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An Introductory Framework

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Contents

Articles

Foreword 1. Introductory Principles

History of Quantum Mechanics Basic Concepts of Quantum Mechanics Introduction to Quantum Mechanics 1 2 2 22 40 59 59 65 67 75 75 82 99 107 107 110 120 135 135 149 167 176 176 180

2. Measurement Problems

Schrödinger's Cat The Measurement Problem Measurement in Quantum Mechanics

**3. The Quantum Theories
**

Old Quantum Theory Quantum Mechanics Copenhagen Interpretation

4. Einstein's Objections

Principle of Locality EPR Paradox Bell's Theorem

5. Advanced Principles

Quantum Field Theory String Theory Quantum Gravity

**Appendix - Quantisation of Charge
**

The Elementary Charge Quarks

References

Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 193 197

Article Licenses

License 199

1

Foreword

and bonding. which caused electrons to be ejected from those materials only if the light quantum energy was greater than the Fermi level (work function) in the metal. could be discrete. such as metals. this theoretical basis slowly began to be applied to chemical structure. as defined by the following formula: where h is a numerical value called Planck's constant. the discovery of the photoelectric effect by Heinrich Hertz in 1887. reactivity. as it interlaces with the history of quantum chemistry. Introductory Principles History of Quantum Mechanics The history of quantum mechanics.2 1. Then. In the years to follow. the 1877 suggestion by Ludwig Boltzmann that the energy states of a physical system could be discrete. the 1859-1860 winter statement of the black body radiation problem by Gustav Kirchhoff. Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann was one of the founders of quantum mechanics because he suggested in 1877 that the energy levels of a physical system. He was also a founder of the Austrian Mathematical Society together with the mathematicians Gustav von Escherich and Emil Müller. β) of overlap forward by Max Planck. began essentially with a number of different scientific discoveries: the 1838 discovery of cathode rays by Michael Faraday. The phrase "quantum mechanics" was first used in Max Born's 1924 paper "Zur Quantenmechanik". . Albert Einstein in 1905. postulated consistently with Max Planck's quantum hypothesis that light itself is made of individual quantum particles. which in 1926 came to be called photons by Gilbert N. as it will also be the case twenty years later with the first quantum theory put Ludwig Boltzmann’s diagram of the I2 molecule proposed in 1898 showing the atomic “sensitive region” (α. The photoelectric effect was observed upon shining light of particular wavelengths on certain materials. Overview In short. and was backed up by mathematical arguments. and the 1900 quantum hypothesis by Max Planck that any energy-radiating atomic system can theoretically be divided into a number of discrete "energy elements" ε (epsilon) such that each of these energy elements is proportional to the frequency ν with which each of them individually radiate energy. Boltzmann's rationale for the presence of discrete energy levels in molecules such as those of iodine gas had its origins in his statistical thermodynamics and statistical mechanics theories. such as a molecule. Lewis. in order to explain the photoelectric effect previously reported by Heinrich Hertz in 1887.

k is the Boltzmann constant. With decreasing temperature. in 1900.e. to derive a formula for the observed frequency dependence of the energy emitted by a black body. the German physicist Max Planck reluctantly introduced the idea that energy is quantized. similar quantum computations. and Ernest Rutherford's 1907 discovery of the atomic nucleus Thus. Max Planck's 1900 quantum hypothesis. to calculate the magnetic moment of the electron. The blackbody radiation curves (1862) at left are also compared with the early. Moreover. called Planck's Law. h is the Planck constant. Thomson's 1904 plum pudding model.T) is the energy per unit time (or the power) radiated per unit area of emitting surface in the normal direction per unit solid angle per unit frequency by a black body at temperature T. J.History of Quantum Mechanics 3 Niels Bohr's 1913 quantum model of the atom. Albert Einstein's 1905 light quanta postulate. which was later called the ``magneton". c is the speed of light in a vacuum. The earlier Wien approximation may be derived from Planck's law by assuming . the application of Planck's quantum theory to the electron allowed Ștefan Procopiu in 1911—1913. were subsequently made possible for both the magnetic moments of the proton and the neutron that are three orders of magnitude smaller than . which incorporated an explanation of Johannes Rydberg's 1888 formula. that included a Boltzmann distribution (applicable in the classical limit). that atomic energy radiators have discrete energy values (ε = hν). i. and subsequently Niels Bohr in 1913. ν is the frequency of the electromagnetic radiation. Planck's law[1] can be stated as follows: where: I(ν. the peak of the blackbody radiation curve shifts to longer wavelengths and also has lower intensities. but with numerically quite different values. The short wavelength side of the curves was already approximated in 1896 by the Wien distribution law. and T is the temperature of the body in degrees Kelvin. classical limit model of Rayleigh and Jeans (1900) shown at right. J.

aside. Einstein explained the photoelectric effect by postulating that light.History of Quantum Mechanics that of the electron. the French physicist Louis de Broglie put forward his theory of matter waves by stating that particles can exhibit wave characteristics and vice versa. but consists of a finite number of energy quanta that are localized in points in space. This theory was for a single particle and derived from special relativity theory. perhaps. there was no rigorous justification for quantization. a term introduced by Gilbert N. and explained by Albert Einstein in 1905. From the introduction section of his March 1905 quantum paper. when the German physicists Werner Heisenberg and Max Born developed matrix mechanics and the Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger invented wave mechanics and the non-relativistic Schrödinger equation as an approximation to the generalised case of de Broglie's theory. Building on de Broglie's approach. These theories. from Henri Poincaré's discussion of Planck's theory in his 1912 paper Sur la théorie des quanta. “On a heuristic viewpoint concerning the emission and transformation of light”. which occurred in theory if light were to be explained only in terms of waves. 4 Photoelectric effect The emission of electrons from a metal plate caused by light quanta (photons) with energy greater than the Fermi level of the metal.[2] These energy quanta later came to be called "photons". when a light ray is spreading from a point. can be divided into a finite number of "energy quanta" that are localized points in space. Lewis in 1926. or more generally all electromagnetic radiation. Low-energy phenomena: Photoelectric effect Mid-energy phenomena: Compton scattering High-energy phenomena: Pair production In 1905. The photoelectric effect reported by Heinrich Hertz in 1887. Bohr explained the spectral lines of the hydrogen atom." This statement has been called the most revolutionary sentence written by a physicist of the twentieth century. in his paper of July 1913 On the Constitution of Atoms and Molecules. and can be absorbed or generated only as a whole.[5] Schrödinger subsequently showed that the two approaches were . Einstein states: ``According to the assumption to be contemplated here. the energy is not distributed continuously over ever-increasing spaces. modern quantum mechanics was born in 1925. The phrase "quantum physics" was first used in Johnston's Planck's Universe in Light of Modern Physics (1931). In 1924. it effectively solved the problem of black body radiation attaining infinite energy. again by using quantization. move without dividing. were strictly phenomenological: during this time. though successful.[3][4] They are collectively known as the old quantum theory. The idea that each photon had to consist of energy in terms of quanta was a remarkable achievement. In 1913.

Dyson.A. The theory as we know it today was formulated by Politzer. J. like many other works from the founding period. quantum field theories and quantum chemistry: . for which they received the 1979 Nobel Prize in Physics. Tomonaga during the 1940s. During the same period. The field of quantum chemistry was pioneered by physicists Walter Heitler and Fritz London. Weisskopf. The Dirac equation achieves the relativistic description of the wavefunction of an electron that Schrödinger failed to obtain. It predicts electron spin and led Dirac to predict the existence of the positron. Paul Dirac began the process of unifying quantum mechanics with special relativity by proposing the Dirac equation for the electron. positrons. Higgs and Goldstone.M. and S. 5 Timeline Feynman diagram of gluon radiation in Quantum Chromodynamics The following timeline shows the key steps. Dirac. still stand. Jordan.History of Quantum Mechanics equivalent. Gross and Wilczek in 1975. V. This area of research culminated in the formulation of quantum electrodynamics by R. including the American theoretical chemist Linus Pauling at Caltech. and the Copenhagen interpretation started to take shape at about the same time. and served as a role model for subsequent Quantum Field theories. and P. Early workers in this area included P. Weinberg and Salam independently showed how the weak nuclear force and quantum electrodynamics could be merged into a single electroweak force. the physicists Glashow.[6][7][8] The theory of Quantum Chromodynamics was formulated beginning in the early 1960s.P. as described in his likewise famous 1932 textbook. Building on pioneering work by Schwinger. precursors and contributors to the development of quantum mechanics. Quantum electrodynamics is a quantum theory of electrons. Schwinger. Heisenberg formulated his uncertainty principle in 1927. and John C. Hungarian polymath John von Neumann formulated the rigorous mathematical basis for quantum mechanics as the theory of linear operators on Hilbert spaces. and remain widely used. Feynman. attempts were made to apply quantum mechanics to fields rather than single particles. W. including the influential bra-ket notation. and the electromagnetic field. resulting in what are known as quantum field theories. Quantum chemistry was subsequently developed by a large number of workers. Pauli. Starting around 1927. who published a study of the covalent bond of the hydrogen molecule in 1927. Beginning in 1927. Slater into various theories such as Molecular Orbital Theory or Valence Theory. as described in his famous 1930 textbook. These. F. He also pioneered the use of operator theory.I.

movement) of atoms. 1902 Gilbert N. then. shown by Einstein in 1905 to involve quanta of light. Antoine Henri Becquerel accidentally discovered radioactivity in 1896 while investigating the phosphorescence of uranium salts. FRS 1902 that radioactive thorium was converting itself into radium through a process of nuclear decay and a gas [10] (later found to be He). Shared the 1903 Nobel Prize in Physics for their discoveries and study of spontaneous radioactivity. Marie Skłodowska–Curie decided to look into uranium rays as a possible field of research for her doctoral thesis. and the maximum negative valence. Pierre Curie and Marie Curie. to his surprise. the energy could only be a multiple of an elementary unit E = hν. University in 1900 by Frederick Soddy and together they discovered nuclear transmutation when they found in OM. producing the Rydberg formula which was employed later by Niels Bohr and others to verify Bohr's first quantum model of the atom. 1887 Heinrich Hertz 1888 Johannes Rydberg 1895 Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen 1896 Antoine Henri Becquerel 1896 Pieter Zeeman 1899 Ernest Rutherford. 1st During the investigation of radioactivity he coined the terms alpha and beta rays in 1899 to describe the two to Baron. also produced the first circle diagram representation. Discovered in December 1895 the X-rays in experiments with electron beams in plasma and received the first Nobel prize awarded in 1901. née Skłodowska. he developed the “cubical atom” theory in which electrons in the form of dots were positioned at the corner of a cube and suggested that single. Discovered accidentally radioactivity while investigating the work of Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen. To explain the octet rule (1893). later. or triple “bonds” result when two atoms are held together by multiple pairs of electrons (one pair for each bond) located between the two atoms (1916).e. Noted the pattern that the numerical difference between the maximum positive valence. that shining light on certain materials can function to eject electrons from the material. Explained the photoelectric effect (reported in 1887 by Heinrich Hertz). Lord Rutherford distinct types of radiation emitted by thorium and uranium salts. experimentally verified by Jean Baptiste Perrin. In April 1898 she found through a systematic search of substances that thorium compounds. later (in 1928) called molecular orbitals. i. they reported their interpretation of radioactivity in 1903. in photographic plates surrounded by very thick black paper in preparation for an experiment with bright sunlight. of an element tends to be eight (Abegg's rule).e. he postulated. thus preceding the work of Frederick Soddy and Ernest [12] Rutherford on the nuclear decay of thorium to radium by three years. First to explain the effects of Brownian motion as caused by the kinetic energy (i. Discovers the photoelectric effect. Becquerel wrapped a sample of a phosphorescent substance. of Cambridge. Then. like those of uranium. she discovered that rays emitted by the uranium salt samples caused the air around such samples to conduct electricity. and that the emitted rays' intensity could be quantitated using the Curie electrometer. of the constituting atoms. In one experiment. Becquerel's doctoral student 1904 Richard Abegg 1905 Albert Einstein 1905 Albert Einstein . such as +6 for H2SO4. thereby settling the century-long dispute about the validity of John Dalton's atomic theory.e. which was subsequently. or atomic model of a molecule (such as an iodine gas molecule) in terms of the overlapping terms α and β. i. showing a projected image of his sample. in 1922 in experiments involving scattering of X-rays by electrons. he suggested that electromagnetic energy could only be emitted in quantized form.. She used to investigate her uranium salt samples a very sensitive electrometer device that was invented 15 years before by her husband and his brother Jacques Curie to measure electrical charge. emitted 'Becquerel rays'. Sir Ernest Rutherford became known as the ``father of nuclear physics": with his concept of the nuclear atom model proposed in [11] 1911 he led the exploration of nuclear physics. Ernest Rutherford was joined at McGill 1903 of Nelson. double. Lewis 1903 Antoine Henri Becquerel. Becquerel found that the photographic plates [9] were already exposed. where h is Planck's constant and ν is the frequency of the radiation. Modified the Balmer formula to include all spectral series of lines for the hydrogen atom.History of Quantum Mechanics 6 Date Person 1877 Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann Contributions Suggested that the energy levels of a physical system could be discrete based on statistical mechanics and mathematical arguments. 1900 Max Planck To explain black body radiation (1862). such as -2 for H2S. that light itself consists of individual quantum particles (photons). using the Curie's electrometer. prior to actually performing the experiment. thus. Arthur Compton demonstrated the "particle" aspect of electromagnetic radiation. First observed the Zeeman splitting effect by passing the light emitted by hydrogen through a magnetic field. potassium uranyl sulfate. he found that uranium salts emitted radiation that resembled Röntgen's X-rays in their penetrating power. as based on Planck’s quantum hypothesis (1900).

To account for the Zeeman effect (1896)..History of Quantum Mechanics 7 Publishes his Special Theory of Relativity. Published an influential mathematical argument in support of the essential nature of energy quanta. he is also widely credited with first "splitting the atom" in 1917. and form the core of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity. This discovery of the wave-particle duality of matter and energy was fundamental to the later development of quantum field theory. Showed that. Determines the equivalence of matter and energy. that atomic absorption or emission spectral lines change when the light source is subjected to a magnetic field. if Planck's law of black-body radiation is accepted. not for his planetary model of the atom. In 1911 Ernest Rutherford explained the Geiger-Marsden experiment by invoking a nuclear atom model and derived the Rutherford cross section. as it appeared that energy was lost in the beta decay process. in contradiction to the Rutherford prediction of ½. making them full-fledged particles. 1913. However. ``Determining the Molecular Magnetic Moment by M. Bohr hypothesized that negatively charged electrons revolve around a positively charged nucleus at certain fixed “quantum” distances and that each of these “spherical orbits” has a specific energy associated with it such that electron movements between orbits requires “quantum” emissions or absorptions of energy. 1: 151. First presents to the Prussian Academy of Science what are now known as the Einstein field equations. alpha particles onto a gold foil and noticed that some bounced back thus showing that an atom has a small-sized positively charged atomic nucleus at its center. theorists of quantum gravity seek to reconcile them. in which he precisely determines the electric charge of the electron. Bulletin scientifique de l’Académie Roumaine de sciences.27×10^(−21) erg·Oe^(−1). Determination of the fundamental unit of electric charge made it possible to calculate the Avogadro constant (which is the number of atoms or molecules in one mole of any substance) and thereby to determine the atomic weight of the atoms of each element. These equations specify how the geometry of space and time is influenced by whatever matter is present. he suggested there might be “elliptical orbits” in atoms in addition to spherical orbits. Planck's Quantum Theory". he sent a beam of positively-charged. Publishes a theoretical paper with the correct value of the electron's magnetic dipole moment μB: Ştefan Procopiu. Performed experiments in which he determined the correct value of electron's magnetic dipole moment. Obtains theoretically the value of the electron's magnetic dipole moment μB as a consequence of his atom model Independently discovered the shifting and splitting of the spectral lines of atoms and molecules due to the presence of the light source in an external static electric field. which followed on the work of Marie Curie. he received in 1908 the Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for his investigations into the disintegration of the elements. and the chemistry of [13] radioactive substances". (in 1913 he was also able to calculate a theoretical value of the Bohr magneton based on Planck's quantum theory). μB = 9. To explain the Rydberg formula (1888). i. This was in apparent contradiction to the law of conservation of energy.e. 1913 Ștefan Procopiu 1913 Niels Bohr 1913 Johannes Stark and Antonino Lo Surdo 1913 Niels Bohr 1915 Albert Einstein 1916 Arnold Sommerfeld . or Rutherford model. the energy quanta must also carry momentum p = h / λ. [3][4] 1911 Ștefan Procopiu 1912 Victor Hess 1912 Henri Poincaré 1913 Robert Andrews Millikan Publishes the results of his "oil drop" experiment. A second problem was that the spin of the Nitrogen-14 atom was 1. 1905 Albert Einstein 1905 Albert Einstein 1907 Ernest Rutherford to 1917 1909 Geoffrey Ingram Taylor 1909 Albert Einstein and 1916 1911 Lise Meitner and Otto Hahn Performed an experiment that showed that the energies of electrons emitted by beta decay had a continuous rather than discrete spectrum. Although this theory is not directly applicable to quantum mechanics. To test his 'plum pudding' model of 1904. Demonstrated that interference patterns of light were generated even when the light energy introduced consisted of only one photon. Discovers the existence of cosmic radiation. These anomalies were later explained by the discoveries of the neutrino and the neutron. which correctly modeled the light emission spectra of atomic hydrogen. later known as the planetary.

now called the Klein-Gordon equation 1925 Werner Heisenberg 1925 Wolfgang Pauli 1926 Gilbert N. when alpha particles were shot into nitrogen gas. which was known to have an atomic number of 1. and his investigations into the origin and nature of isotopes". directed valence bonds. whereby a part of the original atom was violently ejected as a radiant particle. Developed the matrix mechanics formulation of Quantum Mechanics. he coined the term "covalence" and postulated that coordinate covalent bonds occur when two electrons of a pair of atoms come from both atoms and are equally shared by them. which he decided must be the protons hypothesized by Eugen Goldstein. [14] subsequently published in 1932 as a basic textbook of quantum mechanics. Rutherford determined that the only place this hydrogen could have come from was the nitrogen. in 1922. Lewis 1926 Oskar Klein and Walter Gordon (physicist) 1926 Enrico Fermi 1926 Paul Dirac 1926 Erwin Schrödinger Discovered the spin-statistics theorem connection Introduced Fermi-Dirac statistics Used De Broglie’s electron wave postulate (1924) to develop a “wave equation” that represents mathematically the distribution of a charge of an electron distributed through space. Laid the mathematical foundations of Quantum Mechanics in terms of Hermitian operators on Hilbert spaces. This discovery. Coined the term photon. being spherically symmetric or prominent in certain directions.History of Quantum Mechanics 8 Noticed that. He thus suggested that the hydrogen nucleus.e. his scintillation detectors showed the signatures of hydrogen nuclei. was an elementary particle. Postulated that electrons in motion are associated with waves the lengths of which are given by Planck’s constant h divided by the momentum of the mv = p of the electron: λ = h / mv = h / p. The scattered quanta have less energy than the quanta of the original ray." or "Compton scattering" demonstrates the "particle" concept of electromagnetic radiation. φως (transliterated phôs). which gave the correct values for spectral lines of the hydrogen atom. thus explaining the fundamental nature of chemical bonding and molecular chemistry. His work on quantum mechanics provides the foundation for Bose-Einstein statistics. Stern-Gerlach experiment detects discrete values of angular momentum for atoms in the ground state passing through an inhomogeneous magnetic field leading to the discovery of the spin of the electron. and the discovery of the boson Postulated the existence of the electron spin 1918 Sir Ernest Rutherford 1919 Irving Langmuir 1921 Frederick Soddy and 1922 1922 Arthur Compton 1922 Otto Stern and Walther Gerlach 1923 Louis De Broglie 1924 Satyendra Nath Bose 1925 George Uhlenbeck and Samuel Goudsmit 1925 Friedrich Hund Outlined the “rule of maximum multiplicity” which states that when electrons are added successively to an atom as many levels or orbits are singly occupied as possible before any pairing of electrons with opposite spin occurs and made the distinction that the inner electrons in molecules remained in atomic orbitals and only the valence electrons needed to be in molecular orbitals involving both nuclei. Outlined the “Pauli exclusion principle” which states that no two identical fermions may occupy the same quantum state simultaneously. 1926 John von Neumann to 1932 1927 Werner Heisenberg 1927 Max Born 1927 Walter Heitler and Fritz London 1927 Thomas and Fermi developed the Thomas-Fermi model . and the remainder formed a totally new kind of atom with a distinct chemical and physical character". the theory of the Bose-Einstein condensate. and therefore nitrogen must contain hydrogen nuclei. Formulates the quantum uncertainty principle interpreted the probabilistic nature of wavefunctions Introduced the concepts of valence bond theory and applied it to the hydrogen molecule. Found that X-ray wavelengths increase due to scattering of the radiant energy by "free electrons". also introduced the Hamiltonian operator in quantum mechanics. he wrote in his Nobel Lecture of 1922:``The interpretation of radioactivity which was published in 1903 by Sir Ernest Rutherford and myself ascribed the phenomena to the spontaneous disintegration of the atoms of the radio-element. i. Building on the work of Lewis (1916). known as the "Compton effect. Stated their relativistic quantum wave equation. Received the Nobel Prize for 1921 in Chemistry one year later. which he derived from the Greek word for light. "for his contributions to our knowledge of the chemistry of radioactive substances.

introduced many new molecular orbital terminologies. atomic particle. an unusually penetrating radiation was produced. Outlined the nature of the chemical bond in which he used Heitler’s quantum mechanical covalent bond model (1927) to outline the quantum mechanical basis for all types of molecular structure and bonding and suggested that different types of bonds in molecules can become equalized by rapid shifting of electrons. such that resonance hybrids contain contributions from the different possible electronic configurations." He suggested that this "neutron" was also emitted during beta decay and had simply not yet been observed. a process called “resonance” (1931). 1931 John Lennard-Jones 1931 Walther Bothe and Herbert Becker 1931 Enrico Fermi . or lithium. Pauli suggested that. 1927 Robert Mulliken 1927 Hermann Klaus Hugo Weyl 1928 Paul Dirac 1928 Linus Pauling 1928 Friedrich Hund and Robert Introduce the concept of molecular orbital S. such as σ bond. in 1918. atoms also contained an extremely light neutral particle which he called the "neutron. posing a problem that would later by solved by theorizing (and later discovering) the existence of the neutrino. later in 1935 he introduced and characterized with [16] Richard Bauer the concept of spinor in n-dimensions. In the Dirac equations. although it was more penetrating than any gamma rays known. Later it was determined that this particle was actually the almost massless neutrino Proposes the Lennard-Jones interatomic potential Found that if the very energetic alpha particles emitted from polonium fell on certain light elements. and δ bond. to develop a molecular orbital theory where electrons are assigned to states that extend over an entire molecule and. to form a covalent bond. In 1927 Mulliken worked. Darwin and Walter Gordon 1927 Charles Drummond Ellis (along with James Chadwick and colleagues) 1927 Walter Heitler Finally established clearly that the beta decay spectrum is in fact continuous and not discrete. Mulliken 1929 Oskar Klein 1929 Oskar Klein and Yoshio Nishina 1929 Sir Nevill Mott 1929 John Lennard-Jones 1930 Paul Dirac 1930 Fritz London 1930 Wolfgang Pauli Discovers the Klein paradox Derive the Klein-Nishina cross section for high energy photon scattering by electrons Derives the Mott cross section for the Coulomb scattering of relativistic electrons Introduced the linear combination of atomic orbitals approximation for the calculation of molecular orbitals. Proved in collaboration with his student Fritz Peter a fundamental theorem in harmonic analysis—the Peter-Weyl theorem-. At first this radiation was thought to be gamma radiation. introduced the concept of gauge and a gauge theory. introduced the Weyl quantization. Renamed Pauli's "neutron" to neutrino to distinguish it from the then-hypothetical possibility of a much more massive neutron. Introduces electron hole theory Explains van der Waals forces as due to the interacting fluctuating dipole moments between molecules In a famous letter.relevant to group representations in quantum theory (including the complete reducibility [15] of unitary representations of a compact topological group). Paul Dirac integrated the principle of special relativity with quantum electrodynamics and hypothesized the existence of the positron. and earlier. with plus. Some scientists began to hypothesize the possible existence of another fundamental. specifically beryllium. in coordination with Hund. in 1932. π bond. boron. in addition to electrons and protons. minus.History of Quantum Mechanics 9 Studied optical photon scattering by electrons Stated his relativistic electron quantum wave equation Solved the Dirac equation for a Coulomb potential 1927 Chandrasekhara Raman 1927 Paul Dirac 1927 Charles G. and the details of experimental results were very difficult to interpret on this basis. Used Schrödinger’s wave equation (1926) to show how two hydrogen atom wavefunctions join together. and exchange terms.

using group theory. it was believed that the scalar fields of the fundamental forces necessitated massless particles. as it would be found in the field of the pion. The Jahn-Teller theorem essentially states that any non-linear molecule with a degenerate electronic ground state will undergo a geometrical distortion that removes that degeneracy. stating that such a potential arises from the exchange of a massive scalar field. Applied perturbation theory to the two-electron problem and showed how resonance arising from electron exchange could explain exchange forces.Semyonov 1934 Irène Joliot-Curie and Frédéric Joliot-Curie 1935 Hideki Yukawa Formulated his hypothesis of the Yukawa potential and predicted the existence of the pion. in fact. developed by Semyonov. Boolean logic with the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle of quantum mechanics as applied. but detailed quantitative analysis of the data became increasingly difficult to reconcile with such a hypothesis. Fritz Strassmann. Develops the total quantitative chain chemical reaction theory. Prior to Yukawa's paper. Discovered neutron multiplication in uranium. Published prior to Hideki Yukawa his relativistic quantum field equations for a massive vector meson of spin-1 as a basis for nuclear forces. 1936 Alexandru Proca 1936 Garrett Birkhoff and John von Neumann 1936 Carl D. Made the first accurate calculation of a molecular orbital wavefunction with the hydrogen molecule. He filed a patent for his idea of a simple nuclear reactor the following year. Discovered muons while he studied cosmic radiation. [20][21] current approaches to quantum logic involve noncommutative and non-associative many-valued logic. [22] Proved. correctly interpreted these results as being nuclear fission. and Otto Robert Frisch 1939 Leó Szilárd and Enrico Fermi . they communicated these results to Meitner.N. proving that a chain reaction was indeed possible. Discovered artificial radioactivity and were jointly awarded the 1935 Novel Prize in Chemistry [17] 1932 Irène Joliot-Curie and Frédéric Joliot 1932 James Chadwick 1932 Werner Heisenberg 1932 Mark Oliphant 1932 Carl D. The details of the Jahn-Teller effect are presented with several examples and EPR data in the basic textbook by Abragam and Bleaney (1970). such as position and momentum. it ejected protons of very high energy. fusion of light nuclei (hydrogen isotopes) was first observed by Oliphant in 1932. Hahn and Strassmann sent a manuscript to Naturwissenschaften reporting they had detected the element barium after bombarding uranium with neutrons. Anderson 1933 Leó Szilárd 1934 Enrico Fermi 1934 Enrico Fermi 1934 N. Published a very successful model of beta decay in which neutrinos were produced. Frisch confirmed this experimentally on 13 January 1939. The latter process is called the Jahn-Teller effect. The idea of the chain reaction. and he performed a series of experiments verifying his suggestion. First theorized the concept of a nuclear chain reaction. Lise Meitner. This was not in itself inconsistent with the proposed gamma ray nature of the new radiation. this effect was recently considered also in relation to the superconductivity mechanism in YBCO and other high temperature superconductors. Simultaneously. the new radiation consisted of uncharged particles of approximately the same mass as the proton. and that the new particles must be the neutrons hypothesized by Enrico Fermi.History of Quantum Mechanics 10 Showed that if the unknown radiation generated by alpha particles fell on paraffin or any other hydrogen-containing compound. and her nephew Frisch. The steps of the main cycle of nuclear fusion in stars were subsequently worked out by Hans Bethe throughout the remainder of that decade. that non-linear degenerate molecules are unstable. The idea was also used for the description of the nuclear reaction. to the measurement [19] of complementary (noncommuting) observables in quantum mechanics. Building upon the nuclear transmutation experiments of Ernest Rutherford done a few years earlier. is the basis of various high technologies using the incineration of gas mixtures. for example. Meitner. Performed a series of experiments showing that the gamma ray hypothesis for the unknown radiation produced by alpha particles was untenable. Anderson 1937 Carl Anderson 1937 Hermann Arthur Jahn and Edward Teller 1938 Charles Coulson 1938 Otto Hahn. Chadwick suggested that. [18] Introduced Quantum Logic in an attempt to reconcile the apparent inconsistency of classical. Studies the effects of bombarding uranium isotopes with neutrons. Experimentally proves the existence of the positron. because the distortion lowers the overall energy of the complex. Experimentally proves the existence of the pion.

putting rigorous molecular orbital methods on a firm basis. The Los Alamos Laboratory proposed a date in November 1952 for a Hydrogen bomb. J. one showing what appeared to be a neutral particle decaying into two charged pions. Edward Teller told a Scientific American reporter: "I contributed. Lead successfully the Manhattan Project. R. Packard). Gutowsky for their NMR contributions. completely novel concepts in this field. Independently introduced perturbative renormalization as a method of correcting the original Lagrangian of a quantum field theory so as to eliminate an infinite series of counterterms that would otherwise result. predicted quantum tunneling and proposed the Oppenheimer–Phillips process in nuclear fusion First nuclear fission explosion on July 16. More examples of these "V-particles" were slow in coming. Rochester and C. mathematician Were reported to have written jointly in March 1951 a classified report on “Hydrodynamic Lenses and Radiation Mirrors” that resulted in the next step in the Manhattan Project. Overhauser . 1942. he refused. and one which appeared to be a charged particle decaying into a charged pion and something neutral. physicist and Stanisław Ulam. 1945 in the Trinity test in New Mexico. and gave credit to his coworkers such as [29][30] Herbert S. In 1999. full-scale test that was apparently kept. C. W. Carver and Charles P. and M. D. Ulam did not. Published two cloud chamber photographs of cosmic ray-induced events. First planned fusion thermonuclear reaction experiment was carried out successfully in the Spring of 1951 at Eniwetok. Bethe who wrote in 1952:``the results of the calculations of Ulam and Fermi in 1950 (which were logical steps in the program) would have led nearly every scientist to give up the thermonuclear program altogether. also known as the Overhauser Effect. Overhauser was elected to the US National Academy of Sciences in 1974 and received the National Medal of Science in 1994. Slichter in 1953 1951 Manhattan Project and 1952 1951 Felix Bloch and Edward Mills Purcell 1952 Albert W. Determined the equivalence of the formulations of quantum electrodynamics that existed by that time — Richard Feynman's diagrammatic path integral formulation and the operator method developed by Julian Schwinger and Sin-Itiro Tomonaga. Ulam was rightly dissatisfied with an old approach. and they were soon given the name kaons. Formulated a theory of theory of the dynamic nuclear polarization. Reported the construction of the first hydrogen maser by coherent stimulation of radiation in molecular hydrogen. He was willing to sign a paper. called Chicago Pile-1 (CP-1). Stated the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics. When it then came to [24] defending that paper and really putting work into it. 1942 Kan-Chang Wang 1942 Enrico Fermi 1945 Julius Robert Oppenheimer 1945 Manhattan Project 1946 Theodor V. Received a shared Nobel Prize in Physics for their first observations of the quantum phenomenon of nuclear magnetic resonance reported in 1949 ("for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith"). Purcell reported his contribution as ``Research in Nuclear Magnetism".History of Quantum Mechanics 11 First proposed the use of beta capture to experimentally detect neutrinos. A by-product of that demonstration was the invention of the Dyson [23] series. Only Teller's persistent belief in the [25] practicality of thermonuclear reactions led to our present. as well as theoretical researchers of nuclear magnetism such as Professor Van Vleck. I'm sorry I had to answer it in this abrupt way.". about half a proton's mass. Hansen. in a racquets court below the bleachers of Stagg Field at the University of Chicago on December 2. He came to me with a part of an idea which I already had worked out and (had) difficulty getting people to listen to. Roothaan and George G. other contenders are the subsequent theory of Ionel Solomon reported in 1955 that includes the Solomon equations for dipolar coupled spin dynamics. Felix Bloch reported his NMR discovery as "the [26][27][28] Principle of Nuclear Induction" (in collaboration with W. Butler 1948 Sin-Itiro Tomonaga and Julian Schwinger 1948 Richard Feynman 1949 Freeman Dyson 1951 Clemens C. based only on the work of Edward Teller and Dr. Ionescu and Vasile Mihu 1947 G. and that of R. Created the first artificial self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction. He said: ``I don't believe in it". Hall 1951 Edward Teller--'Father of the Hydrogen bomb'. Derived the Roothaan-Hall equations. The general Overhauser [31] effect was first demonstrated experimentally by T. Hans A. The estimated mass of the new particles was very rough. Kaiser in 1963.

pp. Independently derived the Gell-Mann–Nishijima formula. together with R. Abdus Salam. received a Nobel prize in 1964 for his experimental success in producing coherent radiation by atoms and molecules. Subsequently. Yoichiro Nambu. in which it was proved that.History of Quantum Mechanics 12 Built and reported the first ammonia maser. for his important discoveries he was elected Fellow of the Royal Society in 1984. One notes however that the importance of symmetry breaking for superconductivity was already pointed out in 1973 by Brian David Josephson in his Nobel lecture. Predicted that self-sustaining nuclear chain reactions should occur in natural uranium deposits. leading to the successful formulation of both electroweak unification and quantum chromodynamics. FRS 1976 Proposed their quantum BCS theory of low temperature superconductivity as a macroscopic quantum coherence phenomenon involving phonon coupled electron pairs with opposite spin. Slichter Extended the electroweak unification models developed by Julian Schwinger by including a short range neutral current. it surpasses by far both the earlier textbook by E. ultimately.(collaborating with J. 1955 Murray Gell-Mann and and Kazuhiko Nishijima 1956 1956 P. eventually leading to the systematic categorization of hadrons and. and subsequently in 1964 carried out pioneering experiments with nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (NMRI) [49][50][51][52][53][54][55] [56] also in solids. confirming that massive particles also behaved according to the wave-particle duality that is a fundamental principle of quantum field theory. they explained how the abundances of essentially all but the lightest chemical elements could be explained by the process of nucleosynthesis in stars. Melvin Schwartz and Jack Steinberger 1962 Murray Gell-Mann and Yuval Ne'eman 1962 Jeffrey Goldstone. Gordon. the Z_o." and which ultimately led to the quark model (1964) of hadron composition. for which their received a Nobel prize in 1972. the Quark Model of hadron composition. then in 1958 he discovered the magic angle spinning (MAS) technique for obtaining resolved chemical shifts in [32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46] [47][48] solids. In their 1957 paper Synthesis of the Elements in Stars. Margaret Burbidge. 599. OCLC 242700 (1961). and H. Experimentally proved the existence of the neutrino. and the isospin Iz of hadrons to the charge Q. The resulting symmetry structure that Glashow proposed. Kuroda 1956 Clyde L. the strangeness S. SU(2) X U(1). thereafter called Nambu-Goldstone bosons.R. Leon Cooper and John Robert Schrieffer 1957 William Alfred Fowler. 1953 Charles H. Developed what is now known as Goldstone's Theorem. and Steven Weinberg Independently classified the hadrons according to a system that Gell-Mann called the "Eightfold Way. Geoffrey Burbidge. Zeiger) 1954 Chen Ning Yang and Robert Mills 1955 Ionel Solomon Derived a gauge theory for nonabelian groups. . and the Magnetic Resonance textbook [58] published two years later by Professor Charles P. if there is continuous symmetry transformation under which the Lagrangian is invariant. including Knight shifts in metals. which relates the baryon number B. Made critical field measurements on superconducting tin foils in 1949 for his PhD. Lederman. Eades he published an important theoretical paper on the separation of [57] intramolecular and intermolecular contributions to the Van Vleck second moment of the NMR spectrum Performed Young's double-slit experiment (1909) for the first time with particles other than photons by using electrons and with similar results. Showed that more than one type of neutrino exists by detecting interactions of the muon neutrino (already hypothesised with the name "neutretto") 1961 Clauss Jönsson 1961 Anatole Abragam 1961 Sheldon Lee Glashow 1962 Leon M. then either the vacuum state is also invariant under the transformation. formed the basis of the accepted theory of the electroweak interactions. P. Cowan and Frederick Reines 1957 John Bardeen. Clarendon Press: Oxford. Andrew published in 1955. J. or there must exist spinless particles of zero mass. Townes. First nuclear magnetic resonance theory of magnetic dipole coupled nuclear spins and of the Nuclear Overhauser Effect (NOE).G. in 2004 Steven Weinberg explained in his 3-volume book on "Quantum Field Theory" that low temperature superconductivity could not be explained by the BCS model alone without the appearance of Goldstone bosons upon symmetry breaking. and Fred Hoyle 1958 Edward Raymond and Andrew. Published in 1961 the fundamental textbook on the quantum theory of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance entitled ``The Principles of Nuclear Magnetism".

particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles". received in 1977 a Nobel prize in Physics for their investigations into the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems. Gell-Mann is credited with coining the term "quark. such as protons and neutrons. Jensen 1963 Nicola Cabibbo 1964 Murray Gell-Mann and George Zweig 1964 François Englert. such as glasses and amorphous semiconductors. Robert Brout. Prokhorov 1967 Steven Weinberg and Abdus Salam 1968 Stanford University 1969 Sir Neville Mott and to Philip Warren Anderson 1977 1969 Theodor V. In October of the same year. and implied a mass formula that correctly reproduced the masses of the known mesons. While the Higgs field is postulated to confer mass on quarks and leptons. Published a paper in which he described Yang-Mills Theory using the SU(2) X U(1) supersymmetry group. point-like objects and was therefore not an elementary particle. Radu and Pârvan and I. instead calling them "partons" — a term coined by Richard Feynman. he applied his theory to coupled superconductors. tunnelling supercurrent effect was later demonstrated experimentally at Bell Labs in the USA.which allowed for the development of electronic switching and memory devices in computers. by way of the Higgs mechanism. which gives mass to vector bosons. Peter Higgs. he shared half of his Nobel prize in Physics with Maria Goeppert-Mayer and J. antiquarks. Wigner one half of the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1963 "for their discoveries concerning [60] nuclear shell structure theory". respectively. "parton" remains in use as a collective term for the constituents of hadrons (quarks. The addition was proposed because it allowed for a better description of the weak interaction (the mechanism that allows quarks and other particles to decay). who worked out the results by the spring of 1963. Nevertheless. he established the fundamentals of the quantum mechanical theory of magnetism and the crystal field theory (chemical bonding in metal complexes) and is regarded as the Father of modern Magnetism. Shared with Eugene P. was theorized in 1964 by François Englert and Robert Brout. Hans D. but it provided an explanation for the kaon (K) and pion (π) hadrons discovered in cosmic rays in 1947. shared with John Hasbrouck Van Vleck for his contributions to the understanding of the behavior of electrons in magnetic solids. [61] [62] and Tom Kibble [63][64] [65] [66] [67] 1964 Sheldon Lee Glashow and James Bjorken 1964 Nikolai G. Hagen. working from the ideas of Philip Anderson reached the same conclusions. and Tom Kibble. Independently proposed the quark model of hadrons.History of Quantum Mechanics 13 1962 Brian David Josephson. Wigner 1963 Maria Goeppert Mayer and J. Observed and reported quantum amplified stimulation of electromagnetic radiation in hot deuterium plasmas in a longitudinal magnetic field. R. Gerald Guralnik. 1963 Eugene P. in 1964. The Josephson. Laid the foundation for the theory of symmetries in quantum mechanics as well as for basic research into the structure of the atomic nucleus. the inventor of the ammonium maser. Townes. The strange quark's existence was indirectly validated by the SLAC's scattering experiments: not only was it a necessary component of Gell-Mann and Zweig's three-quark model. Basov and Aleksandr M. Peter Higgs. The Higgs mechanism. to FRS 1973 Predicted correctly the quantum tunnelling effect involving supercurrents while he was a PhD student under the supervision of Professor Brian Pippard at the Royal Society Mond Laboratory in Cambridge. R. C. Hans D. UK. subsequently. Shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1964 for. they also shared the prize with Charles H. Postulated that a fundamental quantum field. In these. independently. C. published a quantum theory of the amplified coherent emission of radiowaves and microwaves by focused electron beams coupled to ions in hot plasmas. Jensen. Predicted the existence of the charm quark. down. permeates space and. Published quantum theories for electrons in non-crystalline solids. gluons that bind quarks together confer most of the particle mass. and. semiconductor lasers and Quantum Electronics. it represents only a tiny portion of the masses of other subatomic particles.C. Developed the mathematical matrix by which the first two (and ultimately three) generations of quarks could be predicted. For his important quantum discovery he was [59] awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1973. made important "contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles. such as Proca's vector spin-1 mesons. Baianu 1970 . equalized the number of known quarks with the number of known leptons. and gluons). Hagen. Deep inelastic scattering experiments at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) showed that the proton contained much smaller." which he found in James Joyce's book Finnegans Wake. The objects that were observed at SLAC would later be identified as up and down quarks. now called the Higgs field. Ionescu. thereby yielding a mass for the W particle of the Weak Interaction via spontaneous symmetry breaking. by Gerald Guralnik. provides mass to all the elementary subatomic particles that interact with it. Physicists at the time were reluctant to identify these objects with quarks. and strange quarks. predicting the arbitrarily named up.

Introduced two-dimensional FT-NMR Spectroscopy at the Ampere Summer School in Basko Polje. Ionescu et al. if the symmetries of Yang-Mills Theory were to be broken according to the method suggested by Peter Higgs. received a Nobel prize for early low temperature physics experiments on helium superfluidity carried out in 1937 at the Cavendish Laboratory in Cambridge. nuclear chain reactions had occurred. particularly the theory of dissipative structures". Observed new phenomena in hot deuterium plasmas excited by very high power microwaves in attempts to obtain controlled thermonuclear fusion reactions in such plasmas placed in longitudinal magnetic fields. and one at Brookhaven National Laboratory under Samuel Ting. The two discovering parties had independently assigned the discovered meson two different symbols. Goldman and M. The renormalization of Yang-Mills Theory predicted the existence of a massless particle. especially the time superoperator theory. 1974 Burton Richter and Samuel Ting 1975 Martin Lewis Perl 1977 Leon Lederman 1977 Ilya Prigogine 1978 Pyotr Kapitsa . professor 1972 Francis Perrin 1973 Frank Anthony Wilczek 1973 Makoto Kobayashi and Toshihide Maskawa 1973 Peter Mansfield 1974 Pier Giorgio Merli Performed Young's double-slit experiment (1909) using a single electron with similar results. Observed the bottom quark with his team at Fermilab. irreversible thermodynamics and quantum operator theory. Bleaney Presented an extensive quantum theory of Electron Paramagnetic Resonance of transition ions with thoroughly worked out examples in an encyclopedic style that remains todate a key. F-91944 Les Ulis cedex A. which is widely appreciated in the quantum mechanics [68][69] community. 1978. Veltman and Gerardus 't Hooft 1971 Jean Jeener. Discovered the existence of "natural nuclear fission reactors" in uranium deposits in Oklo. H. ``it has shown an unprecedented impact on the development of state-of-the-art NMR spectroscopy. which could explain the nuclear Strong Force. in 1969. thus. solid-state NMR physicist. Charm quarks were produced almost simultaneously by two teams in November 1974 (see November Revolution) — one at SLAC under Burton Richter. the W and Z bosons. UK.History of Quantum Mechanics 14 Predicted the charmed quark that was subsequently found experimentally and shared a Nobel prize for their theoretical prediction. With his colleagues at the SLAC–LBL group. biology and material science". The conditions under which a natural nuclear reactor could exist were predicted in 1956 by P. Van Vleck. Avenue du Hoggar. France (1994). and discussed his 1977 thermonuclear reactor results in his Nobel lecture on December 8. This discovery was a strong indicator of the top quark's existence: without the top quark. confirming the existence of quantum fields for massive particles. G. Discovered the quark asymptotic freedom in the theory of strong interactions. Porneuf. the bottom quark would have been without a partner that was required by the mathematics of the theory. BP 112. Yugoslavia. Showed that. similar in concept to that reported by Theodor V. The charm quarks were observed bound with charm antiquarks in mesons. in September 1971. The two new quarks were eventually named top and bottom. Developed non-equilibrium. where analysis of isotope ratios demonstrated that self-sustaining. he detected the tau in a series of experiments between 1974 and 1977. and the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2004 for his discovery and his subsequent contributions to Quantum [70] Chromodynamics. Formulated the physical theory of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Imaging (NMRI) [71][72][73][74] 1971 Martinus J. it became formally known as the J/ψ meson. his unpublished lecture notes for this presentation were later published in “NMR and More in Honour of Anatole Abragam”. he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1977 "for his contributions to [75] non-equilibrium thermodynamics. using a novel and low-cost design of thermonuclear reactor. Kuroda. M. then Yang-Mills theory can be renormalized. any multiple-dimensional NMR experiment introduced so far relies on the method proposed by Jean Jeener. Les editions de physique. Countless examples can be found in both liquid-state and solid-state NMR. Zone Industrielle de Courtaboeuf. Noted that the experimental observation of CP violation could be explained if an additional pair of quarks existed. Eds. John Iliopoulos and Luciano Maiani 1970 Anatole Abragam and B. this unsurpassed quantum textbook. Gabon. was dedicated to J. as well as in NMR imaging applications in medicine. The discovery finally convinced the physics community of the quark model's validity. called the gluon. 1970 Sheldon Lee Glashow. In principle. J and ψ. obtained their mass via spontaneous symmetry breaking and the Yukawa interaction. enormous reference book. received the Lorentz Medal in 2002. significantly. It also explained how the particles of the Weak Interaction.

The top quark was finally observed by a team at Fermilab after an 18-year search. Began operation of the largest and most powerful.History of Quantum Mechanics 15 1979 Kenneth A. JT-60 claimed an equivalent energy gain factor. 1987. large-scale nuclear fusion reactor. JT-60 was disassembled in 2010 in order to be upgraded to a more powerful nuclear fusion reactor—the JT-60SA—by using niobium-titanium superconducting coils for the magnet confining the ultra-hot D-D plasma. operates with T-D plasma pulses and had a reported gain factor Q of 0. which is a necessary condition for the solvability of statistical mechanics models.6 s in full operation. FENiPB metallic glasses and interpreted the experimental results in terms of two-magnon [76] dispersion and a spin exchange Hamiltonian. energy and a [81] steady fusion power of 4 MW which was maintained for 4 seconds.77 × 1028 K·s·m−3 = [82] 1. a high-power microwave gyrotron construction was completed which is capable [83] of 1. Developed Two-Dimensional Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (2D-FT NMRS) for small molecules in solution and was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1991 "for his contributions to the development of [92] the methodology of high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy". and on May 9. a 3MA plasma [79] current and an electron density of 1. which can be used to factorize the R-matrix corresponding to the solution of the Yang–Baxter equation associated with a quasitriangular Hopf algebra. Operated since 1982. currently run by the Japan Atomic Energy Agency's (JAEA) Naka Fusion Institute in the Ibaraki Prefecture.. 2006 attained a fusion hold time of 28. and also connected them to the study of the Yang–Baxter equation. Ernst 1977 Fermilab to 1995 .7 in 2009. Produced unambiguous experimental proof of high temperature superconductivity involving Jahn-Teller polarons in orthorhombic La_2CuO_4.53 × 1021 keV·s·m−3. The actual experiments were called UA1 (led by Rubbia) and UA2 (led by Peter Jenni). in 2010 JT-60 held the record for the highest value of the fusion triple product achieved: 1.. experimental nuclear fusion tokamak reactor in the world at Culham Facility in UK. Verified experimentally the quantum entanglement hypothesis.7MW of controlled fusion power for only 0.5keV" Unambiguous signals of W particles were seen in January 1983 during a series of experiments conducted by Carlo Rubbia and Simon van der Meer at the Super Proton Synchrotron. Rubinson and coworkers Observed at the Cavendish Laboratory ferromagnetic spin wave resonant excitations (FSWR) in locally anisotropic. and a 2800 ton iron magnet for confinement. he also generalized Hopf algebras to quasi-Hopf algebras. produced 10.25 if it would have been operated with a T-D plasma instead of the D-D plasma. promptly received a Nobel [84] prize in 1987 and delivered their Nobel lecture on December 8. his ``Bell test" experiments provided strong evidence that a quantum event at one location can affect an event at another location without any obvious [77][78] mechanism for communication between the two locations. Began operation in 1985 with an experimental D-D nuclear fusion tokamak similar to JET. and introduced the study of Drinfeld twists. and were the collaborative effort of many people. 1997 Princeton. moreover. It had a mass much greater than had been previously expected — almost as great as a gold atom. Introduced the concept of 'quantum groups' as Hopf algebras in his seminal address on quantum theory at the International Congress of Mathematicians.5MW output for 1s.21s in 1994 by using T-D nuclear fusion in a tokamak reactor with ``a toroidal 6T magnetic field for plasma confinement. similar in form to that of a Heisenberg ferromagnet. USA 1983 Carlo Rubbia and Simon van der Meer 1983 JET to 2011 1985 JT-60 (Japan Torus) to 2010 1986 Johannes Georg Bednorz and Karl Alexander Müller 1986 Vladimir Gershonovich Drinfel'd 1988 Mihai Gavrilă to 1998 1991 Richard R. in May 1983. with [80] an input of 40MW for plasma heating. Q of 1.. Simon van der Meer was the driving force on the use of the accelerator. UA1 and UA2 found the Z particle a few months later.0 x 10**20 m-3 of 13. YBCO and other perovskite-type oxides. Discovered in 1988 the new quantum phenomenon of Atomic Dichotomy in hydrogen and subsequently published a book on the atomic structure and decay in high-frequency fields of hydrogen atoms placed in [85][86][87][88][89][90][91] ultra-intense laser fields. 1980 Alain Aspect to 1982 1982 Tokamak Fusion Test to Reactor(TFTR) at PPPL. a total of 22 MJ of fusion. thus meeting the conditions for the planned ITER. in 1997 in a tritium-deuterium experiment JET produced 16 MW of fusion power.

