-rack machine should provide 180 TFLOPS.6 TFLOPS.192 CPUs. with a peak performance of 22. Microcircuits are composed of neurons and synaptic connections. and distributions and electrical properties of the different types of neuron are required.2. The Blue Gene/L supercomputer architecture
4. A 64-rack machine should provide 180 TFLOPS.
Fig.teraflops or TFLOPS.4 TFLOPS. the three-dimensional morphology.
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. 4. ion channel composition.4 TFLOPS. or 360 TFLOPS at peak performance. and a peak of 5. To model neurons.192 CPUs. or 360 TFLOPS at peak performance.096 nodes. 8.3 Modeling the Microcircuit The scheme shows the minimal essential building blocks required to reconstruct a neural microcircuit.
in addition to statistics on which part of the axonal arborization is used (presynaptic innervation pattern) to contact which regions of the target neuron (postsynaptic innervations pattern). how many synapses are involved in forming connections. There is therefore a minimal size of a microcircuit and a minimal complexity of a neuron’s morphology that can fully sustain a neuron. the physiological and pharmacological properties of the different types of synapse that connect any two types of neuron are required. 4. To model synaptic connections. Elementary building blocks of neural microcircuits. A massive increase in
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. and the connectivity statistics between any two types of neuron.Fig. Neurons receive inputs from thousands of other neurons. which are intricately mapped onto different branches of highly complex dendritic trees and require tens of thousands of compartments to accurately represent them.3.
Fig. Over the past 10 years. the Blue Brain Project1 aims to build accurate models of the mammalian brain from first principles.computational power is required to make this quantum leap .or molecular-level) model of a 2-week-old rat somatosensory neocortex corresponding to the dimensions of a neocortical column (NCC) as defined by the dendritic arborizations of the layer 5 pyramidal neurons.
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. By exploiting the computing power of Blue Gene. morphological and electrical properties of the different neurons and their synaptic pathways in a manner that would allow an accurate reconstruction of the column. 4.4. The combination of infrared differential interference microscopy in brain slices and the use of multi-neuron patch. the laboratory has prepared for this reconstruction by developing the multi-neuron patchclamp approach. Reconstructing the neocortical column.clamping allowed the systematic quantification of the molecular. recording from thousands of neocortical neurons and their synaptic connections. The first phase of the project is to build a cellular-level (as opposed to a genetic. and developing quantitative approaches to allow a complete numerical breakdown of the elementary building blocks of the NCC.an increase that is provided by IBM’s Blue Gene supercomputer.
4 Simulating the Microcircuit Once the microcircuit is built. As the electrical impulse travels from neuron to neuron. A single thick tufted layer 5 pyramidal neuron located within the column. Currently. The Blue Brain team is working to streamline the computation so that the circuit can function in real time . 4 and 5. perception and memory in addition to brain malfunction such as psychiatric disorders like depression and autism. if successful.5 CURRENT RESEARCH WORK 1.processor communication (MPI). 4. One pyramidal neuron in layer 2. a small pyramidal neuron in layer 5 and the large thick tufted pyramidal neuron in layer An image of the NCC. the time required to simulate the circuit is about two orders of magnitude larger than the actual biological time simulated. NEWS: The EPFL Blue Gene was the 8th fastest supercomputer in the world
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. shed light on the relationships between genetic. the results are communicated via inter. All the 8192 processors of the Blue Gene are pressed into service. the modeling will expand to other regions of the brain and. From there. in a massively parallel computation solving the complex mathematical equations that govern the electrical activity in each neuron when a stimulus is applied. These include cognitive functions such as language. with neurons located in layers 2 to 5. IBM.
4. molecular and cognitive functions of the brain.meaning that 1 second of activity can be modeled in one second. 3. the exciting work of making the circuit function can begin. in partnership with scientists at Switzerland's Ecole Polytechnique Federale
de Lausanne's (EPFL) Brain and Mind Institute will begin simulating the brain's biological systems and output the data as a working 3-dimensional model that will recreate the high-speed electro-chemical interactions that take place within the brain's interior. learning.
The microcircuits (from left to right) for layers 2.
The model brain can accurately echo the song of a South American sparrow.just by recording their calls and movements. Called MyLifeBits. the magazine said.5 Current research in IBM 2.Fig: 4." a PC-based
database that holds a record of an individual's complete life experience. The electric impulses from the brain that force the lungs had been recorded and when the equivalent impulses were passed to the computer model of the lungs of the bird it begins to sing like the bird. said one of the project's leaders. "By 2047. the project aims to make this database of human memories searchable in the manner of a conventional search engine.