PPPL launched a nuclear fusion project on February 12. as shown in the earlier experiments with the CDX-U toroidal lithium tray where a 50% recycling coefficient was measured. and superfluids such as Helium-3. an independent effort led by Wolfgang Ketterle at MIT created a condensate made of sodium-23. L. A. the proceedings of the meeting were published in 2003 in a [94] book edited by the meeting organizer Received the 2003 Nobel Prize in Physics for pioneering contributions to the quantum theory of superconductors. Princeton. including a neutral beam injector. 2001 The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (Canada) 2002 Leonid Vainerman Organized at Strasbourg a meeting of theoretical physicists and mathematicians focused on quantum group and quantum groupoid applications in quantum theories. [95][96][97][98][99] and especially his NMR Studies of High-Temperature Superconductors. together with Anton Zeilinger and John Clauser[101] 2010 . CERN scientists publish experimental results in which they claim to have observed indirect evidence of the existence of a quark-gluon plasma.History of Quantum Mechanics 16 1995 Eric Cornell. and Wolfgang Ketterle They did this by cooling a dilute vapor consisting of approximately two thousand rubidium-87 atoms to below 170 nK using a combination of laser cooling and magnetic evaporative cooling. Carl Wieman The first "pure" Bose–Einstein condensate was created by Eric Cornell. KBE. thus avoiding plasma cooling by hot plasma particles reflected at the walls. Generated a quark-gluon fluid. Carl Wieman. implying that at least one neutrino has mass. NSTX is being used [93] to study the physics principles of spherically shaped plasmas. Ketterle's condensate had about a hundred times more atoms. USA 2000 CERN Reported experimental evidence for neutrino oscillations. and the University of Washington at Seattle". Columbia University. allowing him to obtain several important results such as the observation of quantum mechanical interference between two different condensates. 1998 Super-Kamiokande (Japan) detector facility 1999 NSTX—The National to Spherical Torus 2013 Experiment at PPPL. shared with V. Started in September 2008—based on the Andrei Zakharov theory—using a very thin lithium metal layer (<40 [100] microns) on the inside surface of a 'small' tokamak reactor—facing the ultra-hot plasma. it was however planned to achieve only 400kA plasma currents in 100 ms pulses in the Spring of 2009. but was expected to achieve higher plasma ignition temperatures than in other tokamaks that do not utilize the liquid lithium—plasma interface so that the lithium would "soak up the particles at the plasma edge". FRS 2005 The RHIC accelerator of Brookhaven National Laboratory 2007 Charles Pence Slichter to 2010 2008 Lithium Tokamak to Experiment (LTX) 2010 Was awarded the National Medal of Science in 2007 for his studies of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance in Solids. About four months later. and then to be re-started during 2011." Confirmed the existence of neutrino oscillations. Anton Presented progess with the resolution of the non-locality aspect of quantum theory and was awarded in 2010 the to Zeilinger and John Clauser Wolf Prize in Physics. which they call a "new state of matter. perhaps the quark-gluon plasma 2003 Sir Anthony James Leggett. that is 35% lower than in the TFTR. in CDX-U the measured thickness of the coating lithium layer was on the order of 10 nm. and co-workers at JILA. Ginzburg and A. 1999 for ``an innovative magnetic fusion device that was constructed by the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in collaboration with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. shut down for upgrades in 2010. 2007 Alain Aspect. Abrikosov.

which showed that electric charge occurs as quanta (whole units). particles of light with quantized energy • Robert Millikan's oil-drop experiment. J. Founding experiments • • • • Thomas Young's double-slit experiment demonstrating the wave nature of light (c1805) Henri Becquerel discovers radioactivity (1896) J. which demonstrates the quantized nature of particle spin (1920) .History of Quantum Mechanics 17 Received the Nobel Prize in Physics ``for groundbreaking experiments regarding the two-dimensional material graphene" 2010 Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov Graphene is a planar atomic-scale honeycomb lattice made of carbon atoms which exhibits unusual and interesting quantum properties. which could not be explained without quantum concepts. without any gap between the two sets. (1911) • Otto Stern and Walther Gerlach conduct the Stern-Gerlach experiment. (1909) • Ernest Rutherford's gold foil experiment disproved the plum pudding model of the atom which suggested that the mass and positive charge of the atom are almost uniformly distributed. • The photoelectric effect: Einstein explained this in 1905 (and later received a Nobel prize for it) using the concept of photons. Energy states of the electrons with wavenumber k in graphene. Occupied states are shown in green and touch the unoccupied states (colored in blue) at the six k-vectors. Thomson's cathode ray tube experiments (discovers the electron and its negative charge) (1897) The study of black body radiation between 1850 and 1900.

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American Journal of Mathematics (The Johns Hopkins University Press) 57 (2): 425–449.1098/rspa.History of Quantum Mechanics • Clinton Davisson and Lester Germer demonstrate the wave nature of the electron[102] in the Electron diffraction experiment (1927) • Clyde L. "Erwin Schrodinger's Reaction to Louis de Broglie's Thesis on the Quantum Theory. N-valued Logics and Łukasiewicz-Moisil Algebras. W. [9] Becquerel. Omnès. Also discusses consistent histories. Mathematical and Physical Sciences (1934-1990) 161 (905): 220–235. Richard.17 (1949) 972. 1736 (1949) [24] Stix. Henri (1896).. Part I: Lattice Field Theories. Phys. "Spinors in n dimensions". pdf) [18] Garrett Birkhoff and J. December 12.1119/1. Teller (1937). R. Kistiakowsky. J. cfm?id=infamy-and-honor-at-the-a& page=1) [25] http:/ / www. Annals of Mathematics. May 28. "Sur les radiations émises par phosphorescence". of Cambridge. [19] R. P.. 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arXiv:quant-ph/0609184. This is a thorough and well-illustrated introduction. Foundations of Quantum Physics. Cambridge. pp. Space and Logic". A.and II.html) • A Brief History of Quantum Mechanics (http://www. "Matter. Benjamin. 1999. 1976. 1989. • R. 1983. 1963 (paperback reprint by Dover 2004). The conceptual development of quantum mechanics.Y.com/?id=j0Me3brYOL0C& printsec=frontcover). Springer-Verlag. • R. Isometries of Operator Algebras.st-and. OCLC 969760 • F. Cambridge. Springer-Verlag. ISBN 9780521814218. Flato. 1951 • G. Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science V: 1969. Antony (2009).ac.mpiwg-berlin. Mackey. An Introduction to Hilbert Space and Quantum Logic. Kadison. Phys. Gleason. 111 (1978) pp. Bayen. pp. Massachusetts: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. • D.de/) . Foundations of Quantum Mechanics. Fronsdal. 111-151. Quantum theory at the crossroads: reconsidering the 1927 Solvay conference.History of Quantum Mechanics 21 Further reading • Bacciagaluppi. Princeton University Press. Bibcode 2006quant. 1950.html) • Homepage of the Quantum History Project (http://quantum-history. Understanding Quantum Mechanics. W. Jeremy (2009). Benjamin. pp. Ludwig. • A. 325–338. • Finkelstein. • C. C. Piron. Ann. Lichnerowicz and D. 36(3). Annals of Mathematics..). Quantum Leaps (http://books. ISBN 0471439584. with careful attention to the history of the subject). Omnès.uk/~history/HistTopics/ The_Quantum_age_begins. Dover Publications. A.dcs. 1957. Max (1966). ACM SIGACT News. External links • A History of Quantum Mechanics (http://www-groups. New York: Wiley. • N. Deformation theory and quantization I. Guido. Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics. W. 54. (Discusses logical and philosophical issues of quantum mechanics. Measures on the Closed Subspaces of a Hilbert Space. 51–66. Valentini. A. 2005.ph. 9184. Vol. • G.google.. New York: McGraw-Hill. UK: Cambridge University Press. 61–110.9184B. Papanikolaou. Sternheimer. M. Max (1974). The Theory of Groups and Quantum Mechanics. The philosophy of quantum mechanics: The interpretations of quantum mechanics in historical perspective.mpg. Reasoning Formally About Quantum Systems: An Overview. ISBN 9780674035416 • Jammer. OCLC 227191829 • Bernstein. D. (N. Cohen.oberlin. • Hermann Weyl. OCLC 534562 • Jammer.edu/physics/dstyer/StrangeQM/history. Journal of Mathematics and Mechanics.

the colours.[1] Coming to terms with these limitations led to the development of quantum mechanics. Max Born. Put another way. Paul Dirac. Werner Heisenberg. measuring position first and then measuring momentum does not have the same outcome as measuring momentum first and then measuring position. Left to right: Max Planck. where classical physics is an excellent approximation. regardless of the distance separating them — though this may be regarded as merely a mathematical anomaly. the act of measuring the first property necessarily introduces additional energy into the micro-system being studied. Wolfgang Pauli.[2] These concepts are described in roughly the order they were first discovered. Some aspects of quantum mechanics can seem counter-intuitive. But quantum mechanics theory ordains that the more closely one pins down one measure (such as the position of a particle)."[3] Many types of energy. Niels Bohr. and the spectral intensities of all forms of electromagnetic radiation. Albert Einstein. Richard Feynman. such as photons (discrete units of light). It remains the key to measurement for much of modern science and technology. Even more disconcerting. the less precise another measurement pertaining to the same particle (such as its momentum) must become. a major revolution in physics. quantum mechanics deals with "nature as she is — absurd. but at the end of the 19th Century observers discovered phenomena in both the large (macro) and the small (micro) worlds that classical physics could not explain. Louis de Broglie. . Radiators of photons (such as neon lights) have emission spectra that are discontinuous. This article describes how physicists discovered the limitations of classical physics and developed the main concepts of the quantum theory that replaced them in the early decades of the 20th century. Quantum mechanics predicts the energies. behave in some respects like particles and in other respects like waves. rather than a real one. Erwin Schrödinger. for a more complete history of the subject. because they describe behavior quite different than that seen at larger length scales. Classical physics explains matter and energy at the macroscopic level of the scale familiar to human experience. pairs of particles can be created as entangled twins — which means that a measurement which pins down one property of one of the particles will instantaneously pin down the same or another property of its entangled twin.Basic Concepts of Quantum Mechanics 22 Basic Concepts of Quantum Mechanics Quantum mechanics is the body of scientific principles that explains the behavior of matter and its interactions with energy on the scale of atoms and atomic particles. In the words of Richard Feynman. see History of quantum mechanics. including the behavior of astronomical bodies. in that only certain frequencies of light are present. thereby perturbing that system.

and the radiation it emits is called black body radiation. according to Planck. To reproduce the experimental results he had to assume that each oscillator produced an integral number of units of energy at its single characteristic frequency. red and Wien approximation. Heating it further causes the colour to change from red to yellow to blue to white.[8] . Correct values (green) contrasted against the classical values (Rayleigh-Jeans law. Physicists were searching for a single theory that explained why they got the experimental results that they did. Consequently. This result. In the late 19th century. at short wavelengths. It turns out that a perfect emitter is also a perfect absorber. Everything else in the picture is glowing with thermal radiation as well. and Planck won the Nobel Prize in 1918 "in recognition of the services he rendered to the advancement of Physics by his discovery of energy quanta. as light at shorter wavelengths (higher frequencies) begins to be emitted. it starts to emit light at the red end of the spectrum — it is red hot. the energy of each oscillator was "quantized. In other words.[4] He modeled the thermal radiation as being in equilibrium. usually written as h. The yellow-orange glow is the visible part of the thermal radiation emitted due to the high temperature."[5] The quantum of energy for each oscillator. classical physics was unable to explain the relationship between temperatures and predominant frequencies of radiation.Basic Concepts of Quantum Mechanics 23 The first quantum theory: Max Planck and black body radiation Thermal radiation is electromagnetic radiation emitted from the surface of an object due to the object's temperature. blue). using a set of harmonic oscillators. was proportional to the frequency of the oscillator. but less brightly and at longer wavelengths than the human eye can detect. When it is cold. A far-infrared camera can observe this radiation. In fact.63 × 10−34 J s. an ideal thermal emitter is known as a black body. is known as the ultraviolet catastrophe. rather than being able to emit any arbitrary amount of energy. The first model that was able to explain the full spectrum of thermal radiation was put forward by Max Planck in 1900. How the wavelength at which the radiation is strongest changes with temperature is given by Wien's displacement law. however. The Planck constant. has the value 6. such an object looks perfectly black. thermal radiation had been fairly well-characterized experimentally. However. the constant of proportionality is now known as the Planck constant. Planck's view was that quantization was purely a mathematical trick. rather than (as we now know) a fundamental change in our understanding of the world. Planck's law was the first quantum theory in physics. and the overall power emitted per unit area is given by the Stefan–Boltzmann law. If an object is heated sufficiently. and so the energy E of an oscillator of frequency f is given by [6] Hot metalwork from a blacksmith."[7] At the time. which is clearly wrong. classical physics predicted that energy will be emitted by a hot body at an infinite rate. because it absorbs all the light that falls on it and emits none.

no electrons are ejected regardless of the intensity. the wave analogy remained indispensable for helping to understand other characteristics of light. . This observation is at odds with classical electromagnetism. described in the following section. which are the complete set of laws of Kamerlingh Onnes at the University of Leiden in 1920 classical electromagnetism.[10] To explain the threshold effect. Einstein argued that it takes a certain amount of energy. at most. denoted by φ.[10] Therefore. Einstein's ideas were met initially with great scepticism. The ejected electron has a kinetic energy EK which is. is different for every metal.[10] In 1902 Philipp Lenard discovered that the maximum possible energy of an ejected electron is related to the frequency of the light. The photoelectric effect In 1887 Heinrich Hertz observed that light can eject electrons from metal.[12] only its frequency determines the maximum energy that can be imparted to the electron. scientists had debated between two possible theories of light: was it a wave or did it instead comprise a stream of tiny particles? By the 19th century. left) is shone upon a metal. Because of the preponderance of evidence in favour of the wave theory. one of the most significant pieces of evidence in its favour was its ability to explain several puzzling properties of the photoelectric effect.[11]:24 Einstein explained the effect by postulating that a beam of light is a stream of particles (photons). Nonetheless. if the frequency is too low. Albert Einstein took an extra step.e. James Clerk Maxwell had shown that electricity. such as diffraction. equal to the photon's energy minus the energy needed to dislodge the electron from the metal: Light (red arrows. which are now called photons. magnetism and light are all manifestations of the same phenomenon: the Einstein's portrait by Harm electromagnetic field. as it was able to explain observed effects such as refraction. the photon model became favoured. He suggested that quantisation was not just a mathematical trick: the energy in a beam of light occurs in individual packets. describe light as waves: a combination of oscillating electric and magnetic fields. to remove an electron from the metal. f0. which imparts at most an energy hf to the electron. The threshold frequency. the intensity of the beam has no effect. sufficient energy). called the work function. diffraction and polarization. right). electrons are ejected (blue arrows. The lowest frequency of light that causes electrons to be emitted. called the threshold frequency. the energy hf is enough to remove an electron. If the energy of the photon is less than the work function then it does not carry sufficient energy to remove the electron from the metal. however. and that if the beam is of frequency f then each photon has an energy equal to hf. not to its intensity. Maxwell's equations. which predicts that the electron's energy should be proportional to the intensity of the radiation. is the frequency of a photon whose energy is equal to the work function: If f is greater than f0. the debate was generally considered to have been settled in favour of the wave theory. If the light is of sufficient frequency (i.Basic Concepts of Quantum Mechanics 24 Photons: the quantisation of light In 1905.[10] An electron is likely to be struck only by a single photon. Eventually.[10] This amount of energy is different for each metal.[9] The energy of a single photon is given by its frequency multiplied by Planck's constant: For centuries.

which will be at their equilibrium level. blue light. and increasing its temperature changes the quanta of energy that are available to excite individual atoms to higher levels and permit them to emit photons of higher frequencies. They discovered that strong beams of light toward the red end of the spectrum might produce no electrical potential at all. Light of low frequency could carry more energy only for the same reason.e. All photons of the same frequency have identical energy. But that is not so for otherwise larger suns and larger pieces of iron in a forge would glow with colours more toward the violet end of the spectrum. is quantised). Therefore anomalous results may occur in the case of individual electrons. may both be said to contain a great deal of energy. the particle account of light was being "compromised". To change the color of such a radiating body it is necessary to change its temperature. green light. If it were true that all photons carry the same energy. The sun emits photons continuously at all electromagnetic frequencies. The total energy emitted per unit of time by a sun or by a piece of iron in a forge depends on both the number of photons emitted per unit of time and also on the amount of energy carried by each of the photons involved. It might be surmised that adding continuously to the total energy of some radiating body would make it radiate red light. yellow light. and all photons of different frequencies have proportionally different energies. orange light. the characteristic frequency of a radiating body is dependent on its temperature. A photon of infrared light will deliver a lower amount of energy—only enough to warm one's skin. Einstein's idea that individual units of light may contain different amounts of energy depending on their frequency made it possible to explain the experimental results that hitherto had seemed quite counter-intuitive. it would not be correct to talk of a "high energy" photon. This point is helpful in comprehending the distinction between the study of individual particles in quantum dynamics and the study of massed particles in classical physics. but it cannot give anyone a sunburn. and that weak beams of light toward the violet end of the spectrum would produce higher and higher voltages. so they appear to propagate as a continuous wave. Once again. An electron that was already excited above the equilibrium level of the photoelectric device might be ejected when it absorbed uncharacteristically low frequency illumination. and so on in that order. A photon of ultraviolet light will deliver a high amount of energy—enough to contribute to cellular damage such as occurs in a sunburn. However. In nature. the effect that makes the light meters of modern cameras work. although the photon is a particle it was still being described as having the wave-like property of frequency. but only depending on their frequencies. If each individual photon had identical energy. A sun that radiates red light. So when physicists first discovered devices exhibiting the photoelectric effect. the characteristic behavior of a photoelectric device will reflect the behavior of the vast majority of its electrons. In other words. then if you doubled the rate of photon delivery. So an infrared lamp can warm a large surface. but visible or infrared light cannot. Light of high frequency could carry more energy only because of flooding a surface with more photons arriving per second. 25 . violet light. When physicists were looking only at beams of light containing huge numbers of individual and virtually indistinguishable photons it was difficult to understand the importance of the energy levels of individual photons. Einstein rejected that wave-dependent classical approach in favour of a particle-based analysis where the energy of the particle must be absolute and varies with frequency in discrete steps (i. The emission sources available to Hertz and Lennard in the 19th century shared that characteristic. perhaps large enough to keep people comfortable in a cold room. Although the energy imparted by photons is invariant at any given frequency. In other words. not as discrete units. they initially expected that a higher intensity of light would produce a higher voltage from the photoelectric device. Statistically. however. the initial energy-state of the electrons in a photoelectric device prior to absorption of light is not necessarily uniform.[13][14] The relationship between the frequency of electromagnetic radiation and the energy of each individual photon is why ultraviolet light can cause sunburn. or a piece of iron in a forge that glows red.Basic Concepts of Quantum Mechanics Einstein's description of light as being composed of particles extended Planck's notion of quantised energy: a single photon of a given frequency f delivers an invariant amount of energy hf. individual photons can deliver more or less energy. single photons are rarely encountered. you would double the number of energy units arriving each second.

[15] However. it gives off light only at discrete frequencies. Experimental observation of these wavelengths came two decades later: in 1908 Louis Paschen found some of the predicted infrared wavelengths.0110 nm−1. colliding with it in a fraction of a second. positively-charged nucleus. the loss of energy also causing them to spiral toward the nucleus. as shown in the picture below. integers. and in 1914 Theodore Lyman found some of the predicted ultraviolet wavelengths. For example. and should therefore give off electromagnetic radiation. as well as a number of lines in the infra-red and ultra-violet. 5. It also predicts additional wavelengths in the emission spectrum: for m = 1 and for n > 1. Rydberg's formula accounts for the four visible wavelengths of hydrogen by setting m = 2 and n = 3. puzzle was the emission spectrum of atoms.[16] . This understanding suggested a model in which the electrons circle around the nucleus like planets orbiting a sun.Basic Concepts of Quantum Mechanics 26 The quantisation of matter: the Bohr model of the atom By the dawn of the 20th century. white light consists of a continuous emission across the whole range of visible frequencies.e. He predicted that λ is related to two integers n and m according to what is now known as the Rydberg formula:[16] where R is the Rydberg constant. related. i. 4. dense. By contrast. it was known that atoms comprise a diffuse cloud of negatively-charged electrons surrounding a small. equal to 0. When a gas is heated. the visible light given off by hydrogen consists of four different colours. When excited. it was also known that the atom in this model would be unstable: according to classical theory orbiting electrons are undergoing centripetal acceleration. Emission spectrum of hydrogen. 6. it should also contain certain infrared wavelengths. and for m = 3 and n > 3. the emission spectrum should contain certain ultraviolet wavelengths. hydrogen gas gives off light in four distinct colours (spectral lines) in the visible spectrum. Thus Balmer's constant was the basis of a system of discrete.56 nm. and n must be greater than m. In 1885 the Swiss mathematician Johann Balmer discovered that each wavelength λ (lambda) in the visible spectrum of hydrogen is related to some integer n by the equation where B is a constant which Balmer determined to be equal to 364. In 1888 Johannes Rydberg generalized and greatly increased the explanatory utility of Balmer's formula. quantised. A second.

An electron loses energy by jumping instantaneously from its original orbit to a lower orbit. and it cannot come closer to the nucleus than a0 (the Bohr radius). Each photon from glowing atomic hydrogen is due to an electron moving from a higher orbit. When an atom emitted (or absorbed) energy. showing an electron quantum jumping to ground state n = 1. and predicts that the constant R should be given by . Coulomb's law and the equations of circular motion show that an electron with n units of angular momentum will orbit a proton at a distance r given by . the wavelengths of light that can be emitted are given by This equation has the same form as the Rydberg formula. L. and e is the charge on an electron. an electron that absorbs a photon gains energy. Instead.[18] The possible energies of photons given off by each element were determined by the differences in energy between the orbits. electrons could inhabit only certain orbits around the atomic nucleus.[17] In Bohr's model. rm. of an electron is quantised: The Bohr model of the atom. Starting from this assumption. A consequence of these constraints is that the electron will not crash into the nucleus: it cannot continuously emit energy. with radius rn. where ke is the Coulomb constant. giving off the emitted light in the form of a photon. The energy of the electron[20] can also be calculated.[19] Bohr theorised that the angular momentum. hence it jumps to an orbit that is farther from the nucleus. and so the emission spectrum for each element would contain a number of lines.0529 nm. and is given by . to a lower orbit. The energy Eγ of this photon is the difference in the energies En and Em of the electron: Since Planck's equation shows that the photon's energy is related to its wavelength by Eγ = hc/λ. Conversely. as might be expected classically. the electron did not move in a continuous trajectory from one orbit around the nucleus to another. m is the mass of an electron. the electron would jump instantaneously from one orbit to another. the extra energy is emitted in the form of a photon. Thus Bohr's assumption that angular momentum is quantised means that an electron can only inhabit certain orbits around the nucleus. called the Bohr radius.Basic Concepts of Quantum Mechanics 27 Bohr's model In 1913 Niels Bohr proposed a new model of the atom that included quantized electron orbits. The Bohr radius is the radius of the smallest allowed orbit. and that it can have only certain energies. where n is an integer and h is the Planck constant. is equal to 0. For simplicity this is written as where a0.

[22] The wavelength. astrophysicist A. Thomson and Davisson shared the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1937 for their experimental work. De Broglie was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1929 for his hypothesis. Davisson and Germer guided their beam through a crystalline grid. or to explain why some spectral lines are brighter than others. The concept of wave-particle duality says that neither the classical concept of "particle" nor of "wave" can fully describe the behavior of quantum-scale objects. the wave-like nature of electrons was demonstrated by showing that a beam of electrons could exhibit diffraction. associated with a particle is related to its momentum. Similar wave-like phenomena were later shown for atoms and even small molecules. closely spaced slits. λ. the double slit experiment. a beam of light is directed through two narrow. In fact. matter also has wave-like properties. a simple diffraction pattern. De Broglie's treatment of quantum events served as a jumping off point for Schrödinger when he set about to construct a wave equation to describe quantum theoretical events. it was not able to make accurate predictions for multi-electron atoms.[21] However. Exactly the same behaviour can be demonstrated in water waves. called the de Broglie hypothesis. a much simpler pattern is seen. perhaps as a compromise we had better call it a 'wavicle' ". Indeed. At Bell Labs. Wave-particle duality In 1924. just like a beam of light. holds for all types of matter. either photons or matter. Light from one slit interferes with light from the other. At the University of Aberdeen. George Thomson passed a beam of electrons through a thin metal film and observed the predicted diffraction patterns. The double-slit experiment In the double-slit experiment as originally performed by Thomas Young and Augustin Fresnel in 1827.[25] (This term was later popularised by mathematician Banesh Hoffmann. Thus all matter exhibits properties of both particles and waves. .S. one might naively expect that the intensity of the fringes due to interference would be halved everywhere. producing an interference pattern of light and dark bands on a screen. Three years later. and so the double-slit experiment was seen as a demonstration of the wave nature of light. is discussed in the section below. Closing one slit results in a much simpler pattern diametrically opposite the open slit. An elegant example of wave-particle duality.)[26]:172 Wave-particle duality is an example of the principle of complementarity in quantum physics.Basic Concepts of Quantum Mechanics 28 Therefore the Bohr model of the atom can predict the emission spectrum of hydrogen in terms of fundamental constants. p:[23][24] The relationship. If one of the slits is covered up. producing an interference pattern (the 3 fringes shown at the right). Eddington proposed in 1927 that "We can scarcely describe such an entity as a wave or as a particle. Louis de Broglie proposed the idea that just as light has both wave-like and particle-like properties.

but as a particle when it is detected. age 46 At a somewhat earlier time. an electron will be observed only in situations that permit a standing wave around a nucleus. De Broglie suggested that the allowed electron orbits were those for which the circumference of the orbit would be an integer number of wavelengths. The waves created by a stringed instrument appear to oscillate in place. Thus it has been demonstrated that all matter possesses both particle and wave characteristics. moving in a well of electrical potential created by the proton. and like a particle when we do an experiment to measure its particle-like properties. The wavelength of a standing wave is related to the length of the vibrating object and the boundary conditions. Heisenberg's colleague Max Born realised that Heisenberg's method of calculating the .[27] In the paper that introduced Schrödinger's cat. about 1933.Basic Concepts of Quantum Mechanics 29 The double-slit experiment has also been performed using electrons. called the Schrödinger equation after its creator. it can carry standing waves of wavelengths 2l/n. Erwin Schrödinger developed the equation that describes the behaviour of a quantum mechanical wave. demonstrating the wave-like propagation of light. This is a typical feature of quantum complementarity: a quantum particle will act as a wave when we do an experiment to measure its wave-like properties. where l is the length and n is a positive integer. defines the permitted stationary states of a quantum system. and even molecules. Werner Heisenberg was trying to find an explanation for the intensities of the different lines in the hydrogen emission spectrum. For example." and that it therefore provides "future expectation[s] . Erwin Schrödinger.g. he says that the psi-function featured in his equation provides the "means for predicting probability of measurement results. Shortly afterwards. Even if the source intensity is turned down so that only one particle (e. is central to quantum mechanics. which is fixed at both ends and can be made to vibrate. The diffraction pattern produced when light is shone through one slit (top) and the interference pattern produced by two slits (bottom). because the violin string is fixed at both ends. Development of modern quantum mechanics In 1925. The interference pattern from two slits is much more complex. Where on the detector screen any individual particle shows up will be the result of an entirely random process. An example of a standing wave is a violin string. the same interference pattern develops over time. and describes how the quantum state of a physical system changes in time. In particular. The equation. building on de Broglie's hypothesis. Heisenberg wrote out the quantum mechanical analogue for the classical computation of intensities. By means of a series of mathematical analogies. photon or electron) is passing through the apparatus at a time. This calculation accurately reproduced the energy levels of the Bohr model. somewhat as laid down in a catalog."[28] Schrödinger was able to calculate the energy levels of hydrogen by treating a hydrogen atom's electron as a classical wave. moving from crest to trough in an up-and-down motion. The quantum particle acts as a wave when passing through the double slits. atoms. Application to the Bohr model De Broglie expanded the Bohr model of the atom by showing that an electron in orbit around a nucleus could be thought of as having wave-like properties. and the same type of interference pattern is seen.

the two theories were identical. Matter. but not both at the same time. A system is completely described by a wave function. known as the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics. Yet the two men disagreed on the interpretation of their mutual theory. due to Max Born. aimed to describe the nature of reality that was being probed by the measurements and described by the mathematical formulations of quantum mechanics. mathematically. 3. For instance. like energy. An experiment can demonstrate the particle-like properties of matter. The description of nature is essentially probabilistic. . Schrödinger proved that Heisenberg's matrix mechanics and his own wave mechanics made the same predictions about the properties and behaviour of the electron. (Born rule. The probability of an event — for example. where on the screen a particle will show up in the two slit experiment — is related to the square of the amplitude of its wave function. Their description. How changes over time is given by the Schrödinger equation. The main principles of the Copenhagen interpretation are: 1. those properties that are not known with precision must be described by probabilities. (Complementarity principle due to Bohr) 6.[29] In May 1926. (Heisenberg) 2. Heisenberg saw no problem in the theoretical prediction of instantaneous transitions of electrons between orbits in an atom. 7. It is not possible to know the values of all of the properties of the system at the same time." 30 Copenhagen interpretation Bohr. (Correspondence principle of Bohr and Heisenberg) Various consequences of these principles are discussed in more detail in the following subsections. The quantum mechanical description of large systems should closely approximate the classical description. (Heisenberg's uncertainty principle) 5. which gives a physical meaning to the wavefunction in the Copenhagen interpretation: the probability amplitude) 4.Basic Concepts of Quantum Mechanics probabilities for transitions between the different energy levels could best be expressed by using the mathematical concept of matrices. . exhibits a wave-particle duality. but Schrödinger hoped that a theory based on continuous wave-like properties could avoid what he called (in the words of Wilhelm Wien[30]) "this nonsense about quantum jumps. Measuring devices are essentially classical devices. and measure classical properties such as position and momentum. or its wave-like properties. Heisenberg and others tried to explain what these experimental results and mathematical models really mean.

the time and the space where it interacted with the device are known within very tight limits. The uncertainty principle isn't a statement about the accuracy of our measuring equipment.in the momentum is less. .. as an illustration.g. not its original momentum. This statement is known as the uncertainty principle. However. and that this value is related to Planck's constant. In its place some physical change in the detection screen has appeared. In measuring the electron's position. but about the nature of the system itself — our naive assumption that the car had a definite position and speed was incorrect.Basic Concepts of Quantum Mechanics 31 Uncertainty principle Suppose that we want to measure the position and speed of an object — for example a car going through a radar speed trap. With a photon of lower frequency the disturbance . Naively. and vice versa. we would assume that how precisely we measure the speed of the car does not affect its position. cannot both be known to arbitrary precision: the more precisely one property is known. Explanations for the nature of the process of becoming certain are controversial. but when dealing with atoms and electrons they become critical. from the collision products. and the wave function has disappeared with it.[32] Quantum mechanics shows that certain pairs of physical properties.[34] The uncertainty principle shows mathematically that the product of the uncertainty in the position and momentum of a particle (momentum is velocity multiplied by mass) could never be less than a certain value. and how accurately we can measure these values depends on the quality of our measuring equipment — if we improve the precision of our measuring equipment. the less precisely the other can be known.hence uncertainty . Heisenberg won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1932 for the work that he [31] did at around this time. for instance in the CCD of an electronic camera. but so is the accuracy of the measurement of the position of the impact. we will get a result that is closer to the true value. for one is necessarily measuring its post-impact disturbed momentum. At any time before a photon "shows up" on a detection screen it can only be described by a set of probabilities for where it might show up. we assume that the car has a definite position and speed at a particular moment in time. Wave function collapse Wave function collapse is a forced term for whatever happened when it becomes appropriate to replace the description of an uncertain state of a system by a description of the system in a definite state. these uncertainties are too small to notice. e. the higher the frequency of the photon the more accurate is the measurement of the position of the impact. which absorbs a random amount of energy. an exposed spot in a sheet of photographic film. but the greater is the disturbance of the electron. rendering the measurement obtained of its momentum increasingly uncertain (momentum is velocity multiplied by mass). When it does show up. Heisenberg gave. Heisenberg proved that these assumptions are not correct. the measurement of the position and momentum of an electron using a photon of light. like position and speed. In particular.[33] Werner Heisenberg at the age of 26. In 1927. the photon has disappeared. On a scale of cars and people.

. with two possible values. The quantum number represented the sense (positive or negative) of spin. It is often depicted as a three-dimensional region within which there is a 95 percent probability of finding the electron. see: Introduction to eigenstates Because of the uncertainty principle. spherical or otherwise. 3. In particular. The idea. Wolfgang Pauli proposed a new quantum degree of freedom (or quantum number). each electron has four properties: 1. to resolve inconsistencies between observed molecular spectra and the predictions of quantum mechanics. where only one line was expected. Application to the hydrogen atom Bohr's model of the atom was essentially two-dimensional — an electron orbiting in a plane around its nuclear "sun. indicating whether the particle wave is one that is closer to the nucleus with less energy or one that is farther from the nucleus with more energy. thus satisfying the exclusion principle." However. The "spin" of the electron. stating that "There cannot exist an atom in such a quantum state that two electrons within [it] have the same set of quantum numbers. The quantum state can be described by giving a number to each of these properties. Pauli formulated his exclusion principle. such as an electron in a probability cloud. created by the proton. The quantum state of the electron is described by its wavefunction. Spin would account for the missing magnetic moment. The Pauli exclusion principle In 1924. these are known as the electron's quantum numbers. statements about both the position and momentum of particles can only assign a probability that the position or momentum will have some numerical value. the uncertainty principle states that an electron cannot be viewed as having an exact location at any given time. a "cloud" of possible locations. represented by the "wave function" Ψ. 2. or "spin"."[35] A year later. Therefore it is necessary to formulate clearly the difference between the state of something that is indeterminate.[36] Schrödinger was able to calculate the energy levels of hydrogen by treating a hydrogen atom's electron as a wave. and the state of something having a definite value. and they accurately reproduce the energy levels of the Bohr model. Within Schrödinger's picture. The Pauli exclusion principle demands that no two electrons within an atom may have the same values of all four numbers. V. in a electric potential well. and allow two electrons in the same orbital to occupy distinct quantum states if they "spun" in opposite directions. The solutions to Schrödinger's equation are distributions of probabilities for electron positions and locations.Basic Concepts of Quantum Mechanics 32 Eigenstates and eigenvalues For a more detailed introduction to this subject. Orbitals have a range of different shapes in three dimensions. determining the magnetic moment of the orbital around the z-axis. 4. The collective name for these properties is the quantum state of the electron. it is said to possess an eigenstate. When an object can definitely be "pinned-down" in some respect. was that electrons behave as if they rotate. about an axis. or pair of lines differing by a small amount. The "inclination" of the orbital. An "orbital" designation. Uhlenbeck and Goudsmit identified Pauli's new degree of freedom with a property called spin. The "shape" of the orbital. the spectrum of atomic hydrogen had a doublet. The energies of the different orbitals can be calculated. originating with Ralph Kronig. In the modern theory the orbit has been replaced by an atomic orbital.

By using the simplest electromagnetic interaction. This led to the many-particle quantum field theory. The angular momentum represents the resistance of a spinning object to speeding up or slowing down under the influence of external force. The colours show the phase of the wavefunction. s = 1⁄2. the Pauli Exclusion Principle requires that the two electrons differ in the value of one quantum number. and to reproduce from physical first principles Sommerfeld's successful formula for the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum. by way of example: In the case of a helium atom with two electrons in the 1s orbital. l."[35] It is the underlying structure and symmetry of atomic orbitals. with values +1⁄2 or −1⁄2. Dirac was able to predict the value of the magnetic moment associated with the electron's spin. they have the same spin. describes the shape of the orbital. The possible values for ml are integers from −l to l: The magnetic quantum number measures the component of the angular momentum in a particular direction. Dirac wave equation In 1928. The next quantum number. to account for special relativity. and 2pz. 2s. that determines the organisation of the periodic table and the structure and strength of chemical bonds between atoms. The possible values for l are integers from 0 to n − 1: The shape of each orbital has its own letter as well. The chemist Linus Pauling wrote. the magnetic quantum number. the spin quantum number (pertaining to the "orientation" of the electron's spin) is denoted ms. He was able to solve for the spectral lines of the hydrogen atom. conventionally the z-direction is chosen. which was too large to be that of a spinning charged sphere governed by classical physics. Paul Dirac extended the Pauli equation. n. The possible values for n are integers: The shapes of the first five atomic orbitals: 1s. The fourth quantum number. The choice of direction is arbitrary. The first shape is denoted by the letter s (a mnemonic being "sphere").Basic Concepts of Quantum Mechanics 33 The first property describing the orbital is the principal quantum number. describes the magnetic moment of the electron. 2px. Their values of n. f. The third quantum number. The other orbitals have more complicated shapes (see atomic orbital). Accordingly they must differ in the value of ms. and the way that electrons fill them. and g. which is the same as in Bohr's model. which described spinning electrons. which can have the value of +1⁄2 for one electron and −1⁄2 for the other. and ml are the same. and is denoted by ml (or simply m). Dirac's equations sometimes yielded a negative value for energy. for which he proposed a novel solution: he posited the existence of an antielectron and of a dynamical vacuum. denoted l. The shape is a consequence of the angular momentum of the orbital. The result was a theory that dealt properly with events. moreover.2py. and found the experimentally observed value. The next shape is denoted by the letter p and has the form of a dumbbell. occurring at a substantial fraction of the speed of light. such as the speed at which an electron orbits the nucleus. . The azimuthal quantum number represents the orbital angular momentum of an electron around its nucleus. and are denoted by the letters d. the azimuthal quantum number. n denotes the energy level of each orbital.

and two resolution possibilities. Two photons are produced as the result of the same atomic event. Einstein. it would necessarily show up. Perhaps they are produced by the excitation of a crystal that characteristically absorbs a photon of a certain frequency and emits two photons of half the original frequency. Recall that the wave functions that emerge Superposition of two quantum characteristics. that two electrons can have both states "superimposed" over them.) In the same year. He sought to explain this seeming interaction in a classical way. So whenever it might be investigated. abbreviated EPR). and Rosen (1935. that meant that the distant photon now had to lose its "purple" status too. simultaneously from the double slits arrive at the detection screen in a state of superposition. and preferably not by some "spooky action at a distance. Podolsky. EPR attempted to show from quantum theory that a particle has both position and momentum simultaneously. and the other one had traveled halfway to the nearest star. So the two photons come out "purple. through their common past. EPR concluded that quantum theory is incomplete in that it refuses to consider physical properties which objectively exist in nature." [37] The question of whether entanglement is a real condition is still in dispute. is as follows: Imagine that the superposition of a state that can be mentally labeled as blue and another state that can be mentally labeled as red will then appear (in imagination. & Rosen 1935 is currently Einstein's most cited publication in physics journals. In trying to show that quantum mechanics was not a complete theory." At that instant an electron shows up somewhere in accordance with the probabilities that are the squares of the amplitudes of the two superimposed waveforms." If the experimenter now performs some experiment that will determine whether one of the photons is either blue or red. Nature leaves open the possibility. when its twin was made to reveal itself as either blue or red. Assuming what is now usually called local realism.[38] The Bell inequalities are the most powerful challenge to Einstein's claims. A concrete way of thinking about entangled photons." The argument is worked out in a famous paper. Nothing is certain until the superimposed waveforms "collapse. only one of those two properties actually exists and only at the moment that it is being measured. Einstein started with the theory's prediction that two or more particles that have interacted in the past can appear strongly correlated when their various properties are later measured. instantaneously.Basic Concepts of Quantum Mechanics 34 Quantum entanglement The Pauli exclusion principle says that two electrons in one system cannot be in the same state. however. while according to the Copenhagen interpretation. photons in which two contrary states are superimposed on each of them in the same event. The situation there is already very abstract. The problem that Einstein had with such an imagined situation was that if one of these photons had been kept bouncing between mirrors in a laboratory on earth. Podolsky. (Einstein. in the opposite state to whatever its twin had revealed. of course) as a purple state. then that experiment changes the photon involved from one having a superposition of "blue" and "red" characteristics to a photon that has only one of those characteristics. Erwin Schrödinger used the word "entanglement" and declared: "I would not call that one but rather the characteristic trait of quantum mechanics. . setting out what is now called the EPR paradox.

As a force is exerted.[42] Dirac shared the Nobel Prize in physics for 1933 with Schrödinger. Understanding QED begins with understanding electromagnetism. that quantum mechanics is often used to refer to "the entire notion of quantum view. a current flows and a magnetic field is produced. The diagrams showed that the electromagnetic force is the interactions of photons between interacting particles. renormalization eventually was embraced as an important and self-consistent tool in QED and other fields of physics. which remedied the higher energy breakdown in theory. spectral lines may shift or split. goes a step further and allows for the creation and annihilation of particles . Electromagnetism begins with the electric charge. proton. physicist Richard Hammond wrote that Sometimes we distinguish between quantum mechanics (QM) and quantum field theory (QFT). This refers to an effect whereby the quantum nature of the electromagnetic field causes the energy levels in an atom or ion to deviate slightly from what they would otherwise be. Electric charges are the sources of. . ."[39] Other effects that manifest themselves as fields are gravitation and static electricity. in that it had essential ingredients of the modern theory. and create. The magnetic field. Initially viewed as a suspect. in turn causes electric current (moving electrons). electrical fields. This includes the electron. As a result. Electromagnetism can be called "electrodynamics" because it is a dynamic interaction between electrical and magnetic forces. The interacting electric and magnetic field is called an electromagnetic field. However."[41]:108 In 1931. An electric field is a field which exerts a force on any particles that carry electric charges. electrical currents.[40] In 2008. Dirac proposed the existence of particles that later became known as anti-matter. The This sculpture in Bristol. in the late 1940s Feynman's diagrams depicted all possible interactions pertaining to a given event.Basic Concepts of Quantum Mechanics 35 Quantum field theory The idea of quantum field theory began in the late 1920s with British physicist Paul Dirac."[43] Quantum electrodynamics Quantum electrodynamics (QED) is the name of the quantum theory of the electromagnetic force. however. "for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory. QM refers to a system in which the number of particles is fixed. and magnetic fields is called electromagnetism. among others. and the fields (such as the electromechanical field) are continuous classical entities. The physical description of interacting charged particles. electric fields. From this inconsistency the Standard Model of particle physics was discovered. renormalization solved this problem. . QFT . He added. when he attempted to quantise the electromagnetic field — a procedure for constructing a quantum theory starting from a classical theory. and even quarks. A field in physics is "a region or space in which a given effect (such as magnetism) exists. Years later. provisional procedure by some of its originators. England — a series of clustering cones — presents the idea of small worlds that Paul Dirac studied to reach his discovery of anti-matter. the problem of unsolvable infinities developed in this relativistic quantum theory. . . An example of a prediction of quantum electrodynamics which has been verified experimentally is the Lamb shift. This was the progenitor to modern quantum electrodynamics. at any point in space. Also. In 1928 Paul Dirac produced a relativistic quantum theory of electromagnetism. . In the 1960s physicists realized that QED broke down at extremely high energies. electric charges move.

Bantam. D. "Mechanics" is the branch of science that deals with the action of forces on objects. p. pp. 147–8. jhu. p. in most countries money is effectively quantized.. html)". see NTRS. J. ca. (2004). Wave Motion. J. R. org/ trasnsistor/ science/ info/ quantum. translated into English as On a Heuristic Viewpoint Concerning the Production and Transformation of Light (http:/ / lorentz. org/ nobel_prizes/ physics/ laureates/ 1918/ ). ntrs. This is called the electroweak theory.1002/andp. edu/ AnnusMirabilis/ AeReserveArticles/ eins_lq. and magnetic resonance imaging.132E. com/ books?hl=en& q="Mechanics. ISBN 0135897890. wvusd. as otherwise the electrons in the electric current could not penetrate the potential barrier made up of a layer of oxide. at/ dokumente/ einstein1. us/ webdocs/ Chem-History/ Planck-1901/ Planck-1901. Mechanics. incandescent lamps. de/ annalen/ history/ historic-papers/ 1901_309_553-563. "Über einen die Erzeugung und Verwandlung des Lichtes betreffenden heuristischen Gesichtspunkt" (http:/ / www. p.com. The Nobel Foundation. based on the Geiger-Marsden gold foil experiment which first demonstrated the existence of the nucleus.. However. which are indispensable for modern electronics. Retrieved 2009-08-01. pdf). The term "photon" was introduced in 1926. Modern Physics for Scientists and Engineers. D. M. the electromagnetic radiation can be treated as a classical electromagnetic wave. and predictions pertinent to quantum mechanics are all consistent and hold a very high level of confirmation. For more on this point. pbs. ac. Albert (1905). and Heat (http:/ / books. so "quantum mechanics" is the part of mechanics that deals with objects for which particular properties are quantized. can only take specific values. . Zafiratos. Ann.Basic Concepts of Quantum Mechanics Standard Model unifies the electromagnetic and weak interactions into one theory. com/ cws/ article/ print/ 373). [6] Francis Weston Sears (1958). the electron microscope. . [8] Kragh.. Max (1901). [5] The word "quantum" comes from the Latin word for "how much" (as does "quantity"). pdf). Flash memory chips found in USB drives also use quantum tunnelling. "Ueber das Gesetz der Energieverteilung im Normalspectrum" (http:/ / www. R.. Prentice Hall.19013090310. but at intensities achievable with non-laser sources these effects are unobservable. Feynman. Bibcode 1901AnP. ISBN 0135897890.[44] Notes [1] Quantum Mechanics from [[National Public Radio (http:/ / www. . [7] "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1918" (http:/ / nobelprize. k12. gov/ 19680009569_1968009569. 127–9. Zafiratos. Prentice Hall.. or sometimes the Rutherford model after Ernest Rutherford who proposed it in 1911. nasa. PhysicsWorld. the question of what these abstract models say about the underlying nature of the real world has received competing answers."& btnG=Search+ Books). In even the simple light switch. 12 [14] Einstein's photoelectric effect equation can be derived and explained without requiring the concept of "photons".+ Wave+ Motion.1002/andp. [11] Stephen Hawking. C.+ and+ Heat"+ "where+ n+ =+ 1.. A. "Max Planck: the reluctant revolutionary" (http:/ / physicsworld. .322. 2001. phl. gov/ archive/ nasa/ casi. The results are quantitatively correct for thermal light sources (the sun. M. [9] Einstein. [10] Taylor.553P. The study of semiconductors led to the invention of the diode and the transistor. html)]] [2] Classical physics also does not accurately describe the universe on the largest scales or at speeds close to that of light... pdf). the transistor.309.19053220607. 36 Interpretations The physical measurements. 10 [4] This result was published (in German) as Planck.. google. A. etc) both for the rate of electron emission as well as their angular distribution.. univie. as long as the electrons in the material are treated by the laws of quantum mechanics. 537. equations. [16] Taylor. Applications Applications of quantum mechanics include the laser. uni-augsburg. quantum tunnelling is vital. pdf) [15] The classical model of the atom is called the planetary model.gov (http:/ / ntrs. C. [13] Dicke and Wittke." like the energy of Planck's harmonic oscillators.NASA. English translation: " On the Law of Distribution of Energy in the Normal Spectrum (http:/ / dbhs. Bibcode 1905AnP. QED. Modern Physics for Scientists and Engineers. doi:10.. Phys. nasa. (2004). [12] Actually there can be intensity-dependent effects. physik. . Helge (1 December 2000). Dubson. Annalen der Physik 17: 132–148. [3] Richard P. Something which is "quantized. That is. doi:10. pp. Dubson. Addison-Wesley. The Universe in a Nutshell. 309 (3): 553–63. with the "quantum of money" being the lowest-value coin in circulation. zbp. to erase their memory cells. An accurate description requires general relativity. Introduction to Quantum Mechanics. For example.

eds. ISBN 9780080445281. Amir D. 9. (2008). com/ books?id=PGOTKcxSqMUC& pg=PA201& lpg=PA201& dq=We+ can+ scarcely+ describe+ such+ an+ entity+ as+ a+ wave+ or+ as+ a+ particle. Z. 114.172H." Encyclopædia Britannica (http:/ / www. merriam-webster." Encyclopædia Britannica (http:/ / www. [33] Nobel Prize in Physics presentation speech. see Heisenberg's entryway to matrix mechanics. Zurek. O. Introducing Quantum Theory. [18] World Book Encyclopedia.. Dover. [44] Durrani. washington. W. McEvoy and Oscar Zarate (2004). then they can no longer be described as before. " [29] For a somewhat more sophisticated look at how Heisenberg transitioned from the old quantum theory and classical physics to the new quantum mechanics. H. Schrödinger. especially p. McEvoy and Oscar Zarate (2004). Wheeler and W. The Strange Story of the Quantum. (2004)." Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary (http:/ / www. britannica. Nanosilicon. 10f. [23] Aezel. the course of Gifford Lectures that Eddington delivered in the University of Edinburgh in January to March 1927. [19] Dicke and Wittke. Cambridge University Press (1989). 323-38. The Nature of the Physical World. [30] W. html) [34] "Uncertainty principle. the energy of the electron is the sum of its kinetic and potential energies. viz. A. ISBN 1-84046-577-8. Introducing Quantum Theory. npl. html. Zarate. 51f. ed. org/ nobel_prizes/ physics/ laureates/ 1932/ press." Encyclopædia Britannica (http:/ / www. Totem Books. "The Present Situation in Quantum Mechanics.S. html) [43] "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1933" (http:/ / nobelprize. 124. Cramer. Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society. p. Retrieved 2007-11-24. Schrödinger: Life and Thought. page 6.+ perhaps+ as+ a+ compromise+ we+ had+ better+ call+ it+ a+ `wavicle& source=bl& ots=K0IfGzaXli& sig=zgrQiBJbHRLuUzVBT-yy8jZhC1Y& hl=en& ei=i8g1SpOHC4PgtgOu_4jVDg& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=1) [26] Banesh Hoffman. tu-harburg. 2005. New Page Books. com/ EBchecked/ topic/ 528298/ Schrodinger-equation) [28] Erwin Schrödinger. of which we know the states by their respective representation. p. Totem Books. The electron has kinetic energy by virtue of its actual motion around the nucleus.. John G. edu/ npl/ int_rep/ qm_nl. 89. 110f. doi:10. The Nobel Foundation. physicalworld. Z. org/ restless_universe/ html/ ru_dira. 1959 [27] "Schrodinger Equation (Physics). britannica. 37 . enter into a temporary physical interaction due to known forces between them and when after a time of mutual influence the systems separate again. com/ EBchecked/ topic/ 614029/ uncertainty-principle) [35] Linus Pauling. p.. . The Unknown Universe. britannica.. Bibcode 1927ZPhy. 31 (1935). p. p. and potential energy because of its electromagnetic interaction with the nucleus. [25] A. 47 [36] "Orbital (chemistry and physics). Moore. Totem Books.. 201.. 2008. Ahmed. Kessinger Publishing.H. I would not call that one but rather the characteristic trait of quantum mechanics.A. npl. org/ nobel_prizes/ physics/ laureates/ 1932/ ) [32] Heisenberg first published his work on the uncertainty principle in the leading German physics journal Zeitschrift für Physik: Heisenberg. org/ nobel_prizes/ physics/ laureates/ 1933/ ). Elsevier. "This translation was originally published in Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. (1927). The Nature of the Chemical Bond. Princeton university Press. p. britannica. This paper can be downloaded from http:/ / www. ISBN 978-1-60163-003-2 [42] The Physical World website (http:/ / www.11 of Part I of Quantum Theory and Measurement (J. 555says: "When two systems. 345. by endowing each of them with a representative of its own. Eddington.edu (http:/ / www." p. pp. com/ EBchecked/ topic/ 206162/ field) [41] Richard Hammond. Phys.43. K." [38] "Quantum Nonlocality and the Possibility of Superluminal Effects"." Encyclopædia Britannica (http:/ / www. 70–89. p. Entanglrment. [20] In this case. [31] Heisenberg's Nobel Prize citation (http:/ / nobelprize. P. "Über den anschaulichen Inhalt der quantentheoretischen Kinematik und Mechanik". [21] The model can be easily modified to account of the emission spectrum of any system consisting of a nucleus and a single electron (that is. html) [39] "Mechanics. com/ dictionary/ field) [40] "Field. New Jersey 1983). de/ rzt/ rzt/ it/ QM/ cat.1007/BF01397280.washington. p. p. P. ISBN 1840465778. 43 (3–4): 172–198. ions such as He+ or O7+ which contain only one electron). ISBN 1-84046-577-8. J. Vijay Kumar. (http:/ / books.Basic Concepts of Quantum Mechanics [17] McEvoy. 1932 (http:/ / nobelprize. Introducing Quantum Theory. [And then appeared as Section I. 2003) ISBN 0-452-28457 [24] J. 222. [22] J. google. (Penguin.. P. com/ EBchecked/ topic/ 431159/ orbital) [37] E.. Introduction to Quantum Mechanics. 2007.

(1949). ISBN 0390304883. Harper and Brothers. Morton.21. Foundations of Physics. ASIN B00005VGVF. cited in: Popescu. Addison-Wesley. Bibcode 1949PhRv. From Certainty to Uncertainty: The Story of Science and Ideas in the Twenty-First Century. Albert Einstein: Philosopher-Scientist. LCCN 53006438. John Archibald.76. • Sears. F. • Heisenberg. Tudor Publishing Company. David (2002). LCCN 99010404.. (2004). pp. Louis (1953). "Action and Passion at a Distance: An Essay in Honor of Professor Abner Shimony". • Bohr. Optics (3rd ed. • Westmoreland. Tokyo: Japan Physical Society. Georgia State University. Joseph Henry Press. The Revolution in Physics. • McEvoy. Matrix Mechanics and the Uncertainty Principle". Journal of Science Education 9 (8). Physics and Philosophy.). ISBN 0486404595. Margenau. J. S. Rutgers University Press. arXiv:quant-ph/9605004 [quant-ph]. "Classical Electrodynamics in Terms of Direct Interparticle Action". LCCN 55003947. American Journal of Physics 73 (11). 14: 179.769. Essays in Science. • Einstein. "Max Born and the quantum theory". Andreas. Nat. ISBN 0195046013. University of California Press. • Van Vleck...425W. (1992). Niels (1958). Philosophic Foundations of Quantum Mechanics. ISBN 0061305499.physics. Bibcode 1949RvMP. Robert Bruce. Atomic Physics and Human Knowledge... 1953. Introducing Quantum Theory.425. LCCN 53010401. Sci. LCCN a44004471. Acad. Quantum Dialogue: The Making of a Revolution. ISBN 9780813530772. eds. • Nave. Werner (1958). Resonance. "Transforming Physics Education".edu/hbase/quacon. "Heisenberg. Perkins. ISBN 1-874166-37-4. Hans (1944). • Scientific American Reader.1189B. P. • Feynman. doi:10. arXiv:quant-ph/9801014 [quant-ph]. May (1953). ISBN 0486479285. Reviews of Modern Physics 21 (3): 425–433.1928. Mara (2001). "Demonstrating quantum random with single photons". "(title not given in citation)". 225. John Wiley & Sons.1103/RevModPhys. • Liboff. Benjamin Schumacher (1998). Richard P.). "Quantum Entanglement and the Nonexistence of Superluminal Signals". Appleton-Century-Crofts. The Bohr Atom. Introductory Quantum Mechanics (2nd ed.1103/PhysRev. European Journal of Physics 30 (5): 1189–1200. Contemporary physics and the limits of knowledge (http:// books. Bibcode 2009EJPh. Brodbeck.. Kamefuchi et al.phy-astr. ISBN 0486470113. • de Broglie. University of Virginia. Jeremy (2005). Tavel. • Bronner. . Sandu. Albert (1934). Physical Review 76 (6): 769–789. "The Correspondence Principle in the Statistical Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics. • Feigl... Daniel Rohrlich (1996).. Richard P. Silberhorn. Michael (1999). • Reichenbach. • Beller.76. (1983). OCLC 530611.. Carl. University of Chicago Press. Zarate." Proc. • Fowler. Foundations of Quantum Mechanics in the Light of New Technology (S. Noonday Press. Meyn.769F. Oscar. LCCN 57014416.. • Peat. Paul Arthur (1949). html#quacon). • Wieman. Henry (1957).google. Jan-Peter (2009).gsu. LCCN 50005340. • Lindsay. • Schlipp. Dover.pdf). (1949). Richard L. Patrick. ISBN 0918024188. • Tavel.). LCCN 51001018.com/?id=SELS0HbIhjYC&pg=PA200&dq=Wave+function+collapse). • Lakshmibala.edu/~mcdonald/examples/QED/feynman_pr_76_769_49. • Wheeler. H.21. Francis Weston (1949). Strunz. Philosophical Library. Carl Rod (2005). A. princeton. Physics Today. Herbert.30. "Quantum Physics" (http://hyperphysics. HyperPhysics.. Christine.Basic Concepts of Quantum Mechanics 38 References • Bernstein. Feynman. • Shimony. doi:10. Judith (illustrations) (2002). J. Katherine (2005). "Space-Time Approach to Quantum Electrodynamics" (http://www. Readings in the Philosophy of Science.

Princeton University Press.chem1. Allen Lane.imamu. GianCarlo (2004) Sneaking a Look at God's Cards.com/doc/1E1-quantumt.ca. Princeton Univ.thebigview. Harvard Univ. ISBN 0-691-08388-6 • Ford. • Martinus Veltman (2003) Facts and Mysteries in Elementary Particle Physics. • Roland Omnes (1999) Understanding Quantum Mechanics.html)" • Quantum Theory. to human body and mind. Includes elementary particle physics.encyclopedia. • This Quantum World. Press.us/webdocs/Chem-History/Planck-1901/Planck-1901. Provides an intuitive introduction in non-mathematical terms and an introduction in comparatively basic mathematical terms. Ivancevic. Passages using algebra. • Theoretical Physics wiki (http://theoreticalphysics.jp/seminar/MicroWorld1_E/MicroWorld_1_E.php) • The Quantum Exchange (http://www. Includes much about the technologies quantum theory has made possible. Press. World Scientific Publishing Company. Simplicity. Kenjiro.html) • Quantum Mechanics.1088/0143-0807/30/5/026.org/quantum) (tutorials and open source learning software).org/history/heisenberg/p07. • Ghirardi. 39 Further reading The following titles. (http://www. across the universe.wetpaint. Buffalo NY: Prometheus Books. • Everything you wanted to know about the quantum world. • Tony Hey and Walters. • A website with good introduction to Quantum mechanics can be found here. (http://thisquantumworld.compadre. • Vladimir G.k12. trigonometry. (http://www. The author is a rare physicist who tries to communicate to philosophers and humanists. Gerald Malsbary.com/acad/ webtext/atoms/atpt-4.wvusd.sa/Scientific_selections/abstracts/Physics/THE SPOOKY QUANTUM.com/spacetime/index. Cambridge Univ.pdf) • Planck's original paper (http://dbhs. Press.htm) • The spooky quantum (http://www. " Microscopic World – Introduction to Quantum Mechanics. (http://www. . attempt to communicate quantum theory to lay people. • Richard Feynman (1985) QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter. Press.html)" a recording of Werner Heisenberg's voice.com/ht/index. Princeton Univ.com) • " Uncertainty Principle. Tijana T.Basic Concepts of Quantum Mechanics doi:10. • Victor Stenger (2000) Timeless Reality: Symmetry. trans.html) External links • Takada. all by working physicists. and bra-ket notation can be passed over on a first reading. 5–8. (http://www. (http://www2.kutl. Patrick (2003) The New Quantum Universe.kyushu-u. Kenneth (2005) The Quantum World.newscientist.ac.edu. World Scientific Publishing Company.com/channel/ fundamentals/quantum-world) From the New Scientist. David Mermin (1990) “Spooky actions at a distance: mysteries of the QT” in his Boojums all the way through.aip. and Multiple Universes. • Jim Al-Khalili (2003) Quantum: A Guide for the Perplexed. The most technical of the works cited here. (http://www. html) on Planck's constant. Chpts. Press: 110–176. Cambridge Univ. Emeritus professor at Kyushu University. using a minimum of technical apparatus. Ivancevic (2008) Quantum leap: from Dirac and Feynman. Weidenfield & Nicholson. • N. • Brian Cox and Jeff Forshaw (2011) The Quantum Universe.

where classical physics is an excellent approximation.de/quantumlab/english/) An introduction into quantum physics with interactive experiments • Hitachi video recording of double-slit experiment done with electrons. because they describe behavior quite different than that seen at larger length scales. Wolfgang Pauli. the less precise another measurement pertaining to the same particle (such as its momentum) must become.youtube.physik. for a more complete history of the subject.[1] Coming to terms with these limitations led to the development of quantum mechanics. This article describes how physicists discovered the limitations of classical physics and developed the main concepts of the quantum theory that replaced them in the early decades of the 20th century. It remains the key to measurement for much of modern science and technology.Basic Concepts of Quantum Mechanics • Single and double slit interference (http://class.com/watch?v=oxknfn97vFE) 40 Introduction to Quantum Mechanics Quantum mechanics is the body of scientific principles that explains the behavior of matter and its interactions with energy on the scale of atoms and atomic particles. Left to right: Max Planck. Max Born."[3] Many types of energy. pairs of particles can be created as entangled twins — which means that a measurement which pins down one property of one of the particles will instantaneously pin down the same or another property of its entangled twin. Put another way.didaktik. regardless of the distance separating them — though this may be regarded as merely a . such as photons (discrete units of light). measuring position first and then measuring momentum does not have the same outcome as measuring momentum first and then measuring position.wolfram. Even more disconcerting. (http://www. Classical physics explains matter and energy at the macroscopic level of the scale familiar to human experience.edu/251Labs/10_Interference_&_Diffraction/ Single_and_Double-Slit_Interference. but at the end of the 19th Century observers discovered phenomena in both the large (macro) and the small (micro) worlds that classical physics could not explain. Quantum mechanics predicts the energies. see History of quantum mechanics. a major revolution in physics. You can see the interference pattern build up over time.pdf) • Time-Evolution of a Wavepacket in a Square Well (http://demonstrations. Louis de Broglie. and the spectral intensities of all forms of electromagnetic radiation.uni-erlangen. In the words of Richard Feynman. Some aspects of quantum mechanics can seem counter-intuitive. • Experiments with single photons (http://www. Radiators of photons (such as neon lights) have emission spectra that are discontinuous.[2] These concepts are described in roughly the order they were first discovered. But quantum mechanics theory ordains that the more closely one pins down one measure (such as the position of a particle).psu. Erwin Schrödinger. Werner Heisenberg.com/ TimeEvolutionOfAWavepacketInASquareWell/) An animated demonstration of a wave packet dispersion over time. quantum mechanics deals with "nature as she is — absurd. Niels Bohr. the colours.phys. including the behavior of astronomical bodies. behave in some respects like particles and in other respects like waves. the act of measuring the first property necessarily introduces additional energy into the micro-system being studied. thereby perturbing that system. Paul Dirac. in that only certain frequencies of light are present. Richard Feynman. Albert Einstein.

and so the energy E of an oscillator of frequency f is given by [6] Correct values (green) contrasted against the classical values (Rayleigh-Jeans law. but less brightly and at longer wavelengths than the human eye can detect. Consequently. was proportional to the frequency of the oscillator. is known as the ultraviolet catastrophe. an ideal thermal emitter is known as a black body. and the radiation it emits is called black body radiation. rather than being able to emit any arbitrary amount of energy. The first model that was able to explain the full spectrum of thermal radiation was put forward by Max Planck in 1900. because it absorbs all the light that falls on it and emits none. classical physics was unable to explain the relationship between temperatures and predominant frequencies of radiation. Planck's law was the first quantum theory in physics. Planck's view was that quantization was purely a mathematical trick. the constant of proportionality is now known as the Planck constant. has the value 6. usually written as h. as light at shorter wavelengths (higher frequencies) begins to be emitted. Everything else in the picture is glowing with thermal radiation as well. such an object looks perfectly black. the energy of each oscillator was "quantized. however. Physicists were searching for a single theory that explained why they got the experimental results that they did. A far-infrared camera can observe this radiation. In fact. 41 The first quantum theory: Max Planck and black body radiation Thermal radiation is electromagnetic radiation emitted from the surface of an object due to the object's temperature. according to Planck. If an object is heated sufficiently. rather than (as we now know) a fundamental change in our understanding of the world.63 × 10−34 J s. red and Wien approximation. using a set of harmonic oscillators. In the late 19th century. To reproduce the experimental results he had to assume that each oscillator produced an integral number of units of energy at its single characteristic frequency. When it is cold. and the overall power emitted per unit area is given by the Stefan–Boltzmann law. However. The yellow-orange glow is the visible part of the thermal radiation emitted due to the high temperature. classical physics predicted that energy will be emitted by a hot body at an infinite rate. blue).[8] ."[5] The quantum of energy for each oscillator."[7] At the time. In other words. rather than a real one. How the wavelength at which the radiation is strongest changes with temperature is given by Wien's displacement law. it starts to emit light at the red end of the spectrum — it is red hot. This result. and Planck won the Nobel Prize in 1918 "in recognition of the services he rendered to the advancement of Physics by his discovery of energy quanta. Hot metalwork from a blacksmith.[4] He modeled the thermal radiation as being in equilibrium. It turns out that a perfect emitter is also a perfect absorber. which is clearly wrong.Introduction to Quantum Mechanics mathematical anomaly. The Planck constant. thermal radiation had been fairly well-characterized experimentally. at short wavelengths. Heating it further causes the colour to change from red to yellow to blue to white.

Introduction to Quantum Mechanics

42

**Photons: the quantisation of light
**

In 1905, Albert Einstein took an extra step. He suggested that quantisation was not just a mathematical trick: the energy in a beam of light occurs in individual packets, which are now called photons.[9] The energy of a single photon is given by its frequency multiplied by Planck's constant:

For centuries, scientists had debated between two possible theories of light: was it a wave or did it instead comprise a stream of tiny particles? By the 19th century, the debate was generally considered to have been settled in favour of the wave theory, as it was able to explain observed effects such as refraction, diffraction and polarization. James Clerk Maxwell had shown that electricity, magnetism and light are all manifestations of the same phenomenon: the Einstein's portrait by Harm electromagnetic field. Maxwell's equations, which are the complete set of laws of Kamerlingh Onnes at the University of Leiden in 1920 classical electromagnetism, describe light as waves: a combination of oscillating electric and magnetic fields. Because of the preponderance of evidence in favour of the wave theory, Einstein's ideas were met initially with great scepticism. Eventually, however, the photon model became favoured; one of the most significant pieces of evidence in its favour was its ability to explain several puzzling properties of the photoelectric effect, described in the following section. Nonetheless, the wave analogy remained indispensable for helping to understand other characteristics of light, such as diffraction.

**The photoelectric effect
**

In 1887 Heinrich Hertz observed that light can eject electrons from metal.[10] In 1902 Philipp Lenard discovered that the maximum possible energy of an ejected electron is related to the frequency of the light, not to its intensity; if the frequency is too low, no electrons are ejected regardless of the intensity. The lowest frequency of light that causes electrons to be emitted, called the threshold frequency, is different for every metal. This observation is at odds with classical electromagnetism, which predicts that the electron's energy should be proportional to the intensity of the radiation.[11]:24

Einstein explained the effect by postulating that a beam of light is a stream of particles (photons), and that if the beam is of frequency f then each photon has an energy equal to hf.[10] An electron is likely to be struck only by a single photon, which imparts at most an energy hf to the electron.[10] Therefore, the intensity of the beam has no effect;[12] only its frequency determines the maximum energy that can be imparted to the electron.[10] To explain the threshold effect, Einstein argued that it takes a certain amount of energy, called the work function, denoted by φ, to remove an electron from the metal.[10] This amount of energy is different for each metal. If the energy of the photon is less than the work function then it does not carry sufficient energy to remove the electron from the metal. The threshold frequency, f0, is the frequency of a photon whose energy is equal to the work function: If f is greater than f0, the energy hf is enough to remove an electron. The ejected electron has a kinetic energy EK which is, at most, equal to the photon's energy minus the energy needed to dislodge the electron from the metal:

Light (red arrows, left) is shone upon a metal. If the light is of sufficient frequency (i.e. sufficient energy), electrons are ejected (blue arrows, right).

Introduction to Quantum Mechanics Einstein's description of light as being composed of particles extended Planck's notion of quantised energy: a single photon of a given frequency f delivers an invariant amount of energy hf. In other words, individual photons can deliver more or less energy, but only depending on their frequencies. However, although the photon is a particle it was still being described as having the wave-like property of frequency. Once again, the particle account of light was being "compromised".[13][14] The relationship between the frequency of electromagnetic radiation and the energy of each individual photon is why ultraviolet light can cause sunburn, but visible or infrared light cannot. A photon of ultraviolet light will deliver a high amount of energy—enough to contribute to cellular damage such as occurs in a sunburn. A photon of infrared light will deliver a lower amount of energy—only enough to warm one's skin. So an infrared lamp can warm a large surface, perhaps large enough to keep people comfortable in a cold room, but it cannot give anyone a sunburn. If each individual photon had identical energy, it would not be correct to talk of a "high energy" photon. Light of high frequency could carry more energy only because of flooding a surface with more photons arriving per second. Light of low frequency could carry more energy only for the same reason. If it were true that all photons carry the same energy, then if you doubled the rate of photon delivery, you would double the number of energy units arriving each second. Einstein rejected that wave-dependent classical approach in favour of a particle-based analysis where the energy of the particle must be absolute and varies with frequency in discrete steps (i.e. is quantised). All photons of the same frequency have identical energy, and all photons of different frequencies have proportionally different energies. In nature, single photons are rarely encountered. The sun emits photons continuously at all electromagnetic frequencies, so they appear to propagate as a continuous wave, not as discrete units. The emission sources available to Hertz and Lennard in the 19th century shared that characteristic. A sun that radiates red light, or a piece of iron in a forge that glows red, may both be said to contain a great deal of energy. It might be surmised that adding continuously to the total energy of some radiating body would make it radiate red light, orange light, yellow light, green light, blue light, violet light, and so on in that order. But that is not so for otherwise larger suns and larger pieces of iron in a forge would glow with colours more toward the violet end of the spectrum. To change the color of such a radiating body it is necessary to change its temperature, and increasing its temperature changes the quanta of energy that are available to excite individual atoms to higher levels and permit them to emit photons of higher frequencies. The total energy emitted per unit of time by a sun or by a piece of iron in a forge depends on both the number of photons emitted per unit of time and also on the amount of energy carried by each of the photons involved. In other words, the characteristic frequency of a radiating body is dependent on its temperature. When physicists were looking only at beams of light containing huge numbers of individual and virtually indistinguishable photons it was difficult to understand the importance of the energy levels of individual photons. So when physicists first discovered devices exhibiting the photoelectric effect, the effect that makes the light meters of modern cameras work, they initially expected that a higher intensity of light would produce a higher voltage from the photoelectric device. They discovered that strong beams of light toward the red end of the spectrum might produce no electrical potential at all, and that weak beams of light toward the violet end of the spectrum would produce higher and higher voltages. Einstein's idea that individual units of light may contain different amounts of energy depending on their frequency made it possible to explain the experimental results that hitherto had seemed quite counter-intuitive. Although the energy imparted by photons is invariant at any given frequency, the initial energy-state of the electrons in a photoelectric device prior to absorption of light is not necessarily uniform. Therefore anomalous results may occur in the case of individual electrons. An electron that was already excited above the equilibrium level of the photoelectric device might be ejected when it absorbed uncharacteristically low frequency illumination. Statistically, however, the characteristic behavior of a photoelectric device will reflect the behavior of the vast majority of its electrons, which will be at their equilibrium level. This point is helpful in comprehending the distinction between the study of individual particles in quantum dynamics and the study of massed particles in classical physics.

43

Introduction to Quantum Mechanics

44

**The quantisation of matter: the Bohr model of the atom
**

By the dawn of the 20th century, it was known that atoms comprise a diffuse cloud of negatively-charged electrons surrounding a small, dense, positively-charged nucleus. This understanding suggested a model in which the electrons circle around the nucleus like planets orbiting a sun.[15] However, it was also known that the atom in this model would be unstable: according to classical theory orbiting electrons are undergoing centripetal acceleration, and should therefore give off electromagnetic radiation, the loss of energy also causing them to spiral toward the nucleus, colliding with it in a fraction of a second. A second, related, puzzle was the emission spectrum of atoms. When a gas is heated, it gives off light only at discrete frequencies. For example, the visible light given off by hydrogen consists of four different colours, as shown in the picture below. By contrast, white light consists of a continuous emission across the whole range of visible frequencies.

Emission spectrum of hydrogen. When excited, hydrogen gas gives off light in four distinct colours (spectral lines) in the visible spectrum, as well as a number of lines in the infra-red and ultra-violet.

In 1885 the Swiss mathematician Johann Balmer discovered that each wavelength λ (lambda) in the visible spectrum of hydrogen is related to some integer n by the equation

where B is a constant which Balmer determined to be equal to 364.56 nm. Thus Balmer's constant was the basis of a system of discrete, i.e. quantised, integers. In 1888 Johannes Rydberg generalized and greatly increased the explanatory utility of Balmer's formula. He predicted that λ is related to two integers n and m according to what is now known as the Rydberg formula:[16]

where R is the Rydberg constant, equal to 0.0110 nm−1, and n must be greater than m. Rydberg's formula accounts for the four visible wavelengths of hydrogen by setting m = 2 and n = 3, 4, 5, 6. It also predicts additional wavelengths in the emission spectrum: for m = 1 and for n > 1, the emission spectrum should contain certain ultraviolet wavelengths, and for m = 3 and n > 3, it should also contain certain infrared wavelengths. Experimental observation of these wavelengths came two decades later: in 1908 Louis Paschen found some of the predicted infrared wavelengths, and in 1914 Theodore Lyman found some of the predicted ultraviolet wavelengths.[16]

Introduction to Quantum Mechanics

45

Bohr's model

In 1913 Niels Bohr proposed a new model of the atom that included quantized electron orbits.[17] In Bohr's model, electrons could inhabit only certain orbits around the atomic nucleus. When an atom emitted (or absorbed) energy, the electron did not move in a continuous trajectory from one orbit around the nucleus to another, as might be expected classically. Instead, the electron would jump instantaneously from one orbit to another, giving off the emitted light in the form of a photon.[18] The possible energies of photons given off by each element were determined by the differences in energy between the orbits, and so the emission spectrum for each element would contain a number of lines.[19] Bohr theorised that the angular momentum, L, of an electron is quantised:

The Bohr model of the atom, showing an electron quantum jumping to ground state n = 1.

where n is an integer and h is the Planck constant. Starting from this assumption, Coulomb's law and the equations of circular motion show that an electron with n units of angular momentum will orbit a proton at a distance r given by , where ke is the Coulomb constant, m is the mass of an electron, and e is the charge on an electron. For simplicity this is written as

where a0, called the Bohr radius, is equal to 0.0529 nm. The Bohr radius is the radius of the smallest allowed orbit. The energy of the electron[20] can also be calculated, and is given by . Thus Bohr's assumption that angular momentum is quantised means that an electron can only inhabit certain orbits around the nucleus, and that it can have only certain energies. A consequence of these constraints is that the electron will not crash into the nucleus: it cannot continuously emit energy, and it cannot come closer to the nucleus than a0 (the Bohr radius). An electron loses energy by jumping instantaneously from its original orbit to a lower orbit; the extra energy is emitted in the form of a photon. Conversely, an electron that absorbs a photon gains energy, hence it jumps to an orbit that is farther from the nucleus. Each photon from glowing atomic hydrogen is due to an electron moving from a higher orbit, with radius rn, to a lower orbit, rm. The energy Eγ of this photon is the difference in the energies En and Em of the electron:

Since Planck's equation shows that the photon's energy is related to its wavelength by Eγ = hc/λ, the wavelengths of light that can be emitted are given by

This equation has the same form as the Rydberg formula, and predicts that the constant R should be given by

At the University of Aberdeen. Wave-particle duality In 1924. is discussed in the section below. a simple diffraction pattern.)[26]:172 Wave-particle duality is an example of the principle of complementarity in quantum physics. called the de Broglie hypothesis. it was not able to make accurate predictions for multi-electron atoms. the double slit experiment. one might naively expect that the intensity of the fringes due to interference would be halved everywhere. astrophysicist A. The concept of wave-particle duality says that neither the classical concept of "particle" nor of "wave" can fully describe the behavior of quantum-scale objects. De Broglie was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1929 for his hypothesis. Three years later. a beam of light is directed through two narrow. . closely spaced slits.[21] However. Davisson and Germer guided their beam through a crystalline grid.S. In fact. Louis de Broglie proposed the idea that just as light has both wave-like and particle-like properties. Indeed. An elegant example of wave-particle duality. perhaps as a compromise we had better call it a 'wavicle' ". Thomson and Davisson shared the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1937 for their experimental work. Exactly the same behaviour can be demonstrated in water waves.Introduction to Quantum Mechanics 46 Therefore the Bohr model of the atom can predict the emission spectrum of hydrogen in terms of fundamental constants. or to explain why some spectral lines are brighter than others. a much simpler pattern is seen. associated with a particle is related to its momentum. the wave-like nature of electrons was demonstrated by showing that a beam of electrons could exhibit diffraction. and so the double-slit experiment was seen as a demonstration of the wave nature of light. p:[23][24] The relationship. De Broglie's treatment of quantum events served as a jumping off point for Schrödinger when he set about to construct a wave equation to describe quantum theoretical events. Light from one slit interferes with light from the other.[25] (This term was later popularised by mathematician Banesh Hoffmann. Thus all matter exhibits properties of both particles and waves. holds for all types of matter. producing an interference pattern of light and dark bands on a screen. λ. Similar wave-like phenomena were later shown for atoms and even small molecules.[22] The wavelength. George Thomson passed a beam of electrons through a thin metal film and observed the predicted diffraction patterns. just like a beam of light. At Bell Labs. If one of the slits is covered up. either photons or matter. Closing one slit results in a much simpler pattern diametrically opposite the open slit. matter also has wave-like properties. producing an interference pattern (the 3 fringes shown at the right). Eddington proposed in 1927 that "We can scarcely describe such an entity as a wave or as a particle. The double-slit experiment In the double-slit experiment as originally performed by Thomas Young and Augustin Fresnel in 1827.

but as a particle when it is detected. where l is the length and n is a positive integer. This calculation accurately reproduced the energy levels of the Bohr model.[27] In the paper that introduced Schrödinger's cat." and that it therefore provides "future expectation[s] .g. An example of a standing wave is a violin string. demonstrating the wave-like propagation of light. Development of modern quantum mechanics In 1925. The wavelength of a standing wave is related to the length of the vibrating object and the boundary conditions. and describes how the quantum state of a physical system changes in time. moving in a well of electrical potential created by the proton. defines the permitted stationary states of a quantum system. and the same type of interference pattern is seen. which is fixed at both ends and can be made to vibrate. For example. De Broglie suggested that the allowed electron orbits were those for which the circumference of the orbit would be an integer number of wavelengths. photon or electron) is passing through the apparatus at a time. In particular. This is a typical feature of quantum complementarity: a quantum particle will act as a wave when we do an experiment to measure its wave-like properties. The waves created by a stringed instrument appear to oscillate in place. Erwin Schrödinger developed the equation that describes the behaviour of a quantum mechanical wave. an electron will be observed only in situations that permit a standing wave around a nucleus. because the violin string is fixed at both ends. and like a particle when we do an experiment to measure its particle-like properties. The interference pattern from two slits is much more complex. building on de Broglie's hypothesis.Introduction to Quantum Mechanics 47 The double-slit experiment has also been performed using electrons. Shortly afterwards. Where on the detector screen any individual particle shows up will be the result of an entirely random process. Heisenberg's colleague Max Born realised that Heisenberg's method of calculating the . he says that the psi-function featured in his equation provides the "means for predicting probability of measurement results. is central to quantum mechanics. age 46 At a somewhat earlier time. By means of a series of mathematical analogies. called the Schrödinger equation after its creator."[28] Schrödinger was able to calculate the energy levels of hydrogen by treating a hydrogen atom's electron as a classical wave. the same interference pattern develops over time. Even if the source intensity is turned down so that only one particle (e. Werner Heisenberg was trying to find an explanation for the intensities of the different lines in the hydrogen emission spectrum. moving from crest to trough in an up-and-down motion. The diffraction pattern produced when light is shone through one slit (top) and the interference pattern produced by two slits (bottom). Erwin Schrödinger. Heisenberg wrote out the quantum mechanical analogue for the classical computation of intensities. and even molecules. Application to the Bohr model De Broglie expanded the Bohr model of the atom by showing that an electron in orbit around a nucleus could be thought of as having wave-like properties. Thus it has been demonstrated that all matter possesses both particle and wave characteristics. The quantum particle acts as a wave when passing through the double slits. it can carry standing waves of wavelengths 2l/n. atoms. about 1933. The equation. somewhat as laid down in a catalog.

. For instance. known as the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics. aimed to describe the nature of reality that was being probed by the measurements and described by the mathematical formulations of quantum mechanics. A system is completely described by a wave function. and measure classical properties such as position and momentum. (Born rule. those properties that are not known with precision must be described by probabilities. . The probability of an event — for example. but not both at the same time. Schrödinger proved that Heisenberg's matrix mechanics and his own wave mechanics made the same predictions about the properties and behaviour of the electron. An experiment can demonstrate the particle-like properties of matter. The description of nature is essentially probabilistic. 3. the two theories were identical. Heisenberg saw no problem in the theoretical prediction of instantaneous transitions of electrons between orbits in an atom." 48 Copenhagen interpretation Bohr. Measuring devices are essentially classical devices. mathematically. How changes over time is given by the Schrödinger equation.[29] In May 1926. or its wave-like properties. Their description. where on the screen a particle will show up in the two slit experiment — is related to the square of the amplitude of its wave function. It is not possible to know the values of all of the properties of the system at the same time. which gives a physical meaning to the wavefunction in the Copenhagen interpretation: the probability amplitude) 4.Introduction to Quantum Mechanics probabilities for transitions between the different energy levels could best be expressed by using the mathematical concept of matrices. (Heisenberg's uncertainty principle) 5. Matter. Heisenberg and others tried to explain what these experimental results and mathematical models really mean. (Heisenberg) 2. like energy. but Schrödinger hoped that a theory based on continuous wave-like properties could avoid what he called (in the words of Wilhelm Wien[30]) "this nonsense about quantum jumps. (Complementarity principle due to Bohr) 6. The quantum mechanical description of large systems should closely approximate the classical description. exhibits a wave-particle duality. 7. (Correspondence principle of Bohr and Heisenberg) Various consequences of these principles are discussed in more detail in the following subsections. The main principles of the Copenhagen interpretation are: 1. Yet the two men disagreed on the interpretation of their mutual theory. due to Max Born.

. This statement is known as the uncertainty principle. and vice versa.. However. but so is the accuracy of the measurement of the position of the impact. At any time before a photon "shows up" on a detection screen it can only be described by a set of probabilities for where it might show up. Wave function collapse Wave function collapse is a forced term for whatever happened when it becomes appropriate to replace the description of an uncertain state of a system by a description of the system in a definite state.hence uncertainty . we assume that the car has a definite position and speed at a particular moment in time. Heisenberg won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1932 for the work that he [31] did at around this time. and how accurately we can measure these values depends on the quality of our measuring equipment — if we improve the precision of our measuring equipment. the photon has disappeared.in the momentum is less.[33] Werner Heisenberg at the age of 26. for one is necessarily measuring its post-impact disturbed momentum. an exposed spot in a sheet of photographic film. cannot both be known to arbitrary precision: the more precisely one property is known. The uncertainty principle isn't a statement about the accuracy of our measuring equipment. Naively. Explanations for the nature of the process of becoming certain are controversial. but when dealing with atoms and electrons they become critical. Heisenberg proved that these assumptions are not correct. In 1927. as an illustration. but the greater is the disturbance of the electron. the higher the frequency of the photon the more accurate is the measurement of the position of the impact. and the wave function has disappeared with it. In particular. When it does show up. In measuring the electron's position. Heisenberg gave. these uncertainties are too small to notice. rendering the measurement obtained of its momentum increasingly uncertain (momentum is velocity multiplied by mass). which absorbs a random amount of energy. With a photon of lower frequency the disturbance . we would assume that how precisely we measure the speed of the car does not affect its position. and that this value is related to Planck's constant. the less precisely the other can be known.Introduction to Quantum Mechanics 49 Uncertainty principle Suppose that we want to measure the position and speed of an object — for example a car going through a radar speed trap. On a scale of cars and people. from the collision products. like position and speed.[34] The uncertainty principle shows mathematically that the product of the uncertainty in the position and momentum of a particle (momentum is velocity multiplied by mass) could never be less than a certain value. e. but about the nature of the system itself — our naive assumption that the car had a definite position and speed was incorrect. In its place some physical change in the detection screen has appeared. for instance in the CCD of an electronic camera. the time and the space where it interacted with the device are known within very tight limits. not its original momentum. the measurement of the position and momentum of an electron using a photon of light.g. we will get a result that is closer to the true value.[32] Quantum mechanics shows that certain pairs of physical properties.

The quantum number represented the sense (positive or negative) of spin. and they accurately reproduce the energy levels of the Bohr model. about an axis. The collective name for these properties is the quantum state of the electron. with two possible values. each electron has four properties: 1. such as an electron in a probability cloud. 2.Introduction to Quantum Mechanics 50 Eigenstates and eigenvalues For a more detailed introduction to this subject. created by the proton. in a electric potential well. . The idea. indicating whether the particle wave is one that is closer to the nucleus with less energy or one that is farther from the nucleus with more energy. Spin would account for the missing magnetic moment. V. or pair of lines differing by a small amount. The quantum state can be described by giving a number to each of these properties. The "spin" of the electron. the spectrum of atomic hydrogen had a doublet. to resolve inconsistencies between observed molecular spectra and the predictions of quantum mechanics. Pauli formulated his exclusion principle. The energies of the different orbitals can be calculated. Wolfgang Pauli proposed a new quantum degree of freedom (or quantum number). It is often depicted as a three-dimensional region within which there is a 95 percent probability of finding the electron."[35] A year later. where only one line was expected. represented by the "wave function" Ψ. these are known as the electron's quantum numbers. The Pauli exclusion principle In 1924. Orbitals have a range of different shapes in three dimensions. An "orbital" designation.[36] Schrödinger was able to calculate the energy levels of hydrogen by treating a hydrogen atom's electron as a wave. and allow two electrons in the same orbital to occupy distinct quantum states if they "spun" in opposite directions. determining the magnetic moment of the orbital around the z-axis. was that electrons behave as if they rotate. 3. originating with Ralph Kronig. stating that "There cannot exist an atom in such a quantum state that two electrons within [it] have the same set of quantum numbers. The solutions to Schrödinger's equation are distributions of probabilities for electron positions and locations. a "cloud" of possible locations. spherical or otherwise. The "shape" of the orbital. Application to the hydrogen atom Bohr's model of the atom was essentially two-dimensional — an electron orbiting in a plane around its nuclear "sun." However. and the state of something having a definite value. The Pauli exclusion principle demands that no two electrons within an atom may have the same values of all four numbers. 4. Therefore it is necessary to formulate clearly the difference between the state of something that is indeterminate. statements about both the position and momentum of particles can only assign a probability that the position or momentum will have some numerical value. In particular. or "spin". In the modern theory the orbit has been replaced by an atomic orbital. The "inclination" of the orbital. Uhlenbeck and Goudsmit identified Pauli's new degree of freedom with a property called spin. see: Introduction to eigenstates Because of the uncertainty principle. When an object can definitely be "pinned-down" in some respect. Within Schrödinger's picture. the uncertainty principle states that an electron cannot be viewed as having an exact location at any given time. thus satisfying the exclusion principle. it is said to possess an eigenstate. The quantum state of the electron is described by its wavefunction.

The other orbitals have more complicated shapes (see atomic orbital). 2px. He was able to solve for the spectral lines of the hydrogen atom. The angular momentum represents the resistance of a spinning object to speeding up or slowing down under the influence of external force. The possible values for l are integers from 0 to n − 1: The shape of each orbital has its own letter as well. and 2pz. the Pauli Exclusion Principle requires that the two electrons differ in the value of one quantum number. The first shape is denoted by the letter s (a mnemonic being "sphere"). The fourth quantum number. The third quantum number. such as the speed at which an electron orbits the nucleus.2py. the magnetic quantum number. The choice of direction is arbitrary. The azimuthal quantum number represents the orbital angular momentum of an electron around its nucleus. f. and ml are the same. The next quantum number. which described spinning electrons. which can have the value of +1⁄2 for one electron and −1⁄2 for the other. Dirac's equations sometimes yielded a negative value for energy. n. n denotes the energy level of each orbital. and to reproduce from physical first principles Sommerfeld's successful formula for the fine structure of the hydrogen spectrum. the azimuthal quantum number. by way of example: In the case of a helium atom with two electrons in the 1s orbital. and the way that electrons fill them. Dirac wave equation In 1928. The colours show the phase of the wavefunction. The possible values for n are integers: The shapes of the first five atomic orbitals: 1s. which is the same as in Bohr's model. moreover. By using the simplest electromagnetic interaction. which was too large to be that of a spinning charged sphere governed by classical physics. 2s. conventionally the z-direction is chosen. Their values of n. describes the magnetic moment of the electron. s = 1⁄2. that determines the organisation of the periodic table and the structure and strength of chemical bonds between atoms. l. Paul Dirac extended the Pauli equation. This led to the many-particle quantum field theory. the spin quantum number (pertaining to the "orientation" of the electron's spin) is denoted ms. and g.Introduction to Quantum Mechanics 51 The first property describing the orbital is the principal quantum number. occurring at a substantial fraction of the speed of light. to account for special relativity. and is denoted by ml (or simply m). The next shape is denoted by the letter p and has the form of a dumbbell. . they have the same spin. denoted l."[35] It is the underlying structure and symmetry of atomic orbitals. The result was a theory that dealt properly with events. Accordingly they must differ in the value of ms. The chemist Linus Pauling wrote. describes the shape of the orbital. Dirac was able to predict the value of the magnetic moment associated with the electron's spin. The shape is a consequence of the angular momentum of the orbital. for which he proposed a novel solution: he posited the existence of an antielectron and of a dynamical vacuum. and found the experimentally observed value. and are denoted by the letters d. The possible values for ml are integers from −l to l: The magnetic quantum number measures the component of the angular momentum in a particular direction. with values +1⁄2 or −1⁄2.

Erwin Schrödinger used the word "entanglement" and declared: "I would not call that one but rather the characteristic trait of quantum mechanics. Assuming what is now usually called local realism. of course) as a purple state. Nothing is certain until the superimposed waveforms "collapse. only one of those two properties actually exists and only at the moment that it is being measured.Introduction to Quantum Mechanics 52 Quantum entanglement The Pauli exclusion principle says that two electrons in one system cannot be in the same state. (Einstein. and preferably not by some "spooky action at a distance. while according to the Copenhagen interpretation. So whenever it might be investigated." The argument is worked out in a famous paper. Podolsky. then that experiment changes the photon involved from one having a superposition of "blue" and "red" characteristics to a photon that has only one of those characteristics. Podolsky. EPR attempted to show from quantum theory that a particle has both position and momentum simultaneously. Nature leaves open the possibility. The situation there is already very abstract.[38] The Bell inequalities are the most powerful challenge to Einstein's claims. and the other one had traveled halfway to the nearest star. and two resolution possibilities. . The problem that Einstein had with such an imagined situation was that if one of these photons had been kept bouncing between mirrors in a laboratory on earth. in the opposite state to whatever its twin had revealed. simultaneously from the double slits arrive at the detection screen in a state of superposition. Einstein started with the theory's prediction that two or more particles that have interacted in the past can appear strongly correlated when their various properties are later measured. & Rosen 1935 is currently Einstein's most cited publication in physics journals. however. abbreviated EPR). it would necessarily show up. photons in which two contrary states are superimposed on each of them in the same event. In trying to show that quantum mechanics was not a complete theory." At that instant an electron shows up somewhere in accordance with the probabilities that are the squares of the amplitudes of the two superimposed waveforms. So the two photons come out "purple. EPR concluded that quantum theory is incomplete in that it refuses to consider physical properties which objectively exist in nature. instantaneously. Perhaps they are produced by the excitation of a crystal that characteristically absorbs a photon of a certain frequency and emits two photons of half the original frequency. through their common past. and Rosen (1935. Einstein. Two photons are produced as the result of the same atomic event. that meant that the distant photon now had to lose its "purple" status too. when its twin was made to reveal itself as either blue or red. He sought to explain this seeming interaction in a classical way." [37] The question of whether entanglement is a real condition is still in dispute. is as follows: Imagine that the superposition of a state that can be mentally labeled as blue and another state that can be mentally labeled as red will then appear (in imagination." If the experimenter now performs some experiment that will determine whether one of the photons is either blue or red. Recall that the wave functions that emerge Superposition of two quantum characteristics. A concrete way of thinking about entangled photons. setting out what is now called the EPR paradox. that two electrons can have both states "superimposed" over them.) In the same year.

An electric field is a field which exerts a force on any particles that carry electric charges. renormalization eventually was embraced as an important and self-consistent tool in QED and other fields of physics. electric charges move.[40] In 2008. The physical description of interacting charged particles. Initially viewed as a suspect. and even quarks. As a force is exerted. . at any point in space. in that it had essential ingredients of the modern theory. among others. the problem of unsolvable infinities developed in this relativistic quantum theory. This includes the electron. The This sculpture in Bristol. that quantum mechanics is often used to refer to "the entire notion of quantum view. . In the 1960s physicists realized that QED broke down at extremely high energies. . provisional procedure by some of its originators."[41]:108 In 1931. and magnetic fields is called electromagnetism. physicist Richard Hammond wrote that Sometimes we distinguish between quantum mechanics (QM) and quantum field theory (QFT). proton. In 1928 Paul Dirac produced a relativistic quantum theory of electromagnetism. Electric charges are the sources of. From this inconsistency the Standard Model of particle physics was discovered. Years later. This refers to an effect whereby the quantum nature of the electromagnetic field causes the energy levels in an atom or ion to deviate slightly from what they would otherwise be. England — a series of clustering cones — presents the idea of small worlds that Paul Dirac studied to reach his discovery of anti-matter. and create. . Electromagnetism begins with the electric charge."[43] Quantum electrodynamics Quantum electrodynamics (QED) is the name of the quantum theory of the electromagnetic force."[39] Other effects that manifest themselves as fields are gravitation and static electricity. in turn causes electric current (moving electrons). However. spectral lines may shift or split. An example of a prediction of quantum electrodynamics which has been verified experimentally is the Lamb shift. electrical currents. Dirac proposed the existence of particles that later became known as anti-matter. He added. . The diagrams showed that the electromagnetic force is the interactions of photons between interacting particles. however. Understanding QED begins with understanding electromagnetism. a current flows and a magnetic field is produced. A field in physics is "a region or space in which a given effect (such as magnetism) exists. The interacting electric and magnetic field is called an electromagnetic field. in the late 1940s Feynman's diagrams depicted all possible interactions pertaining to a given event. This was the progenitor to modern quantum electrodynamics. As a result. QFT .[42] Dirac shared the Nobel Prize in physics for 1933 with Schrödinger. Also. renormalization solved this problem. and the fields (such as the electromechanical field) are continuous classical entities. electric fields. Electromagnetism can be called "electrodynamics" because it is a dynamic interaction between electrical and magnetic forces. . The magnetic field. "for the discovery of new productive forms of atomic theory. goes a step further and allows for the creation and annihilation of particles . when he attempted to quantise the electromagnetic field — a procedure for constructing a quantum theory starting from a classical theory. QM refers to a system in which the number of particles is fixed. which remedied the higher energy breakdown in theory. electrical fields.Introduction to Quantum Mechanics 53 Quantum field theory The idea of quantum field theory began in the late 1920s with British physicist Paul Dirac.