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. He plans to add more brain power to his model which might reveal how birds improve their songs and learn them from other birds. Gordon Bell. Researchers at Microsoft's Media Presence Lab are developing a "virtual brain. According to the new scientist Magazine report Rodrigo Laje and Gabriel Mindlin of the
University of Buenos Aires in Argentina have devised a computer model of a region of the brain called the RA nucleus which controls muscles in the lungs and vocal folds. The bird sing by forcing air from their lungs past folds of tissue in the voice box. Mr. almost all information will be in cyberspace including all knowledge and creative works. Mindlin told the weekly science magazine he was surprised that simple instructions from the brain change a constant signal into a complex series of bursts to produce the intricacies of birdsong. He hopes it might one day be possible to use similar models to map the neural [brain] circuitry of animals without distressing lab experiments . 3.
This approach offers the possibility of determining the manner in which representations of information are imprinted in the circuit for storage and retrieval. Understanding memory storage and retrieval. detailed. biologically accurate brain simulations offer the opportunity to answer some fundamental questions about the brain that cannot be addressed with any current experimental or theoretical approaches. which proposes that three-dimensional voltage objects are generated continuously across dendritic segments regardless of the origin of the neurons. 5.2 Understanding complexity At present. neurons or synaptic pathways in the brain. and that spikes are used to maintain such dendritic objects. 5. and could reveal the part that different types of neuron play in these crucial functions. and complex dendritic and axonal arborizations.CHAPTER 5 APPLICATIONS OF BLUE BRAIN PROJECT
5. A detailed model will allow fine control of any of these elements and allow a systematic investigation of their contribution to the emergent behaviour. uniform types found in many models.3 Exploring the role of dendrites.1 Defining functions of the basic elements Despite a century of experimental and theoretical research.1. we are unable to provide a comprehensive definition of the computational function of different ion channels. receptors.4 Revealing functional diversity Most models engineer a specific function. whereas a spectrum of functions might be possible with a biologically based design.1 What can we learn from Blue Brain? Detailed. 5. neurons and synapses. rather than the simplified. These include.1. 5. This is the only current approach to explore the dendritic object theory.1. accurate brain simulations are the only approach that could allow us to explain why the brain needs to use many different ion channels. a spectrum of receptors.
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2 Applications of Blue Brain The main applications of the blue brain are given explained as:
5. stores and retrieves information.1.6 Identifying points of vulnerability Although the neocortex confers immense computational power to mammals. The Blue Column will therefore also produce a virtual library to explore in 3D the micro architecture of the neocortex and access all key research relating to its structure and function.1.2 Cracking the Neural Code The Neural Code refers to how the brain builds objects using electrical patterns. 5. 5. is an absolute requirement to revealing how the neocortex processes. Creating an accurate replica of the NCC which faithfully reproduces the emergent electrical dynamics of the real microcircuit.1.8 Providing a circuit design platform Detailed models could reveal powerful circuit designs that could be implemented into silicone chips for use as intelligence devices in industry. with catastrophic cognitive effects.7 Simulating disease and developing treatments Such simulations could be used to test hypotheses for the pathogenesis of neurological and psychiatric diseases.5 Tracking the emergence of intelligence This approach offers the possibility to re-trace the steps taken by a network of neurons in the emergence of electrical states used to embody representations of the organism and its world. and to develop and test new treatment strategies. At present. 5.
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. a detailed model is the only approach that could produce a list of the most vulnerable circuit parameters.2.1. defects are common.1 Gathering and Testing 100 Years of Data The most immediate benefit is to provide a working model into which the past 100 years knowledge about the microstructure and workings of the neocortical column can be gathered and tested. In the same way that the neuron is the elementary cell for computing in the brain.2. 5. the NCC is the elementary network for computing in the neocortex.5. revealing likely candidates for dysfunction and targets for treatment. 5.
3 Understanding Neocortical Information Processing The power of an accurate simulation lies in the predictions that can be generated about the neocortex. storage and retrieval of information. Simulation runs could determine which parameters should be used and measured in the experiments. cellular and synaptic deficits could be tested in simulations and the optimal experimental tests can be determined.2. The impact of receptor. ion channel. which can be duplicated and interconnected to form neocortical brain regions. goal-oriented behavior).2. An advanced 2D. synapses. disynaptic. 5.5 A Global Facility A software replica of a NCC will allow researchers to explore hypotheses of brain function and dysfunction accelerating research.6 A Foundation for Whole Brain Simulations With current and envisage able future computer technology it seems unlikely that a mammalian brain can be simulated with full cellular and synaptic complexity (above the molecular level). iterations between simulations and experiments are essential to build an accurate copy of the NCC. Such imaging experiments may be impossible in reality or may be prohibitively expensive to perform. 5. multisynaptic loops) and physiological processes (functional properties.2. 5. pathways (mono-synaptic. receptors).2.5. Indeed. ion channels. 3D and 3D immersive visualization system will allow “imaging” of many aspects of neural dynamics during processing. reward.7 A Foundation for Molecular Modelling of Brain Function
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. learning.4 A Novel Tool for Drug Discovery for Brain Disorders Understanding the functions of different elements and pathways of the NCC will provide a concrete foundation to explore the cellular and synaptic bases of a wide spectrum of neurological and psychiatric diseases. An accurate replica of an NCC is therefore required in order to generate reduced models that retain critical functions and computational capabilities.2. These iterations are therefore expected to reveal the function of individual elements (neurons. Knowledge of the NCC architecture can be transferred to facilitate reconstruction of sub cortical brain regions. 5.