A. p. R. PhysicsWorld. ac. "Mechanics" is the branch of science that deals with the action of forces on objects. the electromagnetic radiation can be treated as a classical electromagnetic wave. D. the question of what these abstract models say about the underlying nature of the real world has received competing answers. at/ dokumente/ einstein1. Bantam. "Über einen die Erzeugung und Verwandlung des Lichtes betreffenden heuristischen Gesichtspunkt" (http:/ / www. 147–8." like the energy of Planck's harmonic oscillators. pp. html)]] [2] Classical physics also does not accurately describe the universe on the largest scales or at speeds close to that of light. 127–9.[44] Notes [1] Quantum Mechanics from [[National Public Radio (http:/ / www. and predictions pertinent to quantum mechanics are all consistent and hold a very high level of confirmation. D.322. 10 [4] This result was published (in German) as Planck. Mechanics. can only take specific values. jhu. This is called the electroweak theory.. as long as the electrons in the material are treated by the laws of quantum mechanics. Retrieved 2009-08-01. Addison-Wesley. as otherwise the electrons in the electric current could not penetrate the potential barrier made up of a layer of oxide. Bibcode 1905AnP. pdf). pbs. physik. The term "photon" was introduced in 1926. [5] The word "quantum" comes from the Latin word for "how much" (as does "quantity"). ca.1002/andp. or sometimes the Rutherford model after Ernest Rutherford who proposed it in 1911. Flash memory chips found in USB drives also use quantum tunnelling.1002/andp. "Max Planck: the reluctant revolutionary" (http:/ / physicsworld. [10] Taylor."& btnG=Search+ Books).19053220607. Dubson. and magnetic resonance imaging.. English translation: " On the Law of Distribution of Energy in the Normal Spectrum (http:/ / dbhs. The results are quantitatively correct for thermal light sources (the sun. pp.. the electron microscope. . Max (1901). doi:10. phl. etc) both for the rate of electron emission as well as their angular distribution. ntrs. uni-augsburg. Phys. pdf).132E. (2004). Applications Applications of quantum mechanics include the laser.gov (http:/ / ntrs. 12 [14] Einstein's photoelectric effect equation can be derived and explained without requiring the concept of "photons".+ Wave+ Motion. com/ cws/ article/ print/ 373). [13] Dicke and Wittke. [9] Einstein.. gov/ archive/ nasa/ casi.Introduction to Quantum Mechanics Standard Model unifies the electromagnetic and weak interactions into one theory. Zafiratos. In even the simple light switch.. Ann. However. see NTRS. . univie.553P.309.. An accurate description requires general relativity. Modern Physics for Scientists and Engineers. Albert (1905). p. M. edu/ AnnusMirabilis/ AeReserveArticles/ eins_lq. Helge (1 December 2000). Prentice Hall. Prentice Hall. "Ueber das Gesetz der Energieverteilung im Normalspectrum" (http:/ / www. p. with the "quantum of money" being the lowest-value coin in circulation. That is. . The study of semiconductors led to the invention of the diode and the transistor. R.. com/ books?hl=en& q="Mechanics. zbp.. J. Zafiratos. J. nasa.com. which are indispensable for modern electronics. C. so "quantum mechanics" is the part of mechanics that deals with objects for which particular properties are quantized. translated into English as On a Heuristic Viewpoint Concerning the Production and Transformation of Light (http:/ / lorentz. [7] "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1918" (http:/ / nobelprize. de/ annalen/ history/ historic-papers/ 1901_309_553-563. Wave Motion. 54 Interpretations The physical measurements. the transistor. Feynman.. The Universe in a Nutshell. A. in most countries money is effectively quantized. . based on the Geiger-Marsden gold foil experiment which first demonstrated the existence of the nucleus. and Heat (http:/ / books. ISBN 0135897890. k12. incandescent lamps. (2004). but at intensities achievable with non-laser sources these effects are unobservable. Dubson. doi:10. 2001. M.NASA. equations. [12] Actually there can be intensity-dependent effects. . org/ trasnsistor/ science/ info/ quantum. to erase their memory cells. For example.19013090310. [16] Taylor. ISBN 0135897890. For more on this point. [11] Stephen Hawking. wvusd. html)". The Nobel Foundation. Annalen der Physik 17: 132–148.. C. Modern Physics for Scientists and Engineers. nasa. Something which is "quantized. [3] Richard P. google. quantum tunnelling is vital. 537. QED. Introduction to Quantum Mechanics. pdf). org/ nobel_prizes/ physics/ laureates/ 1918/ ). Bibcode 1901AnP. [8] Kragh.. us/ webdocs/ Chem-History/ Planck-1901/ Planck-1901. 309 (3): 553–63. [6] Francis Weston Sears (1958). pdf) [15] The classical model of the atom is called the planetary model.+ and+ Heat"+ "where+ n+ =+ 1. gov/ 19680009569_1968009569.

com/ EBchecked/ topic/ 206162/ field) [41] Richard Hammond. p. Vijay Kumar. P. 2007. ed. p. Z. Eddington. ISBN 1-84046-577-8. The electron has kinetic energy by virtue of its actual motion around the nucleus. 124. com/ EBchecked/ topic/ 431159/ orbital) [37] E. (http:/ / books. britannica. Introducing Quantum Theory. ISBN 978-1-60163-003-2 [42] The Physical World website (http:/ / www. 201. p. tu-harburg. merriam-webster. Moore. ISBN 1840465778. The Strange Story of the Quantum. washington. 43 (3–4): 172–198. viz. physicalworld. New Jersey 1983).. html) [43] "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1933" (http:/ / nobelprize. of which we know the states by their respective representation." Encyclopædia Britannica (http:/ / www.edu (http:/ / www. "This translation was originally published in Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. com/ EBchecked/ topic/ 528298/ Schrodinger-equation) [28] Erwin Schrödinger. The Nature of the Physical World. 1959 [27] "Schrodinger Equation (Physics). 2008. O. pp.. P. McEvoy and Oscar Zarate (2004). 345. [44] Durrani. Dover. 51f. Nanosilicon. npl. html." Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary (http:/ / www. Cramer.washington. html) [39] "Mechanics. Totem Books. especially p." p. org/ nobel_prizes/ physics/ laureates/ 1933/ ).Introduction to Quantum Mechanics [17] McEvoy. the course of Gifford Lectures that Eddington delivered in the University of Edinburgh in January to March 1927. Introducing Quantum Theory. K. Wheeler and W. [18] World Book Encyclopedia. p. Princeton university Press. see Heisenberg's entryway to matrix mechanics.S. Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society. 70–89. 47 [36] "Orbital (chemistry and physics). Phys. [22] J. 1932 (http:/ / nobelprize.. 110f. com/ dictionary/ field) [40] "Field. doi:10. (1927). Kessinger Publishing.+ perhaps+ as+ a+ compromise+ we+ had+ better+ call+ it+ a+ `wavicle& source=bl& ots=K0IfGzaXli& sig=zgrQiBJbHRLuUzVBT-yy8jZhC1Y& hl=en& ei=i8g1SpOHC4PgtgOu_4jVDg& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=1) [26] Banesh Hoffman. de/ rzt/ rzt/ it/ QM/ cat.172H. [23] Aezel. Amir D. com/ EBchecked/ topic/ 614029/ uncertainty-principle) [35] Linus Pauling. 55 . org/ nobel_prizes/ physics/ laureates/ 1932/ press. [And then appeared as Section I. P. html) [34] "Uncertainty principle.. 89. eds. and potential energy because of its electromagnetic interaction with the nucleus. H. [33] Nobel Prize in Physics presentation speech. [21] The model can be easily modified to account of the emission spectrum of any system consisting of a nucleus and a single electron (that is.. Introducing Quantum Theory. John G. Zarate.A. (2008). I would not call that one but rather the characteristic trait of quantum mechanics. 9. The Nobel Foundation. The Unknown Universe. J.. com/ books?id=PGOTKcxSqMUC& pg=PA201& lpg=PA201& dq=We+ can+ scarcely+ describe+ such+ an+ entity+ as+ a+ wave+ or+ as+ a+ particle. "Über den anschaulichen Inhalt der quantentheoretischen Kinematik und Mechanik"." Encyclopædia Britannica (http:/ / www. McEvoy and Oscar Zarate (2004). Schrödinger: Life and Thought. This paper can be downloaded from http:/ / www. 555says: "When two systems. by endowing each of them with a representative of its own. Zurek. [30] W. (2004). britannica. ISBN 1-84046-577-8.. Schrödinger. 10f." Encyclopædia Britannica (http:/ / www. The Nature of the Chemical Bond. 31 (1935). enter into a temporary physical interaction due to known forces between them and when after a time of mutual influence the systems separate again. Elsevier.43. p. Z.H. p. Ahmed." Encyclopædia Britannica (http:/ / www. p. 222. Totem Books. the energy of the electron is the sum of its kinetic and potential energies. [20] In this case. page 6. New Page Books.. [25] A. " [29] For a somewhat more sophisticated look at how Heisenberg transitioned from the old quantum theory and classical physics to the new quantum mechanics. (Penguin. edu/ npl/ int_rep/ qm_nl. 323-38. 2005. britannica. . then they can no longer be described as before. ISBN 9780080445281.1007/BF01397280. 114. p. Retrieved 2007-11-24. Introduction to Quantum Mechanics. Bibcode 1927ZPhy. [31] Heisenberg's Nobel Prize citation (http:/ / nobelprize." [38] "Quantum Nonlocality and the Possibility of Superluminal Effects". A. britannica. [19] Dicke and Wittke. org/ restless_universe/ html/ ru_dira. "The Present Situation in Quantum Mechanics. ions such as He+ or O7+ which contain only one electron). 2003) ISBN 0-452-28457 [24] J.11 of Part I of Quantum Theory and Measurement (J. Totem Books. W. Cambridge University Press (1989). Entanglrment. google. p. npl. org/ nobel_prizes/ physics/ laureates/ 1932/ ) [32] Heisenberg first published his work on the uncertainty principle in the leading German physics journal Zeitschrift für Physik: Heisenberg.

A. doi:10.1103/PhysRev. Richard P.1189B. From Certainty to Uncertainty: The Story of Science and Ideas in the Twenty-First Century. • Feynman. • Scientific American Reader. F. University of Chicago Press.. Francis Weston (1949). Noonday Press.. "Heisenberg. Tudor Publishing Company.1928. ISBN 0486404595. LCCN a44004471. • Schlipp.425. John Wiley & Sons. Albert Einstein: Philosopher-Scientist. Kamefuchi et al.). "Quantum Entanglement and the Nonexistence of Superluminal Signals". J. • Nave. LCCN 57014416. pp. Atomic Physics and Human Knowledge..21. Physical Review 76 (6): 769–789. ISBN 0486479285. Foundations of Quantum Mechanics in the Light of New Technology (S. Rutgers University Press. P.769F.1103/RevModPhys.. (1992). "Demonstrating quantum random with single photons". Jeremy (2005). S. Physics and Philosophy. • Westmoreland. Albert (1934). May (1953). LCCN 51001018. • Wieman. ISBN 0918024188. • Peat. Tokyo: Japan Physical Society. Henry (1957). Bibcode 2009EJPh.phy-astr. html#quacon). Christine. Judith (illustrations) (2002). • Beller. Contemporary physics and the limits of knowledge (http:// books. University of California Press.edu/~mcdonald/examples/QED/feynman_pr_76_769_49.. Michael (1999). Tavel. ISBN 9780813530772. Sandu. • Van Vleck. "The Correspondence Principle in the Statistical Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics. Benjamin Schumacher (1998). Niels (1958).425W. Robert Bruce. • Einstein. Quantum Dialogue: The Making of a Revolution. Carl Rod (2005). • McEvoy. arXiv:quant-ph/9801014 [quant-ph]. • Wheeler. H. Carl. Louis (1953). "Action and Passion at a Distance: An Essay in Honor of Professor Abner Shimony". Perkins. • Bronner. "Classical Electrodynamics in Terms of Direct Interparticle Action".76. Morton.pdf). "Space-Time Approach to Quantum Electrodynamics" (http://www.google. OCLC 530611.21.).. • Feigl. Philosophic Foundations of Quantum Mechanics. Zarate. • de Broglie. 14: 179. . Herbert. Jan-Peter (2009). Katherine (2005). doi:10. Richard L. J. 1953. The Revolution in Physics. Bibcode 1949PhRv. Matrix Mechanics and the Uncertainty Principle". Daniel Rohrlich (1996). • Reichenbach. • Tavel. Patrick. 225. • Sears. eds.com/?id=SELS0HbIhjYC&pg=PA200&dq=Wave+function+collapse).. Reviews of Modern Physics 21 (3): 425–433. Paul Arthur (1949). Oscar. Hans (1944). Appleton-Century-Crofts. • Bohr. Addison-Wesley. Physics Today. Meyn. John Archibald. "(title not given in citation)". LCCN 99010404. Resonance. Joseph Henry Press. LCCN 50005340. (2004). Margenau. University of Virginia. Foundations of Physics. Introductory Quantum Mechanics (2nd ed. • Shimony. LCCN 53006438.. arXiv:quant-ph/9605004 [quant-ph].30. HyperPhysics. Acad. Brodbeck. LCCN 55003947. Philosophical Library. • Fowler.. (1983). Readings in the Philosophy of Science. Strunz.Introduction to Quantum Mechanics 56 References • Bernstein.physics. ISBN 0486470113. Optics (3rd ed.edu/hbase/quacon. ISBN 1-874166-37-4. European Journal of Physics 30 (5): 1189–1200. • Lindsay." Proc. Georgia State University. American Journal of Physics 73 (11). Dover.76. princeton. Essays in Science. The Bohr Atom. Feynman. Bibcode 1949RvMP. Journal of Science Education 9 (8). Harper and Brothers.769. • Liboff. Silberhorn. Introducing Quantum Theory. Richard P.gsu. "Max Born and the quantum theory". Mara (2001). LCCN 53010401. Nat. ISBN 0390304883. ISBN 0061305499. ISBN 0195046013...). • Heisenberg. cited in: Popescu.. Werner (1958). (1949). David (2002). "Transforming Physics Education". • Lakshmibala. Sci. ASIN B00005VGVF. "Quantum Physics" (http://hyperphysics. Andreas. (1949).

Buffalo NY: Prometheus Books. • Tony Hey and Walters.jp/seminar/MicroWorld1_E/MicroWorld_1_E. trigonometry. Princeton Univ.htm) • The spooky quantum (http://www. Patrick (2003) The New Quantum Universe. (http://www. Press: 110–176. Princeton Univ. 5–8.thebigview. " Microscopic World – Introduction to Quantum Mechanics. (http://www2. • Brian Cox and Jeff Forshaw (2011) The Quantum Universe. trans. • Theoretical Physics wiki (http://theoreticalphysics. Weidenfield & Nicholson. Gerald Malsbary.html) External links • Takada. • Richard Feynman (1985) QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter. (http://thisquantumworld.html)" a recording of Werner Heisenberg's voice. Kenneth (2005) The Quantum World. • Ghirardi.newscientist. • This Quantum World. (http://www.com/ht/index.com/channel/ fundamentals/quantum-world) From the New Scientist.ac.compadre.com/spacetime/index.wetpaint.php) • The Quantum Exchange (http://www. 57 Further reading The following titles.kyushu-u.com) • " Uncertainty Principle.Introduction to Quantum Mechanics doi:10.k12. • A website with good introduction to Quantum mechanics can be found here.encyclopedia.org/history/heisenberg/p07. Passages using algebra. Harvard Univ. all by working physicists. • Martinus Veltman (2003) Facts and Mysteries in Elementary Particle Physics.1088/0143-0807/30/5/026. • Vladimir G. and bra-ket notation can be passed over on a first reading.wvusd. The most technical of the works cited here. • Everything you wanted to know about the quantum world. Press. and Multiple Universes. Cambridge Univ.com/acad/ webtext/atoms/atpt-4. Princeton University Press. Cambridge Univ.com/doc/1E1-quantumt.kutl. Allen Lane. across the universe. World Scientific Publishing Company.html) • Quantum Mechanics. (http://www. (http://www. ISBN 0-691-08388-6 • Ford. attempt to communicate quantum theory to lay people. Ivancevic (2008) Quantum leap: from Dirac and Feynman. Kenjiro. World Scientific Publishing Company. Press.sa/Scientific_selections/abstracts/Physics/THE SPOOKY QUANTUM. Press. Includes much about the technologies quantum theory has made possible. Ivancevic. • N. • Jim Al-Khalili (2003) Quantum: A Guide for the Perplexed.imamu.chem1. • Victor Stenger (2000) Timeless Reality: Symmetry. David Mermin (1990) “Spooky actions at a distance: mysteries of the QT” in his Boojums all the way through. Includes elementary particle physics. The author is a rare physicist who tries to communicate to philosophers and humanists. Tijana T. (http://www. to human body and mind.aip. using a minimum of technical apparatus.pdf) • Planck's original paper (http://dbhs. .ca.us/webdocs/Chem-History/Planck-1901/Planck-1901. Simplicity. GianCarlo (2004) Sneaking a Look at God's Cards. Press. Provides an intuitive introduction in non-mathematical terms and an introduction in comparatively basic mathematical terms. Emeritus professor at Kyushu University. Chpts.edu.html)" • Quantum Theory. • Roland Omnes (1999) Understanding Quantum Mechanics. html) on Planck's constant.org/quantum) (tutorials and open source learning software).

com/watch?v=oxknfn97vFE) 58 .phys.com/ TimeEvolutionOfAWavepacketInASquareWell/) An animated demonstration of a wave packet dispersion over time.de/quantumlab/english/) An introduction into quantum physics with interactive experiments • Hitachi video recording of double-slit experiment done with electrons.uni-erlangen.physik.pdf) • Time-Evolution of a Wavepacket in a Square Well (http://demonstrations.psu.Introduction to Quantum Mechanics • Single and double slit interference (http://class. • Experiments with single photons (http://www.wolfram.edu/251Labs/10_Interference_&_Diffraction/ Single_and_Double-Slit_Interference. (http://www.youtube.didaktik. You can see the interference pattern build up over time.

The scenario presents a cat that might be alive or dead. we see the cat either alive or dead. that once interacted but were then separated and are not each in a definite state. wherein the cat's life or death depended on the state of a subatomic particle. [1] Podolsky. strengths. the paradox is a classic reductio ad absurdum. If an internal Geiger counter detects radiation. Schrödinger did not wish to promote the idea of dead-and-alive cats as a serious possibility. Yet.59 2. The shattered. similar principles have been researched is placed in a sealed box. the flask is and used in practical applications. The Copenhagen interpretation of thought experiment is also often quantum mechanics implies that after a while. Schrödinger and Einstein exchanged letters about Einstein's EPR article. and weaknesses . He proposed a scenario with a cat in a sealed box. In the course of developing this experiment. after a while. depending on an earlier random event. According to Schrödinger. transpose the superposition of an atom to large-scale systems. sometimes described as a paradox.[2] The thought experiment illustrates the counterintuitiveness of quantum mechanics and the mathematics necessary to describe quantum states. The Copenhagen interpretation implies that the state of the two systems undergoes collapse into a definite state when one of the systems is measured. and Rosen—in 1935. Physicists often use the way each interpretation deals with Schrödinger's cat as a way of illustrating and comparing the particular features. It illustrates what he saw as the problem of the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics applied to everyday objects. contain a superposition of both exploded and unexploded states. devised by Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger in 1935. the Copenhagen interpretation implies that the cat remains both alive and dead (to the universe outside the box) until the box is opened. Origin and motivation Schrödinger intended his thought experiment as a discussion of the EPR article—named after its authors Einstein. along with a flask containing a poison and a radioactive source. not both alive and featured in theoretical discussions of the dead. Schrödinger describes how one could. Schrödinger's Cat: A cat. Schrödinger coined the term Verschränkung (entanglement). in principle. the cat is simultaneously alive and dead. two subatomic particles). Intended as a critique of just the Copenhagen interpretation (the prevailing orthodoxy in 1935). which is a characteristic of a quantum state that is a combination of the states of two systems (for example. in the course of which Einstein pointed out that the state of an unstable keg of gunpowder will. To further illustrate the putative incompleteness of quantum mechanics. the Schrödinger cat thought experiment remains a typical touchstone for all interpretations of quantum mechanics. when we look in the box. quite the reverse. Although the original "experiment" was imaginary. The EPR article highlighted the strange nature of quantum entanglement. Measurement Problems Schrödinger's Cat Schrödinger's cat is a thought experiment. interpretation of quantum mechanics. releasing the poison that kills the cat.

besides Laue. The psi-function of the entire system would express this by having in it the living and dead cat (pardon the expression) mixed or smeared out in equal parts. The thought experiment illustrates this apparent paradox. refuted most elegantly by your system of radioactive atom + amplifier + charge of gunpowder + cat in a box. .[4] Note that no charge of gunpowder is mentioned in Schrödinger's setup. one would say that the cat still lives if meanwhile no atom has decayed. if it happens. Our intuition says that no observer can be in a mixture of states—yet the cat. It is typical of these cases that an indeterminacy originally restricted to the atomic domain becomes transformed into macroscopic indeterminacy. however. —Erwin Schrödinger. such as cats and notebooks. Their interpretation is. 60 The thought experiment Schrödinger wrote:[3][2] One can even set up quite ridiculous cases. That prevents us from so naively accepting as valid a "blurred model" for representing reality. it would not embody anything unclear or contradictory. which can then be resolved by direct observation. Naturwissenschaften (translated by John D. In itself. which uses a Geiger counter as an amplifier and hydrocyanic poison instead of gunpowder. do not always have unique classical descriptions. when does the actual quantum state stop being a linear combination of states. who sees that one cannot get around the assumption of reality. Is the cat required to be an observer. one of the atoms decays. Most of them simply do not see what sort of risky game they are playing with reality—reality as something independent of what is experimentally established. There is a difference between a shaky or out-of-focus photograph and a snapshot of clouds and fog banks. and instead begins to have a unique classical description?) If the cat survives. perhaps none. it seems from the thought experiment. Die gegenwärtige Situation in der Quantenmechanik (The present situation in quantum mechanics). with equal probability. along with the following device (which must be secured against direct interference by the cat): in a Geiger counter. the counter tube discharges. But explanations of the EPR experiments that are consistent with standard microscopic quantum mechanics require that macroscopic objects. can be such a mixture. and through a relay releases a hammer that shatters a small flask of hydrocyanic acid. Trimmer in Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society) Schrödinger's famous thought experiment poses the question. or does its existence in a single well-defined classical state require another external observer? Each alternative seemed absurd to Albert Einstein. so small that perhaps in the course of the hour. Nobody really doubts that the presence or absence of the cat is something independent of the act of observation. he wrote: You are the only contemporary physicist. when does a quantum system stop existing as a superposition of states and become one or the other? (More technically. in which the psi-function of the system contains both the cat alive and blown to bits. there is a tiny bit of radioactive substance. if only one is honest. it remembers only being alive. If one has left this entire system to itself for an hour.Schrödinger's Cat of each interpretation. and apparently Einstein had carried it forward to the present discussion. In a letter to Schrödinger dated 1950. The gunpowder had been mentioned in Einstein's original suggestion to Schrödinger 15 years before. A cat is penned up in a steel chamber. each of which resembles different classical states. but also. who was impressed by the ability of the thought experiment to highlight these issues.

the system simultaneously exists in a superposition of the states "decayed nucleus/dead cat" and "undecayed nucleus/living cat. In other words. or observation. the observer becomes entangled with the cat. The cat is both alive and dead—regardless of whether the box is opened—but the "alive" and "dead" cats are in different branches of the universe that are equally real but cannot interact with each other. the observer and the already-dead cat split into an observer looking at a box with a dead cat. Only the "dead cat" or "alive cat" can be a part of a consistent history in this interpretation. Roger Penrose criticises this: . Copenhagen interpretation The most commonly held interpretation of quantum mechanics is the Copenhagen interpretation. every event is a branch point.Schrödinger's Cat 61 Interpretations of the experiment Since Schrödinger's time. The quantum-mechanical "Schrödinger's cat" paradox according to the many-worlds interpretation. one of the main scientists associated with the Copenhagen interpretation. other interpretations of quantum mechanics have been proposed that give different answers to the questions posed by Schrödinger's cat of how long superpositions last and when (or whether) they collapse. when the box is opened. In contrast. so "observer states" corresponding to the cat's being alive and dead are formed. In this interpretation. The cat would be either dead or alive long before the box is opened by a conscious observer.[7] The view that the "observation" is taken when a particle from the nucleus hits the detector can be developed into objective collapse theories. but are decoherent from each other. and an observer looking at a box with a live cat. so that Schrödinger's Cat did not pose any riddle to him. But since the dead and alive states are decoherent. the many worlds approach denies that collapse ever occurs.[5] In the Copenhagen interpretation. never had in mind the observer-induced collapse of the wave function. which does not single out observation as a special process. there is no effective communication or interaction between them." and that only when the box is opened and an observation performed does the wave function collapse into one of the two states. a system stops being a superposition of states and becomes either one or the other when an observation takes place. This experiment makes apparent the fact that the nature of measurement. each observer state is entangled or linked with the cat so that the "observation of the cat's state" and the "cat's state" correspond with each other. The experiment can be interpreted to mean that while the box is closed. both alive and dead states of the cat persist after the box is opened. When opening the box. Quantum decoherence ensures that the different outcomes have no interaction with each other. is not well-defined in this interpretation. The same mechanism of quantum decoherence is also important for the interpretation in terms of consistent histories.[6] Analysis of an actual experiment found that measurement alone (for example by a Geiger counter) is sufficient to collapse a quantum wave function before there is any conscious observation of the measurement. Hugh Everett formulated the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics. However. Niels Bohr. In the many-worlds interpretation. Many-worlds interpretation and consistent histories In 1957.

Schrödinger's Cat "I wish to make it clear that, as it stands, this is far from a resolution of the cat paradox. For there is nothing in the formalism of quantum mechanics that demands that a state of consciousness cannot involve the simultaneous perception of a live and a dead cat",[8] Although the mainstream view (without necessarily endorsing many-worlds) is that decoherence is the mechanism that forbids such simultaneous perception.[9][10] A variant of the Schrödinger's Cat experiment, known as the quantum suicide machine, has been proposed by cosmologist Max Tegmark. It examines the Schrödinger's Cat experiment from the point of view of the cat, and argues that by using this approach, one may be able to distinguish between the Copenhagen interpretation and many-worlds.

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Ensemble interpretation

The ensemble interpretation states that superpositions are nothing but subensembles of a larger statistical ensemble. The state vector would not apply to individual cat experiments, but only to the statistics of many similarly prepared cat experiments. Proponents of this interpretation state that this makes the Schrödinger's Cat paradox a trivial non-issue. This interpretation serves to discard the idea that a single physical system in quantum mechanics has a mathematical description that corresponds to it in any way.

Relational interpretation

The relational interpretation makes no fundamental distinction between the human experimenter, the cat, or the apparatus, or between animate and inanimate systems; all are quantum systems governed by the same rules of wavefunction evolution, and all may be considered "observers." But the relational interpretation allows that different observers can give different accounts of the same series of events, depending on the information they have about the system.[11] The cat can be considered an observer of the apparatus; meanwhile, the experimenter can be considered another observer of the system in the box (the cat plus the apparatus). Before the box is opened, the cat, by nature of it being alive or dead, has information about the state of the apparatus (the atom has either decayed or not decayed); but the experimenter does not have information about the state of the box contents. In this way, the two observers simultaneously have different accounts of the situation: To the cat, the wavefunction of the apparatus has appeared to "collapse"; to the experimenter, the contents of the box appear to be in superposition. Not until the box is opened, and both observers have the same information about what happened, do both system states appear to "collapse" into the same definite result, a cat that is either alive or dead.

**Objective collapse theories
**

According to objective collapse theories, superpositions are destroyed spontaneously (irrespective of external observation) when some objective physical threshold (of time, mass, temperature, irreversibility, etc.) is reached. Thus, the cat would be expected to have settled into a definite state long before the box is opened. This could loosely be phrased as "the cat observes itself," or "the environment observes the cat." Objective collapse theories require a modification of standard quantum mechanics to allow superpositions to be destroyed by the process of time evolution.

Schrödinger's Cat

63

**Applications and tests
**

The experiment as described is a purely theoretical one, and the machine proposed is not known to have been constructed. However, successful experiments involving similar principles, e.g. superpositions of relatively large (by the standards of quantum physics) objects have been performed.[12] These experiments do not show that a cat-sized object can be superposed, but the known upper limit on "cat states" has been pushed upwards by them. In many cases the state is short-lived, even when cooled to near absolute zero. • A "cat state" has been achieved with photons.[13] • A beryllium ion has been trapped in a superposed state.[14] • An experiment involving a superconducting quantum interference device ("SQUID") has been linked to theme of the thought experiment: " The superposition state does not correspond to a billion electrons flowing one way and a billion others flowing the other way. Superconducting electrons move en masse. All the superconducting electrons in the SQUID flow both ways around the loop at once when they are in the Schrödinger’s cat state.".[15] • A piezoelectric "tuning fork" has been constructed, which can be placed into a superposition of vibrating and non vibrating states. The resonator comprises about 10 trillion atoms.[16] • An experiment involving a flu virus has been proposed.[17] In quantum computing the phrase "cat state" often refers to the special entanglement of qubits wherein the qubits are in an equal superposition of all being 0 and all being 1; e.g., .

Extensions

Wigner's friend is a variant on the experiment with two external observers: the first opens and inspects the box and then communicates his observations to a second observer. The issue here is, does the wave function "collapse" when the first observer opens the box, or only when the second observer is informed of the first observer's observations? In another extension, prominent physicists have gone so far as to suggest that astronomers observing dark energy in the universe in 1998 may have "reduced its life expectancy" through a pseudo-Schrödinger's Cat scenario, although this is a controversial viewpoint.[18][19]

References

[1] EPR article: Can Quantum-Mechanical Description Reality Be Considered Complete? (http:/ / prola. aps. org/ abstract/ PR/ v47/ i10/ p777_1) [2] Schrödinger, Erwin (November 1935). "Die gegenwärtige Situation in der Quantenmechanik (The present situation in quantum mechanics)". Naturwissenschaften. [3] Schroedinger: "The Present Situation in Quantum Mechanics" (http:/ / www. tu-harburg. de/ rzt/ rzt/ it/ QM/ cat. html#sect5) [4] Pay link to Einstein letter (http:/ / www. jstor. org/ pss/ 687649) [5] Hermann Wimmel (1992). Quantum physics & observed reality: a critical interpretation of quantum mechanics (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=-4sJ_fgyZJEC& pg=PA2). World Scientific. p. 2. ISBN 9789810210106. . Retrieved 9 May 2011. [6] Faye, J (2008-01-24). "Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics" (http:/ / plato. stanford. edu/ entries/ qm-copenhagen/ ). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The Metaphysics Research Lab Center for the Study of Language and Information, Stanford University. . Retrieved 2010-09-19. [7] Carpenter RHS, Anderson AJ (2006). "The death of Schroedinger's Cat and of consciousness-based wave-function collapse" (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20061130173850/ http:/ / www. ensmp. fr/ aflb/ AFLB-311/ aflb311m387. pdf). Annales de la Fondation Louis de Broglie (http:/ / web. archive. org/ web/ 20080618174026/ http:/ / www. ensmp. fr/ aflb/ AFLB-Web/ en-annales-index. htm) 31 (1): 45–52. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. ensmp. fr/ aflb/ AFLB-311/ aflb311m387. pdf) on 2006-11-30. . Retrieved 2010-09-10. [8] Penrose, R. The Road to Reality, p 807. [9] Wojciech H. Zurek, Decoherence, einselection, and the quantum origins of the classical, Reviews of Modern Physics 2003, 75, 715 or (http:/ / arxiv. org/ abs/ quant-ph/ 0105127) [10] Wojciech H. Zurek, "Decoherence and the transition from quantum to classical", Physics Today, 44, pp 36–44 (1991) [11] Rovelli, Carlo (1996). "Relational Quantum Mechanics". International Journal of Theoretical Physics 35: 1637–1678. arXiv:quant-ph/9609002. Bibcode 1996IJTP...35.1637R. doi:10.1007/BF02302261.

Schrödinger's Cat

[12] What is the World's Biggest Schrodinger Cat? (http:/ / physics. stackexchange. com/ questions/ 3309/ what-is-the-worlds-biggest-schrodinger-cat) [13] Schr%C%B6dingers Cat Now Made of Light (http:/ / www. science20. com/ news_articles/ schrÃ¶dingers_cat_now_made_light) [14] C. Monroe, et. al. A “Schrodinger Cat” Superposition State of an Atom (http:/ / www. quantumsciencephilippines. com/ seminar/ seminar-topics/ SchrodingerCatAtom. pdf) [15] Physics World: Schrodinger's cat comes into view (http:/ / physicsworld. com/ cws/ article/ news/ 2815) [16] Scientific American : Macro-Weirdness: "Quantum Microphone" Puts Naked-Eye Object in 2 Places at Once: A new device tests the limits of Schrödinger's cat (http:/ / www. scientificamerican. com/ article. cfm?id=quantum-microphone) [17] How to Create Quantum Superpositions of Living Things (http:/ / www. technologyreview. com/ blog/ arxiv/ 24101/ )> [18] Chown, Marcus (2007-11-22). "Has observing the universe hastened its end?" (http:/ / www. newscientist. com/ channel/ fundamentals/ mg19626313. 800-has-observing-the-universe-hastened-its-end. html). New Scientist. . Retrieved 2007-11-25. [19] Krauss, Lawrence M.; James Dent (April 30, 2008). "Late Time Behavior of False Vacuum Decay: Possible Implications for Cosmology and Metastable Inflating States". Phys. Rev. Lett. (US: APS) 100 (17). arXiv:0711.1821. Bibcode 2008PhRvL.100q1301K. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.100.171301.

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External links

• Schrödinger's cat in audio (http://soundcloud.com/siftpodcast/schr-dingers-cat) produced by Sift (http:// siftpodcast.com/) • Erwin Schrödinger, The Present Situation in Quantum Mechanics (Translation) (http://www.tu-harburg.de/rzt/ rzt/it/QM/cat.html) • The EPR paper (http://prola.aps.org/abstract/PR/v47/i10/p777_1) • Viennese Meow (the cat's perspective - short story) (http://primastoria.com/story/viennese-meow/) • The story of Schroedinger's cat (an epic poem) (http://www.straightdope.com/classics/a1_122.html); The Straight Dope • Tom Leggett (Aug. 1, 2000) New life for Schrödinger's cat, Physics World, UK (http://physicsworld.com/cws/ article/print/525) Experiments at two universities claim to observe superposition in large scale systems • Information Philosopher on Schrödinger's cat (http://www.informationphilosopher.com/solutions/ experiments/schrodingerscat/) More diagrams and an information creation explanation. • A YouTube video explaining Schrödingers cat (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CrxqTtiWxs4)

The Measurement Problem

65

**The Measurement Problem
**

The measurement problem in quantum mechanics is the unresolved problem of how (or if) wavefunction collapse occurs. The inability to observe this process directly has given rise to different interpretations of quantum mechanics, and poses a key set of questions that each interpretation must answer. The wavefunction in quantum mechanics evolves according to the Schrödinger equation into a linear superposition of different states, but actual measurements always find the physical system in a definite state. Any future evolution is based on the state the system was discovered to be in when the measurement was made, meaning that the measurement "did something" to the process under examination. Whatever that "something" may be does not appear to be explained by the basic theory. To express matters differently (to paraphrase Steven Weinberg [1][2]), the wave function evolves deterministically – knowing the wave function at one moment, the Schrödinger equation determines the wave function at any later time. If observers and their measuring apparatus are themselves described by a deterministic wave function, why can we not predict precise results for measurements, but only probabilities? As a general question: How can one establish a correspondence between quantum and classical reality?[3]

Example

The best known is the "paradox" of the Schrödinger's cat: a cat is apparently evolving into a linear superposition of basis vectors that can be characterized as an "alive cat" and states that can be described as a "dead cat". Each of these possibilities is associated with a specific nonzero probability amplitude; the cat seems to be in a "mixed" state. However, a single, particular observation of the cat does not measure the probabilities: it always finds either a living cat, or a dead cat. After the measurement the cat is definitively alive or dead. The question is: How are the probabilities converted into an actual, sharply well-defined outcome?

Interpretations

Hugh Everett's many-worlds interpretation attempts to avoid the problem by suggesting there is only one wavefunction, the superposition of the entire universe, and it never collapses—so there is no measurement problem. Instead the act of measurement is actually an interaction between two quantum entities, which entangle to form a single larger entity, for instance living cat/happy scientist. Everett also attempted to demonstrate the way that in measurements the probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics would appear; work later extended by Bryce DeWitt. De Broglie–Bohm theory tries to solve the measurement problem very differently: this interpretation contains not only the wavefunction, but also the information about the position of the particle(s). The role of the wavefunction is to generate the velocity field for the particles. These velocities are such that the probability distribution for the particle remains consistent with the predictions of the orthodox quantum mechanics. According to de Broglie–Bohm theory, interaction with the environment during a measurement procedure separates the wave packets in configuration space which is where apparent wavefunction collapse comes from even though there is no actual collapse. Erich Joos and Heinz-Dieter Zeh claim that the latter approach was put on firm ground in the 1980s by the phenomenon of quantum decoherence[4]. Zeh further claims that decoherence makes it possible to identify the fuzzy boundary between the quantum microworld and the world where the classical intuition is applicable.[5] Quantum decoherence was proposed in the context of the many-worlds interpretation, but it has also become an important part of some modern updates of the Copenhagen interpretation based on consistent histories. Quantum decoherence does not describe the actual process of the wavefunction collapse, but it explains the conversion of the quantum probabilities (that exhibit interference effects) to the ordinary classical probabilities. See, for example, Zurek,[3] Zeh[5] and Schlosshauer.[6] The present situation is slowly clarifying, as described in a recent paper by Schlosshauer as follows:[7]

the measurement problem. v75p715y03. citebase. Only the physical interactions between systems then determine a particular decomposition into classical states from the view of each particular system. Buniy.The Measurement Problem Several decoherence-unrelated proposals have been put forward in the past to elucidate the meaning of probabilities and arrive at the Born rule … It is fair to say that no decisive conclusion appears to have been reached as to the success of these derivations. aip.. com/ ?id=uYTW5ZWrwWAC& pg=PA22& dq=observer+ measurement+ "S+ Weinberg") (Michael Howard & William Roger Louis. org/ journals/ doc/ PHTOAD-ft/ vol_58/ iss_11/ 31_1. Issue 1. I. einselection. Bibcode 2004RvMP. [many papers by Bohr insist upon] the fundamental role of classical concepts. [2] Steven Weinberg: Einstein's Mistakes (http:/ / scitation. arXiv:quant-ph/0312059. . Erich Joos. C. . 223.76.. Vol.. edu/~hsu/talks/probability_qm.1267. Volume 321. Joos . S.76. doi:10. January 2006. . 66 References and notes [1] Steven Weinberg (1998). "The emergence of classical properties through interaction with the environment" (1985).uoregon. 26. Mod. B 59. org/ abs/ quant-ph/ 9506020v3) in E. ISBN 3540003908. org:quant-ph/ 0506199) Further reading • R.). Phys. and interpretations of quantum mechanics". Springer-Verlag.M1) (2nd Edition. Stamatescu (editors) ed. D. D. … As it is well known. Z.pdf) External links • The Quantum Measurement Problem (http://www. Kiefer. Domenico Giulini. The Oxford History of the Twentieth Century (http:/ / books. edu/ ~daw/ D_PHYS455/ RevModPhys.. Hsu and A. Oxford University Press. 75. google. [6] Maximilian Schlosshauer (2005). E. Zee On the origin of probability in quantum mechanics (2006) (http://duende. H. Phys. clemson. Rev. [5] H D Zeh (http:/ / arxiv.. and H. The experimental evidence for superpositions of macroscopically distinct states on increasingly large length scales counters such a dictum.shantena. Pages 112-149 (http:/ / www. O. Zeh. ISBN 0198204280. and the quantum origins of the classical Reviews of Modern Physics. (2003).). Annals of Physics. Chapter 2.1267S. pdf) [4] Joos. org/ fulltext?format=application/ pdf& identifier=oai:arXiv. [7] M Schlosshauer: Experimental motivation and empirical consistency in minimal no-collapse quantum mechanics. com/ ?id=6eTHcxeNxdUC& printsec=frontcover& dq=isbn=3540613943#PPT21. 76 (4): 1267–1305. p. Thus classical concepts are to be understood as locally emergent in a relative-state sense and should no longer claim a fundamental role in the physical theory.com/en/physicslectures/quantummeasurement) Two presentations: a non-technical and a more technical presentation. Decoherence and the Appearance of a Classical World in Quantum Theory (http:/ / books.. Zeh. J. Kupsch. see subsection "Contra quantum mechanics" [3] Wojciech Hubert Zurek Decoherence. July 2003 (http:/ / hubcap. editors ed.1103/RevModPhys. shtml) in Physics Today (2005). google. "Decoherence.

so as to measure the same aspect of the same quantum state prepared in the same way. however. the mathematical object then reflects the setup of the apparatus. This section summarizes this relationship. again. the utility of this approach has been verified countless times. Measurable quantities ("observables") as operators It is a postulate of quantum mechanics that all measurements have an associated operator (called an observable operator. To describe this. the result merely appears random and indeterministic. Qualitative overview The quantum state of a system is a mathematical object that fully describes the quantum system. in some interpretations of quantum mechanics. . some aspect of it is measured (for example. 2. One typically imagines some experimental apparatus and procedure which "prepares" this quantum state. The updating of the quantum state model is called wavefunction collapse. The observable's eigenvalues are real. its position or energy). (This distribution can be either discrete or continuous. depending on what is being measured. As a result. widely accepted among physicists. and has been experimentally confirmed countless times. or just an observable). The observable is a Hermitian (self-adjoint) operator mapping a Hilbert space (namely.Measurement in Quantum Mechanics 67 Measurement in Quantum Mechanics The framework of quantum mechanics requires a careful definition of measurement. and it will be implicitly used in this section. however. which consists of all possible quantum states) into itself. The expected result of the measurement is in general described by a probability distribution that specifies the likelihoods that the various possible results will be obtained. Measurement from a practical point of view Measurement is viewed in different ways in the many interpretations of quantum mechanics. If the experiment is repeated. with the following properties: 1. (However.) This is because an important aspect of measurement is wavefunction collapse. and all other interpretations are necessarily constructed so as to give the same quantitative predictions as this in almost every case. Once the quantum state has been prepared. one finds the same result as the first measurement. for which there is currently no consensus. they almost universally agree on the practical question of what results from a routine quantum-physics laboratory measurement. The possible outcomes of the measurement are precisely the eigenvalues of the given observable. the nature of which varies according to the interpretation adopted. a simple framework to use is the Copenhagen interpretation. without re-preparing the state. there is considerable dispute over this issue. What is universally agreed. which is stated in terms of the mathematical formulation of quantum mechanics. it is this updating that ensures that if an immediate re-measurement is repeated without re-preparing the state. after measuring some aspect of the quantum state. Quantitative details The mathematical relationship between the quantum state and the probability distribution is. we normally update the quantum state to reflect the result of the measurement. in other interpretations the indeterminism is core and irreducible. one finds the same result as the first measurement. the state space. is that if the measurement is repeated. The issue of measurement lies at the heart of the problem of the interpretation of quantum mechanics.) The measurement process is often said to be random and indeterministic. the result of the measurement will often be different. despite the considerable philosophical differences.

which will make up the state of the system after the measurement. Measurement probabilities and wavefunction collapse There are a few possible ways to mathematically describe the measurement process (both the probability distribution and the collapsed wavefunction). . Noncommuting observables are said to be incompatible and cannot in general be measured simultaneously. it can be written in terms of the eigenstates as are complex numbers).e. representing the total energy of the system. Important examples of observables are: • The Hamiltonian operator. Discrete. Two Hermitian operators commute if (and only if) there is at least one basis of vectors. with the special case of the nonrelativistic Hamiltonian operator: • The momentum operator: • The position operator: . In fact. nondegenerate spectrum Let be an observable. then the system's quantum state after the measurement is If the result of the measurement is so any repeated measurement of collapse.Measurement in Quantum Mechanics 3. It follows that each observable generates an orthonormal basis of eigenvectors (called an eigenbasis). they are related by an uncertainty principle. (This phenomenon is called wavefunction . 68 Operators can be noncommuting. in which case this expression reduces to . For each eigenvalue there are one or more corresponding eigenvectors (which in this context are called eigenstates). Then measuring can yield any of the results . The most convenient description depends on the spectrum (i. where .. (in the position basis). Since the eigenstates of an observable form a basis (the eigenbasis). (in the momentum basis). set of eigenvalues) of the observable. each of which is an eigenvector of both operators (this is sometimes called a simultaneous eigenbasis). with corresponding probabilities given by Usually is assumed to be normalized. Physically.) will yield the same result . and suppose that it has discrete eigenstates (in bra-ket notation) for and corresponding eigenvalues Assume the system is prepared in state follows that (where . no two of which are equal. The observable has a set of eigenvectors which span the state space. this is the statement that any quantum state can always be represented as a superposition of the eigenstates of an observable. as a consequence of the Robertson-Schrödinger relation. 4.

in which case this expression reduces to If the result of the measurement is x. it is a bit more convenient to write the Hilbert space as a direct sum of eigenspaces. the spectrum becomes discrete. If the result of the measurement is n.e. but not essentially different. but the physical content is the same. and suppose that it has a continuous spectrum of eigenvalues filling the interval (a. i. for example. Degenerate spectra If there are multiple eigenstates with the same eigenvalue (called degeneracies). The analysis in this case is formally slightly different. The probability of measuring a particular eigenvalue is the squared component of the state vector in the corresponding eigenspace. an analysis of scattering involves a continuous spectrum of energies. with corresponding probabilities given by where Tr denotes trace. then the new density matrix will be Alternatively. associated with eigenspaces Assume the system is prepared in the state described by the density matrix ρ. . Let the results be the projection operator into the space . for example. and indeed this case can be derived from the wavefunction formulation above. then the new wave function will be Alternatively. For example. degenerate case. and the new state after measurement is the projection of the original state vector into the appropriate eigenspace. a result between y and z will occur with probability Again.Measurement in Quantum Mechanics Continuous. and suppose that it has discrete eigenvalues respectively. Then measuring . .. nondegenerate spectrum Let be an observable. with probability density function . is often assumed to be normalized. Density matrix formulation Instead of performing quantum-mechanics computations in terms of wavefunctions (kets). is as follows: Let be an observable. one can say that the measurement process results in the new density matrix . instead of finding a complete eigenbasis.b).b). In the discrete case. but by adding a "box" potential (which bounds the volume in which the particle can be found). it is often possible and convenient to analyze a continuous-spectrum measurement by taking it to be the limit of a different measurement with a discrete spectrum. which can be written in terms of the eigenbasis as 69 Assume further that each eigenvalue x in this range is associated with a unique eigenstate Assume the system is prepared in state (where is a complex-valued function). By considering larger and larger boxes. can yield any of . the analysis is a bit less simple to state. it is sometimes necessary to describe a quantum-mechanical system in terms of a density matrix. but rather can be regarded as an equally valid formalism in which this problem can be analyzed. The result for the discrete. Then measuring can yield a result anywhere in the interval (a. this approach need not involve any approximation.

then the wavefunction after measurement will be the position eigenstate . In particular. The position x will be measured with probability density If the measurement result was x=S. whereas ρ ' is the density matrix describing the sub-ensemble whose measurement result was n. Then the possible energy values will be measured with relative probabilities: and moreover if the measurement result is . If the particle's position is immediately measured again. the result will always certainly be . Example Suppose that we have a particle in a 1-dimensional box. Statistics of measurement As detailed above. • The variance of the measurement is • The standard deviation of the measurement is These are direct consequences of the above formulas for measurement probabilities. using energy eigenstates. .Measurement in Quantum Mechanics where the difference is that ρ ' ' is the density matrix describing the entire ensemble. But suppose instead that an energy measurement is immediately taken. a particle initially in the ground state can end up in any energy level. the energy of this state is particle's mass and L is the box length). it will smoothly evolve in time according to the Schrödinger equation. due to the process of wavefunction collapse. and the spatial wavefunction is . As can be (where m is the . then the new state will be the energy eigenstate . If we now leave this state alone. we have observable. The new wavefunction can. the same position will be obtained. 70 • The mean (average) value of the measurement is (see Expectation value (quantum mechanics)) . If the energy is now measured. So in this example. on a state whose quantum state is . the result of measuring a quantum-mechanical system is described by a probability distribution. and this measurement will not affect the wavefunction. Some properties of this distribution are as follows: Suppose we take a measurement corresponding to observable . Next suppose that the particle's position is measured. after just two subsequent non-commuting measurements are made. like any wavefunction. be written as a superposition of eigenstates of any . set up initially in the ground state computed from the time-independent Schrödinger equation.

For an arbitrary state described by a density operator Lüders projection is given by . The final eigenstate appears randomly with a probability equal to the square of its overlap with the original state. supersedes previous notions of instantaneous collapse and provides an explanation for the absence of quantum coherence after measurement. where are eigenstates of the operator that needs to be measured. it does not explain the randomness inherent in the choice of final state. In order to make the measurement. During the . questions of determinism and locality.) In the last few decades. The unitary evolution above is referred to as premeasurement. The wavefunction collapse raises serious questions regarding "the measurement problem". This density operator is interpreted by von Neumann as describing an ensemble of objects being after the measurement with probability The transition in the state is often referred to as weak von Neumann projection. called quantum decoherence. or "wavefunction collapse". most famously in the double-slit experiment. von Neumann measurement scheme The von Neumann measurement scheme.[1] as well as. so that the total wave function before the interaction is interaction of object and measuring instrument the unitary evolution is supposed to realize the following transition from the initial to the final total wave function: where are orthonormal states of the measuring apparatus. (See below.Measurement in Quantum Mechanics 71 Wavefunction collapse The process in which a quantum state becomes one of the eigenstates of the operator corresponding to the measured observable is called "collapse". the ancestor of quantum decoherence theory. Let the quantum state be in the superposition . weak von Neumann projection is generalized to Lüders projection in which the vectors for fixed n are the degenerate eigenvectors of the measured observable. major advances have been made toward a theoretical understanding of the collapse process. as demonstrated in the EPR paradox and later in GHZ entanglement. the measured system described by described by the quantum state needs to interact with the measuring apparatus . The relation with wave function collapse is established by calculating the final density operator of the object from the final total wave function. The process of collapse has been studied in many experiments. the wave function collapse or strong von Neumann projection being thought to correspond to an additional selection of a subensemble by means of observation. While this theory correctly predicts the form and probability distribution of the final eigenstates. This new theoretical framework. describes measurements by taking into account the measuring apparatus which is also treated as a quantum object. In case the measured observable has a degenerate spectrum.

also the Stern-Gerlach [2] experiment would not function at all if it really were a measurement of the first kind ). there is no proof that the Bohm interpretation is inconsistent with quantum field theory. and quantifying what measurements or interactions are sufficient to destroy quantum coherence. in a measurement of the first kind. The Bohm interpretation is held to be correct only by a small minority of physicists. there remains less than universal agreement among physicists on some aspects of the question of what constitutes a measurement. The Everett interpretation easily accommodates relativistic quantum field theory. . The above is completely described by the Schrödinger equation and there are not any interpretational problems with this. the appearance of collapse can be generated by either the Bohm interpretation or the Everett interpretation which both deny the reality of wavefunction collapse. This is best illustrated by the Schrödinger's cat paradox. or represents a set of states that do not overlap in space. Both of these are stated to predict the same probabilities for collapses to various states as the conventional interpretation by their supporters. . If the set of states . so that. [pdf] Decoherence in quantum measurement One can also introduce the interaction with the environment interaction the total wave function takes a form . after the which is related to the phenomenon of decoherence. though it does not explain the presence of randomness in the choice of final eigenstate.Measurement in Quantum Mechanics 72 Measurements of the second kind In a measurement of the second kind the unitary evolution during the interaction of object and measuring instrument is supposed to be given by in which the states of the object are determined by specific properties of the interaction between object and measuring instrument. Philosophical problems of quantum measurements What physical interaction constitutes a measurement? Until the advent of quantum decoherence theory in the late 20th century. Certain aspects of this question are now well understood in the framework of quantum decoherence theory. Now the problematic wavefunction collapse does not need to be understood as a process on the level of the measured system. However. a major conceptual problem of quantum mechanics and especially the Copenhagen interpretation was the lack of a distinctive criterion for a given physical interaction to qualify as "a measurement" and cause a wavefunction to collapse. The relation with wave function collapse is analogous to that obtained for measurements of the first kind. some even functioning correctly only as a consequence of being of the second kind (for instance. a photon counter. Studying these processes provides considerable insight into the measurement problem by avoiding the arbitrary boundary between the quantum and classical worlds. They are normalized but not necessarily mutually orthogonal. on the level of the environment. and work to reconcile the two is ongoing. detecting a photon by absorbing and hence annihilating it. but can also be understood as a process or as a process on the level of the measuring apparatus. the final state of the object now being with probability Note that many present-day measurement procedures are measurements of the second kind. such as an understanding of weak measurements. since there are difficulties with the generalization for use with relativistic quantum field theory. Nevertheless. thus ideally leaving the electromagnetic field in the vacuum state rather than in the state corresponding to the number of detected photons.

or both. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory. and the other possible states still exist. The Quantum Challenge. the measurement determines the state. But according to the Many-worlds interpretation.. Khalili. Verghese. it is not settled[3] whether this is true. or merely "emergent" randomness resulting from underlying hidden variables which deterministically cause measurement results to happen a certain way each time. ISBN 0-7367-2470-X . then it is nonlocal (i.org) "Measurement in Quantum Mechanics [6]" Henry Krips in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Decoherence. ISBN 0-521-41928-X • Greenstein. A. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. Further reading • John A. This continues to be an area of active research. (1983). 1007—1012. (It is also closely related to the understanding of wavefunction collapse. and interpretations of quantum mechanics [7] Measurements and Decoherence [8] The conditions for discrimination between quantum states with minimum error [9] Quantum behavior of measurement apparatus [10] Yonina C. see below. (1992).[4] (If there are hidden variables.Measurement in Quantum Mechanics 73 Does measurement actually determine the state? The question of whether (and in what sense) a measurement actually determines the state is one which differs among the different interpretations of quantum mechanics. Alexandre Megretski. and Zajonc. Is the measurement process random or deterministic? As described above. there is universal agreement that quantum mechanics appears random. 49. ISBN 0-691-08316-9 • Vladimir B. nonlocal. Nevertheless. other measurement results were obtained. they would have to be "nonlocal". in most versions of the Copenhagen interpretation. Braginsky and Farid Ya. No. Quantum Measurement. It is known experimentally (see Bell's theorem. 2003. 4. in the sense that all experimental results yet uncovered can be predicted and understood in the framework of quantum mechanics measurements being fundamentally random. Vol. violates the principle of locality).G. Cambridge University Press.) Does the measurement process violate locality? In physics. (2006).[3] External links • • • • • • • "The Double Slit Experiment [5]". the Principle of locality is the concept that information cannot travel faster than the speed of light (also see special relativity).e. G. and after measurement the state is definitely what was measured. Princeton University Press. the measurement problem. which is related to the EPR paradox) that if quantum mechanics is deterministic (due to hidden variables. Wheeler and Wojciech Hubert Zurek (eds). there is not universal agreement among physicists on whether quantum mechanics is nondeterministic. as described above). Nevertheless. measurement determines the state in a more restricted sense: In other "worlds".) For example. and George C. Eldar. Designing optimal quantum detectors via semidefinite programming. Quantum Theory and Measurement. fundamental randomness. (physicsweb.

[3] Quantum mechanics: Myths and facts (http:/ / arxiv. 1919 [10] http:/ / arxiv1. Foundations of Physics 17. Nature 446. google. org/ pdf/ quant-ph/ 0609163) [4] S.. A. On the theory of the Stern-Gerlach apparatus. edu/ entries/ qt-measurement/ [7] http:/ / arxiv. doi. org/ abs/ quant-ph/ 0312059 [8] http:/ / arxiv. Gröblacher et al. Direct web link (http:/ / dx. stanford. cornell. Lamb. com/ books?id=5t0tm0FB1CsC& pg=PA215& lpg=PA215& dq=wave+ function+ collapse& source=bl& ots=a7iUGurRDC& sig=o1ddjY7lQrj4EQdvS49xcceWq2M& hl=en& ei=RfgtSsDNL4WgM8u-rf4J& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=7#PPA215. W. edu/ abs/ 1001. Barut.E.Measurement in Quantum Mechanics 74 References [1] http:/ / books. org/ abs/ quant-ph/ 0505070 [9] http:/ / arxiv. org/ 10.M1 [2] M. 575-583 (1987). 3032v1 . org/ pdf/ 0810. Scully.O. org/ article/ world/ 15/ 9/ 1 [6] http:/ / plato. 871 (2007). library. 1038/ nature05677) [5] http:/ / physicsweb. An experimental test of non-local realism.

a procedure for selecting out certain discrete set of states of a classical integrable motion as allowed states. The theory did not extend to chaotic motions. The system obeys classical mechanics except that not every motion is allowed. Planck's constant was often called the quantum of action. except for the issue of electron spin.75 3. In order for the old quantum condition to make sense. which is a quantity called the action and is quantized in units of Planck's constant. because it required a full multiply periodic trajectory of the classical system for all time in order to pose the quantum conditions. but there must be a set of coordinates where the motion decomposes in a multi-periodic way. For this reason. The integral is an area in phase space. either condition determines the correct classical quantity to quantize in a general system up to an additive constant. The periods of the different motions do not have to be the same. The motivation for the old quantum condition was the correspondence principle. meaning that there are separate coordinates in terms of which the motion is periodic. These are like the allowed orbits of the Bohr model of the atom. Basic principles The basic idea of the old quantum theory is that the motion in an atomic system is quantized. they can even be incommensurate. or discrete. The quantum numbers are integers and the integral is taken over one period of the motion at constant energy (as described by the Hamiltonian). and Arnold Sommerfeld[2] made a crucial contribution by quantizing the z-component of the angular momentum. The theory would have correctly explained the Zeeman effect. which in the old quantum era was inappropriately called space quantization (Richtungsquantelung). The theory was never complete or self-consistent.[1] The Bohr model was the focus of study. Given Planck's quantization rule for the harmonic oscillator. but was a collection of heuristic prescriptions which are now understood to be the first quantum corrections to classical mechanics. only those motions which obey the old quantum condition: where the are the momenta of the system and the are the corresponding coordinates. and introduced the concept of quantum degeneracy. The Quantum Theories Old Quantum Theory The old quantum theory was a collection of results from the years 1900–1925 which predate modern quantum mechanics. the classical motion must be separable. . The main tool was Bohr Sommerfeld quantization. complemented by the physical observation that the quantities which are quantized must be adiabatic invariants. the system can only be in one of these states and not in any states in between. This allowed the orbits of the electron to be ellipses instead of circles.

The change in energy with respect to temperature is the specific heat. This contradiction between classical mechanics and the specific heat of cold materials was noted by James Clerk Maxwell in the 19th century. The thermal properties of a quantized oscillator may be found by averaging the energy in each of the discrete states assuming that they are occupied with a Boltzmann weight: kT is Boltzmann constant times the absolute temperature. The reason is that kT is the typical energy of random motion at temperature T. For a collection of atoms connected by springs. and used to formulate the old quantum condition. This is true for all material systems. A short while later.every harmonic oscillator at temperature T has energy kT on average. so the specific heat is exponentially small at low temperatures. the total specific heat is equal to the total number of oscillators times k. The specific heat is smaller at colder temperatures. From this expression. a reasonable model of a solid. This was the first application of quantum theory to mechanical systems. exponentially fast. at high temperatures. corresponding to the three possible directions of independent oscillations in three dimensions. Please note that this result differs by from the results found with the help of quantum mechanics. storing next to no energy at all. and the quantum condition is that the area enclosed by an orbit in phase space is an integer. going to zero like At small values of . The quantity is more fundamental in thermodynamics than the temperature. Debye gave a quantitative theory of solid specific heats in terms of quantized oscillators with various frequencies (see Einstein solid and Debye model). This means that the specific heat of an oscillator is constant in classical mechanics and equal to k. Classical mechanics cannot explain the third law. Einstein resolved this problem in 1906 by proposing that atomic motion is quantized.Old Quantum Theory 76 Examples Harmonic oscillator The simplest system in the old quantum theory is the harmonic oscillator. the change in energy with respect to beta. the average energy U in the Harmonic oscillator approaches zero very quickly. it is easy to see that for large values of . 3R per mole of atoms. because in classical mechanics the specific heat is independent of the temperature. is also exponentially small. because it is the thermodynamic potential associated to the energy. This reproduces the equipartition theorem of classical thermodynamics--. or in chemistry units. and remained a deep puzzle for those who advocated an atomic theory of matter. So the oscillator stays in its ground state. It follows that the energy is quantized according to the Planck rule: a result which was known well before. for very low temperatures. This means that at very cold temperatures. the average energy U is equal to . and this observation is called the third law of thermodynamics. There are overall three oscillators for each atom. This constant is neglected in the derivation of the old quantum theory. there is not enough energy to give the oscillator even one quantum of energy. or equivalently the change in energy with respect to temperature. So the specific heat of a classical solid is always 3k per atom. but at low temperatures they don't. whose Hamiltonian is: The level sets of H are the orbits. and its value can not be determined using it. and it goes to zero at absolute zero. and when this is smaller than . . Monatomic solids at room temperatures have approximately the same specific heat of 3k per atom. which is the temperature as measured in more natural units of energy.

At any energy E. The old quantum condition is an integer multiple of Planck's constant: the angular momentum to be an integer multiple of was enough to determine the energy levels. the constant confining force F binding a particle to an impenetrable wall. This case is much more difficult in the full quantum mechanical treatment. where the quantum condition is: which gives the allowed momenta: and the energy levels Another easy case to solve with the old quantum theory is a linear potential on the positive halfline. In the Bohr model. and unlike the other examples. The kinetic energy is again the only contribution to the Lagrangian: And the conjugate momenta are and . The equation of motion for is trivial: is a constant: .Old Quantum Theory 77 One dimensional potential One dimensional problems are easy to solve. the semiclassical answer here is not exact but approximate. The integral is easiest for a particle in a box of length L. so that the quantum condition is: Which determines the energy levels. Rotator Another simple system is the rotator. A rotator consists of a mass M at the end of a massless rigid rod of length R and in two dimensions has the Lagrangian: which determines that the momentum J conjugate to requires that J multiplied by the period of . becoming more accurate at large quantum numbers. a rigid rotator can be described by two angles — and . the value of the momentum p is found from the conservation equation: which is integrated over all values of q between the classical turning points. . where is the inclination relative to an arbitrarily chosen z-axis while is the rotator angle in the projection to the x–y plane. the places where the momentum vanishes. . this restriction imposed on circular orbits In three dimensions. the polar angle.

For a fixed value of the total angular momentum L. and its orbits are ellipses of various sizes at discrete inclinations. and gives the quantum numbers l and m. the Hamiltonian for a classical Kepler problem is (the unit of mass and unit of energy redefined to absorb two constants): Fixing the energy to be (a negative) constant and solving for the radial momentum p. The semiclassical hydrogen atom is called the Sommerfeld model. Bohr–Sommerfeld theory is a part of the development of quantum mechanics and describes the possibility of atomic energy levels being split by a magnetic field. The only remaining variable is the radial coordinate. which can be solved. The Sommerfeld model predicted that the magnetic moment of an atom measured along an axis will only take on discrete values. Hydrogen atom The angular part of the Hydrogen atom is just the rotator. the name "space quantization" fell out of favor. the total angular momentum should be restricted in the same way as the two-dimensional rotator. and the same phenomenon is now called the quantization of angular momentum. Since k is positive. For this reason.Old Quantum Theory which is the z-component of the angular momentum. In modern quantum mechanics.m. . the angular momentum is quantized the same way. because the z component of the angular momentum is the magnetic moment of the rotator along the z direction in the case where the particle at the end of the rotator is charged. which executes a periodic one dimensional potential motion. The energy is: and it only depends on the sum of k and l. the quantization of angular momentum about an axis. Since the three dimensional rotator is rotating about an axis. but in the era of the old quantum theory it led to a paradox: how can the orientation of the angular momentum relative to the arbitrarily chosen z-axis be quantized? This seems to pick out a direction in space. a result which seems to contradict rotational invariance but which was confirmed by the Stern–Gerlach experiment. was given the name space quantization. but the discrete states of definite angular momentum in any one orientation are quantum superpositions of the states in other orientations. This phenomenon. and gives a new quantum number k which determines the energy in combination with l. The two quantum conditions restrict the total angular momentum and the z-component of the angular momentum to be the integers l. so that the process of quantization does not pick out a preferred axis. because it seemed incompatible with rotational invariance. The energies reproduce those in the Bohr model. This condition is reproduced in modern quantum mechanics. with some ambiguity at the extreme values. the allowed values of l for any given n are no bigger than n. which is the principal quantum number n. The quantum condition demands that the integral of the constant as varies from 0 to is an integer multiple of h: 78 And m is called the magnetic quantum number. the quantum condition integral is: which is elementary. except with the correct quantum mechanical multiplicities.

[3] We will start this derivation with the relativistic equation for energy in the electric potential After substitution we get For momentum equation) . for short wavelength. and so was not completely convincing. on counting the number of states. The number of point particles is equal to the number of quanta. Nevertheless. particles of light. Einstein noted that the entropy of the quantized electromagnetic field oscillators in a box is. This solution is same as the solution of the Dirac equation. more precisely that an electromagnetic standing wave with frequency with the quantized energy: . . and their ratio the equation of motion is (see Binet with solution The angular shift of periapsis per revolution is given by With the quantum conditions and we will obtain energies where is the fine-structure constant. and named them photons Einstein's theoretical argument was based on thermodynamics.[4] De Broglie waves In 1905. equal to the entropy of a gas of point particles in the same box. Einstein concluded that the quanta could be treated as if they were localizable objects (see[5] page 139/140). he concluded that light had attributes of both waves and particles.Old Quantum Theory 79 Relativistic orbit Arnold Sommerfeld derived the relativistic solution of atomic energy levels.

Kramers suggested that the orbits of a quantum system should be Fourier analyzed. as do the frequency and wave-number. Nevertheless. This development was given a more mathematical form by Einstein. as it would be in classical mechanics. This is required by relativity. and the momentum had to be the electromagnetic wave. Einstein could not describe how the where is the wavenumber of 80 The photons have momentum as well as energy. He suggested that all matter. . or. and it explained the reason for quantized orbits—the matter waves make standing waves only at discrete frequencies. He then noted that the quantum condition: counts the change in phase for the wave as it travels along the classical orbit. at discrete energies. because the momentum and energy form a four-vector. These ideas led to the development of Schrödinger equation. Expressed in wavelengths. are described by waves obeying the relations. electrons as well as photons. it would be n–l–m in the Sommerfeld model. as a PhD candidate. Louis de Broglie proposed a new interpretation of the quantum condition. which happens at frequencies at multiples of the orbit frequencies. The rate of emission of radiation is proportional to .Old Quantum Theory should be thought of as consisting of n photons each with an energy photons were related to the wave. Kramers proposed that the transition between states were analogous to classical emission of radiation. It did not deal with the emission and absorption of radiation. expressed in terms of wavelength instead. For example. and requires that it be an integer multiple of . Bohr had suggested that the k-th harmonic of the classical motion correspond to the transition from level n to level n−k. who noted that the phase function for the waves: in a mechanical system should be identified with the solution to the Hamilton–Jacobi equation. This is the condition for constructive interference. The frequency is the angular frequency of the orbit while k is an index for the Fourier mode. since the Fourier components did . Kramers transition matrix The old quantum theory was formulated only for special mechanical systems which could be separated into action angle variables which were periodic. the number of wavelengths along a classical orbit must be an integer. a standing wave must fit an integer number of wavelengths between twice the distance between the walls. for a particle confined in a box. decomposed into harmonics at multiples of the orbit frequency: The index n describes the quantum numbers of the orbit. an equation which even Hamilton considered to be a short-wavelength limit of a wave mechanics. The condition becomes: so that the quantized momenta are: reproducing the old quantum energy levels. The description was approximate. In 1924. Hendrik Kramers was able to find heuristics for describing how emission and absorption should be calculated.

creating Matrix mechanics. which reproduced all the successes of the old quantum theory without ambiguities and inconsistencies. Kramers gave a prescription for calculating transition probabilities between quantum states in terms of Fourier components of the motion. "Über einen die Erzeugung und Verwandlung des Lichtes betreffenden heuristischen Gesichtspunkt" (http:/ / www.. 206. Pergamon Press. ideas which were extended in collaboration with Werner Heisenberg to a semiclassical matrix-like description of atomic transition probabilities. Hendrik Kramers explained the Stark effect. ISBN 3871444847. explaining the specific heat anomaly. Retrieved 2008-02-18. physik. Molecular rotation and vibration spectra were understood and the electron's spin was discovered. pdf). Paul Dirac later proved in 1926 that both methods can be obtained from a more general method called transformation theory. Physics ± Uspekhi 47 (5): 523–524. Sommerfeld's model was much closer to the modern quantum mechanical picture than Bohr's. which was extended to a semiclassical equation for matter waves by Albert Einstein a short time later. J. doi:10. Matrix mechanics and wave mechanics put an end to the era of the old-quantum theory.. Ya I Granovski (2004). (1967). Heisenberg went on to reformulate all of quantum theory in terms of a version of these transition matrices. Niels Bohr identified the correspondence principle and used it to formulate a model of the Hydrogen atom which explained the line spectrum. org/ EJ/ article/ 1063-7869/ 47/ 5/ L06/ PHU_47_5_L06. In 1924. Throughout the 1910s and well into the 1920s. Albert (1905). References [1] [2] [3] [4] ter Haar. .132E. D.322. many problems were attacked using the old quantum theory with mixed results. ed. ISBN 3871444847. Louis de Broglie introduced the wave theory of matter. Arnold Sommerfeld (1924). uni-augsburg. followed by Debye. 81 History The old quantum theory was sparked by the work of Max Planck on the emission and absorption of light. . leading to the confusion of half-integer quantum numbers. "Sommerfeld formula and Dirac's theory" (http:/ / www. Schrödinger's wave mechanics developed separately from matrix mechanics until Schrödinger and others proved that the two methods predicted the same experimental consequences. Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Physics. ISBN 0080121012. Braunschweig. pp. Einstein.19053220607. Braunschweig: Friedrich Vieweg und Sohn. de/ annalen/ history/ einstein-papers/ 1905_17_132-148.. The Old Quantum Theory. This idea led to the development of matrix mechanics.. Bose and Einstein gave the correct quantum statistics for photons. Atombau und Spektrallinien. In 1913. In 1926 Erwin Schrödinger found a completely quantum mechanical wave-equation. Sommerfeld. [5] Einstein. . and began in earnest after the work of Albert Einstein on the specific heats of solids. applied quantum principles to the motion of atoms. Bibcode 1905AnP. Arnold (1919). pdf). Max Planck introduced the zero point energy and Arnold Sommerfeld semiclassically quantized the relativistic hydrogen atom. iop. (1962). Atombau und Spektrallinien'.Old Quantum Theory not have frequencies that exactly match the energy spacings between levels. Annalen der Physik 17 (6): 132–148. Further reading Thewlis. In the next few years Arnold Sommerfeld extended the quantum rule to arbitrary integrable systems making use of the principle of adiabatic invariance of the quantum numbers introduced by Lorentz and Einstein.1002/andp.

the ground state in the quantum mechanical model is a non-zero energy state that is the lowest permitted energy state of a system. and other physical properties of a particle. is a branch of physics dealing with physical phenomena where the action is of the order of Planck constant.[1] In the context of quantum mechanics. unchanging zero state. quantum electronics. The early quantum theory was significantly reformulated in the mid-1920s by Werner Heisenberg. Wolfgang Pauli and their associates. quantum optics and quantum information science. the wave–particle duality of energy and matter and the uncertainty principle provide a unified view of the behavior of photons. in 1905 Albert Einstein interpreted Planck's quantum hypothesis realistically and used it to explain the photoelectric effect. Quantum mechanics has since branched out into almost every aspect of 20th century physics and other disciplines such as quantum chemistry. the so-called quantum realm. in . string theory. quantum mechanics allows for far more dynamic. quantum mechanics departs from classical mechanics primarily at the atomic and subatomic scales. electrons and other atomic-scale objects. each energy element E is proportional to its frequency ν: where h is Planck's constant. The name "quantum mechanics" derives from the observation that some physical quantities can change only by discrete amounts. History The history of quantum mechanics dates back to the 1838 discovery of cathode rays by Michael Faraday.[3] However. which requires an understanding of complex numbers and linear functionals. At around the same time. For example. the atomic theory and the corpuscular theory of light (as updated by Einstein) first came to be widely accepted as scientific fact. By 1930.Quantum Mechanics 82 Quantum Mechanics Quantum mechanics. chaotic possibilities. these latter theories can be viewed as quantum theories of matter and electromagnetic radiation. Max Born. and the Copenhagen interpretation of Niels Bohr became widely accepted. for instance. the 1877 suggestion by Ludwig Boltzmann that the energy states of a physical system can be discrete. Much 19th century physics has been re-evaluated as the classical limit of quantum mechanics. precisely matched the observed patterns of black body radiation. A mathematical function called the wavefunction provides information about the probability amplitude of position.[2] Planck's hypothesis that energy is radiated and absorbed in discrete "quanta". or quanta in Latin. The mathematical formulations of quantum mechanics are abstract. with a greater emphasis placed on measurement in quantum mechanics. It provides a mathematical description of much of the dual particle-like and wave-like behavior and interactions of energy and matter. The wavefunction treats the object as a quantum harmonic oscillator and the mathematics is akin to that of acoustic resonance. Many of the results of quantum mechanics are not easily visualized in terms of classical mechanics. According to Planck. This was followed by the 1859 statement of the black body radiation problem by Gustav Kirchhoff. and speculative quantum gravity theories. In advanced topics of quantum mechanics. Mathematical manipulations of the wavefunction usually involve the bra-ket notation. Instead of a traditional static. and its more advanced developments in terms of quantum field theory. quantum mechanics had been further unified and formalized by the work of Paul Dirac and John von Neumann. the angular momentum of an electron bound to an atom or molecule is quantized. and the 1900 quantum hypothesis of Max Planck. according to John Wheeler. or "energy elements". Planck cautiously insisted that this was simply an aspect of the processes of absorption and emission of radiation and had nothing to do with the physical reality of the radiation itself. momentum. The earliest versions of quantum mechanics were formulated in the first decade of the 20th century. some of these behaviors are macroscopic and only emerge at very low or very high energies or temperatures. the statistical nature of our knowledge of reality and philosophical speculation about the role of the observer. rather than a more traditional system that is thought of as simply being at rest with zero kinetic energy. also known as quantum physics or quantum theory.

[7] Quantum mechanics is essential to understand the behavior of systems at atomic length scales and smaller.[8] Quantum mechanics was initially developed to provide a better explanation of the atom. John von Neumann. In the mid-1920s. computational chemistry. Erwin Schrödinger. In the summer of 1925. Albert Einstein. making stable atoms impossible. For example. defying classical electromagnetism. Paul Dirac. quantum chemistry. it refers to a discrete unit that quantum theory assigns to certain physical quantities. especially the differences in the spectra of light emitted by different isotopes of the same element. computational physics. However. Thus the entire field of quantum physics emerged. but had certain properties of both. theorizing and testing. David Hilbert. non-deterministic "smeared" (wave–particle wave function) orbital path around or through the nucleus. From The 1927 Solvay Conference in Brussels. leading to its wider acceptance at the Fifth Solvay Conference in 1927. Einstein's simple postulation was born a flurry of debating. and nuclear physics. solid-state physics. Out of deference to their dual state as particles.with a discrete quanta of energy that was dependent on its frequency. The quantum theory of the atom was developed as an explanation for the electron remaining in its orbit.later called the photon . and others. Broadly speaking. Wolfgang Pauli. Max Planck. particle physics. quantum mechanics incorporates four classes of phenomena for which classical physics cannot account: • The quantization of certain physical properties • Wave–particle duality • The uncertainty principle 83 .[6] Some fundamental aspects of the theory are still actively studied. it is also needed to explain certain recently investigated macroscopic systems such as superconductors and superfluids. It is the underlying mathematical framework of many fields of physics and chemistry. Werner Heisenberg. such as the energy of an atom at rest (see Figure 1). Bohr and Heisenberg published results that closed the "Old Quantum Theory". light quanta came to be called photons (1926). meaning "how great" or "how much". atomic physics. nuclear chemistry.[5] In quantum mechanics. Louis de Broglie. The other exemplar that led to quantum mechanics was the study of electromagnetic waves such as light. if classical mechanics governed the workings of an atom. When it was found in 1900 by Max Planck that the energy of waves could be described as consisting of small packets or quanta. developments in quantum mechanics led to its becoming the standard formulation for atomic physics. Albert Einstein further developed this idea to show that an electromagnetic wave such as light could be described as a particle . While quantum mechanics traditionally described the world of the very small. in the natural world the electrons normally remain in an uncertain. The word quantum derives from Latin. The foundations of quantum mechanics were established during the first half of the twentieth century by Niels Bohr. which could not be explained by Newton's laws of motion and Maxwell's laws of classical electromagnetism. molecular physics. including condensed matter physics.Quantum Mechanics which shining light on certain materials can eject electrons from the material. The discovery that particles are discrete packets of energy with wave-like properties led to the branch of physics dealing with atomic and sub-atomic systems which is today called quantum mechanics. electrons would rapidly travel towards and collide with the nucleus.[4] This led to a theory of unity between subatomic particles and electromagnetic waves called wave–particle duality in which particles and waves were neither one nor the other. Max Born.

but with their exact positions being unknown. see. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle quantifies the inability to precisely locate the particle given its conjugate momentum. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle is represented by the statement that the operators corresponding to certain observables do not commute. In other words. and the associated eigenvalue corresponds to the value of the observable in that eigenstate. The exact nature of this Hilbert space is dependent on the system. such as dense probability clouds[14] or quantum state nuclear attraction. these probabilities will depend on the quantum state at the "instant" of the measurement. for which all the eigenvalues are real. for example. Each observable is represented by a maximally Hermitian (precisely: by a self-adjoint) linear operator acting on the state space.[13] Generally. For example. that is. Contrary to classical mechanics. however. Each eigenstate of an observable corresponds to an eigenvector of the operator. It was the central topic in the famous Bohr-Einstein debates. Often these results are skewed by many causes.[11] This abstract mathematical object allows for the calculation of probabilities of outcomes of concrete experiments. Formally.[15][16] Naturally. often referred to as "clouds". uncertainty is involved in the value. the possible states are points in the projective space of a Hilbert space. the state of a system at a given time is described by a complex wave function. Instead.[10] the possible states of a quantum mechanical system are represented by unit vectors (called "state vectors"). 84 Mathematical formulations In the mathematically rigorous formulation of quantum mechanics developed by Paul Dirac[9] and John von Neumann. This is one of the most difficult aspects of quantum systems to understand. in which the two scientists attempted to clarify these fundamental principles by way of thought experiments. one can never make simultaneous predictions of conjugate variables.[17] . with accuracy. The possible results of a measurement are the eigenvalues of the operator representing the observable — which explains the choice of Hermitian operators. the observable can only attain those discrete eigenvalues. for example. For details. For instance. usually called the complex projective space. it allows one to compute the probability of finding an electron in a particular region around the nucleus at a particular time. it describes the probability of obtaining possible outcomes from measuring an observable. The probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics thus stems from the act of measurement. In the decades after the formulation of quantum mechanics. as the result of a measurement the wave function containing the probability information for a system collapses from a given initial state to a particular eigenstate. These are known as eigenstates of the observable ("eigen" can be translated from German as meaning inherent or characteristic). while the state space for the spin of a single proton is just the product of two complex planes. the state space for position and momentum states is the space of square-integrable functions. Newer interpretations of quantum mechanics have been formulated that do away with the concept of "wavefunction collapse". the relative state interpretation. In the formalism of quantum mechanics. their respective wavefunctions become entangled. quantum mechanics does not assign definite values. The basic idea is that when a quantum system interacts with a measuring apparatus. these reside in a complex separable Hilbert space (variously called the "state space" or the "associated Hilbert space" of the system) well defined up to a complex number of norm 1 (the phase factor).[12] According to one interpretation. If the operator's spectrum is discrete. There are. may be drawn around the nucleus of an atom to conceptualize where the electron might be located with the most probability. such as position and momentum. also referred to as state vector in a complex vector space. electrons may be considered to be located somewhere within a region of space. We can find the probability distribution of an observable in a given state by computing the spectral decomposition of the corresponding operator. certain states that are associated with a definite value of a particular observable. it makes predictions using probability distributions.Quantum Mechanics • Quantum entanglement. the question of what constitutes a "measurement" has been extensively studied. see the article on measurement in quantum mechanics. Contours of constant probability. Hence. so that the original quantum system ceases to exist as an independent entity.

that it will be near x0.[20] During a measurement.[18] It involves expanding the system under study to include the measurement device. a role similar to Newton's second law in classical mechanics. having obtained some result x.[23] 85 . However. the free particle in the previous example will usually have a wavefunction that is a wave packet centered around some mean position x0. but not certain. and a definite time of occurrence. If one knows the corresponding wave function at the instant before the measurement. it is helpful to use different words to describe states having uncertain values and states having definite values (eigenstate). on the other hand. it only provides a range of probabilities of where that particle might be given its momentum and momentum probability. i. it makes a definite prediction of what the wavefunction will be at any later time. When one measures the position of the particle. Usually. the wave packet will also spread out as time progresses.[19] The time evolution of a quantum state is described by the Schrödinger equation.[21][22] Wave functions can change as time progresses.[13] It is probable. The time evolution of wave functions is deterministic in the sense that. applied to the aforementioned example of the free particle. if one measures the observable. where the amplitude of the wave function is large. it is natural and intuitive to think of everything (every observable) as being in an eigenstate. predicts that the center of a wave packet will move through space at a constant velocity. the change of the wavefunction into another one is not deterministic. However. a definite energy. After the measurement is performed.e. This also has the effect of turning position eigenstates (which can be thought of as infinitely sharp wave packets) into broadened wave packets that are no longer position eigenstates. in which the Hamiltonian (the operator corresponding to the total energy of the system) generates time evolution. one will be able to compute the probability of collapsing into each of the possible eigenstates. it is unpredictable. This process is known as wavefunction collapse. the wavefunction will instantaneously be an eigenstate (or generalised eigenstate) of that observable. a system will not be in an eigenstate of the observable (particle) we are interested in. the wave function collapses into a position eigenstate centered at x. random. it is impossible to predict with certainty the result. However. An equation known as the Schrödinger equation describes how wavefunctions change in time. given a wavefunction at an initial time. a definite momentum. The Schrödinger equation. rather. Everything appears to have a definite position. For example.Quantum Mechanics In the everyday world. which means that the position becomes more uncertain. a controversial and much debated process. A time-evolution simulation can be seen here. neither an eigenstate of position nor of momentum. Therefore. like a classical particle with no forces acting on it. quantum mechanics does not pinpoint the exact values of a particle's position and momentum (since they are conjugate pairs) or its energy and time (since they too are conjugate pairs).

There exist several techniques for generating approximate solutions. spherically symmetric wavefunction surrounding the nucleus (Fig.. not merely its absolute Fig. the particle in a box.. the interference between quantum states.. momentum. the hydrogen molecular ion and the hydrogen atom are the most important representatives. position. (Note that only the lowest angular momentum states. Brighter areas probabilities. such as when in a stationary state of constant energy.[28] An alternative formulation of quantum mechanics is Feynman's path integral formulation. For instance. the instantaneous state of a quantum system encodes the probabilities of its measurable properties. For example. which unifies and generalizes the two earliest formulations of quantum mechanics. . in the method known as perturbation theory one uses the analytic results for a simple quantum mechanical model to generate results for a more complicated model related to the simple model by. in which a quantum-mechanical amplitude is considered as a sum over histories between initial and final states.Quantum Mechanics 86 Some wave functions produce probability distributions that are constant. . defies all attempts at a fully analytic treatment. Another method is the "semi-classical equation of motion" approach. d.). whereas in quantum mechanics it is described by a static. a single electron in an unexcited atom is pictured classically as a particle moving in a circular trajectory around the atomic nucleus. the addition of a weak potential energy.g. are spherically symmetric).. 1). Examples of observables include energy. . time drops out of the absolute square of the wave function.[27] In this formulation. It turns out that analytic solutions of The angular momentum and energy are quantized. its phase encodes information about correspond to higher probability density in a position measurement. or independent of time. the energy of an electron bound to a hydrogen atom).[24] The Schrödinger equation acts on the entire probability amplitude. p. which applies to systems for which quantum mechanics produces weak deviations from classical behavior. states. This approach is important for the field of quantum chaos. matrix mechanics (invented by Werner Heisenberg)[25][26] and wave mechanics (invented by Erwin Schrödinger). which contains just one more electron than hydrogen. Even the helium atom.) and angular probability amplitude encodes information about momentum (increasing across from left to right: s. Many systems that are treated dynamically in classical mechanics are described by such "static" wave functions. or "observables". 3. Whereas the absolute value of the electron in a hydrogen atom possessing definite energy levels (increasing from the top of the image to the bottom: n = 1.g. This Wavefunctions like these are directly comparable to Chladni's figures of gives rise to the wave-like behavior of quantum acoustic modes of vibration in classical physics and are indeed modes of oscillation as well: they possess a sharp energy and thus a keen frequency. and angular momentum. Observables can be either continuous (e. 2. the quantum harmonic oscillator. for example. and only take on discrete Schrödinger's equation are only available for a values like those shown (as is the case for resonant frequencies in small number of model Hamiltonians.. this is the quantum-mechanical counterpart of action principles in classical mechanics. 1: Probability densities corresponding to the wavefunctions of an value. of which acoustics). the position of a particle) or discrete (e. labeled s. One of the oldest and most commonly used formulations is the transformation theory proposed by Cambridge theoretical physicist Paul Dirac. There are numerous mathematically equivalent formulations of quantum mechanics.. The deviations can be calculated based on the classical motion.

the elementary quantum model of the hydrogen atom describes the electric field of the hydrogen atom using a classical Coulomb potential. and describes the interactions of subnuclear particles: quarks and gluons. is to treat charged particles as quantum mechanical objects being acted on by a classical electromagnetic field.[29] It has proven difficult to construct quantum models of gravity. which applies quantization to a field rather than a fixed set of particles.e. they had certain unsatisfactory qualities stemming from their neglect of the relativistic creation and annihilation of particles. larger quantum numbers (i. which states that the predictions of quantum mechanics reduce to those of classical physics when a system moves to higher energies or. While these theories were successful in explaining many experimental results. in systems incorporating millions of particles averaging takes over and. it was applied to models whose correspondence limit was non-relativistic classical mechanics. Sheldon Glashow and Steven Weinberg. This "semi-classical" approach fails if quantum fluctuations in the electromagnetic field play an important role. the most accurate theory of gravity currently known. Semi-classical approximations are workable. one employed since the inception of quantum mechanics. and is thus a quantum version of the classical harmonic oscillator. Early attempts to merge quantum mechanics with special relativity involved the replacement of the Schrödinger equation with a covariant equation such as the Klein-Gordon equation or the Dirac equation.[30] . These can be chosen appropriately in order to obtain a quantitative description of a quantum system. The weak nuclear force and the electromagnetic force were unified. at the high energy limit. equivalently. by the physicists Abdus Salam. and some of the fundamental assumptions of quantum theory. In other words. in their quantized forms. and theories such as string theory are among the possible candidates for a future theory of quantum gravity. the well-known model of the quantum harmonic oscillator uses an explicitly non-relativistic expression for the kinetic energy of the oscillator. into a single quantum field theory known as electroweak theory. A fully relativistic quantum theory required the development of quantum field theory. the statistical probability of random behaviour approaches zero). the remaining fundamental force. However. whereas a single particle exhibits a degree of randomness. For example. classical mechanics is simply a quantum mechanics of large systems. Quantum field theories for the strong nuclear force and the weak nuclear force have been developed. The full apparatus of quantum field theory is often unnecessary for describing electrodynamic systems. The quantum field theory of the strong nuclear force is called quantum chromodynamics. An important guide for making these choices is the correspondence principle. and complex classical mechanics exhibits behaviours similar to quantum mechanics. and have led to predictions such as Hawking radiation. they do not tell us which Hilbert space or which operators. When quantum mechanics was originally formulated. they assert that the state space of a system is a Hilbert space and that observables of that system are Hermitian operators acting on that space. For instance. A simpler approach. and attempt to guess the underlying quantum model that would give rise to the classical model in the correspondence limit. The first complete quantum field theory. This "high energy" limit is known as the classical or correspondence limit. the formulation of a complete theory of quantum gravity is hindered by apparent incompatibilities between general relativity. quantum electrodynamics. such as in the emission of photons by charged particles. Classical mechanics has been extended into the complex domain. One can even start from an established classical model of a particular system. These three men shared the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1979 for this work.Quantum Mechanics 87 Interactions with other scientific theories The rules of quantum mechanics are fundamental. provides a fully quantum description of the electromagnetic interaction. The resolution of these incompatibilities is an area of active research.

According to the correspondence principle between classical and quantum mechanics. Quantum interference involves adding together probability amplitudes. these implications could be experimentally tested. For example. While clearly contributing to the field. the laws of classical Newtonian physics remain accurate in predicting the behavior of the vast majority of large objects—of the order of the size of large molecules and bigger—at velocities much smaller than the velocity of light. but in 1964 it was shown by John Bell (see Bell inequality) that. have verified quantum entanglement. the stability of bulk matter (which consists of atoms and molecules which would quickly collapse under electric forces alone). when quantum behavior can manifest itself on more macroscopic scales (see Bose-Einstein condensate and Quantum machine). although an exception to this rule can occur at extremely low temperatures. they are resistant to being incorporated within one cohesive model. Bell and the Copenhagen interpretation (the common interpretation of quantum mechanics by physicists since 1927).[35] Einstein himself is well known for rejecting some of the claims of quantum mechanics. whereas classical waves infer that there is an adding together of intensities. The laws of classical mechanics thus follow from the laws of quantum mechanics as a statistical average at the limit of large systems or large quantum numbers. although Einstein was correct in identifying seemingly paradoxical implications of quantum mechanical nonlocality.Quantum Mechanics 88 Quantum mechanics and classical physics Predictions of quantum mechanics have been verified experimentally to an extremely high degree of accuracy. the extension of the system is much smaller than the coherence length. This was 1935. and quantum chaos studies the relationship between classical and quantum descriptions in these systems. and many subsequent experiments since. in the hope of showing that quantum mechanics had unacceptable implications. chaotic systems do not have good quantum numbers. Alain Aspect's initial experiments in 1982. thermal. This is in accordance with the following observations: • Many macroscopic properties of a classical system are a direct consequences of the quantum behavior of its parts. quantum mechanics was not at the same time • a "realistic" theory • and a local theory.[31] However. and the mechanical. "My God does not play with dice") and the assertion that a single subatomic particle can occupy numerous areas of space at one time. and is illustrated by the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox. According to the paper of J. . he did not accept the more philosophical consequences and interpretations of quantum mechanics. which gives rise to long-range entanglement and other nonlocal phenomena characteristic of quantum systems. the rigidity of solids. He also was the first to notice some of the apparently exotic consequences of entanglement and used them to formulate the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox.[32] Quantum coherence is not typically evident at macroscopic scales. chemical. and classical mechanics is just an approximation for large systems (or a statistical quantum mechanics of a large collection of particles).[33] • While the seemingly exotic behavior of matter posited by quantum mechanics and relativity theory become more apparent when dealing with extremely fast-moving or extremely tiny particles.[34] Relativity and quantum mechanics Main articles: Quantum gravity and Theory of everything Even with the defining postulates of both Einstein's theory of general relativity and quantum theory being indisputably supported by rigorous and repeated empirical evidence and while they do not directly contradict each other theoretically (at least with regard to primary claims). For microscopic bodies. all objects obey the laws of quantum mechanics. optical and magnetic properties of matter are all results of the interaction of electric charges under the rules of quantum mechanics. and contrary to Einstein's ideas. Quantum coherence is an essential difference between classical and quantum theories. such as the lack of deterministic causality (he is famously quoted as saying in response to this aspect.

and gravity— from a single force or phenomenon. According to it. Quantum entanglement is at the basis of quantum cryptography. "I think I can safely say that nobody understands quantum mechanics. electromagnetism. Philosophical implications Since its inception. "Gödel and the end of physics" in 2002.and twenty-first-century physics. due to the complementarity nature of evidence obtained under different experimental situations. In this interpretation. a theoretical physicist who formulated the groundbreaking M-theory. John Bell showed that the EPR paradox led to experimentally testable differences between quantum mechanics and local realistic theories. However. (A view paraphrased as "God does not play dice with the universe. Many prominent physicists. has not been fully incorporated into quantum theory. Richard Feynman said. himself one of the founders of quantum theory.") Einstein held that there should be a local hidden variable theory underlying quantum mechanics and that. the present theory was incomplete. with high-security commercial applications in banking and government.Quantum Mechanics The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox shows in any case that there exist experiments by which one can measure the state of one particle and instantaneously change the state of its entangled partner. but also deriving the universe's four forces —the strong force. While Stephen Hawking was initially a believer in the Theory of Everything. the most famous of which has become known as the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox. but instead must be considered to be a final renunciation of the classical ideal of causality. including Stephen Hawking. disliked this loss of determinism in measurement. Even fundamental issues such as Max Born's basic rules concerning probability amplitudes and probability distributions took decades to be appreciated by the society and leading scientists. resolving the inconsistencies between both theories has been a major goal of twentieth. He produced a series of objections to the theory. and stated such publicly in his lecture. although the two particles can be an arbitrary distance apart. Quantum electrodynamics (or "quantum electromagnetism"). which is currently (in the perturbative regime at least) the most accurately tested physical theory. expected to occur at roughly 1019 GeV.[36] One of the leaders in this field is Edward Witten. currently the best theory describing the gravitation force. consequently. combining not only different models of subatomic physics. 89 Attempts at a unified field theory The quest to unify the fundamental forces through quantum mechanics is still ongoing. is the interpretation of the quantum mechanical formalism most widely accepted amongst physicists. so that unification between general relativity and quantum mechanics is not an urgent issue in those applications. However — and while special relativity is parsimoniously incorporated into quantum electrodynamics — the expanded general relativity. however. Albert Einstein. since no transfer of information happens. the many counter-intuitive results of quantum mechanics have provoked strong philosophical debate and many interpretations." it is speculated that it may be possible to merge gravity with the other three gauge symmetries. Experiments have been performed confirming the accuracy . have labored in the attempt to discover a theory underlying everything. weak force. the probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics is not a temporary feature which will eventually be replaced by a deterministic theory. it is believed that any well-defined application of the quantum mechanical formalism must always make reference to the experimental arrangement. Current predictions state that at around 1014 GeV the three aforementioned forces are fused into a single unified field.[38] Beyond this "grand unification."[39] The Copenhagen interpretation. which is an attempt at describing the supersymmetrical based string theory.[37] (blog) has been successfully merged with the weak nuclear force into the electroweak force and work is currently being done to merge the electroweak and strong force into the electrostrong force. Thus. concluded that one was not obtainable. after considering Gödel's Incompleteness Theorem. due largely to the Danish theoretical physicist Niels Bohr. Gravity is negligible in many areas of particle physics. this effect does not violate causality. the lack of a correct theory of quantum gravity is an important issue in cosmology and physicists' search for an elegant "theory of everything".

(Relativistic) quantum mechanics can in principle mathematically describe most of chemistry. 90 Applications Quantum mechanics had enormous[42] success in explaining many of the features of our world. as in other interpretations) quantum superposition. in order to prove that the wave function did not collapse one would have to bring all these particles back and measure them again.[41] This is not accomplished by introducing some new axiom to quantum mechanics. because we can observe only the universe. a candidate for a theory of everything (see reductionism) and the multiverse hypothesis. the measured system becomes entangled with both the physicist who measured it and a huge number of other particles. some of which are photons flying away towards the other end of the universe.e. and by approximately how much. photons and others—can often only be satisfactorily described using quantum mechanics. the parallel universes will never be accessible to us. according to the theory of quantum decoherence.[43] Most of the calculations performed in computational chemistry rely on quantum mechanics.Quantum Mechanics of quantum mechanics. formulated in 1956. Quantum mechanics can provide quantitative insight into ionic and covalent bonding processes by explicitly showing which molecules are energetically favorable to which others. we perceive non-deterministic behavior governed by probabilities. holds that all the possibilities described by quantum theory simultaneously occur in a multiverse composed of mostly independent parallel universes. Everett's interpretation is perfectly consistent with John Bell's experiments and makes them intuitively understandable. While the multiverse is deterministic. it would destroy any evidence that the original measurement took place (including the physicist's memory). However.[40] The Bohr-Einstein debates provide a vibrant critique of the Copenhagen Interpretation from an epistemological point of view. we inhabit. This is completely impractical. neutrons. but even if one could theoretically do this. The individual behaviour of the subatomic particles that make up all forms of matter—electrons. The Everett many-worlds interpretation. the consistent state contribution to the mentioned superposition. Quantum mechanics is important for understanding how individual atoms combine covalently to form chemicals or molecules. i. but on the contrary by removing the axiom of the collapse of the wave packet: All the possible consistent states of the measured system and the measuring apparatus (including the observer) are present in a real physical (not just formally mathematical. The application of quantum mechanics to chemistry is known as quantum chemistry.[44] . together with the system that was measured originally. Such a superposition of consistent state combinations of different systems is called an entangled state. thus demonstrating that the physical world cannot be described by local realistic theories. Quantum mechanics has strongly influenced the string theory. protons. This inaccessibility can be understood as follows: Once a measurement is done.

Efforts are being made to develop quantum cryptography. If one performs a position measurement on such a wavefunction. which are expected to perform certain computational tasks exponentially faster than classical computers. Another active research topic is quantum teleportation. its quantum state can be represented as a wave of arbitrary shape and extending over space as a wave function. based on the phenomenon of development of quantum computers. Therefore. Examples include the laser. Quantum mechanics primarily applies to the atomic regimes of matter and energy. typically in circumstances with large numbers of particles or large quantum numbers. superfluidity (the frictionless flow of a liquid at temperatures near absolute zero) is one well-known example. The study of semiconductors led to the invention of the diode and the transistor. This is called an eigenstate of position (mathematically more precise: a generalized position eigenstate (eigendistribution)). but some systems exhibit quantum mechanical effects on a large scale. which deals with techniques to transmit quantum information over arbitrary distances. Researchers are currently seeking robust methods of directly manipulating quantum states.[45] Recent work on photosynthesis has provided evidence that quantum correlations play an essential role in this most fundamental process of the plant kingdom. Quantum tunneling is vital in many devices. as otherwise the electrons in the electric current could not penetrate the potential barrier made up of a layer of oxide. and magnetic resonance imaging. quantum tunneling through the potential barriers. the result x will be obtained with 100% probability (full certainty). A more distant goal is the A working mechanism of a resonant tunneling diode device. Quantum theory also provides accurate descriptions for many previously unexplained phenomena such as black body radiation and the stability of electron orbitals. The Uncertainty Principle states that both the position and the momentum cannot simultaneously be measured with full precision at the same time. one can measure the position alone of a moving free particle creating an eigenstate of position with a wavefunction that is very large (a Dirac delta) at a particular position x and zero everywhere else. In quantum mechanics. the electron microscope.[46] Even so. consider a free particle.Quantum Mechanics 91 Much of modern technology operates at a scale where quantum effects are significant. there is wave-particle duality so the properties of the particle can be described as the properties of a wave. the transistor (and thus the microchip). The position and momentum of the particle are observables. It has also given insight into the workings of many different biological systems. Flash memory chips found in USB drives use quantum tunneling to erase their memory cells. classical physics often can be a good approximation to results otherwise obtained by quantum physics. If the particle is in an eigenstate of position then its . which will allow guaranteed secure transmission of information. which are indispensable for modern electronics. However. even in the simple light switch. including smell receptors and protein structures. Examples Free particle For example.

where h is Planck's constant and p is the momentum of the eigenstate. where the wave vectors are related to the energy via . Step potential The potential in this case is given by: The solutions are superpositions of left and right moving waves: . On the other hand. reflected or transmitted component of the wave. However. In contrast to classical mechanics. rectangular and triangular-shaped quantum dots are shown. in a triangular dot the wave functions are mixed due to confinement symmetry. Each term of the solution can be interpreted as an incident. Here. The step potential with incident and exiting waves shown.Quantum Mechanics momentum is completely unknown. incident particles with energies higher than the size of the potential step are still partially reflected. . it can be shown that the wavelength is equal to h/p. allowing the calculation of transmission and reflection coefficients.[48] 92 3D confined electron wave functions for each eigenstate in a Quantum Dot.[47] In an eigenstate of momentum having a plane wave form. Energy states in rectangular dots are more ‘s-type’ and ‘p-type’. and and the coefficients A and B are determined from the boundary conditions and by imposing a continuous derivative to the solution. if the particle is in an eigenstate of momentum then its position is completely unknown.

Quantum Mechanics 93 Rectangular potential barrier This is a model for the quantum tunneling effect. and k. For the 1-dimensional case in the direction. C cannot be zero. The quantization of energy levels follows from this constraint on k. D. Thus when x = 0. When x = L. At each wall (x = 0 and x = L). since this would conflict with the Born interpretation. the time-independent Schrödinger equation can be written as:[49] Writing the differential operator 1-dimensional potential energy box (or infinite potential well) the previous equation can be seen to be evocative of the classic analogue with as the energy for the state . Therefore. which has important applications to modern devices such as flash memory and the scanning tunneling microscope. and so it must be that kL is an integer multiple of π. The general solutions of the Schrödinger equation for the particle in a box are: or. and so D = 0. from Euler's formula. Therefore sin kL = 0. Particle in a box The particle in a 1-dimensional potential energy box is the most simple example where restraints lead to the quantization of energy levels. ψ = 0. since . The presence of the walls of the box determines the values of C. The box is defined as having zero potential energy inside a certain region and infinite potential energy everywhere outside that region. in this case coinciding with the kinetic energy of the particle.