An accurate cellular replica of the neocortical column will provide the first and essential step to a gradual increase in model complexity moving towards a molecular level description of the neocortex with biochemical pathways being simulated.
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. The NCC lies at the interface between the genes and complex cognitive functions. Establishing this link will allow predictions of the cognitive consequences of genetic disorders and allow reverse engineering of cognitive deficits to determine the genetic and molecular causes. This level of simulation will become a reality with the most advanced phase of Blue Gene development. A molecular level model of the NCC will provide the substrate for interfacing gene expression with the network structure and function.
In some movies we might have noticed that a person might behaving short term memories
Fig:6.CHAPTER 6 EXAMPLES FOR BLUE BRAIN
The reason we need a blue brain is explained by examples. Example1: A very good example of utilization of blue brain is the case "short term memory". It is a simple chip that can be installed into the human brain for which the short term memory and volatile memory at the old age can be avoided.1 Example for short term memory
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then he starts forgetting or takes a bit more time to recognize to a person.
Fig:6.A another situation is that when a person gets older.2 Example of Old people
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Others may use technical knowledge against us. Even after the death of a man his intelligence can be used. We become dependent upon the computer systems. It would allow the deaf to hear via direct nerve stimulation. We will be Susceptible to new forms of harm. Decision can be made without the presence of a person.CHAPTER 7 ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS
6. By down loading the contents of the brain that was uploaded into the computer. however. Computer viruses will pose an increasingly critical threat.2 Limitations Further. The real threat. is found today
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. That fear may culminate in a large resistance. The activity of different animals can be understood. their thinking can be understood easily. Clear evidence of this type of fear with respect to human cloning. there are many new dangers these technologies will open. That means by interpretation of the electric impulses from the brain of the animals. the man can get rid from the madness.1 Advantages We can remember things without any effort. is the fear that people will have of new technologies.
6. and also be helpful for many psychological diseases.
As with Deep Blue. rapid diagnoses of brain malfunction. which can no longer be managed completely by any one researcher. In short. Indeed. A model of the entire brain at the cellular level will probably take the next decade. it is essential to guide reductionist research into the deeper facets of brain structure and function. Even if overestimated by a decade or two. The data set does not need to be complete before such a phase can begin. this is still just a ’blink of an eye’ in relation to the evolution of human civilization. Indeed. Detailed models will probably become the final form of databases that are used to organize all knowledge of the brain and allow hypothesis testing. the first version of the Blue Column. including that of man. has already been built and simulated.
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. we can hope to learn a great deal about brain function and disfunction from accurate models of the brain .The time taken to build detailed models of the brain depends on the level of detail that is captured. which has 10.CHAPTER 8 FUTURE PERSPECTIVE
The synthesis era in neuroscience started with the launch of the Human Brain Project and is an inevitable phase triggered by a critical amount of fundamental data. in the near future. There is no fundamental obstacle to modeling the brain and it is therefore likely that we will have detailed models of mammalian brains.000 neurons. it is the refinement of the detailed properties and calibration of the circuit that takes time. it offers rapid assessment of the probable effect of a new finding on preexisting knowledge. As a complement to experimental research. as well as development of treatments for neurological disorders. Blue Brain will allow us to challenge the foundations of our understanding of intelligence and generate new theories of consciousness.
we will be able to transfer ourselves into computers at some point. Most arguments against this outcome are seemingly easy to circumvent. or simply require further time for technology to increase. They are either simple minded.
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.CHAPTER 9 CONCLUSION
In conclusion. The only serious threats raised are also overcome as we note the combination of biological and digital technologies.
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. June 2005.epfl.epfl.research. http://bluebrain.ibm. “The Blue Brain Project”. NewScientist.ch/Jahia/site/bluebrain/op/edit/pid/19085  Graham-Rowe.  Simulated brain closer to thought BBC News 22 April 2009. “Mission to build a simulated brain begins”. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 2006 February. 1879-85. 30th Annual International Conference of the IEEE  Henry Markram. Duncan.com/bluegene  The Blue Brain Project: http://bluebrainproject. 2008.REFERENCES
 “Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society”. Blue Brain. EMBS 2008.  “Project Milestones”.  Blue Gene: http://www. pp.