This "energy quantization" does not occur in classical physics. In quantum mechanics. such as C. or by using the more elegant ladder method. the position of the ball is represented by a wave (called the wavefunction). where the oscillator can have any energy.Quantum Mechanics 94 Finite potential well This is generalization of the infinite potential well problem to potential wells of finite depth. with real part shown in blue and imaginary part in red. which is not trivial. are standing waves (or "stationary states"). the potential for the quantum harmonic oscillator is given by: This problem can be solved either by solving the Schrödinger equation directly. Each standing-wave frequency is proportional to a possible energy level of the oscillator. Harmonic oscillator As in the classical case. Some of the trajectories. first proposed by Paul Dirac.D. The eigenstates are given by: Some trajectories of a harmonic oscillator (a ball attached to a spring) in classical mechanics (A-B) and quantum mechanics (C-H). .F. This is another example which illustrates the quantization of energy for bound states. where Hn are the Hermite polynomials: and the corresponding energy levels are .E.

google. Zajonc. 1955).com" (http:/ / www.eu (http:/ / de. actapress. Retrieved 2010-02-16. [24] "Wave Functions and the Schrödinger Equation" (http:/ / physics.edu" (http:/ / ocw. the wave function eigenvalue. scribd.A. Princeton University Press. "Time Evolution of a Wavepacket In a Square Well" (http:/ / demonstrations. Retrieved 2010-10-15. 2005). Second edition (http:/ / books. . Retrieved 2010-10-15. 215. . Inc. ISBN 0-7637-2470-X. p. Hook. the role of Max Born has been obfuscated. ph. [6] Edwin Thall. . pdf) (PDF). html). Retrieved 2010-10-15. Princeton University Press. 124 . org/ abs/ 1001. . [21] Michael Trott. K. Arthur (2006). if.M.utexas. 2010-08-13. Retrieved 2010-10-15. aip. [12] "AIP. [17] Dict.org" (http:/ / mooni...com.com" (http:/ / www.pl" (http:/ / th-www. utexas. Demonstrations. org/ web/ 20091026095410/ http:/ / geocities. edu/ archive/ 00002328/ 01/ handbook. PHY. Demonstrations. 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Retrieved 2010-10-15. edu/ ~luca/ Topics/ qm/ collapse. ISBN 0-07-096510-2. htm). archive. p.. 1989. A. htm). . Black-body theory and the quantum discontinuity 1894-1912. 134-148). 2010-08-16. Carl M.fccj. J. editor. za/ ~petruccione/ Phys120/ Wave Functions and the Schrödinger Equation. Retrieved 2010-10-15. google. T. but better than the Bohr model. Annalen der Physik 17 (1905) 132-148 (reprinted in The collected papers of Albert Einstein. "Time-Evolution of a Wavepacket in a Square Well — Wolfram Demonstrations Project" (http:/ / demonstrations.pitt. 0131). . Kuhn.wolfram. such that the probability is the squared modulus of the complex amplitude [15] "Actapress. com/ doc/ 5998949/ Quantum-mechanics-course-iwhatisquantummechanics). Nobel Foundation. pdf) . . merriam-webster.edu" (http:/ / www.ssu. html) [9] P. fccj. [20] "Reddit. 2. in 1940. Retrieved 2010-10-15.Quantum Mechanics 95 Notes [1] [2] [3] [4] The angular momentum of an unbound electron is not quantized. html). 2008-09-14.. cc/ german-english/ eigen. com/ books?id=gCfvWx6vuzUC& pg=PA52). 1930. Campbridge University Press. . Retrieved 2010-10-15. A 2005 biography of Born details his role as the creator of the matrix formulation of quantum mechanics. Jack (2001). Über einen die Erzeugung und Verwandlung des Lichtes betreffenden heuristischen Gesichtspunkt (On a heuristic point of view concerning the production and transformation of light). com/ r/ philosophy/ comments/ 8p2qv/ determinism_and_naive_realism/ ).org. Vol. [8] Oocities.com" (http:/ / www. whereby electron location is given by a probability function.com" (http:/ / www. Second edition (http:/ / books. Daniel W. [26] Especially since Werner Heisenberg was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1932 for the creation of quantum mechanics. Actapress. [27] "IF. com/ mik_malm/ quantmech. Retrieved 2010-10-15. [5] "Merriam-Webster. ISBN 0-521-80412-4. com/ TimeEvolutionOfAWavepacketInASquareWell/ ). com/ ).olemiss. p. 36. Reddit. George. [25] "Spaceandmotion. ac. Scribd. The Principles of Quantum Mechanics.128. [30] Complex Elliptic Pendulum (http:/ / arxiv. 149-166. .pons. html). Clarendon Press. von Neumann. [22] Michael Trott.edu (http:/ / philsci-archive. The Quantum Challenge: Modern Research on the Foundations of Quantum Mechanics. google. com/ physics-quantum-mechanics-werner-heisenberg. . org/ history/ heisenberg/ p08a. [10] J. AIP.com. 52.com (http:/ / web. Retrieved 2010-10-15. edu/ teaching/ qmech/ lectures/ node28. Jones and Bartlett Publishers. Rechenberg. [29] "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1979" (http:/ / nobelprize. Mooni. Berndt (1994).edu. The historical development of quantum theory. [32] Philsci-archive.edu. . 265. eu/ deutsch-englisch/ eigen) [18] "PHY. com/ books?id=_qzs1DD3TcsC& pg=PA36). html) De. 1978. Piravonu Mathews.utexas. A Textbook of Quantum Mechanics (http:/ / books. wolfram. wolfram. 1932 (English translation: Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics. phy.edu. [7] Compare the list of conferences presented here (http:/ / ysfine. pp. Springer-Verlag.cc (http:/ / www.org" (http:/ / www. com/ dictionary/ quantum). Berlin. . .S. pp. pdf) (PDF).com" (http:/ / www. Mehra and H. . honoring Max Planck. 1982. and 285 . . see also Einstein's early work on the quantum hypothesis.edu" (http:/ / farside. Springer-Verlag. 2009-06-01. Einstein. The Dark Side of the Force: Economic Foundations of Conflict Theory (http:/ / books. pp. [14] probability clouds are approximate. John Stachel. Karta Kooner [31] "Scribd.com.ph.wolfram. p. [28] "OCW. (1976). Venkatesan. olemiss.uj. com/ PaperInfo. . Dirac. dict.org.olemiss.286.com. aspx?PaperID=25988& reason=500).

[34] "Cambridge. wikibooks. (1930). John Wiley.com. Sands. Matthew (1965). — V. • Feynman. google.cuny. Retrieved 2010-10-23. html).google. 1973. W. Retrieved 2010-10-23. Discovermagazine. Leighton. cambridge. org/ wiki/ Computational_chemistry/ Applications_of_molecular_quantum_mechanics). all by working physicists. ISBN 0198520115. M. Includes cosmological and philosophical considerations. ISBN 0-486-42878-8 • Richard Feynman. 6. Plato. com/ books?id=tKm-Ekwke_UC). ac. com/ index. QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter. GianCarlo.Quantum Mechanics [33] "Academic. L P Pitaevskii (1971). The Principles of Quantum Mechanics. .stanford. php?title=Quantum_Mechanics) 96 References The following titles. 259–279. R. trans.tidalswan. Addison-Wesley.. pp. e. 2005-06-03. [39] The Character of Physical Law (1965) Ch. (1993). [47] Davies. cam. Mark (2009-01-13). [48] Books. . cuny.com (http:/ / chemistry. Press. Richard P.g. Retrieved 2010-10-15. Timeless Reality: Symmetry.org.wikibooks. edu/ entries/ qm-action-distance/ ). integrated circuits (which are follow-on technology in solid-state physics II 8-6). B. The Feynman Lectures on Physics.edu" (http:/ / plato. Retrieved 2010-10-15. J.brooklyn. . Four elementary lectures on quantum electrodynamics and quantum field theory. 79. Neill Graham. edu/ physics/ sobel/ Nucphys/ atomprop. and bra-ket notation can be passed over on a first reading. 1985. org/ 97805218/ 29526/ excerpt/ 9780521829526_excerpt. [45] Anderson.brooklyn. physicsworld. [43] Books. E.org" (http:/ / assets. Sneaking a Look at God's Cards. Passages using algebra.com (http:/ / books.com (http:/ / books. • Victor Stenger.com.Google. Retrieved 2010-10-23. "Plato. • Hugh Everett. Second edition (http:/ / books. and lasers (III p9-13).. part I. [44] "en. Lifshitz. Marvin (1987) Primer of Quantum Mechanics.. "Relative State Formulation of Quantum Mechanics. 1-3. for example. trigonometry.edu..com" (http:/ / discovermagazine. stanford.edu" (http:/ / academic.stanford. [38] Parker. . com/ 2009/ feb/ 13-is-quantum-mechanics-controlling-your-thoughts/ article_view?b_start:int=1& -C). "Plato. also quoted in The New Quantum Universe (2003) by Tony Hey and Patrick Walters [40] Joseph Berkovitz (2007-01-26). uk/ strings02/ dirac/ hawking/ [37] "Life on the lattice: The most accurate theory we have" (http:/ / latticeqcd. Academic. Retrieved 2010-10-15. [42] See.stanford. com/ books?id=vdXU6SD4_UYC). p. the the Feynman Lectures on Physics for some of the technological applications which use quantum mechanics.com. com/ books?id=XRyHCrGNstoC& pg=PA79). [41] Jeffrey Barrett. • Ghirardi.". google. David S. . . p.cuny.org" (http:/ / en. The Many-Worlds Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics. En. google. Relativistic Quantum Theory 4. 4. Books. attempt to communicate quantum theory to lay people. 2004. Betts. chemistry. 2007-08-30. tidalswan. Robert B. . . The beginning chapters make up a very clear and comprehensible introduction.edu.google. pdf) (PDF). P. Quantum Mechanics. Latticeqcd. B. edu/ entries/ qm-everett/ ). Retrieved 2010-10-15.edu.edu" (http:/ / plato. Chapman and Hall. The most technical of the works cited here. Princeton University Press. and Multiple Universes. brooklyn.blogspot. ISBN 0-7487-4446-0. . com/ cws/ article/ news/ 41632). A. M. Retrieved 2010-10-15. Cambridge University Press: 110-76. damtp.stanford. yet containing many insights for the expert. . Overcoming some of the problems. • Chester." Reviews of Modern Physics 29: 454-62. Princeton Univ. B. David Mermin.. J.com. eds. 1990. Books. [46] "Quantum mechanics boosts photosynthesis" (http:/ / physicsworld. ISBN 0-691-08131-X • Dirac. . Retrieved 2010-10-23. using a minimum of technical apparatus. [49] Derivation of particle in a box. Bell (translators). • N. 1957. More technical: • Bryce DeWitt. Buffalo NY: Prometheus Books. ISBN 0738200085. transistors (vol III pp 14-11 ff). html).Google. C.. com/ 2005/ 06/ most-accurate-theory-we-have. Princeton University Press. P. "Spooky actions at a distance: mysteries of the QT" in his Boojums all the way through. Berestetskii. stanford. 5-8. "Discovermagazine. Plato. S. . Course of Theoretical Physics (Landau and Lifshitz) ISBN 0080160255 [36] http:/ / www. Princeton Series in Physics. [35] "There is as yet no logically consistent and complete relativistic quantum field theory. Sykes. Retrieved 2010-10-23.wikiboos. (1984). ISBN 0-691-08388-6. 2000. Simplicity. blogspot.com. Gerald Malsbary. Chpts.

Weinert.fu-berlin. chpt. Princeton University Press. Quantum Mechanics. • Shankar. • Hagen Kleinert. Massachusetts: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. M. • D. Forshaw. ISBN 0-13-111892-7. J.Quantum Mechanics • Griffiths. • Cox. experiments. Cf. Hentschel. John Wiley & Sons. Dover Publications. Modern Quantum Mechanics. Robert. ISBN 0-19-530573-6 • Transnational College of Lex (1996). Oxford University Press. 1966. Principles of Quantum Mechanics. • Hermann Weyl. The mathematical foundations of quantum mechanics. Brian. Addison-Wesley. Statistics. Dover Publications. • Max Jammer.de/~kleinert/b5) • Gunther Ludwig. J. Understanding Quantum Mechanics. David J. ISBN 0-471-87373-X. Allen Lane. Greenberger. Considers the extent to which chemistry and the periodic system have been reduced to quantum mechanics. and Particles (2nd ed. Quantum Physics of Atoms. Resnick. (2002). Addison Wesley. ISBN 0-471-88702-1. Roland (1999). • Bohm. Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics. 2004. Solids. ISBN 9780674035416. English translation from French by G. Inc. ISBN 0-691-00435-8. Quantum Theory. ISBN 0-486-43517-2. McGraw Hill. • Sakurai. Wiley. • von Neumann. Language Research Foundation. Concepts. (2004). F. Prentice Hall. Eugen (1998). I). John & Sons. 3rd ed.). Temmer. Singapore: World Scientific. eds. London: Pergamon Press. Heidelberg. David (1989). (1994). ISBN 0691028931. 2006. • Liboff. Draft of 4th edition. A standard undergraduate text. OCLC 34661512. ISBN 0-08-203204-1 • George Mackey (2004). OCLC 39849482. Wiley. Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-65969-0. • Merzbacher. . Robert (1985). The Conceptual Development of Quantum Mechanics. Polymer Physics. The Theory of Groups and Quantum Mechanics.. Jeff (2011). Springer-Verlag. K. 2009. • Eisberg. ISBN 0-9643504-1-6. Path Integrals in Quantum Mechanics.google. North Holland. Quantum Mechanics (Vol. Berlin. OCLC 40251748. Nuclei. Wave Mechanics. The Quantum Universe: Everything That Can Happen Does Happen. Compendium of quantum physics. Boston. section III. Molecules. 1950.. Jeremy (2009). What is Quantum Mechanics? A Physics Adventure. • Albert Messiah. Introduction to Quantum Mechanics (2nd ed. Quantum Leaps (http://books. 1966. Springer. Introductory Quantum Mechanics. 97 Further reading • Bernstein. John (1955). • Omnès. and Financial Markets.). IV.physik. 1968. The Periodic Table: Its Story and Its Significance.com/books?id=j0Me3brYOL0C& printsec=frontcover). (http://www. Princeton University Press. (1994). Cambridge. ISBN 0-8053-8714-5. Richard L. history and philosophy. • Scerri. Eric R. R. ISBN 0-306-44790-8. ISBN 1846144329. ISBN 0-201-53929-2.

com/channel/ fundamentals/quantum-world) — archive of articles from New Scientist. (http://www.yale. Open Yale PHYS 201 material (4pp) • A foundation approach to quantum Theory that does not rely on wave-particle duality. (http://www.pdf) by Richard Fitzpatrick • Online course on Quantum Transport (http://nanohub. Shankar.org/wiki/index.edu/teaching/qm/389.org/resources/2039) FAQs • Many-worlds or relative-state interpretation. (http://arxiv.org/ abs/quant-ph/0605180) • MIT OpenCourseWare: Chemistry (http://ocw.edu/OcwWeb/Chemistry/index. with advanced topics).Vasileska and G.nonlocal. Open Yale Course • Lectures on Quantum Mechanics (http://www.de/quantumlab/english/index.Quantum Mechanics 98 External links • Quantum Cook Book (http://oyc.htm) • Measurement in Quantum mechanics.rhtml) • Quantum Physics Online : interactive introduction to quantum mechanics (RS applets).htm). • J.net/Physics/Quantum-Mechanics-Books.org/topics/AQME) : Advancing Quantum Mechanics for Engineers — by T.st-andrews.php?cid=20072_PHY 25) Fall 2007 • 5½ Examples in Quantum Mechanics (http://www.uk/quantuminformation/qi/tutorials) • Spark Notes .uk/~plenio/lecture.youtube. See 8.edu/physics/phys-201#sessions) by Ramamurti Shankar. edu/~kevinlg/i256/QM_basics.Quantum Physics.didaktik. Robertson: A history of quantum mechanics.com/faq/meas-qm.freebookcentre.Barzso.uk/ history/HistTopics/The_Quantum_age_begins. O'Connor and E.lightandmatter.ac. .sparknotes.csbsju.quantiki. F.physics.html) Media • PHYS 201: Fundamentals of Physics II (http://oyc.html) • AQME (http://www.com/stanford#g/c/ 84C10A9CB1D13841) by Leonard Susskind. uni-erlangen.stanford.ic.mit.lsr.ac. D.ac.fr/) • Experiments to the foundations of quantum physics with single photons.com/hbar/) • Quantum Mechanics Books Collection (http://www.imperial.edu/sites/default/files/notes_quantum_cookbook.edu/): three video lectures by Hans Bethe • H is for h-bar.ph.edu/ courses/course.ph. see course description (http://continuingstudies.com/manworld.utexas.php/ Introduction_to_Quantum_Theory) • Quantum Physics Made Relatively Simple (http://bethe. html): Collection of free books Course material • Doron Cohen: Lecture notes in Quantum Mechanics (comprehensive.com/testprep/books/sat2/physics/ chapter19section3.html) • Introduction to Quantum Theory at Quantiki.pdf) • The Modern Revolution in Physics (http://www.mit. quantum-physics.mcs.htm). (http://www-history. (http://www. (http://www.yale. • MIT OpenCourseWare: Physics (http://ocw.htm) • Stanford Continuing Education PHY 25: Quantum Mechanics (http://www. (http://www.an online textbook.hedweb.Klimeck online learning resource with simulation tools on nanohub • Quantum Mechanics (http://www.mtnmath.cornell.04 (http://ocw. (http://www.edu/OcwWeb/Physics/index.newscientist.nanohub.polytechnique. (http://www.youtube. (http://www.edu/OcwWeb/Physics/8-04Spring-2006/CourseHome/index. (http://www. mit.pdf) by R.mesacc.com/view_play_list?p=84C10A9CB1D13841) by Leonard Susskind • Everything you wanted to know about the quantum world (http://www.physik.com/lm/) .edu/QM/) • Imperial College Quantum Mechanics Course.pdf) by Martin Plenio • Quantum Mechanics (http://farside.

the existence of energy in discrete quantities had been postulated. for example.stanford. in order to avoid certain paradoxes that arise when classical physics is pushed to extremes. Retrieved April 12. Background Classical physics draws a distinction between particles and energy. In the early work of Max Planck. The New York Times.[1] It holds that quantum mechanics does not yield a description of an objective reality but deals only with probabilities of observing. the act of measurement causes the set of probabilities to immediately and randomly assume only one of the possible values. • Audio: Astronomy Cast (http://www. These models could not easily be reconciled with the way objects are observed to behave on the macro scale of everyday life. Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr. or measuring. whereas quantum mechanics is based on the observation that matter has both wave and particle aspects and postulates that the state of every subatomic particle can be described by a wavefunction—a mathematical representation used to calculate the probability that the particle. various aspects of energy quanta. Dennis (December 27.sciencedaily.Quantum Mechanics • Quantum Physics Research (http://www. Also.com/news/matter_energy/quantum_physics/) from Science Daily • Overbye.astronomycast. holding that only the latter exhibit waveform characteristics. Fraser Cain interviews Pamela L.edu/entries/qt-measurement) entry by Henry Krips in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy 99 Copenhagen Interpretation The Copenhagen interpretation is one of the earliest and most commonly taught interpretations of quantum mechanics. According to the interpretation. Philosophy • "Quantum Mechanics" (http://plato. will be in a given location or state of motion.edu/entries/qm) entry by Jenann Ismael in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy • "Measurement in Quantum Theory" (http://plato. . "Quantum Trickery: Testing Einstein's Strangest Theory" (http://www. if measured. they became highly unpredictable in certain contexts. 2010. Werner Heisenberg and others in the years 1924–27. 2005). The Copenhagen interpretation is an attempt to explain the mathematical formulations of quantum mechanics and the corresponding experimental results.stanford. while elementary particles showed predictable properties in many experiments. Gay. Early twentieth-century experiments on the physics of very small-scale phenomena led to the discovery of phenomena which could not be predicted on the basis of classical physics.com/physics/ep-138-quantum-mechanics/) Quantum Mechanics — June 2009. entities which fit neither the classical idea of particles nor the classical idea of waves. nytimes. if one attempted to measure their individual trajectories through a simple physical apparatus. The essential concepts of the interpretation were devised by Niels Bohr. This feature of the mathematics is known as wavefunction collapse. The predictions they offered often appeared counter-intuitive and caused much consternation among the physicists—often including their discoverers. and to the development of new models (theories) that described and predicted very accurately these micro-scale phenomena.com/2005/12/27/science/27eins.html?scp=1&sq=quantum trickery&st=cse).

explaining the new field of quantum mechanics. when they helped originate quantum mechanical theory. representing the state of the system. presumably dating back to the 20s. that Heisenberg delivered in 1955.[7] Thus. there is no definitive statement of the Copenhagen Interpretation. which contradict each other on several important issues. or the wave-like properties. views are presented as "the Copenhagen interpretation" by different authors. The description of nature is essentially probabilistic. Principles Because it consists of the views developed by a number of scientists and philosophers during the second quarter of the 20th Century. particularly in the investigations of Bohr.[5] Lectures with the titles 'The Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Theory' and 'Criticisms and Counterproposals to the Copenhagen Interpretation'. Asher Peres remarked that very different. It is not possible to know the value of all the properties of the system at the same time. The lectures then served as the basis for his textbook. no such text exists. (Heisenberg's uncertainty principle) 4. there are several basic principles that are generally accepted as being part of the interpretation: 1.Copenhagen Interpretation 100 Origin of the term Werner Heisenberg had been an assistant to Niels Bohr at his institute in Copenhagen during part of the 1920's.[8] Nonetheless. (The correspondence principle of Bohr and Heisenberg. various ideas have been associated with it. and measure only classical properties such as position and momentum. An experiment can show the particle-like properties of matter. Heisenberg gave a series of invited lectures at the University of Chicago.. (The Born rule. It appears that the particular term with its more definite sense was coined by Heisenberg in the 1950s[3]. are reprinted in the collection Physics and Philosophy[6]. The quantum mechanical description of large systems will closely approximate the classical description. Copenhagen spirit of quantum theory] if I may so express myself.g. In 1929. sometimes opposite. apart from some informal popular lectures by Bohr and Heisenberg.e. which has directed the entire development of modern atomic physics. such as some definite set of rules for interpreting the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics. The Physical Principles of the Quantum Theory. after Max Born) 3.[2] In the book's preface. with the probability of an event related to the square of the amplitude of the wave function related to it. according to the complementarity principle of Niels Bohr. However.) .. while criticizing alternate "interpretations" (e. those properties that are not known with precision must be described by probabilities. 5. 6. A system is completely described by a wave function . Measuring devices are essentially classical devices. in some experiments both of these complementary viewpoints must be invoked to explain the results. The expression 'The Copenhagen Interpretation' suggests something that is rather more than just a spirit. Matter exhibits a wave–particle duality. David Bohm's[4]) that had been developed. 2. published in 1930. The purpose of the book seems to me to be fulfilled if it contributes somewhat to the diffusion of that 'Kopenhagener Geist der Quantentheorie' [i. Heisenberg wrote: On the whole the book contains nothing that is not to be found in previous publications.

and that any additional propositions offered are not scientific but meta-physical.[13] the Copenhagen interpretation is the most widely-accepted specific interpretation of quantum mechanics."[10] Nature of collapse All versions of the Copenhagen interpretation include at least a formal or methodological version of wave function collapse. there is no longer any probability whatsoever that it will hit somewhere else. But when one or another of those more. The subjective view. We use that freedom to avoid paradoxes. would take an equally subjective view of "collapse".or less-likely outcomes becomes manifest the other probabilities cease to have any function in the real world. that the wave function is merely a mathematical tool for calculating the probabilities in a specific experiment. Bohr emphasized that science is concerned with predictions of the outcomes of experiments. throughout much of the twentieth century the Copenhagen interpretation had strong acceptance among physicists. There are some who say that there are objective variants of the Copenhagen Interpretation that allow for a "real" wave function.Copenhagen Interpretation 101 Meaning of the wave function The Copenhagen Interpretation denies that the wave function is anything more than a theoretical concept. Many-worlds interpretations say that an electron hits wherever there is a possibility that it might hit. but it is questionable whether that view is really consistent with logical positivism and/or with some of Bohr's statements." He suggested instead that the Copenhagen interpretation follows the principle: "What is observed certainly exists. about what is not observed we are still free to make suitable assumptions. those who hold to the Copenhagen understanding are willing to say that a wave function involves the various probabilities that a given event will proceed to certain different outcomes.[12] Acceptance among physicists According to a poll at a Quantum Mechanics workshop in 1997.[9] Even if the wave function is not regarded as real. that the wave function represents nothing but knowledge. So if an electron passes through a double slit apparatus there are various probabilities for where on the detection screen that individual electron will hit. An example of the agnostic view is given by Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker. who. and those who are non-committal or agnostic about the subject. Heisenberg in particular was prompted to move towards realism. is a similar approach to the Ensemble interpretation. while participating in a colloquium at Cambridge.[15] . Copenhagenists have always made the assumption of collapse. (In other words.) In more prosaic terms. and they held different views at different times. Astrophysicist and science writer John Gribbin describes it as having fallen from primacy after the 1980s. there is still a divide between those who treat it as definitely and entirely subjective. An adherent of the subjective view. followed by the many-worlds interpretation.[11] in which unobserved eigenvalues are removed from further consideration. Bohr and Heisenberg were not in complete agreement. But once it has hit. On the other hand. even in the early days of quantum physics. denied that the Copenhagen interpretation asserted: "What cannot be observed does not exist. Some argue that the concept of the collapse of a "real" wave function was introduced by Heisenberg and later developed by John Von Neumann in 1932. Bohr was heavily influenced by positivism. in the way that adherents of the Many-worlds interpretation have not. or is at least non-committal about its being a discrete entity or a discernible component of some discrete entity. and that each of these hits occurs in a separate universe.[14] Although current trends show substantial competition from alternative interpretations.

humans.e. so that if the spin of one particle is measured. wave-function collapse is interpreted subjectively. bacteria. once the cat is observed. etc. The same experiment can in theory be performed with any physical system: electrons. However. no information-bearing signal or entity can travel at or faster than the speed of light. atoms.Copenhagen Interpretation 102 Consequences The nature of the Copenhagen Interpretation is exposed by considering a number of experiments and paradoxes. 4. the cat is in the state . there is a 50% chance it will be dead.) are considered as "classical" ones but only as an approximation. His friend however is convinced that cat is alive. A particular experiment can demonstrate particle (photon) or wave properties. Bayesian versus Frequentist interpretations of probability. EPR (Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen) paradox Entangled "particles" are emitted in a single event. planets. But. which is finite. The distinction between the "objective" nature of reality and the subjective nature of probability has led to a great deal of controversy. electrons.[17][18] and some atoms. bacteria." But this can't be accurate because it implies the cat is actually both dead and alive until the box is opened to check on it. A cat is put in a sealed box. if he survives. Wigner's Friend Wigner puts his friend in with the cat. Is light a particle or a wave? The Copenhagen Interpretation: Light is neither. but not both at the same time (Bohr's Complementarity Principle). In practice it has been performed for light. will only remember being alive. with its life or death made dependent on the state of a subatomic particle. Cf. it seems as if the Copenhagen interpretation is inconsistent with special relativity. another observer cannot benefit until the results of that measurement have been relayed to him. 1. viruses. The most discomforting aspect of this paradox is that the effect is instantaneous so that something that happens in one galaxy could cause an instantaneous change in another galaxy. Conservation laws ensure that the measured spin of one particle must be the opposite of the measured spin of the other. buckminsterfullerene. The Copenhagen Interpretation: Assuming wave functions are not real. Thus a description of the cat during the course of the experiment—having been entangled with the state of a subatomic particle—becomes a "blur" of "living and dead cat. Schrödinger resists "so naively accepting as valid a 'blurred model' for representing reality. The greater systems (like viruses. protons. for him. Thus. But the cat. Schrödinger's Cat This thought experiment highlights the implications that accepting uncertainty at the microscopic level has on macroscopic objects. not exact. 3. quantum mechanics considers all matter as possessing both particle and wave behaviors. in general. The moment one observer measures the spin of one particle. cats. cats. at . the spin of the other particle is now instantaneously known. Double-Slit Diffraction Light passes through double slits and onto a screen resulting in a diffraction pattern. Due to the smallness of Planck's constant it is practically impossible to realize experiments that directly reveal the wave nature of any system bigger than a few atoms but. Each observer (Wigner and his friend) has different information and therefore different wave functions. etc. 2. according to Einstein's theory of special relativity. elephants. he knows the spin of the other. The external observer believes the system is in the state ."[16] How can the cat be both alive and dead? The Copenhagen Interpretation: The wave function reflects our knowledge of the system. The wave function means that. i. and 50% chance it will be alive. molecules. How can Wigner and his friend see different wave functions? The Copenhagen Interpretation: Wigner's friend highlights the subjective nature of probability.

Experimental tests of Bell's inequality using particles have supported the quantum mechanical prediction of entanglement."[23] and "Do you really think the moon isn't there if you aren't looking at it?"[24] exemplify this. page 31. The observer has. and it does not matter whether the observer is an apparatus or a human being. But these rules are expressed in terms of a wave function (or. a state vector) that evolves in a perfectly deterministic way. 103 Criticism The completeness of quantum mechanics (thesis 1) was attacked by the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen thought experiment which was intended to show that quantum physics could not be a complete theory.." Heisenberg says. am convinced that He (God) does not throw dice.e. Copenhagenists claim that interpretations of quantum mechanics where the wave function is regarded as real have problems with EPR-type effects. In his article entitled "Criticism and Counterproposals to the Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Theory.. Bohr's version of quantum mechanics was deeply flawed. However. The Copenhagen interpretation describes what happens when an observer makes a measurement." is absolutely necessary here and cannot be omitted from the interpretation of quantum theory. Physics Today. November 2005.Copenhagen Interpretation less than or equal to the speed of light." countering the view of Alexandrov that (in Heisenberg's paraphrase) "the wave function in configuration space characterizes the objective state of the electron. or predetermine. Einstein's comments "I.[22] Many physicists and philosophers have objected to the Copenhagen interpretation. not to what can or can not be subsequently done with the information. said: All this familiar story is true. more precisely. both on the grounds that it is non-deterministic and that it includes an undefined measurement process that converts probability functions into non-probabilistic measurements. the transition from the "possible" to the "actual. This is totally spurious. but it leaves out an irony. only the function of registering decisions. The Copenhagen Interpretation gives special status to measurement processes without clearly defining them or explaining their peculiar effects. Bohr. The claim that EPR effects violate the principle that information cannot travel faster than the speed of light have been countered by noting that they cannot be used for signaling because neither observer can control. in that speed of light limitations applies to all information. what he observes. proponents of Many worlds[19] and the Transactional interpretation[20][21] (TI) maintain that Copenhagen interpretation is fatally non-local. A further argument is that relativistic difficulties about establishing which measurement occurred first also undermine the idea that one observer is causing what the other is measuring. but not for the reason Einstein thought. since they imply that the laws of physics allow for influences to propagate at speeds greater than the speed of light. i. and therefore cannot manipulate what the other observer measures. So where do the probabilistic rules of the Copenhagen interpretation come from? . in response. since no matter who measured first the other will measure the opposite spin despite the fact that (in theory) the other has a 50% 'probability' (50:50 chance) of measuring the same spin. Of course the introduction of the observer must not be misunderstood to imply that some kind of subjective features are to be brought into the description of nature. rather. Steven Weinberg in "Einstein's Mistakes". i. at any rate. processes in space and time. it should be noted that is a somewhat spurious argument. unless data about the first spin measurement has somehow passed faster than light (of course TI gets around the light speed limit by having information travel backwards in time instead). but the registration. said "Einstein.e. This is surely wrong: Physicists and their apparatus must be governed by the same quantum mechanical rules that govern everything else in the universe. but the observer and the act of measurement are themselves treated classically. However. don't tell God what to do".

. [4] Bohm. "Popper's experiment and the Copenhagen interpretation". so they have to be accepted. Retrieved 9 May 2011. 2. 1958 [7] In fact Bohr and Heisenberg never totally agreed on how to understand the mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics. probably there are more. became soon very popular among physicists. 2001.85. pointed out probability is a measure of human's information about the physical world. com/ books?id=-4sJ_fgyZJEC& pg=PA2). 1999. an objective collapse theory is obtained. Heisenberg wanted to base quantum theory solely on observable quantities such as the intensity of spectral lines. 104 Alternatives Further information: Interpretation of quantum mechanics The Ensemble interpretation is similar.") [6] Werner Heisenberg. Modern Physics 33 (23): 10078. Springer-Verlag. Quantum generations: A History of Physics in the Twentieth Century. to observers and their apparatus. Mehra and H. edu/ entries/ qm-copenhagen/ ) [8] "There seems to be at least as many different Copenhagen interpretations as people who use that term. Bibcode 1952PhRv.166. Stud. If wave function collapse is regarded as ontologically real as well. World Scientific. Physical Review 85 (2): 166–193. T. Harper. Dropping the principle that the wave function is a complete description results in a hidden variable theory. a many worlds theory results. but not for single particles. getting rid of all intuitive (anschauliche) concepts such as particle trajectories in space-time. Many physicists have subscribed to the instrumentalist interpretation of quantum mechanics.85. Bohr once distanced himself from what he considered to be Heisenberg's more subjective interpretation Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (http:/ / plato. and collapse is entirely rejected.[28] Notes and references [1] Hermann Wimmel (1992). it is in fact due to David Mermin. Philosophy of Science: 669-682. google. 210. [2] J. [5] H. David (1952). His move from positivism to operationalism can be clearly understood as a reaction on the advent of Schrödinger’s wave mechanics which. doi:10. . But this leaves the task of explaining them by applying the deterministic equation for the evolution of the wave function.[25] E.ph. "A Suggested Interpretation of the Quantum Theory in Terms of "Hidden" Variables. p. I & II". For example. from a Bayesian point of view. This attitude changed drastically with his paper in which he introduced the uncertainty relations – there he put forward the point of view that it is the theory which decides what can be observed. Bibcode 1999quant. The problem of thinking in terms of classical measurements of a quantum system becomes particularly acute in the field of quantum cosmology. . Physics and Philosophy. Don (2004). stanford.from Copenhagen to the present day". Princeton University Press. Although the Copenhagen interpretation is often confused with the idea that consciousness causes collapse. ISBN 9789810210106. p. [9] "Historically. it defines an "observer" merely as that which collapses the wave function.. The Copenhagen rules clearly work. it offers an interpretation of the wave function. in particular due to its intuitiveness. While this slogan is sometimes attributed to Paul Dirac[27] or Richard Feynman. from Claus Kiefer (2002). The consistent histories interpretation advertises itself as "Copenhagen done right". Quantum physics & observed reality: a critical interpretation of quantum mechanics (http:/ / books.".[22] If the wave function is regarded as ontologically real. "On the interpretation of quantum theory . In fact. a position often equated with eschewing all interpretation. A similar view is adopted in Quantum Information Theories. 1086/ 425941). the word anschaulich (intuitive) is contained in the title of Heisenberg’s paper. History Philos.Copenhagen Interpretation Considerable progress has been made in recent years toward the resolution of the problem. The historical development of quantum theory.1103/PhysRev. Quantum mechanics under Copenhagen Interpretation interpreted probability as a physical phenomenon. 271. in two classic articles on the foundations of quantum mechanics. which I cannot go into here. Kragh.166B. which is what Jaynes called a Mind Projection Fallacy. the Schrödinger equation. jstor. Jaynes[26]. p. Ballentine (1970) and Stapp(1972) give diametrically opposite definitions of 'Copenhagen. arXiv:quant-ph/9910078. ("the term 'Copenhagen interpretation' was not used in the 1930s but first entered the physicist’s vocabulary in 1955 when Heisenberg used it in criticizing certain unorthodox interpretations of quantum mechanics. "Who invented the Copenhagen Interpretation? A study in mythology" (http:/ / www. where the quantum system is the universe.'".. It is summarized by the sentence "Shut up and calculate!". Asher Peres (2002). org/ stable/ 10. [3] Howard. It is enough to say that neither Bohr nor Einstein had focused on the real problem with quantum mechanics. . Rechenberg.10078P.

ps) [15] Gribbin. 863-914 (1979).. Pais. "On the interpretation of quantum theory . J. [12] "the “collapse” or “reduction” of the wave function. Arndt.from Copenhagen to the present day". hedweb. Wheeler & W. Markus. This was introduced by Heisenberg in his uncertainty paper [3] and later postulated by von Neumann as a dynamical process independent of the Schrodinger equation". Lucia. The Nature of Physical Reality. Stefan.uj. Claus Kiefer (2002). wustl. html#3. McGraw-Hill 1950 M. Maximum Entropy and Bayesian Methods: 7.CO. 105 Further reading • • • • • • • G. 323-38. 7) [22] Werner Heisenberg. Q for Quantum [16] Erwin Schrödinger. html#2. Princeton University Press 1983 A. hep. [19] Michael price on nonlocality in Many Worlds (http:/ / www. the problem arises to come up with an interpretation of quantum theory that contains no classical realms on the fundamental level. Markus. washington. 9) [21] Collapse and Nonlocality in the Transactional Interpretation (http:/ / www. pdf). "Matter-Wave Interferometer for Large Molecules".pdf) . [10] John Cramer on the Copenhagen Interpretation (http:/ / www.Copenhagen Interpretation arXiv:quant-ph/0210152 [quant-ph].1103/PhysRevLett. Phys.]Reduction of the wave packet as a formal rule without dynamical significance". 124. "On the interpretation of quantum theory . [25] 'Since the Universe naturally contains all of its observers. Zeilinger. Harper. ppt [28] N.from Copenhagen to the present day". Olaf.0. "Could Feynman Have Said This?" (http:/ / scitation.. Weihs et al. Hackermüller.. npl. npl. html#3. Anton (2002). arXiv:quant-ph/0210152 [quant-ph]. .1103/PhysRevLett. New Scientist No. "Diffraction of Complex Molecules by Structures Made of Light". Forever Quantum. Quantum Theory and Measurement. Petersen. Reviews of Modern Physics 51. Nature 409 (2001) 791. 907.. p.A. Julia. . Bibcode 2001PhRvL. arXiv:quant-ph/0202158. PMID 11909334. edu/ ~max/ everett. doi:10. Physics Today 57 (5). (http://th-www. J. Zeilinger. "On the interpretation of quantum theory . Margeneau. [23] "God does not throw dice" quote [24] A. 137. com/ manworld. in an article in the Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. Claus Kiefer (2002). 0) [11] "To summarize. arXiv:quant-ph/9709032.'. "The Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics: Many Worlds or Many Words?". Quantum Physics and the Philosophical Tradition. edu/ etj/ articles/ cmystery. aip.87p0401N. T. [27] http:/ / home.88j0404B. Arndt. Physical Review Letters 88 (10): 100404. doi:10. htm#local) [20] Relativity and Causality in the Transactional Interpretation (http:/ / www. Lett. [18] Brezger. Björn.100404.pl/acta/vol39/pdf/v39p0587. Zurek (eds). Schürmann.. fnal. edu/ npl/ int_rep/ tiqm/ TI_20.H.2-Q. shtml). 1958.88. npl.160401. one can identify the following ingredients as being characteristic for the Copenhagen interpretation(s)[.87. washington.Phys. edu/ npl/ int_rep/ tiqm/ TI_38. Fortsch. 2595 (2007) 37. [17] Nairz. Anton (2001). Claus Kiefer (2002). Bibcode 2002PhRvL. Physics and Philosophy. "Clearing up Mysteries--The Original Goal" (http:/ / bayes. gov/ ~skands/ slides/ A-Quantum-Journey. Uttenthaler. Rowe et al. washington. Physical Review Letters 87 (16). Brezger. if. David Mermin. doi:10.. A Single Particle Uncertainty Relation. Björn.1002/(SICI)1521-3978(199811)46:6/8<855::AID-PROP855>3. upenn. Rev. Petschinka. arXiv:quant-ph/0210152 [quant-ph]. E. 81 (1998) 5039 M. Chown.edu. Einstein and the quantum theory. Acta Physica Polonica B39 (2008) 587. 46 (6–8): 855–862. [13] Max Tegmark (1998). org/ journals/ doc/ PHTOAD-ft/ vol_57/ iss_5/ 10_1. edu/ npl/ int_rep/ tiqm/ TI_33. MIT Press 1968 H. arXiv:quant-ph/0110012. p. arXiv:quant-ph/0210152 [quant-ph].from Copenhagen to the present day". T. [26] Jaynes. (1989). [14] The Many Worlds Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics (http:/ / www.

irims.com/science/quantum.edu/home/baez/physics/Quantum/ bells_inequality.org/quant-ph/030503/) • The Quantum Illusion (http://knol.stanford.edu/entries/ qm-copenhagen) • Physics FAQ section about Bell's inequality (http://math.ucr.benbest.Copenhagen Interpretation 106 External links • Copenhagen Interpretation (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) (http://plato.html) • Preprint of Afshar Experiment (http://www.google.com/k/andy-biddulph/the-quantum-illusion/2na7zaaxgtohe/2/) .html) • The Copenhagen Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics (http://www.

Thirty years later John Stewart Bell responded with a paper that posited (paraphrased) that no physical theory of local hidden variables. Experiments have shown that quantum mechanically entangled particles must violate either the principle of locality or the form of philosophical realism known as counterfactual definiteness. and thereby the postulation of laws which can be checked empirically in the accepted sense. would become impossible. Pre-quantum mechanics In the 17th Century Newton's law of universal gravitation was formulated in terms of action at a distance. the idea of the existence of quasienclosed systems. which Einstein himself had helped to create. which is used consistently only in field theory. Coulomb's law of electric forces was initially also formulated as instantaneous action at a distance. but was later superseded by Maxwell's Equations of electromagnetism which obey locality.[1] . thereby violating the principle of locality. A and B: external influence on A has no direct influence on B. in a famous paper he and his co-authors articulated the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Paradox. Philosophical view Einstein assumed that the principle of locality was necessary. can ever reproduce all of the predictions of quantum mechanics (known as Bell's theorem). General Relativity. the principle of locality states that an object is influenced directly only by its immediate surroundings. However a different challenge to the principle of locality subsequently emerged from the theory of Quantum Mechanics. He later succeeded in producing an alternative theory of gravitation. If this axiom were to be completely abolished. no local realism. and Einstein thereby sought to reformulate physical laws in a way which obeyed the principle of locality.107 4. Seeking to undermine quantum mechanics. In 1905 Albert Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity postulated that no material or energy can travel faster than the speed of light. Einstein's Objections Principle of Locality In physics. this is known as the Principle of Local Action. which obeys the principle of locality. He said: The following idea characterises the relative independence of objects far apart in space. Quantum mechanics Einstein's view EPR Paradox Albert Einstein felt that there was something fundamentally incorrect with quantum mechanics since it predicted violations of the principle of locality. and that there could be no violations of it.

faster than light) if the wavefunction is considered physically real and the probability density has converged to zero at arbitrarily far distances during the finite time required for the measurement process. . or are disposed to break. This "vanishing" is postulated to be a real physical process. where the wavefunction is not assumed to be a direct physical interpretation of reality. when applied to the system's wavefunction. These interpretations propose that actual definite properties of a physical system "do not exist" prior to the measurement. and of electrodynamics. of general relativity.e. but quantum mechanics largely rejects this principle due to the theory of distant quantum entanglements. the mind-independent properties of quantum systems could consist of a tendency to respond to particular measurements with particular values with ascertainable probability. even when they have not been measured). that violates Bell's inequalities must abandon either local realism or counterfactual definiteness. a mind-independent property does not have to be the value of some physical variable such as position or momentum. In the version of the Copenhagen interpretation where the wavefunction is assumed to be a physical interpretation of reality (the nature of which is unspecified) the principle of locality is violated during the measurement process via wavefunction collapse. Copenhagen interpretation In most of the conventional interpretations. on the grounds that the sub-class of inhomogeneous Bell inequalities has not been tested or due to experimental limitations in the tests. and the wavefunction has a restricted interpretation. hence in agreement with positivism in philosophy as the only topic that science should discuss. and clearly non-local (i. used to refer to the claim that one can meaningfully speak of the definiteness of results of measurements that have not been performed (i. it is local realism that is rejected. Realism Realism in the sense used by physicists does not equate to realism in metaphysics. Einstein liked to say that the Moon is "out there" even when no one is observing it.e. as nothing more than a mathematical tool used to calculate the probabilities of experimental outcomes.[2] The latter is the claim that the world is in some sense mind-independent: that even if the results of a possible measurement do not pre-exist the act of measurement. and properties of objects. i. such as quantum mechanics.e. but some physicists dispute that experiments have demonstrated Bell's violations.[4] Any theory. yields a probability density for all regions of space and time. such as the Copenhagen interpretation and the interpretation based on Consistent Histories.[3] Such an ontology would be metaphysically realistic. it can be a tendency: in the way that glass objects tend to break. without being realistic in the physicist's sense of "local realism" (which would require that a single value be produced with certainty). Different interpretations of quantum mechanics violate different parts of local realism and/or counterfactual definiteness. Upon actual measurement of the physical system. This is a non-local process because Born's Rule. A closely related term is counterfactual definiteness (CFD). even if they do not actually break. the ability to assume the existence of objects. Local realism is a significant feature of classical mechanics. Likewise. A property can be dispositional (or potential). that does not require that they are the creation of the observer (contrary to the "consciousness causes collapse" interpretation of quantum mechanics). an interpretation rejected by Einstein in the EPR paradox but subsequently apparently quantified by Bell's inequalities. Furthermore. the probability density vanishes everywhere instantaneously. except where (and when) the measured entity is found to exist.Principle of Locality 108 Local realism Local realism is the combination of the principle of locality with the "realistic" assumption that all objects must objectively have a pre-existing value for any possible measurement before the measurement is made.

Such phenomena have never been seen. physical information . htm) External links • Quantum nonlocality vs.html) by H. the observables must commute. as required for causality.would usually be considered in violation of the principle of locality by physicists. more generally. generativescience.Principle of Locality 109 Bohm interpretation The Bohm interpretation preserves realism. . The formalization of locality in this case is as follows: if we have two observables. (http:/ / bendov. and they are not predicted by the current theories. Zeh . T. References [1] [2] [3] [4] "Quantum Mechanics and Reality" ("Quanten-Mechanik und Wirklichkeit". Y. Relativity Locality is one of the axioms of relativistic quantum field theory. org/ abs/ quant-ph/ 0607057v2) Ian Thomson's dispositional quantum mechanics (http:/ / www. only the measurable action at a distance . 1948) Norsen. Local Realism and the Crucial experiment. In this framework.uni-heidelberg.Against "Realism" (http:/ / arxiv. generally covariant or locally Lorentz invariant. Many-worlds interpretation In the many-worlds interpretation both realism and locality are retained. Dialectica 2:320-324.a superluminal propagation of real. Because the differences between the different interpretations are mostly philosophical ones (except for the Bohm and many-worlds interpretations). D. but counterfactual definiteness is rejected by the extension of the notion of reality to allow the existence of parallel universes. hence it needs to violate the principle of locality in order to achieve the required correlations. info/ eng/ crucial.de/~as3/nonlocality. physicists usually employ language in which the important statements are neutral with regard to all of the interpretations. each localized within two distinct space-time regions which happen to be at a spacelike separation from each other.rzuser. org/ ) Ben Dov. Einstein locality (http://www. Alternatively. a solution to the field equations is local if the underlying equations are either Lorentz invariant or.

that an effect propagated instantly. An example of such indeterminacy can be seen when a beam of light is incident on a half-silvered mirror. There were two possible explanations. their preferred explanation was not viable. in its formalism. across a distance. provided by Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. doing so does not create two wave functions. The EPR paper written in 1936 has shown that this explanation is inadequate. and a real and definite momentum. It was known from experiments that the outcome of an experiment sometimes cannot be uniquely predicted. the other will pass. However. a single system has its own wave function. or the information about the outcome of all possible measurements was already present in both particles. One half of the beam will reflect. The first explanation. quantum mechanics could not provide a theoretical description or prediction of these values. there will always be an experiment of which the result could not be predicted with certainty. It considered two entangled particles. and so must be held to be incomplete. system had a real and definite position.EPR Paradox 110 EPR Paradox The EPR paradox is an early and influential critique leveled against quantum mechanics. but that fact did not deny that there must have been something real there to be measured all along. If the two values of the remote. Example of such a conjugate pair are position and momentum of a particle. If such a single system can be transformed into two individual systems. undisturbed. When one quantity was measured. system were real. was (and is) in conflict with the theory of relativity. its own unitary quantum-theoretical description. as later experiments and Bell's theorem demonstrated. To that end they pointed to a consequence of quantum mechanics that its supporters had not noticed. even if there was no contact. They would both be determinate values. there was no space for such hidden parameters. and that therefore the first system must also have had a real and definite position. and became determined. They then concluded that quantum mechanics was incomplete since. In short. undisturbed. The routine explanation of this effect was. According to quantum mechanics. no classical disturbance. not just one of them as indicated by quantum mechanics. However. then they must have been real all along and not determined by the act of measurement. and pointed out measuring a quantity of a particle A will cause the conjugated quantity of particle B to become undetermined. Physical quantities come in pairs which are called Conjugate quantities. The EPR authors preferred the second explanation according to which that information was encoded in some 'hidden parameters'. Either there was some interaction between the particles. theory indicates that each system shares a single wave function. . the conjugated quantity became indeterminate. they gave reason to believe that the second. even though they were separated. and a real and definite momentum waiting there for the experimenter to disturb and change. at that time. or components of spin measured around different axes. The act of measurement might well disturb and change subsequent values of the system measured. Even if we 'prepare' the photons by passing them through a polarizer. Instead. so that only one photon is in transit at any time? Half of the photons will pass and another half will be reflected. Albert Einstein and his colleagues Boris Podolsky and Nathan Rosen (known collectively as EPR) designed a thought experiment intended to reveal what they believed to be inadequacies of quantum mechanics. let's call them A and B. But what happens when we keep decreasing the intensity of the beam. Heisenberg's principle was an attempt to provide a classical explanation of a quantum effect we call non-locality. Heisenberg explained this as a disturbance caused by measurement.

that determines the measurement outcome. or. since Einstein's death. there must exist something in the real world. . That paper. in the sense that each belongs to a certain point in spacetime.[3] thereby supporting the position of Bohr et al.. Those electrons. something which was not expressly claimed in the original paper. experiments analogous to the one described in the EPR paper have been carried out. They claim that given a specific experiment. an "element of reality".e.EPR Paradox 111 History of EPR developments The article that first brought forth these matters. They postulate that these elements of reality are local. it has yet to be seriously challenged. Einstein characterized this imagined collapse in the 1927 Solvay Conference. Podolsky and Rosen in 1935. Quantum mechanics and its interpretation Since the early twentieth century.[1] Einstein struggled to the end of his life for a theory that could better comply with his idea of causality. are all individually described by wave fronts that expand in all directions from the point of entry. Philosophical interpretations of quantum phenomena. would have preferentially selected a single point to the exclusion of all others. Quantum mechanics was developed with the aim of describing atoms and explaining the observed spectral lines in a measurement apparatus. The electrons will contact the spherical detection screen in a widely dispersed manner. However. the past). He presented a thought experiment in which electrons are introduced through a small hole in a sphere whose inner surface serves as a detection screen. but the electrons would be found to impact the screen at single points and would eventually form a pattern in keeping with the probabilities described by their identical wave functions. Why do the electrons appear as single bright scintillations rather than as dim washes of energy across the surface? Why does any single electron appear at one point rather than some alternative point? The behavior of the electrons gives the impression of some signal having been sent to all possible points of contact that would have nullified all but one or them. Einstein asks what makes each electron's wave front "collapse" at its respective location. against the challenge from Einstein and his group. Although disputed. According to the understanding of quantum mechanics known as the Copenhagen interpretation. In his view. in which the outcome of a measurement is known before the measurement takes place. however. condensed the philosophical discussion into a physical argument. are another matter: the question of how to interpret the mathematical formulation of quantum mechanics has given rise to a variety of different answers from people of different philosophical persuasions (see Interpretation of quantum mechanics). in other words. "Can Quantum-Mechanical Description of Physical Reality Be Considered Complete?" was published in 1935.[4] The most prominent opponent of the Copenhagen interpretation is Albert Einstein. These claims are founded on assumptions about nature that constitute what is now known as local realism. measurement causes an instantaneous collapse of the wave function describing the quantum system into an eigenstate of the observable state that was measured. A wave as it is understood in everyday life would paint a large area of the detection screen. other writers (such as John von Neumann[5] and David Bohm[6]) have suggested that consequently there would have to be 'hidden' variables responsible for random measurement results. quantum theory has proved to be successful in describing accurately the physical reality of the mesoscopic and microscopic world. "Can Quantum-Mechanical Description of Physical Reality Be Considered Complete?"[7]. in multiple reproducible physics experiments. Each element may only be influenced by events which are located in the backward light cone of its point in spacetime (i. authored by Einstein. starting in 1976 by French scientists Lamehi-Rachti and Mittig[2] at the Saclay Nuclear Research Centre. quantum mechanics is incomplete. protesting against the view that there exists no objective physical reality other than that which is revealed through measurement interpreted in terms of quantum mechanical formalism. however. Commenting on this. Quantum theory and quantum mechanics do not provide single measurement outcomes in a deterministic way. These experiments appear to show that the local realism idea is false.

Einstein later expressed to Erwin Schrödinger that. EPR paper The original paper purports to describe what must happen to "two systems I and II..". based on discussions at the Institute for Advanced Study with Einstein and Rosen.EPR Paradox Though the EPR paper has often been taken as an exact expression of Einstein's views. which we permit to interact . and."[8] In 1936 Einstein presented an individual account of his local realist ideas. the EPR description involves "two particles. This can be viewed as a quantum superposition of two states. we left open the question of whether or not such a description exists.. it is possible to measure the exact position of particle A.. However.. however. the electron has spin -z and the positron has spin +z. According to quantum mechanics. In state I. Therefore. .[11] EPR tried to set up a paradox to question the range of true application of Quantum Mechanics: Quantum theory predicts that both values cannot be known for a particle. where there is an observer named Bob. We believe. [which] interact briefly and then move off in opposite directions."[12] The EPR paper ends by saying: While we have thus shown that the wave function does not provide a complete description of the physical reality. This challenge can be extended to other pairs of physical properties. The particles are thus said to be entangled. Also. it is impossible (without measuring) to know the definite state of spin of either particle in the spin singlet. Measurements on an entangled state We have a source that emits electron-positron pairs. the exact position of particle B can be known. Kumar writes: "EPR argued that they had proved that . the electron has spin pointing upward along the z-axis (+z) and the positron has spin pointing downward along the z-axis (-z). A and B.[9] 112 Description of the paradox The original EPR paradox challenges the prediction of quantum mechanics that it is impossible to know both the position and the momentum of a quantum particle. without the slightest possibility of particle B being physically disturbed. so to speak. where there is an observer named Alice. Particle B has a position that is real and a momentum that is real. By calculation. which we call state I and state II.. therefore. [particle] B can have simultaneously exact values of position and momentum. it is impossible to measure both the momentum and the position of particle B exactly. it was primarily authored by Podolsky. In state II. that such a theory is possible. according to Kumar. and yet the EPR thought experiment purports to show that they must all have determinate values. and the positron sent to destination B."[10] According to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. smothered by the formalism. after some time." EPR appeared to have contrived a means to establish the exact values of either the momentum or the position of B due to measurements made on particle A. . so the exact momentum of particle B can be worked out. with the electron sent to destination A. with the exact position of particle A known. The EPR paper says: "We are thus forced to conclude that the quantum-mechanical description of physical reality given by wave functions is not complete. we can arrange our source so that each emitted pair occupies a quantum state called a spin singlet. "it did not come out as well as I had originally wanted.. the exact momentum of particle A can be measured." In the words of Kumar (2009). the essential thing was. rather. "we suppose that there is no longer any interaction between the two parts.

meaning there is a Heisenberg uncertainty principle operating between them: a quantum state cannot possess a definite value for both of these variables. A source (center) sends particles toward two observers. Suppose Alice measures the z-spin and obtains +z. This can only be explained if the particles are linked in some way. Bob's positron "knows" that Alice's electron has been measured. electrons to Alice (left) and positrons to Bob (right). when the system is in state I. who can perform spin measurements. It is impossible to predict which outcome will appear until Bob actually performs the measurement.EPR Paradox 113 The EPR thought experiment. about a second axis—a hidden variable. the x-spin and z-spin are "incompatible observables". as if (a) it knows that the measurement has taken place. Alice's electron has spin +x and Bob's positron has spin -x. Now. We'll call these states Ia and IIa. the quantum state of the system collapses into state I. which have been confirmed by experiment. Similarly. Therefore. In this case. once the electron's spin has been measured about the x-axis (and the positron's spin about the x-axis deduced). You might imagine that. and becomes its opposite about that one axis—an "entanglement" argument. However. if Alice measures +x. In state Ia. so its x-spin is uncertain. performed with electron-positron pairs. Suppose she gets +z. since prior to this he hasn't disturbed his particle at all. or (b) it has a definite spin already. The quantum state determines the probable outcomes of any measurement performed on the system. This is demonstrated in Bell's theorem.[13] In quantum mechanics. Alice now measures the spin along the z-axis. If Alice measures -x. they are always found to be opposite. it turns out that the predictions of Quantum Mechanics. so that the quantum state collapses into state I. Moreover. if the two particles have their spins measured about different axes. Suppose that Alice and Bob had decided to measure spin along the x-axis. . if Bob subsequently measures spin along the z-axis. of course. She can obtain one of two possible outcomes: +z or -z. nothing special about choosing the z-axis: according to quantum mechanics the spin singlet state may equally well be expressed as a superposition of spin states pointing in the x direction. There is. Alice's electron has spin -x and Bob's positron has spin +x. Bob measures the x-spin. Bob will get +z. According to the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics. cannot be explained by any hidden variable theory. and Bob will get -x. and Bob will get +x. he would get an answer with absolute certainty. when Bob measures the x-spin of his positron. In state IIa. Whatever axis their spins are measured along. the system 'collapses' into state Ia. instead of measuring the z-spin as well. Bob's x-spin measurement will have a 50% probability of producing +x and a 50% probability of -x. Here is the crux of the matter. if Alice gets -z. and its z-spin detected. But Bob's positron has a 50% probability of producing +x and a 50% probability of -x—so the outcome is not certain. According to quantum mechanics. the system collapses into state IIa. and hence B's z-spin calculated. there is 100% probability that he will obtain -z. Either they were created with a definite (opposite) spin about every axis—a "hidden variable" argument— or they are linked so that one electron "feels" which axis the other is having its spin measured along. the positron's spin about the y-axis will no longer be certain.

e. Incidentally. since it is only supposed to know one thing at a time? The Copenhagen interpretation rules that say the wave function "collapses" at the time of measurement. this is the "paradox". doubt has been cast on EPR's conclusion due to developments in understanding locality and especially quantum decoherence. but they nevertheless do not violate locality in a more general sense. and look at the statistical distribution of the results. Podolsky and Rosen were unwilling to abandon it. Therefore. there is a 50% probability of getting "+" and 50% of getting "-". known as the "no cloning theorem". perform a spin measurement on each.e. i. because polarized photons are easy to prepare and measure.EPR Paradox Put another way. However. it is fundamentally impossible for her to influence what result she gets. which makes it impossible for him to make a million copies of the electron he receives. completely at random. according to quantum mechanics. However. Bell used spin as his example. Whichever axis she uses. however. she has a 50% probability of obtaining "+" and 50% probability of obtaining "-". The word locality has several different meanings in physics. Einstein derided the quantum mechanical predictions as "spooky action at a distance". neither the EPR experiment nor any quantum experiment demonstrates that faster-than-light signaling is possible. It is generally believed that any theory which violates causality would also be internally inconsistent. as it seems to be a consequence of special relativity. faster than light. regardless of whether or not his axis is aligned with Alice's. the principle of locality appeals powerfully to physical intuition. but to say that measuring the first particle's momentum affects the uncertainty in the position of the other is another thing altogether. Here is the paradox summed up: It is one thing to say that physical measurement of the first particle's momentum affects uncertainty in its own position. in the one measurement he is allowed to make. this appears to be a reasonable assumption to make. Since the underlying behaviour doesn't violate local causality. quantum field theories that are "local" in this sense appear to violate the principle of locality as defined by EPR. 114 Locality in the EPR experiment The principle of locality states that physical processes occurring at one place should have no immediate effect on the elements of reality at another location. Furthermore.e. and thus deeply unsatisfactory. how does Bob's positron know which way to point if Alice decides (based on information unavailable to Bob) to measure x (i. but many types of physical quantities—referred to as "observables" in quantum mechanics—can be used. The conclusion they drew was that quantum mechanics is not a complete theory. . In recent years. as outlined in the example above. to be the opposite of Alice's electron's spin about the x-axis) and also how to point if Alice measures z. The EPR paper used momentum for the observable. Therefore. For example. Causality is preserved because there is no way for Alice to transmit messages (i. information) to Bob by manipulating her measurement axis. Experimental realisations of the EPR scenario often use photon polarization. Bob is only able to perform his measurement once: there is a fundamental property of quantum mechanics. Einstein. in quantum field theory "locality" means that quantum fields at different points of space do not interact with one another. Wavefunction collapse can be viewed as an epiphenomenon of quantum decoherence. whether real or apparent. It turns out that the usual rules for combining quantum mechanical and classical descriptions violate the principle of locality without violating causality. it follows that neither does the additional effect of wavefunction collapse. which states that information can never be transmitted faster than the speed of light without violating causality. which in turn is nothing more than an effect of the underlying local time evolution of the wavefunction of a system and all of its environment. At first sight. so there must be action at a distance (entanglement) or the positron must know more than it's supposed to (hidden variables). Podolsky and Rosen asked how can the second particle "know" to have precisely defined momentum but uncertain position? Since this implies that one particle is communicating with the other instantaneously across space. and Einstein.

Roughly speaking. are in principle experimentally detectable. this is not a serious problem. Examples of such mainstream realist interpretations are the consistent histories interpretation and the transactional interpretation. the more complete theory contains variables corresponding to all the "elements of reality". All the experiments conducted to date have found behavior in line with the predictions of standard quantum mechanics theory. expressed using inequality relations known as "Bell's inequalities". Later work by Eberhard showed that the key properties of local hidden variable theories which lead to Bell's inequalities are locality and counter-factual definiteness. However. despite the inconsistency with counter-factual definiteness seeming 'counter-intuitive'. the electron going to Bob always has spin values opposite to the electron going to Alice. quantum mechanics has a much stronger statistical correlation with measurement results performed on different axes than do these hidden variable theories. -x) to Alice and (+z. The one suggested by EPR is that quantum mechanics. the first pair emitted by the source might be "(+z. +x) to Bob". It is a common misconception that quantum mechanics is inconsistent with all notions of philosophical realism. so there would have to be an infinite number of independent hidden variables. There must be some unknown mechanism acting on these variables to give rise to the observed effects of "non-commuting quantum observables". we can formulate a very simple hidden variable theory for the above thought experiment. we have formulated a very simplistic hidden variable theory. while striving also to maintain a notion of realism that nevertheless rejects counter-factual definiteness. is actually an incomplete theory. Such a theory is called a hidden variable theory. and a more sophisticated theory might be able to patch it up. the next pair "(-z. he will get "+" and "-" with equal probability. there is some yet undiscovered theory of nature to which quantum mechanics acts as a kind of statistical approximation (albeit an exceedingly successful one). However. a variety of experiments were devised to test Bell's inequalities (experiments which generally rely on photon polarization measurement). In reality. but realist interpretations of quantum mechanics are possible. In other words. there may be an infinite number of axes along which Alice and Bob can perform their measurements. Bell's theorem does not apply to all possible philosophically realist theories. Fine's work showed that. there exist scenarios in which two statistical variables are correlated in a manner inconsistent with counter-factual definiteness. and so forth. Unlike quantum mechanics. For example. otherwise. To illustrate this idea. Mainstream physics prefers to keep locality. such interpretations must reject either locality or counter-factual definiteness. although.EPR Paradox 115 Resolving the paradox Hidden variables There are several ways to resolve the EPR paradox. but the values are otherwise completely random.e. Any theory in which these principles apply produces the inequalities. i. Assuming we restrict our measurements to the z and x axes. such a hidden variable theory is experimentally indistinguishable from quantum mechanics. despite its success in a wide variety of experimental scenarios. taking locality as a given. One supposes that the quantum spin-singlet states emitted by the source are actually approximate descriptions for "true" physical states possessing definite values for the z-spin and x-spin. Therefore. These differences. Bell's inequality In 1964. and that such scenarios are no more mysterious than any other. In these "true" states. . After the publication of Bell's paper. if Bob's measurement axis is aligned with Alice's. -x) to Alice and (-z. It turns out that there is a much more serious challenge to the idea of hidden variables. the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. he will necessarily get the opposite of whatever Alice gets. +x) to Bob". John Bell showed that the predictions of quantum mechanics in the EPR thought experiment are significantly different from the predictions of a particular class of hidden variable theories (the local hidden variable theories). Arthur Fine subsequently showed that any theory satisfying the inequalities can be modeled by a local hidden variable theory. as discussed above.

but Einstein nevertheless thought that quantum mechanics might simply be augmented by hidden variables (i. So the issue of "acceptability". There are also individual EPR-like experiments that have no local hidden variables explanation. "Acceptable theories" and the experiment According to the present view of the situation. Einstein maintained that quantum mechanics is physically incomplete and logically unsatisfactory. variables which were. Edward Fredkin in the Fredkin Finite Nature Hypothesis has suggested an informational basis for Einstein's hypothetical algebraic system. finally became experimentally decidable. space. He pursued these ideas for over twenty years until the end of his life. In contrast. If physical reality is totally finite. quantum mechanics flatly contradicts Einstein's philosophical postulate that any acceptable physical theory must fulfill "local realism". showed that quantum mechanics and the class of hidden variable theories Bell investigated[14] would lead to different experimental results: different by a factor of 3⁄2 for certain correlations.EPR Paradox Violation of locality is difficult to reconcile with special relativity. This does not seem to be in accordance with a continuum theory and must lead to an attempt to find a purely algebraic theory for the representation of reality. and energy are secondary features derived from a substrate below the Planck scale. then the Copenhagen interpretation might be an approximation to an information processing system below the Planck scale.g. measurement affects our ability to define (and measure) quantities in the physical system." If time. such as the assumptions made in interpreting experimental data. the view that there is no causal instantaneous effect has also been proposed within the Copenhagen interpretation: in this alternate view. In the EPR paper (1935) the authors realised that quantum mechanics was inconsistent with their assumptions. not the system itself. although no theory has been proposed that can reproduce all the results of quantum mechanics." Einstein wrote.[15] According to Karl Popper these experiments showed that the class of "hidden variables" Bell investigated is erroneous. defined as one of the terms of the Schrödinger equation. without any other change. since the effects of operations such as measurement affect only the state of the particle . However. In "The Meaning of Relativity. From the quantum phenomena it appears to follow with certainty that a finite system of finite energy can be completely described by a finite set of numbers (quantum numbers). On the other hand the Bohm interpretation of quantum mechanics keeps counter-factual definiteness while introducing a conjectured non-local mechanism in form of the 'quantum potential'. 116 Einstein's hope for a purely algebraic theory The Bohm interpretation of quantum mechanics hypothesizes that the state of the universe evolves smoothly through time with no collapsing of quantum wavefunctions. Examples have been suggested by David Bohm and by Lucien Hardy. to achieve an acceptable theory. then Einstein's hypothetical algebraic system might resolve the EPR paradox (although Bell's theorem would still be valid). One problem for the Copenhagen interpretation is to precisely define wavefunction collapse. in 1955. In the many-worlds interpretation locality is strictly preserved. They support the predictions of quantum mechanics rather than the class of hidden variable theories Bell investigated. up to that time mainly concerning theory. "One can give good reasons why reality cannot at all be represented by a continuous field. and is thought to be incompatible with the principle of causality. John Bell. at that point. There are many Bell test experiments. But nobody knows how to find the basis for such a theory. those of Alain Aspect and others. it is usually understood that instantaneous wavefunction collapse does occur. Implications for quantum mechanics Most physicists today believe that quantum mechanics is correct. Some workers in the field have also attempted to formulate hidden variable theories that exploit loopholes in actual experiments. still obscure to him). and that the EPR paradox is a "paradox" only because classical intuitions do not correspond to physical reality. In the Copenhagen interpretation. How EPR is interpreted regarding locality depends on the interpretation of quantum mechanics one uses. in his 1964 paper. e.e.

Such explanations. this means that immediately after measurement the system state undergoes an orthogonal projection of ψ onto the space of states of the form . If the measurement result is +z. From the above equations. However. it can be shown that the spin singlet can also be written as where the terms on the right hand side are what we have referred to as state Ia and state IIa. can be represented using the Pauli matrices: where stands for Planck's constant divided by 2π. entangled quantum states are used to perform computations in parallel. and Sz respectively. we need to show that after Alice's measurement of Sz (or Sx). Prior to the publication of the EPR paper. the tensor product of the two electrons' Hilbert spaces. thus disturbing the electron and producing the quantum mechanical uncertainties in its position. The spin where the two terms on the right hand side are what we have referred to as state I and state II above. a measurement was often visualized as a physical disturbance inflicted directly upon the measured system. which are still encountered in popular expositions of quantum mechanics. denoted Sx. with each quantum state corresponding to a vector in that space. when measuring the position of an electron. the results of the measurement are not unique -. which shows that a "measurement" can be performed on a particle without disturbing it directly. entangled particles are used to transmit signals that cannot be eavesdropped upon without leaving a trace. This follows from the principles of measurement in quantum mechanics. by performing a measurement on a distant entangled particle. The EPR paradox has deepened our understanding of quantum mechanics by exposing the fundamentally non-classical characteristics of the measurement process. To illustrate how this leads to the violation of local realism. Technologies relying on quantum entanglement are now being developed. In quantum cryptography. 117 Mathematical formulation The above discussion can be expressed mathematically using the quantum mechanical formulation of spin. Bob's value of Sz (or Sx) is uniquely determined. When Sz is measured. The spin degree of freedom for an electron is associated with a two-dimensional complex Hilbert space H. The operators corresponding to the spin along the x. Yakir Aharonov and his collaborators have developed a whole theory of so-called Weak measurement.every possible result is obtained. In quantum computation. y. In fact. and therefore corresponds to an "element of physical reality". the system state ψ collapses into an eigenvector of Sz. one imagines shining a light on it. For instance. are debunked by the EPR paradox. The eigenstates of Sz are represented as and the eigenstates of Sx are represented as The Hilbert space of the electron pair is singlet state is . Sy. which may allow certain calculations to be performed much more quickly than they ever could be with classical computers.EPR Paradox that is measured. and z direction.

Rev. Hardy. along with the Heisenberg uncertainty relation References Selected papers • A. D. 48. Meyer. • A. Podolsky. Monroe and D. Annales de la Fondation Louis de Broglie 26 683 (2001).EPR Paradox For the spin singlet. V. 1986). Eberhard. Rosen. Nature 409. A.H. A classical interpretation of Bell's inequality. "Theory for Quantum Probability". Rev. 71 1665 (1993). Eberhard. the system undergoes an orthogonal projection onto which means that the new state is This implies that the measurement for Sz for Bob's electron is now determined. Physics 1 195bbcv://prola. C. Lett. Nature 398 189 (1999). C. Pluch. Phys. [7] • A. the new state is 118 Similarly. [21] • M. Phys. Bell's theorem and the different concepts of locality. Bell's theorem without hidden variables. W. and the Bell Inequalities. More generally. Nonlocality for two particles without inequalities for almost all entangled states. J. One may show in a straightforward manner that no possible vector can be an eigenvector of both matrices. Fine. On the Einstein-Poldolsky-Rosen paradox [17]. • L. Joint Probability. Nuovo Cimento 38B1 75 (1977). Rowe. in Philosophical Consequences of Quantum Theory: Reflections on Bell's Theorem. 791-794 (15 February 2001).org/abstract/PR/v48/i8/p696_1] • P. Do Correlations need to be explained?. Aspect. Bell's inequality test: more ideal than ever. Experimental violation of a Bell's inequality with efficient detection. 291 (1982). PhD Thesis University of Klagenfurt (2006) • M. Fine. Rovelli. It remains only to show that Sx and Sz cannot simultaneously possess definite values in quantum mechanics.aps. Mizuki. It will be -z in the first case or +z in the second case. M.[20] • M. edited by Cushing & McMullin (University of Notre Dame Press. Hidden Variables.S. [16] • J. Rev. • P.H. Sackett. • P. A.[19] • A. Einstein. Nuovo Cimento 46B 392 (1978). C. Bell. Smerlak. B. Relational EPR [22] . Lett. one may use the fact that the operators do not commute. Wineland. 47 777 (1935). Can quantum-mechanical description of physical reality be considered complete? [18] Phys. Kielpinski. if Alice's measurement result is -z. and N. Itano.

[6] Bohm. M. [10] Kumar. google. J. L. pdf). In Mathematische Grundlagen der Quantenmechanik. [13] George Greenstein and Arthur G. philosophy.pdf. Teresi. Princeton University Press.. . com/ David/ Bell_Compact. J. 2009. R. and Chapter 22 Section 19.T. "[Experiments in the early 1980s] have conclusively shown that quantum mechanics is indeed orrect. Icon Books. cited by Baggott. (1988) Quantum Mechanics Versus Local Realism: The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Paradox. Englewood Cliffs. with the Jean Piccard translation starting p. edu/ ~kono/ ELEC565/ Aspect_Nature. Bell (1987) Speakable and Unspeakable in Quantum Mechanics. Black Swan.47. The Quantum Challenge. Nature 398 (6724): 189–90. (1932/1955). 371-379. Addison-Wesley: 174–187. Bibcode 1935PhRv. Physical Review 47 (10): 777–780. 1323—27 of Journal of the Franklin Institute. J. D. drchinese. D. A. pages 144-145." British Journal for the History of Science 27 (1994): 129-152. [2] Advances in atomic and molecular physics. pp. ISBN 0-521-36869-3. pdf [19] http:/ / prola. Realism and the Quantum Theory. The God Particle: If the Universe is the Answer.EPR Paradox Notes [1] Einstein. com/ nature/ journal/ v409/ n6822/ full/ 409791a0. 2009. The English translation can be downloaded. What is the Question? Houghton Mifflin Company.1038/18296.398. p. 305. • J. nature." [14] Clearing up mysteries: the original goal (http:/ / bayes. Sakurai. of Chicago Press. and the meaning of quantum theory. The relevant section appears on pp.1103/PhysRev. ISBN 0-201-53929-2.. [9] See "Physics and Reality. page 29.J. N Rosen (1935-05-15). Quantum. 223-232. . Volume 14 By David Robert Bates (http:/ / books. doi:10. Princeton. [12] Kumar.edu/Physics and Reality-Albert Einstein. Quantum. [7] http:/ / prola. [4] http:/ / plato. html [22] http:/ / arxiv. org/ abstract/ PRL/ v71/ i11/ p1665_1 [21] http:/ / www. • Arthur Fine (1996) The Shaky Game: Einstein. New York: Plenum Press.777E. pdf [18] http:/ / www. Retrieved 2010-09-08. [15] Aspect A (1999-03-18). au/ books?id=dkaCKHKLo3gC& pg=PA330& lpg=PA330& dq="Saclay"+ "Bell's+ inequality"& source=bl& ots=u-b4s3klA0& sig=1P7sX78b-I9TKtT15KvRSADgLlo& hl=en& ei=VJ7aTpn-FMW8iAeJs-jsDQ& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=2& ved=0CCEQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage& q="Saclay" "Bell's inequality"& f=false) [3] Gribbin. "Bell’s inequality test: more ideal than ever" (http:/ / www-ece. com. ISBN 0-19-852927-9. Icon Books. M... David. Zajonc.kostic. on page 147. Prentice-Hall. au/ books?id=9DWim3RhymsC& printsec=frontcover& dq=david+ bohm+ quantum+ theory& source=bl& ots=6G-2u1wtav& sig=Q1GcoVDLFRmKOmDYFAJte6LzrZU& hl=en& ei=Pv45TNSnLYffcfnS6foO& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=7& ved=0CEEQ6AEwBg#v=onepage& q& f=false). with different pagination. 221. google. pdf [17] http:/ / www. Oxford. F. "Can Quantum-Mechanical Description of Physical Reality be Considered Complete?". ISBN 9780552125550 . M. Black Swan. stanford. . (1951).47. Cambridge University Press. edu/ etj/ articles/ cmystery.380.. 187 to 189. from: www.. 313–347.189A.. (1993). Univ. aps. p.niu. edu/ entries/ qt-epr/ [5] von Neumann. • John Gribbin (1984) In Search of Schrödinger's Cat.. aps. J. Bibcode 1999Natur. org/ abstract/ PR/ v47/ i10/ p777_1 [8] Quoted in Kaiser. • Selleri." originally published in vol. pdf). Berlin. "Bringing the human actors back on stage: the personal context of the Einstein-Bohr debate. p. Springer. rice. aps. Icon Books. (2004) Beyond Measure: Modern physics. 2nd ed. 306. translated into English by Beyer. and that the EPR argument had relied upon incorrect assumptions. com. and Chapter 5 section 3. org/ abstract/ PRL/ v48/ i5/ p291_1 [20] http:/ / prola. ISBN 0-306-42739-7 • Leon Lederman. doi:10. p. 305-6. org/ abs/ quant-ph/ 0604064 119 Books • John S.777. pages 21. Quantum. No. ISBN 0704530716.. Oxford University Press. B Podolsky. In Search of Schrödinger's cat. [11] Kumar. J (1984). [16] http:/ / www-ece. 2009. wustl. edu/ ~kono/ ELEC565/ Aspect_Nature. drchinese. (1994) Modern Quantum Mechanics. com/ David/ EPR. rice. Quantum Theory (http:/ / books.

The theorem has great importance for physics and the philosophy of science. Bell's theorem (a.2 The argument in the text. (http://prola.stanford. Mermin. Results of tests of Bell's theorem agree with the predictions of quantum mechanical theory.com/ watch?v=ta09WXiUqcQ) Bell's Theorem In theoretical physics.edu/home/ baez/physics/Quantum/bells_inequality. as it implies that quantum physics must necessarily violate either the principle of locality or counterfactual definiteness. Bell & Aspect: The Original References. Hence the class of tenable hidden variable theories are limited to the non-local variety.k.de) • Spooky Actions At A Distance?: Oppenheimer Lecture by Prof. .com/journal/rd/481/brassard.edu/entries/qt-epr/#1.dhushara.edu/entries/bell-theorem/)" • EPR.com/David/EPR_Bell_Aspect.htm) • EPR experiment with single photons interactive. Bell's inequality) is a no-go theorem. Accordingly.[1] It is the most famous legacy of the physicist John Stewart Bell. none of the tests of the theorem performed to date has fulfilled all of the requisite conditions implicit in the theorem.drchinese. (http://www. • Abner Shimony (2004) " Bell’s Theorem. loosely stating that: No physical theory of local hidden variables can reproduce all of the predictions of quantum mechanics.youtube.ucr.html) • Effective use of EPR in cryptography.html) From the Usenet Physics FAQ. However. and demonstrate that some quantum effects appear to travel faster than light.org/abstract/PR/v47/i10/p777_1) • Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: " The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Argument in Quantum Theory (http:// plato.htm) • Does Bell's Inequality Principle rule out local theories of quantum mechanics? (http://math.2 • The original EPR paper.stanford. none of the results are totally conclusive.EPR Paradox 120 External links • The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Argument in Quantum Theory.aps.a. (http://www.com/book/quantcos/aq/qcrypt. (http://www.stanford.ibm. (http://plato. • Theoretical use of EPR in teleportation.QuantumLab.research. 1. http://plato.edu/entries/qt-epr/)" by Arthur Fine. (http://www. (http://www.

one particle is sent to one location. The probability of the same result being obtained at the two locations varies. A source produces a singlet argument[2][3]). and show correlations that are stronger than could be explained by local hidden variables. the concept of local realism is thus refuted as an explanation of the physical phenomena under test. Bell's theorem thus applies only to the statistical results from many trials of the experiment. depending on the relative angles at which the two spin measurements are made. The theorem applies to any quantum system of two entangled qubits. yields predictions that disagree with those of quantum mechanical theory. favoured by Einstein. perfectly correlated) results. The most common examples concern systems of particles that are entangled in spin or polarization.. and the other is sent to another location. A experiment in which there are "a pair of spin measurement of the entangled property is performed at various angles at each location."[2] Each is sent to two distant locations at which measurements of spin are performed. Each measurement yields a result of either spin-up (+) or spin-down (−). 0° Bob.e. 0° Correlation: ( Pair 1 Pair 2 Pair 3 Pair 4 … Pair n + + +1 − − +1 − − +1 + + +1 … + … + … +1 ) / n = +1 (100% identical) Orthogonal axes Pair 1 Pair 2 Pair 3 Pair 4 … Pair n Alice. and is subject to some uncertainty for all relative angles other than perfectly parallel alignments (0° or 180°). Same axis Alice. While measuring the spin of these entangled particles along parallel axes will always result in identical (i. 90° Correlation ( + − −1 − − +1 + + +1 − + −1 … − … − … −1 )/n=0 (50% identical) . will have a 50% probability of an uncorrelated result). Symbolically. 0° Bob. measurement at perpendicular directions will have only a 50% chance of matching (i. Following the argument in the Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen (EPR) paradox paper (but using the example of spin.. These basic cases are illustrated in the table below. along axes that are independently chosen. or "−1" for a non-match. and superluminal effects are evidenced. one-half particles formed somehow in the singlet spin state and moving freely in opposite directions. as in David Bohm's version of the EPR Illustration of Bell test for particles such as photons.Bell's Theorem 121 Overview Bell’s theorem implies that the concept of local realism. Bell considered an pair.e. the correlation between results for a single pair can be represented as either "+1" for a match. Because numerous experiments agree with the predictions of quantum mechanical theory.

In his paper. including the detection loophole[4] and the communication loophole. according to quantum mechanical theory. so that a theory could not be Lorentz invariant. however remote. observed experimentally. Bell's theorem has undergone a wide variety of experimental tests.[11] The title of the article refers to the famous paper by Einstein. later. it considered more hidden variables than merely the element of physical reality in the EPR paper. Without making any The local realist prediction (solid lines) for quantum correlation for spin (assuming assumptions about the specific form of the 100% detector efficiency). implying that at least one of the assumptions must be false. However. Bell achieved his breakthrough by first deriving the results that local realism would necessarily yield.[10] Importance of the theorem Bell's theorem. some theorists argue that experimental loopholes or hidden assumptions refute the theorem's validity. without changing the statistical predictions. Bell's theorem is supported by a substantial body of evidence and is treated as a fundamental principle of physics in mainstream quantum mechanics textbooks. Podolsky and Rosen[12] that challenged the completeness of quantum mechanics. Various common deficiencies in the testing of the theorem have been identified. The quantum mechanical prediction is the dotted theory beyond requirements of basic (cosine) curve. Bell's theorem was later generalized to stochastic theories[13] as well. Moreover.[5][6] However. there must be a mechanism whereby the setting of one measuring device can influence the reading of another instrument.Bell's Theorem 122 With the measurements oriented at intermediate angles between these basic cases. Bell concluded: In a theory in which parameters are added to quantum mechanics to determine the results of individual measurements. thus yielding the opportunity to convert the question of local realism from philosophy to physics. Bell's theorem rules out local hidden variables as a viable explanation of quantum mechanics (though it still leaves the door open for non-local hidden variables). and it was also realised[14] that the theorem can even be . but no experiment to date has simultaneously fully addressed all of them. Experimental results match the curve predicted by quantum mechanics.[7][8][9] though most physicists accept that experiments confirm the violation of Bell inequalities. consistency. —[2] Over the years. the existence of local hidden variables would imply a linear variation in the correlation. In two respects Bell's 1964 paper was a step forward compared to the EPR paper: firstly.[4] Over the years experiments have been gradually improved to better address these loopholes. and (ii) locality (that reality is not influenced by measurements performed simultaneously at a large distance).[4] To date. Bell was able to derive from those two assumptions an important result. namely Bell's inequality. Whereas Bell's paper deals only with deterministic hidden variable theories. the signal involved must propagate instantaneously. the mathematical inequality he discovered was clearly at odds with the results (described above) predicted by quantum mechanics and. and. Bell started from the same two assumptions as did EPR. Thus. namely (i) reality (that microscopic objects have real properties determining the outcomes of quantum mechanical measurements). the correlation varies as the cosine of the angle. more importantly. Bell's inequality was liable to be experimentally tested. derived in his seminal 1964 paper titled On the Einstein Podolsky Rosen paradox.[2] has been called "the most profound in science". no principle of physics can ever be absolutely beyond question.

or it violated the principle of a finite propagation speed of physical effects. By a simple argument based on classical probability. quantum mechanics was in an unsatisfactory position: either it was incomplete. however. while at the same time also being in complete agreement with the probabilities predicted by QM. two hypothetical observers. The Bell test experiments have been interpreted as showing that the Bell inequalities are violated in favour of QM.[2] to determine which of them is correct. on the x axis).Bell's Theorem proven without introducing hidden variables. Thus if observers are sufficiently far apart. whereas immediately before Alice's measurement Bob's outcome was only statistically determined (i. now commonly referred to as Alice and Bob. or the effects travel from Alice to Bob instantly. such as measurements. then because the hidden variables are not described by QM the latter would be an incomplete theory. thus. In a modified version of the EPR thought experiment. as they are mutually exclusive. It is the conclusion of EPR that once Alice measures spin in one direction (e. Two assumptions drove the desire to find a local realist theory: 1. After the EPR paper. In the form of local realism used by Bell. as being the opposite outcome to that of Alice. The idea persisted. Effects of local actions. he showed that correlations between measurements are bounded in a way that is violated by QM. that the electron in fact has a definite position and spin. In QM. Bob's measurement in that direction is determined with certainty. not a certainty). cannot travel faster than the speed of light (in consequence of special relativity). Objects have a definite state that determines the values of all other measurable properties. either quantum mechanics or local realism is wrong. 2. but the ‘fair sampling’ and ‘no enhancement’ assumptions require more careful consideration (below). According to Bell's theorem. the predictions of the theory result from the application of classical probability theory to an underlying parameter space. and that QM's weakness is its inability to predict those values precisely. 123 . perform independent measurements of spin on a pair of electrons. the probability that an electron will be detected in a particular place. a measurement made by one can have no effect on a measurement made by the other.. The no-communication theorem shows that the observers cannot use the effect to communicate (classical) information to each other faster than the speed of light. but it took many years and many improvements in technology to perform them. The possibility existed that some unknown theory. The paper noted that "it requires little imagination to envisage the experiments involved actually being made".e. might be able to predict those quantities exactly. either the spin in each direction is an element of physical reality. such as position and momentum. or the probability that its spin is up or down. prepared at a source in a special state called a spin singlet state. Bell's theorem seemed to put an end to local realism. predictions are formulated in terms of probabilities — for example. was only a probability. such as a hidden variables theory.g. in the sense that it failed to account for some elements of physical reality. If such a hidden variables theory exists. John Bell's paper examines both John von Neumann's 1932 proof of the incompatibility of hidden variables with QM and the seminal 1935 EPR paper on the subject by Albert Einstein and his colleagues.

(…) Now nobody knows just where the boundary between the classical and the quantum domain is situated. Alice can choose a detector setting to measure either or and Bob can choose a detector setting to measure either or .[15] In probability theory. of a homogeneous account of the world. by trying to approximate as well as possible the idealized situations in which local hidden variables and quantum mechanics cannot agree. while local realism would limit the correlation of subsequent measurements of the particles. (…) A second motivation is connected with the statistical character of quantum-mechanical predictions. but may be correlated with those of another particle due to quantum entanglement. In Bell's words: Theoretical physicists live in a classical world. This opens the possibility of bringing the question into the experimental domain. in terms of procedures and results in our classical domain. According to quantum mechanics they are entangled. repeated measurements of system properties can be regarded as repeated sampling of random variables. (…) A third motivation is in the peculiar character of some quantum-mechanical predictions. Different authors subsequently derived inequalities similar to Bell´s original inequality. In Bell's experiment. The latter we describe only subjectively. (…) More plausible to me is that we will find that there is no boundary. that no local deterministic hidden-variable theory can reproduce all the experimental predictions of quantum mechanics. the properties that Einstein posited when he stated his famous objection to quantum mechanics: "God does not play dice. allowing their state to be well defined only after a measurement is made on either particle. All Bell inequalities describe experiments in which the predicted result from quantum entanglement differs from that flowing from local realism. in fact. . Podolsky and Rosen. These well-defined states are typically called hidden variables. Measurements of Alice and Bob may be somehow correlated with each other. which is for me the chief motivation of the study of the so-called "hidden variable" possibility. but the Bell inequalities say that if the correlation stems from local random variables. This is the famous argument of Einstein.Bell's Theorem 124 Bell inequalities Bell inequalities concern measurements made by observers on pairs of particles that have interacted and then separated. and these are here collectively termed Bell inequalities. the mathematics of which contains no local hidden variables. the Bell inequalities can nevertheless be violated: the properties of a particle are not clear. It is this possibility. it can be conjectured that random statistical fluctuations are determined by the extra "hidden" variables — "hidden" because at this stage we can only conjecture their existence and certainly cannot control them. a fundamental concept in quantum mechanics. there is a limit to the amount of correlation one might expect to see. looking out into a quantum-mechanical world." Bell showed that under quantum mechanics. which seem almost to cry out for a hidden variable interpretation. The inequalities assume that each quantum-level object has a well-defined state that accounts for all its measurable properties and that distant objects do not exchange information faster than the speed of light. Once the incompleteness of the wave function description is suspected. (…) We will find. That restriction agrees with the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. The wave functions would prove to be a provisional or incomplete description of the quantum-mechanical part.

by letting A. the correlation between them is 99%. A. A and B are 99% correlated. This inequality is not used in practice. and the spins of both are measured in the direction A. which is a contradiction. not for the "three-outcome" ones (with possible outcomes of zero as well as +1 and −1) encountered in real experiments. θ degrees. we formalize local realism as follows: . It is safe to conclude that any hidden variables that determine the A. CHSH inequality In addition to Bell's original inequality. the correlation is 99%. and 2θ degrees respectively. it applies only to a very restricted set of hidden variable theories.B. B. If A is measured on one particle and B on the other. namely those for which the outcomes on both sides of the experiment are always exactly anticorrelated when the analysers are parallel. But A and C are the same 1 − (2ε)2 of the time. anti-correlated but for this argument that is equivalent).[16] as it gives classical limits to the expected correlation for the above experiment conducted by Alice and Bob: where C denotes correlation. To formulate Bell's theorem. B and C are 99% correlated and A and C are only 96% correlated. while the small-angle limit is emphasized in Bell's original article. and C measurements in the two particles are 100% correlated and can be used interchangeably. A simple limit of Bell's inequality has the virtue of being completely intuitive. Abner Shimony and R.Bell's Theorem 125 Original Bell's inequality The original inequality that Bell derived was:[2] where C is the "correlation" of the particle pairs and a. But if A is measured in one particle and C in the other. The probability that A and B give the same answer is . The intuitive formulation is due to David Mermin. in agreement with the quantum mechanical prediction. If B is measured on one and C on the other. The number of mismatches between A and B (1/100) plus the number of mismatches between B and C (1/100) are together the maximum possible number of mismatches between A and C. Correlation of observables X. the results are only 96% correlated. Choosing the angle so that . In quantum mechanics.[2] the form given by John Clauser. If the result of three different statistical coin-flips A. For another. and C be the values of the spin of two entangled particles measured relative to some axis at 0 degrees. where is proportional to θ. A and B are the same (both heads or both tails) 99% of the time 2.[16] (the CHSH form) is especially important. Y is defined as This is a non-normalized form of the correlation coefficient considered in statistics (see Quantum correlation). Imagine that two entangled particles in a spin singlet are shot out to two distant locations. and C have the property that: 1. This allows us to conclude that the hidden variables determining A and B are 99% correlated and B and C are 99% correlated. Holt. it is true only for genuinely "two-outcome" systems. B and C are the same 99% of the time then A and C are the same at least 98% of the time. This is also the probability that B and C give the same answer. The spins are 100% correlated (actually. the overlap of the wavefunction between the different angles is proportional to . b and c settings of the apparatus. For one thing. B. The same is true if both spins are measured in directions B or C. Michael Horne.

are allowed to take on any real values between −1 and +1. 2. let us first assume the observed values are +1 or −1. Indeed.Bell's Theorem 1. There is a probability space and the observed outcomes by both Alice and Bob result by random sampling of 126 the parameter . we can assume that In that case . The CHSH inequality (1) holds under the hidden variables assumptions above. Thus • Value observed by Alice with detector setting is • Value observed by Bob with detector setting is Implicit in assumption 1) above. Then at least one of is 0. the relevant idea is that each summand in the above average is bounded above by 2. without loss of generality. This is easily seen as true in the more general case: To justify the upper bound 2 asserted in the last inequality. Bell's inequality. the hidden parameter space random variable X on with respect to is written has a probability measure and the expectation of a where for accessibility of notation we assume that the probability measure has a density. Let . Thus and therefore Remark 1 The correlation inequality (1) still holds if the variables . For simplicity. we remove this assumption in Remark 1 below. The values observed by Alice or Bob are functions of the local detector settings and the hidden parameter only.

this special case suffices for our purposes below. these correspond to measurement of spin along the z′ or x′ axis. with the extension proved in Remark 1. The measurements performed by Alice and Bob are spin measurements on electrons. these others being independent. Bell inequalities are violated by quantum mechanical predictions In the usual quantum mechanical formalism. this distribution is discrete. we denote the eigenvectors of Sx by Let be the spin singlet state for a pair of electrons discussed in the EPR paradox. As is customary. The probability of observing λ is non-zero if and only if λ is an eigenvalue of the matrix X and moreover the probability is where EX (λ) is the projector corresponding to the eigenvalue λ. where the x′ – z′ coordinate system is rotated 135° relative to the x – z coordinate system. there may be others that are associated with the separate detectors. . assume that X and Y are represented by matrices in a finite dimensional space and that X and Y commute. This argument was used by Bell in 1971. The formalisation of local realism was thus effectively changed. Alice can choose between two detector settings labelled a and a′. In that case. The system state immediately after the measurement is From this. −1. and again by Clauser and Horne in 1974. The spin observables are represented by the 2 × 2 self-adjoint matrices: These are the Pauli spin matrices normalized so that the corresponding eigenvalues are +1. we can show that the correlation of commuting observables X and Y in a pure state is We apply this fact in the context of the EPR paradox. To compute the correlation. It was henceforth restricted (in most theoretical work) to mean only those components that were associated with the source. the observables X and Y are represented as self-adjoint operators on a Hilbert space. The derivations were given in terms of the averages of the outcomes over the local detector variables.Bell's Theorem Remark 2 Though the important component of the hidden parameter in Bell's original proof is associated with the source and is shared by Alice and Bob. Bob can choose between two detector settings labelled b and b′. The von Neumann measurement postulate states: a series of measurements of an observable X on a series of identical systems in state produces a distribution of real values. CHSH inequality still holds even if the instruments themselves contain hidden variables. averaging over the instrument hidden variables gives new variables: 127 on . in which detectors were never 100% efficient. By the assumption that observables are finite matrices. This is a specially constructed state described by the following vector in the tensor product Now let us apply the CHSH formalism to the measurements that can be performed by Alice and Bob. replacing A and B by averages and retaining the symbol but with a slightly different meaning. However. these settings correspond to measurement of spin along the z or the x axis.[13] to justify a generalisation of the theorem forced on them by the real experiments. which still have values in the range [−1. +1] to which we can apply the previous result.

then the system consisting of a pair of entangled electrons cannot satisfy the principle of local realism. Note that the A operators commute with the B operators. correspond to Bob's spin measurements along x′ and z′. . Note that is indeed the upper bound for quantum mechanics called Tsirelson's bound. In fact.Bell's Theorem 128 Illustration of Bell test for spin 1/2 particles. Each performs one of the two spin measurements. In this case. a straightforward calculation shows that and so that Bell's Theorem: If the quantum mechanical formalism is correct. so we can apply our calculation for the correlation. Source produces spin singlet pairs. we can show that the CHSH inequality fails. The operators . The operators giving this maximal value are always isomorphic to the Pauli matrices. one particle of each pair is sent to Alice and the other to Bob.

Nobody needed to perform the experiment.' The latter has been nearly decisively blocked by a recent experiment and there is a good prospect for blocking the former.[17] Of the thirteen experiments listed. Indeed. furthermore. yet it effectively limits the range of local theories to those that conceive of the light field as corpuscular. recognize the possibility or actuality that the emitted atomic light signals have a range of amplitudes and. Such a fair sampling assumption generally goes unacknowledged.5 of Redhead. in particular. In early designs of their 1973 experiment. shortly afterwards Clauser and Horne[13] made the important distinction between inhomogeneous (IBI) and homogeneous (HBI) Bell inequalities. 1987. then detected. However. Emerging signals from each channel are detected and coincidences of four types (++. It follows that not all signals have the same detection probability. Those who maintain the concept of duality. that the amplitudes are modified when the signal passes through analyzing devices such as polarizers and beam splitters. "the discrepancies with QM could not be reproduced". The assumption excludes a large family of local realist theories. sent in opposite directions. or simply of light being a wave. according to the same source.[19] Two classes of Bell inequalities The fair sampling problem was faced openly in the 1970s. because . only two reached results contradictory to quantum mechanics. Pairs of particles are emitted as a result of a quantum process. but not decisively because of the 'detection loopholes' or the 'communication loophole. Dick and Harry ('jeder Kerl' in German original) thinks he knows what a photon is. We must remember the cautionary words of Albert Einstein[18] shortly before he died: "Nowadays every Tom. when the experiments were repeated. +− and −+) counted by the coincidence monitor. Each photon encounters a two-channel polariser whose orientation (a or b) can be set by the experimenter. Bell's inequalities are tested by "coincidence counts" from a Bell test experiment such as the optical one shown in the diagram.Bell's Theorem 129 Practical experiments testing Bell's theorem Experimental tests can determine whether the Bell inequalities required by local realism hold up to the empirical evidence. Objective physical properties for Bell’s analysis (local realist theories) include the wave amplitude of a light signal. Testing an IBI requires that we compare certain coincidence rates in two separated detectors with the singles rates of the two detectors. direction and polarization are identical" so that photodetectors treat all incident photons on an equal basis. According to Shimony's 2004 Stanford Encyclopedia overview article:[4] Most of the dozens of experiments performed so far have favored Quantum Mechanics. −−. Nevertheless. but he is mistaken". Max Planck's description. Freedman and Clauser[20] used fair sampling in the form of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH[16]) hypothesis. analysed with respect to some key property such as polarisation direction. moreover. the issue is not conclusively settled. experimenter. one must distinguish the classes of homogeneous and inhomogeneous Bell inequality. Bell test experiments to date overwhelmingly violate Bell's inequality. To explore the 'detection loophole'. The setting (orientations) of the analysers are selected by the Scheme of a "two-channel" Bell test The source S produces pairs of "photons". a table of Bell test experiments performed prior to 1986 is given in 4. The standard assumption in Quantum Optics is that "all photons of given frequency.

So. 130 Practical challenges Because detectors don't detect a large fraction of all photons. Theoretical challenges Most advocates of the hidden variables idea believe that experiments have ruled out local hidden variables. explaining the violation of Bell's inequality by means of a non-local hidden variable theory. because it is not clear which copy of the observer B observer A will see when going to compare notes. They introduced the No Enhancement Hypothesis (NEH): A light signal. To arrive at an experimental design in which the QM prediction violates IBI we require detectors whose efficiency exceeds 82% for singlet states. there is a Bell inequality between the coincidence rates with polarizers and coincidence rates without polarizers. One idea is to replace instantaneous communication with a process that travels backwards in time along the past Light cone. if the wavefunction values are interpreted as the fundamental quantities that describe reality. The Bell inequality violations are no longer counterintuitive. in the presence of a threshold. which interprets the statistical emergence of a quantum history as a gradual coming to agreement between histories that go both forward and backward in time. Clauser and Horne[13] recognized that testing Bell's inequality requires some extra assumptions. the QM prediction actually satisfied the IBI. as it is known that adding noise to data can. Since in relativity the notion of simultaneity is not absolute. quoted in the preceding section. it can communicate the necessary correlations to the other particle. but have very low dark rate and short dead and resolving times. originating in an atomic cascade for example. For example. but it does show that the word loophole is biased.[23] If the hidden variables can communicate with each other faster than light. help reveal hidden signals (this property is known[22] as stochastic resonance). This is the idea behind a transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics. two distant observers both split into superpositions when measuring a spin. are capable of revealing important new phenomena. The experiment was performed by Freedman and Clauser. The Freedman-Clauser experiment reveals that local hidden variables imply the new phenomenon of signal enhancement: In the total set of signals from an atomic cascade there is a subset whose detection probability increases as a result of passing through a linear polarizer. taking into account this low detector efficiency. Once one particle is measured. . appears over-stated. rather than showing a breakdown of realism or locality. this is unattractive. If reality includes all the different outcomes. This is well above the 30% achievable[21] so Shimony’s optimism in the Stanford Encyclopedia. One cannot conclude that this is the only local-realist alternative to Quantum Optics. Gerard 't Hooft has argued that the superdeterminism loophole cannot be dismissed. Given this assumption. Such an approach is called a many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics.[25][26] The quantum mechanical wavefunction can also provide a local realistic description. Then. in which the particles exchange information about their states. which requires that all particles in the universe be able to instantaneously exchange information with all others. the analysis leads us to recognize that the Bell-inequality experiments.Bell's Theorem singles rates with all detectors in the 1970s were at least ten times all the coincidence rates. A recent experiment ruled out a large class of non-Bohmian non-local hidden variable theories. has a certain probability of activating a detector. They are ready to give up locality. Moreover. In this view. if a polarizer is interposed between the cascade and the detector. So the no-enhancement hypothesis cannot be true in a local hidden variables model. locality in physical space (not outcome space) places no restrictions on how the split observers can meet up. This is the basis of the Bohm interpretation of quantum mechanics.[24] A few advocates of deterministic models have not given up on local hidden variables. Bell's inequality can easily be violated. the detection probability cannot increase.[20] who found that the Bell's inequality was violated. This is perhaps not surprising.

i. The results of all experiments. Many worlds interpretations are not only counterfactually indefinite. Y exerted a causal inference on X in reality. they are factually indefinite. just provide the definite demonstration of something that was already strongly suspected. Jaynes[27] pointed out two hidden assumptions in Bell Inequality that could limit its generality: 1. The possibility of wavefunction collapse is now seen as one possible problematic ingredient of some interpretations. Bell interpreted conditional probability P(X|Y) as a causal inference. It only applies to a certain class of local hidden variable theories. No combination of local deterministic and local random variables can reproduce the phenomena predicted by quantum mechanics and repeatedly observed in experiments. one application involves the measurement of quantum entanglement as a physical source of bits for Rabin's oblivious transfer protocol. What is powerful about Bell's theorem is that it doesn't refer to any particular physical theory. which is the foundation for present-day applications of quantum physics. because it struck a chord in them tuned to the Buddhist teachings. there is a quantity that determines what the outcome would have been even if you don't do the experiment. e. 'we are all one' ". because the standard interpretation could easily do away with action-at-a-distance by simply assigning to each particle definite spin-states. As Kaiser quotes a member of the group: "Bell's theorem gives precise physical content to the mystic motto. In well-defined Bell experiments (see the paragraph on "test experiments") one can now falsify either quantum mechanics or Einstein's quasi-classical assumptions: currently many experiments of this kind have been performed. Complementarity is now seen not as an independent ingredient of the quantum picture but rather as a direct consequence of the Quantum decoherence expected from the quantum formalism itself. How the Hippies Saved Physics. In fact. Causes cannot travel faster than light or backward in time. Bell's inequality does not apply to some possible hidden variable theories. This strange non-locality was originally supposed to be a Reductio ad absurdum. The assumption. the above-mentioned singlet state. even ones that have been performed. and the experimental results support quantum mechanics. Some earlier elements that had seemed incompatible with classical pictures included apparent complementarity and (hypothesized) wavefunction collapse. However. are not uniquely determined. [28] Final remarks The violations of Bell's inequalities. 2. Bell's theorem showed that the "entangledness" prediction of quantum mechanics has a degree of non-locality that cannot be explained away by any local theory. The Bell violations show that no resolution of such issues can avoid the ultimate strangeness of quantum behavior. .g. and even the CIA.Bell's Theorem This implies that there is a subtle assumption in the argument that realism is incompatible with quantum mechanics and locality. due to quantum entanglement. E. He further argues that a "Fundamental Fysiks Group" of hippie creed in fact rescued Bell's theorem from the obscurity. in its weakest form. The EPR paper "pinpointed" the unusual properties of the entangled states.e. psychics. such as quantum cryptography. is called counterfactual definiteness. it might have just missed the kind of hidden variable theories that Einstein is most interested in. P(X|Y) actually only means logical inference (deduction). that quantum physics cannot be represented by any version of the classical picture of physics. but deduction can. not just details of some particular models. rather than as an essential part of quantum mechanics. This states that if the results of an experiment are always observed to be definite. 131 Cultural impact David Kaiser of MIT mentioned in his book. T. What makes Bell's theorem unique and powerful is that it shows that nature violates the most general assumptions behind classical pictures. so that until nearly every photon pair generated is observed there will be loopholes. that the possibilities of instantaneous long-range communication derived from Bell's theorem stirred interest among hippies. though some believe that detectors give a biased sample of photons.

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youtube. Prometheus Rising (New Falcon Publications.Bell's Theorem 134 Further reading The following are intended for general audiences. Aczel. ISBN 0-06-095968-1) External links • An explanation of Bell's Theorem (http://www. Quantum Reality: Beyond the New Physics (Anchor.ncsu. Louisa Gilder. 2004. • Mermin: Spooky Actions At A Distance? Oppenheimer Lecture (http://www. Afriat and F.uk/reality/reality_entangled. "Bringing home the atomic world: Quantum mysteries for anybody".com/groups/ profile?hl=en&show=more&enc_user=8YcXCQ4AAABUc-oUoA1Uy7yFEaUY6YXQ&group=sci. The infamous boundary: seven decades of controversy in quantum physics (Birkhauser. 2001).html).de/quantumlab/english/index. 2008) Brian Greene. David Mermin.inr. American Journal of Physics 49 (10): 940. ISBN 0-385-23569-0) D.. New York and London. ISBN 0-375-72720-5) Nick Herbert. Entanglement: The greatest mystery in physics (Four Walls Eight Windows.edu/felder-public/kenny/papers/bell.ru/x-bin/theme3. in Physics Today. (1981).ac.didaktik. 1997.1119/1.49. pp. D. April 1985. 1992) N. 38–47. Wick. N. A. Baggott. "Is the moon there when nobody looks? Reality and the quantum theory". 2001. • Bell's theorem on arXiv. 1987. D.py?level=2&index1=369244) • Interactive experiments with single photons: entanglement and Bell´s theorem (http://www.940M. Bibcode 1981AmJPh. Mermin. • • • • • • • • • • Amir D. Mermin's article.com/ watch?v=ta09WXiUqcQ) • Quantum Entanglement (http://www.html) • Bell's Inequalities: Obscurantist Obfuscation or Condign Confabulation? (http://groups.physik.physics) . Selleri.org. Boston 1995) R. Knopf.asp) Includes a simple explanation of Bell's Inequality. The Fabric of the Cosmos (Vintage. ISBN 1-56184-056-4) Gary Zukav "The Dancing Wu Li Masters" (Perennial Classics. The Meaning of Quantum Theory (Oxford University Press.12594.. The Age of Entanglement: When Quantum Physics Was Reborn (New York: Alfred A. 1999) J. doi:10. New York. The Einstein. uni-erlangen.ipod. Anton Wilson. based on N.org (http://xstructure. Podolsky and Rosen Paradox (Plenum Press.google.

or. In the end. more generally. fields and (in a condensed matter context) many-body systems. in quantum field theory. like the electron. In the "low-energy limit". Originally. in 1905. Intermediate vector bosons mediate the weak force and gluons mediate the strong force. Quantum field theories are used in many contexts. the as yet unknown correct quantum field-theoretic treatment of the gravitational field will become and "look exactly like" Einstein's general theory of relativity in the "low-energy limit". The electromagnetic force between two electrons is caused by an exchange of photons. like the Einstein-Yang-Mills-Dirac System. that "look like" particles. and proper proof of the quantum nature of radiation is now taken up into modern quantum optics as in the antibunching effect. are formulated as relativistic quantum field theories. the quantum field-theoretic description of the electromagnetic field. Although it is often claimed that the photoelectric and Compton effects require a quantum description of the EM field. which greatly diminishes and hides their "particle-like" excitations. including the Standard Model of elementary particles and their interactions. to the electromagnetic field. gravity. can also be described as ripples/excitations in a field. Small quantum corrections due to virtual electron positron pairs give rise to small non-linear corrections to the Maxwell equations. attributed "particle-like" and discrete exchanges of momenta and energy. this is now understood to be untrue. . the forces between particles are mediated by other particles. that is. or "excitations". Advanced Principles Quantum Field Theory Quantum field theory (QFT) provides a theoretical framework for constructing quantum mechanical models of systems classically parametrized (represented) by an infinite number of degrees of freedom. Presumably. although the "classical limit" of quantum electrodynamics has not been as widely explored as that of quantum mechanics. There is currently no complete quantum theory of the remaining fundamental force. by definition. photons are not thought of as "little billiard balls" but are rather viewed as field quanta – necessarily chunked ripples in a field. the classical visualisation of "everything is particles and field". particles are regarded as excited states of a field (field quanta). In summary. Compare in this context the article effective field theory. It is the natural and quantitative language of particle physics and condensed matter physics. such as in the BCS theory of superconductivity. and are especially vital in elementary particle physics.[1] The word "photon" was coined in 1926 by physical chemist Gilbert Newton Lewis (see also the articles photon antibunching and laser).135 5. cannot be detected while carrying the force. These force-carrying particles are virtual particles and. In QFT. The gravitational field and the electromagnetic field are the only two fundamental fields in Nature that have infinite range and a corresponding classical low-energy limit. Albert Einstein. quantum electrodynamics. In addition. Indeed. In perturbative quantum field theory. Fermions. which then resolves into "everything is fields". characteristic of "field quanta". his principal motivation was to explain the thermodynamics of radiation. Most theories in modern particle physics. They are also used in the description of critical phenomena and quantum phase transitions. where each kind of fermion has its own field. resolves into "everything is particles". because such detection will imply that the force is not being carried. but many of the proposed theories postulate the existence of a graviton particle that mediates it. does not exactly reduce to James Clerk Maxwell's 1864 theory of classical electrodynamics. the notion of "force mediating particle" comes from perturbation theory. and thus does not make sense in a context of bound states. where the particle count/number may change over the course of a reaction. quantum field theory itself is possibly the low-energy-effective-field-theory limit of a more fundamental theory such as superstring theory.

This theory assumed that no electric charges or currents were present and today would be called a free field theory. the Dirac equation satisfies both the Lorentz invariance. it predicted impossible properties for the hydrogen spectrum. Max Born. but also other particles (including particles having nonzero rest mass) may be born and disappear as a result of their interaction with other particles. the requirements of special relativity. Pascual Jordan and Wolfgang Pauli showed in 1928 that quantum fields could be made to behave in the way predicted by special relativity during coordinate transformations (specifically.[4] The idea is that not only the quanta of the electromagnetic field. A further boost for quantum field theory came with the discovery of the Dirac equation. a process in which the number of particles changes—one atom in the initial state becomes an atom plus a photon in the final state. This work was performed first by Dirac himself with the invention of hole theory in 1930 and by Wendell Furry. imposed by the uncertainty principle. and indeed. It was evident from the beginning that a proper quantum treatment of the electromagnetic field had to somehow incorporate Einstein's relativity theory. photons. and finally it was shown that several of its undesirable properties (such as negative-energy states) could be made sense of by reformulating and reinterpreting the Dirac equation as a true field equation. Vladimir Fock.[2] In 1925. in particular the Ambarzumian-Ivanenko hypothesis of creation of massive particles (published in 1930) which is the cornerstone of the contemporary quantum field theory. This limitation is crucial for the successful formulation and interpretation of a quantum field theory of photons and electrons (quantum electrodynamics). without spin. which was originally formulated and interpreted as a single-particle equation analogous to the Schrödinger equation. during the same period that he discovered his famous equation in 1926.Quantum Field Theory 136 History Quantum field theory originated in the 1920s from the problem of creating a quantum mechanical theory of the electromagnetic field.[5][6] A subtle and careful analysis in 1933 and later in 1950 by Niels Bohr and Leon Rosenfeld showed that there is a fundamental limitation on the ability to simultaneously measure the electric and magnetic field strengths that enter into the description of charges in interaction with radiation. and the rules of quantum mechanics. which is to be attributed to each and every isolated energy parcel". was created by Paul Dirac in 1927. but unlike the Schrödinger equation. and Pascual Jordan constructed such a theory by expressing the field's internal degrees of freedom as an infinite set of harmonic oscillators and by employing the canonical quantization procedure to those oscillators. in this case for the quantized "Dirac field" or the "electron field". Robert Oppenheimer. Schrödinger. In particlular de Broglie in 1924 introduced the idea of a wave description of elementary systems in the following way: "we proceed in this work from the assumption of existence of a certain periodic phenomenon of a yet to be determined character. any perturbative quantum . (See Oskar Klein and Walter Gordon. electrons) as quantum mechanical objects.) All relativistic wave equations that describe spin-zero particles are said to be of the Klein-Gordon type. The Dirac equation accommodated the spin-1/2 value of the electron and accounted for its magnetic moment as well as giving accurate predictions for the spectra of hydrogen. The first reasonably complete theory of quantum electrodynamics. and others. which must apply to all canonically conjugate quantities. The attempted interpretation of the Dirac equation as a single-particle equation could not be maintained long. Viktor Ambartsumian and Dmitri Ivanenko. This need to put together relativity and quantum mechanics was the second major motivation in the development of quantum field theory. It is now understood that the ability to describe such processes is one of the most important features of quantum field theory. Werner Heisenberg. they showed that the field commutators were Lorentz invariant). which included both the electromagnetic field and electrically charged matter (specifically. however. which had grown out of the study of classical electromagnetism. also independently found the relativistic generalization of it known as the Klein-Gordon equation but dismissed it since. with the "negative-energy solutions" pointing to the existence of anti-particles. that is. This idea of Ambartsumian and Ivanenko formed the basis of modern quantum field theory and theory of elementary particles.[3] This quantum field theory could be used to model important processes such as the emission of a photon by an electron dropping into a quantum state of lower energy. Of great importance are the studies of Soviet physicists.

Their analysis also convinced most people that any notion of returning to a fundamental description of nature based on classical field theory. gave infinite. a procedure that is sometimes called second quantization. however. Tomonaga. (see the article Interaction picture) a Lorentz covariant and gauge-invariant generalization of time-dependent perturbation theory used in ordinary quantum mechanics. hence. whether fields or material particles. Tomonaga and Schwinger invented a relativistically covariant scheme for representing field commutators and field operators intermediate between the two main representations of a quantum system. What we measure. hence. Jordan and Eugene Wigner found that the quantum field describing electrons. the "shifted" or "dressed" values these quantities must have when due care is taken to include all deviations from their "bare values" is dictated by the very nature of quantum fields themselves.Quantum Field Theory field theory. The analysis of Bohr and Rosenfeld explains fluctuations in the values of the electromagnetic field that differ from the classically "allowed" values distant from the sources of the field. such as the self-energy of the electron. divergent contributions—a nonsensical result—when computed using the perturbative techniques available in the 1930s and most of the 1940s. and Dyson. Great progress was made after realizing that ALL infinities in quantum electrodynamics are related to two effects: the self-energy of the electron/positron and vacuum polarization. non-interacting field-equations. through the procedure known as renormalization. This allows for keeping 137 . and. and had certain features that reminded many of the "Rayleigh-Jeans difficulty". What made the situation in the 1940s so desperate and gloomy. This "divergence problem" was solved in the case of quantum electrodynamics during the late 1940s and early 1950s by Hans Bethe. generalizing earlier efforts of Dirac. Within this scheme. Their analysis was crucial to showing that the limitations and physical implications of the uncertainty principle apply to all dynamical systems. populated by virtual particle (on shell and off shell) pairs. the energy shift of electron states due to the presence of the electromagnetic field. was simply out of the question. as provided by the Planck radiation law. The electron self-energy problem was already a serious issue in the classical electromagnetic field theory. the Schrödinger and the Heisenberg representations (see the article on quantum mechanics). or other fermions. what we must take account of with our equations. for example. such as what Einstein aimed at with his numerous and failed attempts at a classical unified field theory. The "bare mass" and the "bare charge" of a particle. and hence. and no major conceptual change was needed analogous to that which was necessitated by a finite and physically sensible account of the radiative behavior of hot objects. the values that appear in the free-field equations (non-interacting case). The "vacuum" is itself polarizable and. the very concepts "charge" and "mass" as they occur in the pure. Jordan tried to extend the canonical quantization of fields to the many-body wave functions of identical particles. is a seething and busy dynamical system in its own right. In 1928. The first approach that bore fruit is known as the "interaction representation". are abstractions that are simply not realized in experiment (in interaction). Fock and Podolsky. Feynman. Renormalization concerns the business of paying very careful attention to just what is meant by. The situation was dire. was the fact that the correct ingredients (the second-quantized Maxwell-Dirac field equations) for the theoretical description of interacting photons and electrons were well in place. In 1927. which would presumably hold the electron together against the Coulomb repulsion of its finite-sized "parts". This was a critical step in identifying the source of "infinities" and "divergences". and developed by Tomonaga and Schwinger. are the "renormalized mass" and the "renormalized charge" of a particle. This thread of development was incorporated into many-body theory and strongly influenced condensed matter physics and nuclear physics. The third thread in the development of quantum field theory was the need to handle the statistics of many-particle systems consistently and with ease. Basic physical quantities. Despite its early successes quantum field theory was plagued by several serious theoretical difficulties. had to be expanded using anti-commuting creation and annihilation operators due to the Pauli exclusion principle. Schwinger. That is to say. field commutators at separated points can be evaluated in terms of "bare" field creation and annihilation operators. and what the solutions must account for. where the attempt to attribute to the electron a finite size or extent (the classical electron-radius) led immediately to the question of what non-electromagnetic stresses would need to be invoked.

. incorporating the gravitational force.. there were difficult issues regarding the strength of coupling. that is. with gravitation. see the article Hawking radiation and references cited therein. for a modest. 138 . Additionally. when the urgency of trying to formulate finite theories for the strong and electro-weak (and gravitational interactions) demanded its solution.gravitates. as well as the formal methods of Tomonaga and Schwinger. the true analytical nature of the question of "renormalizability". gravitational quantization was.". a satisfactory theoretical understanding of hadron substructure had to be developed.e. Superunification. Also. yet highly non-trivial and significant interplay between (QFT) and gravitation (spacetime). and also the zero-mass of the gauge boson involved. worked extremely well. For strong interactions with the electro-weak fields. and is under intensive investigation by many of the best minds in contemporary theoretical physics. and is still. From the point of view of the techniques of (four-dimensional) quantum field theory. Also. The unification of the electromagnetic force with the weak force encountered with initial difficulties due to the lack of accelerator energies high enough to reveal processes beyond the Fermi interaction range. decay widths and lifetimes of excited states) one needs to be able to calculate. with his brilliant rules for assigning a "graph"/"diagram" to the terms in the scattering matrix (See S-Matrix Feynman diagrams). The next and most famous development is due to Feynman.. In the case of the strong interactions. whether ANY theory formulated as a "quantum field theory" would give finite answers.. Drell.) thus creating a nightmare at all orders of perturbation theory. Gravity. and as the numerous and heroic efforts to formulate a consistent quantum gravity theory by some very able minds attests. the fact that the coupling has no dimensions involving mass. the so-called fine structure constant. thoroughly developed the Feynman graph expansion techniques using physically intuitive and practical methods following from the correspondence principle. This revolutionized how quantum field theory calculations are carried-out in practice. Schwinger gave the most elegant formulation of this approach.J. the "graviton".D.. Gravitation is a tensor field description of a spin-2 gauge-boson. values of the Hamiltonian and expresses everything in terms of the coupled. (See general covariance and. the reigning champion for bad behavior. Although both Feynman's heuristic and pictorial style of dealing with the infinities... and gave spectacularly accurate answers. so this makes the notion of ever really "switching-off". gravity couples to all energy equally strongly.D. By 1958 Sidney Drell observed: "Quantum electrodynamics (QED) has achieved a status of peaceful coexistence with its divergences. we are dealing with the very structure of space-time itself.and so on. without worrying about the technicalities involved in deriving the Feynman rules from the superstructure of quantum field theory itself. the gravitational interaction from other interactions ambiguous and impossible since. electromagnetic processess are very "clean" in the sense that they are not badly suppressed/damped and/or hidden by the other gauge interactions. Also quantum field theory in curved spacetime). culminating in the quark model. empirical verification is still pending. rendered the small-distance/high-energy behavior of QED manageable. Although there has been theoretical progress toward a grand unified quantum field theory incorporating the electro-magnetic force. is still very speculative. basically. or perturbed... Relativistic Quantum Mechanics (1964) and J. which in turn. Advanced Quantum Mechanics (1967).Quantum Field Theory track of the time-evolution of both the "bare" and "renormalized". it is plagued by badly behaved (in the sense of perturbation theory) non-linear and violent self-interactions. the photon. Sakurai. gravity is itself a source of gravity. and as a simple consequence. gauge invariant "bare" field-equations. who. was not worked-out till much later. Renormalization in the case of QED was largely fortuitous due to the smallness of the coupling constant. the mass generation of the force carriers as well as their non-linear. gravitates. progress concerning their short-distance/high-energy behavior was much slower and more frustrating.. These directly corresponded (through the Schwinger-Dyson equation) to the measurable physical processes (cross sections.. Two classic text-books from the 1960s. There are problems and frustrations stemming from the fact that the gravitational coupling constant has dimensions involving inverse powers of mass. probability amplitudes. (i. J. "cutting-off" or separating. and is further discussed in the articles on general relativity and quantum gravity. the weak force and the strong force. as per the equivalence principle. Bjorken and S. self interactions.

we do have the modern theory of quantum electrodynamics (QED). G. each observable corresponds. and indeed. François Englert. Beginning in the 1950s with the work of Yang and Mills. the photon. dictating the form of the interactions involving the electromagnetic field. with the photon being the gauge boson. 139 Principles of quantum field theory Classical fields and quantum fields Quantum mechanics. behaves as though it has acquired a finite mass. The strong interactions were then (incorrectly) understood in the mid-1950s. C. the renormalization group sparked what has been called the "grand synthesis" of theoretical physics. parallel developments in the study of phase transitions in condensed matter physics led Leo Kadanoff. For instance. the particles predicted by Hideki Yukawa in 1935. limit and necessitate the form of interaction between particles is the essence of the "gauge theory revolution". There is a further possibility that the physical vacuum (ground-state) does not respect the symmetries implied by the "unbroken" electroweak Lagrangian (see the article Electroweak interaction for more details) from which one arrives at the field equations. The 1960s and 1970s saw the formulation of a gauge theory now known as the Standard Model of particle physics. which systematically describes the elementary particles and the interactions between them. It is still the most accurate physical theory known. Steven Weinberg. Michael Fisher and Kenneth Wilson (extending work of Ernst Stueckelberg. Robert Brout. with an attempted explanation of the strong interactions in mind. is a theory of abstract operators (observables) acting on an abstract state space (Hilbert space).Quantum Field Theory Thanks to the somewhat brute-force. The Glashow-Weinberg-Salam theory (GWS-Theory) is a triumph and. That symmetries dictate. Also during the 1970s. based on his profound reflections concerning the reciprocal connection between the mass of any force-mediating particle and the range of the force it mediates. clanky and heuristic methods of Feynman. in its most general formulation. all field theories. Yang and Mills formulated the first explicit example of a non-Abelian gauge theory. and Francis Low) to a set of ideas and methods known as the renormalization group. Jeffrey Goldstone. were generalized to a class of quantum field theories known as gauge theories. uniting the quantum field theoretical techniques used in particle physics and condensed matter physics into a single theoretical framework. The gauge boson involved in this situation. The electroweak interaction part of the standard model was formulated by Sheldon Glashow in the years 1958-60 with his discovery of the SU(2)xU(1) group structure of the theory. Murray Gell-Mann. in a technical sense. This was allowed by the uncertainty principle. deep explorations illuminated the types of symmetries and invariances any field theory must satisfy. and the elegant and abstract methods of Tomonaga/Schwinger. Hagen. Guralnik. the U(1) gauge symmetry. Quantum electrodynamics is the most famous example of what is known as an Abelian gauge theory. Tom Kibble and Philip Warren Anderson) noticed a possibly useful analogy to the (spontaneous) breaking of the U(1) symmetry of electromagnetism in the formation of the BCS ground-state of a superconductor. gives an accuracy on a par with quantum electrodynamics. Steven Weinberg and Abdus Salam brilliantly invoked the Anderson-Higgs mechanism for the generation of the W's and Z masses (the intermediate vector boson(s) responsible for the weak interactions and neutral-currents) and keeping the mass of the photon zero. It relies on the symmetry group U(1) and has one massless gauge field. QED. Furthermore. following the previous lead of Weyl and Pauli. to be mediated by the pi-mesons. R. as well as Ryoyu Utiyama. The electroweak theory of Weinberg and Salam was shown to be renormalizable (finite) and hence consistent by Gerardus 't Hooft and Martinus Veltman. the prototype of a successful quantum field theory. The Goldstone/Higgs idea for generating mass in gauge theories was sparked in the late 1950s and early 1960s when a number of theoreticians (including Yoichiro Nambu. in certain applications. the fundamental observables associated with the motion of a single quantum mechanical particle are the position and momentum operators and . By providing a better physical understanding of the renormalization procedure invented in the 1940s. to the classical idea of a degree of freedom. from the period of early renormalization. Yang-Mills theory. Andre Peterman. where the observables represent physically observable quantities and the state space represents the possible states of the system under study. . S.

the time-dependent Schrödinger equation for a single particle in one dimension is where m is the particle's mass. which is an observable.Quantum Field Theory Ordinary quantum mechanics deals with systems such as this. and thus. because it contains only a single set of observables. For example. We will begin by discussing single-particle quantum mechanics and the associated theory of many-particle quantum mechanics. these equations have many unsatisfactory qualities. we will construct a quantum field and study its implications. by finding a way to index the degrees of freedom in the many-particle problem. and sufficiently energetic particles can combine to form massive particles. 140 Single-particle and many-particle quantum mechanics In quantum mechanics. A classical field contains a set of degrees of freedom at each point of space. the result is either the Klein-Gordon equation or the Dirac equation. because r is continuous. it is not to be confused with the position operator encountered in ordinary quantum mechanics. and denotes the wavefunction. the degrees of freedom in a quantum field are arranged in "repeated" sets. For example. "particle" is a generic term for any discrete quantum mechanical entity. that this article does not use the word "particle" in the context of wave–particle duality. for instance. In quantum field theory. position is not an observable. Einstein's famous mass-energy relation allows for the possibility that sufficiently massive particles can decay into several lighter particles. which is a crucial aspect of relativistic quantum theory.0221415 x 1023). (Thus. as probability conservation is not a relativistically covariant concept. V is the applied potential. (It is important to note. Then. which can behave like classical particles or classical waves under different experimental conditions. an electron and a positron can annihilate each other to create photons. one does not need the concept of a position-space probability density. where typically the number of particles is on the order of Avogadro's number (6. with exactly two vectors for each r. Note that r is an ordinary number that "indexes" the observables. such as an electron or photon. We wish to consider how this problem generalizes to N particles. In the following sections. For quantum fields whose interaction can be treated perturbatively. and possibly infinite. this is equivalent to neglecting the possibility of dynamically creating or destroying particles. This suggests that a consistent relativistic quantum theory should be able to describe many-particle dynamics. at this point. we will show how these ideas can be used to construct a quantum mechanical theory with the desired properties. such that one could say 'this "particle" can behave like a wave or a particle'. they possess energy eigenvalues that extend to –∞. There are two motivations for studying the many-particle problem. so that there seems to be no easy definition of a ground state. for instance. its observables form an infinite (in fact uncountable) set. However. . the degrees of freedom in an electromagnetic field can be grouped according to the position r. Furthermore. the classical electromagnetic field defines two vectors — the electric field and the magnetic field — that can in principle take on distinct values for each position r. The second motivation for the many-particle problem arises from particle physics and the desire to incorporate the effects of special relativity. there is generally more than one way of indexing the degrees of freedom in the field.) It is also important to note that there is nothing special about r because. It turns out that such inconsistencies arise from relativistic wavefunctions having a probabilistic interpretation in position space. In quantum field theory. ordinary quantum mechanics is sometimes referred to as "zero-dimensional quantum field theory". If one attempts to include the relativistic rest energy into the above equation (in quantum mechanics where position is an observable). number of degrees of freedom. The first is a straightforward need in condensed matter physics. as it turns out. which possess a small set of degrees of freedom. unlike in quantum mechanics.) A quantum field is a quantum mechanical system containing a large. When the field as a whole is considered as a quantum mechanical system.

and each occupation number is indexed by a number . the 3-particle state with one particle in state and two in state is The first step in second quantization is to express such quantum states in terms of occupation numbers. we will assume that the N particles are indistinguishable. the above 3-particle state is denoted as The next step is to expand the N-particle state space to include the state spaces for all possible values of N. For an overview. As described in the article on identical particles. and so forth. which quickly becomes unmanageable as N increases. The bosonic annihilation operator and creation operator have the following effects: It can be shown that these are operators in the usual quantum mechanical sense. This basically involves choosing a way to index the quantum mechanical degrees of freedom in the space of multiple identical-particle states. These multi-particle states are rather complicated to write. Second quantization In this section. For example. indicating which of the single-particle states it refers to. which justifies the way we have written them. known as a Fock space. The way to simplify this problem is to turn it into a quantum field theory. linear operators acting on the Fock space. this implies that the state of the entire system must be either symmetric (bosons) or antisymmetric (fermions) when the coordinates of its constituent particles are exchanged. Second quantization of bosons For simplicity. such as the Feynman path integral. This extended state space. plus the state space of a 1-particle system. by listing the number of particles occupying each of the single-particle states etc. The field's elementary degrees of freedom are the occupation numbers. i. the general quantum state of a system of N bosons is written as 141 where are the single-particle states. However. Nj is the number of particles occupying state j. Let us denote the mutually orthogonal single-particle states by and so on. Furthermore. several other approaches exist. It is based on the Hamiltonian formulation of quantum mechanics. plus the state space of a 2-particle system. is composed of the state space of a system with no particles (the so-called vacuum state). They . we will describe a method for constructing a quantum field theory called second quantization. For instance. they are indeed Hermitian conjugates. The properties of this quantum field can be explored by defining creation and annihilation operators. which added and subtracted energy quanta. At this point. the quantum mechanical system has become a quantum field in the sense we described above. which add and subtract particles. This is simply another way of labelling the states. For example.[7] which uses a Lagrangian formulation. and the sum is taken over all possible permutations p acting on N elements. we will first discuss second quantization for bosons. They are analogous to "ladder operators" in the quantum harmonic oscillator problem. It is easy to see that there is a one-to-one correspondence between the occupation number representation and valid boson states in the Fock space. see the article on quantization. which form perfectly symmetric quantum states.Quantum Field Theory Furthermore. In general. this is a sum of N! (N factorial) distinct terms. these operators literally create and annihilate particles of a given quantum state.e.

To this end. In particle physics. the bosonic field annihilation operator is The bosonic field operators obey the commutation relation . so their occupation numbers Ni can only take on the value 0 or 1. fermions cannot share quantum states. as we have discussed. because they make it easier to formulate theories that satisfy the demands of relativity. Field operators We have previously mentioned that there can be more than one way of indexing the degrees of freedom in a quantum field. For instance. through the Schrödinger equation.Quantum Field Theory can be shown to obey the commutation relation 142 where stands for the Kronecker delta. we can define field operators that create or destroy a particle at a particular point in space. in accordance with the exclusion principle. these operators turn out to be more convenient to work with. However. The Hamiltonian of the quantum field (which. Single-particle states are usually enumerated in terms of their momenta (as in the particle in a box problem. Adding or removing bosons from each state is therefore analogous to exciting or de-exciting a quantum of energy in a harmonic oscillator. the Hamiltonian of a field of free (non-interacting) bosons is where is the energy of the k-th single-particle energy eigenstate. Second quantization indexes the field by enumerating the single-particle quantum states. such as the electromagnetic field. as a set of degrees of freedom indexed by position. The fermionic annihilation operators c and creation operators are defined by their actions on a Fock state thus These obey an anticommutation relation: One may notice from this that applying a fermionic creation operator twice gives zero. it is more natural to think about a "field". Second quantization of fermions It turns out that a different definition of creation and annihilation must be used for describing fermions. one for each single-particle state. These are precisely the relations obeyed by the ladder operators for an infinite set of independent quantum harmonic oscillators. so it is impossible for the particles to share single-particle states. For example. is known as the number operator for the k-th eigenstate. Note that Hence. According to the Pauli exclusion principle.) We can construct field operators by applying the Fourier transform to the creation and annihilation operators for these states. determines its dynamics) can be written in terms of creation and annihilation operators.

For example. . there is not much theoretical motivation for using symmetric (bosonic) or antisymmetric (fermionic) states. As before. Physical meaning of particle indistinguishability The second quantization procedure relies crucially on the particles being identical. because it is impossible (for various reasons) to define a wavefunction for a single photon. see Haag's theorem. For free (non-interacting) quantum fields. the quantum field theory can be constructed by examining the mechanical properties of the classical field and guessing the corresponding quantum theory. However. The former is an operator acting on the Fock space. In such situations. so long as one can treat interactions as "perturbations" of free fields. If we have a Hamiltonian with a space representation. the quantum field theories obtained in this way have the same properties as those obtained using second quantization. Thus. such as well-defined creation and annihilation operators obeying commutation or anticommutation relations. say where the indices i and j run over all particles. There are still unsolved problems relating to the more general case of interacting fields that may or may not be adequately described by perturbation theory. whose excitations are photons) and "particle-like" objects (such as electrons. and the need for such states is simply regarded as an empirical fact. We would not have been able to construct a quantum field theory from a distinguishable many-particle system. because there would have been no way of separating and indexing the degrees of freedom. In ordinary quantum mechanics. Many physicists prefer to take the converse interpretation. Sometimes. For more on this topic. a quantum theory of the electromagnetic field must be a quantum field theory. and one must proceed directly to quantum field theory. when in fact it is only the electron field that is fundamental. which are treated as excitations of an underlying electron field). The field operator is not the same thing as a single-particle wavefunction. particles are identical if and only if they are excitations of the same underlying quantum field. This relationship between the field operators and wavefunctions makes it very easy to formulate field theories starting from space-projected Hamiltonians. and the latter is a quantum-mechanical amplitude for finding a particle in some position. which is that quantum field theory explains what identical particles are. Quantum field theory thus provides a unified framework for describing "field-like" objects (such as the electromagnetic field. and are indeed commonly denoted with the same symbol. the question "why are all electrons identical?" arises from mistakenly regarding individual electrons as fundamental objects. then the field theory Hamiltonian (in the non-relativistic limit and for negligible self-interactions) is This looks remarkably like an expression for the expectation value of the energy. the fermionic relations are the same.Quantum Field Theory 143 where stands for the Dirac delta function. From the point of view of quantum field theory. with playing the role of the wavefunction. they are closely related. it is impossible to define such single-particle states. with the commutators replaced by anticommutators. Implications of quantum field theory Unification of fields and particles The "second quantization" procedure that we have outlined in the previous section takes a set of single-particle quantum states as a starting point.

Unfortunately. From the point of view of quantum field theory. it proved extraordinarily difficult to show that any realistic field theory. These attempts fall into two broad classes. It was possible to prove that any quantum field theory satisfying these axioms satisfied certain general theorems. and ended with a Hamiltonian and state space for an arbitrary number of particles. and indeed common. there have been many attempts to put quantum field theory on a firm mathematical footing by formulating a set of axioms for it. As with any quantum mechanical observable. but they can be easily described in quantum field theory as quantum superpositions of states having different values of N. and Vq is a parameter that describes the strength of the interaction. the quantum state is trapped in the N-particle subspace of the total Fock space. On the other hand. if we are describing a gas of atoms sealed in a box. The number of fermions. The construction of theories satisfying . such situations are described by quantum states that are eigenstates of the number operator . is conserved in this case. states with ill-defined particle numbers are particularly important for describing the various superfluids. it is not mathematically rigorous. first proposed during the 1950s. plus a "potential energy" term such as where and ak denotes the bosonic creation and annihilation operators. this type of Hamiltonian is used to describe interaction between conduction electrons and phonons in metals.Quantum Field Theory Particle conservation and non-conservation During second quantization. this is only true in the noninteracting case or in the low energy density limit of renormalized quantum field theories) For example. Whenever the Hamiltonian operates on a state. however. Over the past several decades. include the Wightman. 144 which do not have well-defined particle numbers. Many of the defining characteristics of a superfluid arise from the notion that its quantum state is a superposition of states with different particle numbers. They attempted to formalize the physicists' notion of an "operator-valued field" within the context of functional analysis. The first class of axioms. including the Standard Model. Of course. and Haag-Kastler systems. in many common situations N is an important and perfectly well-defined quantity. being restricted to low-dimensions and lacking interesting dynamics. satisfied these axioms. The Hamiltonian of the combined system would be given by the Hamiltonians of the free boson and free fermion fields. and the situation could equally well be described by ordinary N-particle quantum mechanics. Axiomatic approaches The preceding description of quantum field theory follows the spirit in which most physicists approach the subject. we can see that the free-boson Hamiltonian described above conserves particle number. The interaction between electrons and photons is treated in a similar way. (In fact. and ck denotes the fermionic creation and annihilation operators. it is possible. we will typically end up with a superposition of states with different numbers of bosons at later times. (Strictly speaking. such as the spin-statistics theorem and the CPT theorem. This "interaction term" describes processes in which a fermion in state k either absorbs or emits a boson. In addition. thereby being kicked into a different eigenstate k+q. In that case. each particle destroyed by an annihilation operator ak is immediately put back by the creation operator . e. In condensed matter physics. However. is conserved if it commutes with the Hamiltonian. which measures the total number of particles present.g. Osterwalder-Schrader. Such states are difficult or impossible to handle using ordinary quantum mechanics.) One thing to notice here is that even if we start out with a fixed number of bosons. but is a little more complicated because the role of spin must be taken into account. Most of the theories that could be treated with these analytic axioms were physically trivial. we started with a Hamiltonian and state space describing a fixed number of particles (N). For example. suppose we have a bosonic field whose particles can be created or destroyed by interactions with a fermionic field. to encounter quantum states that are not eigenstates of . and enjoyed limited success. the concept of a coherent state (used to model the laser and the BCS ground state) refers to a state with an ill-defined particle number but a well-defined phase.

Richard Borcherds. independently by Bethe after the crucial experiment by Lamb. we make sure that the physically observable quantities like the observed electron mass stay fixed. The reason is that the perturbation theory for the shift in an energy involves a sum over all other energy levels. The energy in a field of a spherical source diverges in both classical and quantum mechanics. and one of the crucial contributions made by Feynman. and modernized by 't Hooft and Veltman. and was notably expanded upon by Edward Witten. There is no known symmetrical cutoff outside of perturbation theory. The technique of renormalization recognizes that the problem is essentially purely mathematical. are not topological quantum field theories. In order to define a theory on a continuum. which restricts its attention to a particular class of quantum field theories known as topological quantum field theories. which means that the constants in the Lagrangian defining the theory depend on the spacing. Many of these problems are related to failures in classical electrodynamics that were identified but unsolved in the 19th century. During the 1980s. algebraic topology.Quantum Field Theory one of these sets of axioms falls in the field of constructive quantum field theory. The solution to the problem. with converging work by Tomonaga in isolated postwar Japan. give infinite results. that extremely short distances are at fault. One of the Millennium Prize Problems—proving the existence of a mass gap in Yang-Mills theory—is linked to this issue. 145 Phenomena associated with quantum field theory In the previous part of the article. and there are infinitely many levels at short distances that each give a finite contribution. and supersymmetry. Lattices break rotational symmetry. Some of the quantum field theories studied in various fields of theoretical physics possess additional special properties. the quantum field theory of the fractional quantum Hall effect is a notable exception. comes from recognizing that all the infinities in the interactions of photons and electrons can be isolated into redefining a finite number of quantities in the equations by replacing them with the observed values: specifically the electron 's mass and charge: this is called renormalization. by postulating that quanta cannot have energies above some extremely high value. with important applications in representation theory. The main impact of axiomatic topological quantum field theory has been on mathematics. Renormalization Early in the history of quantum field theory. and they basically stem from the fact that many of the supposedly "intrinsic" properties of an electron are tied to the electromagnetic field that it carries around with it. is associated most closely with Michael Atiyah and Graeme Segal. its attendant cloud of photons. Important work was done in this area in the 1970s by Segal. Finding the proper axioms for quantum field theory is still an open and difficult problem in mathematics. gauge symmetry. in quantum mechanics the divergence is much milder. so for rigorous or numerical work people often use an actual lattice. most of the physically relevant quantum field theories. a second set of axioms based on geometric ideas was proposed. This line of investigation. The energy carried by a single electron—its self energy—is not simply the bare value. presciently suggested by Stueckelberg. but also includes the energy contained in its electromagnetic field. such as the Standard Model. it was found that many seemingly innocuous calculations. On a lattice. and Maxim Kontsevich. such as renormalizability. as on a lattice. going only as the logarithm of the radius of the sphere. we described the most general properties of quantum field theories. first place a cutoff on the fields. Hopefully. When taking the limit of zero spacing. However. and systematically extended to all loops by Feynman and Dyson. Pauli and Villars. such as the perturbative shift in the energy of an electron due to the presence of the electromagnetic field. is a symmetry-preserving cutoff for perturbation theory (this process is called regularization). but as discovered by Weisskopf with help from Wendell Furry. This has the effect of replacing continuous space by a structure where very short wavelengths do not exist. by allowing the constants to vary with the . Jaffe and others. every quantity is finite but depends on the spacing. and differential geometry. Glimm. These are described in the following sections. implemented at one loop by Schwinger.

The particle associated with excitations of the gauge field is the gauge boson. defining a continuum limit. making the theory non-unitary and again inconsistent (see optical theorem). Such fluctuations are usually called "non-physical degrees of freedom" or gauge artifacts. not kept in the quantum theory) then the theory is non-consistent: for example. number of generators forming a basis). which is the photon in the case of quantum electrodynamics. that is – one may shift the phase of all wave functions so that the shift may be different at every point in space-time. Therefore the number of gauge bosons is the group dimension (i. In quantum field theory the excitations of fields represent particles. The existence of a gauge symmetry reduces the number of degrees of freedom. These transformations are together described by a mathematical object known as a gauge group. which also transforms in order for the local change of variables (the phase in our example) not to affect the derivative.Quantum Field Theory lattice spacing. 146 Gauge freedom A gauge theory is a theory that admits a symmetry with a local parameter. and even if it is not fully well defined non-perturbatively. In other words. The only way high energy processes can be seen in the standard model is when they allow otherwise forbidden events. the gauge transformations of a theory consist of several different transformations. The renormalization procedure only works for a certain class of quantum field theories. renormalizable theories are insensitive to the precise nature of the underlying high-energy short-distance phenomena. Of the three components. a gauge symmetry cannot have a quantum anomaly. called renormalizable quantum field theories. Consequently. The degrees of freedom in quantum field theory are local fluctuations of the fields. everywhere). and they therefore have no physical meaning. For example.e. In general. so they are equivalent to having no fluctuations at all. one must introduce a new field. rendering the theory inconsistent. and so are its component theories (quantum electrodynamics/electroweak theory and quantum chromodynamics). Therefore. . the theory is invariant under a global change of phases (adding a constant to the phase of all wave functions. in quantum electrodynamics. In quantum electrodynamics. quantum electrodynamics is believed to not have a continuum limit. had there been a gauge anomaly. it gives very few clues to higher energy processes. It is also a curse. this is a global symmetry. The continuum limit is then well defined in perturbation theory. Infinitesimal gauge transformations are the gauge group generators. in order for a well-defined derivative operator to exist. A theory is perturbatively renormalizable when the constants in the Lagrangian only diverge at worst as logarithms of the lattice spacing for very short spacings. making them inadequate for a consistent theory. the latter having a negative norm.e. The change of local gauge of variables is termed gauge transformation. in every quantum theory the global phase of the wave function is arbitrary and does not represent something physical. if a classical field theory has a gauge symmetry. The Standard Model of particle physics is perturbatively renormalizable. However. Because of this.e. The renormalization group describes how renormalizable theories emerge as the long distance low-energy effective field theory for any given high-energy theory. If a gauge symmetry is anomalous (i. another possibility would be for these photons to appear only in intermediate processes but not in the final products of any interaction. or if they predict quantitative relations between the coupling constants. This is a local symmetry. this would require the appearance of photons with longitudinal polarization and polarization in the time direction. then its quantized version (i. In quantum electrodynamics this gauge field is the electromagnetic field. while the asymptotically free SU(2) and SU(3) weak hypercharge and strong color interactions are nonperturbatively well defined. the gauge field. This is a blessing because it allows physicists to formulate low energy theories without knowing the details of high energy phenomenon. because once a renormalizable theory like the standard model is found to work. simply because some fluctuations of the fields can be transformed to zero by gauge transformations. usually some of them have a negative norm. which may not be commutative. the problems only show up at distance scales that are exponentially small in the inverse coupling for weak couplings. the theory is also invariant under a local change of phase. all the results at long distances become insensitive to the lattice. the corresponding quantum field theory) will have this symmetry as well.

Series A. These are capable of changing the physical field strengths and are therefore no proper symmetry transformations. 10. 147 Multivalued gauge transformations The gauge transformations which leave the theory invariant involve by definition only single-valued gauge functions which satisfy the Schwarz integrability criterion An interesting extension of gauge transformations arises if the gauge functions are allowed to be multivalued functions which violate the integrability criterion. in these cases. it is explicitly non-renormalizable. It was soon realized that supersymmetry has other interesting properties: its gauged version is an extension of general relativity (Supergravity). [4] G-sardanashvily.). edu/ ~beckmk/ QM/ grangier/ Thorn_ajp. The Quantum Theory of the Emission and Absorption of Radiation. whose classical theory is general relativity.. pdf) [7] Abraham Pais. admits the equivalence principle. 1925.Nevertheless. III. Feynman's method is now part of the standard methods for physicists. See the textbook by H.A. any loop in a radiative correction is cancelled by the loop corresponding to its superpartner. The way supersymmetry protects the hierarchies is the following: since for every particle there is a superpartner with the same mass. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London.whitman. Pais recounts how his astonishment at the rapidity with which Feynman could calculate using his method. whitman.ru (http:/ / www. g-sardanashvily. html) [5] Vaprize. de Phys. The gauge bosons are eight gluons.sci. if supersymmetry exists it must be broken (through a so-called soft term. Notes [1] People. F.am (http:/ / vaprize. which breaks supersymmetry without ruining its helpful features). html) [6] Sciteclibrary. to explain why particles not protected by any symmetry (like the Higgs boson) do not receive radiative corrections to its mass driving it to the larger scales (GUT.edu (http:/ / people. However.Quantum Field Theory All the fundamental interactions in nature are described by gauge theories. P. The simplest models of this breaking require that the energy of the superpartners not be too high.ru (http:/ / www. (1927). Planck. translation by A. sciteclibrary. These are: • Quantum chromodynamics. 114. 243. that is. Inward Bound: Of Matter and Forces in the Physical World ISBN 0-19-851997-4... whose gauge group is U(1) × SU(2). p.M. • Gravity. It was introduced in order to solve the so-called Hierarchy Problem. . supersymmetry is expected to be observed by experiments at the Large Hadron Collider. and it is a key ingredient for the consistency of string theory. (a direct product of U(1) and SU(2)). Kleinert cited below for the applications to phenomena in physics. • The electroweak theory. Kracklauer) [3] Dirac. Since no superpartners have yet been observed. pdf) [2] Recherches sur la theorrie des quanta (ann. rendering the theory UV finite. ru/ texsts/ rus/ stat/ st2718. am/ results. which is a form of gauge symmetry. Supersymmetry Supersymmetry assumes that every fundamental fermion has a superpartner that is a boson and vice versa. ru/ ivanenko1. the transformed field equations describe correctly the physical laws in the presence of the newly generated field strengths. Vol. whose gauge group is SU(3). sci.

Westview Press.. The Character of Physical Law. G. (http://www.).pdf). • Weinberg. R (1983). (2000). Quantum Field Theory. (1990). asp?isbn=0521864496) Cambridge Univ. F. H. ISBN 0-201-50397-2. (1993). and John Earman. (1985).Quantum Field Theory 148 Further reading General readers: • Weinberg.-B. (1987).fu-berlin. Zuber. The Quantum Theory of Fields.html#B6). Gauge Field Theories. An Introduction to Quantum Field Theory..org/abs/hep-th/9803075)". Phys. Cambridge University Press. Reviews of Modern Physics 71: S83-S95. Kluwer Academic Publishers. QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter.P. Multivalued Fields in Condensed Matter. Also doi=10. Quantum Field Theory. (2003). Verena (2001). Relativistic Quantum Mechanics and Introduction to Field Theory (1st ed. R.A. 1–3. Todorov. (1998). World Scientific. D. • Gribbin. B.org/us/catalogue/catalogue.).de/~kleinert/re. • Zee. Quantum Field Theory. (1995). • Srednicki. Quantum Field Theory. ISBN 0297817523. (2004) Deep Down Things. N. P. . Cambridge University Press.physik. ISBN 978-981-279-170-2. Johns Hopkins Univ. G. ISBN 0-201-11749-5. J. Springer. 2000. • Feynman. 71. ISBN 0262560038. L. ISBN 0-0471-94186-7. • Peskin. • Ryder. fu-berlin. UK. and Gravitation (http://users. ISBN 0805309837. Princeton University Press. A. Q is for Quantum: Particle Physics from A to Z. The Quantum Theory of Light. • Yndurain. ISBN 981-02-4658-7. S.. Critical Properties of φ4-Theories (http://users. General Principles of Quantum Field Theory. Introductory texts: • • • • • • Bogoliubov. ISBN 0691125759. (2008). Benjamin-Cummings. Frontiers in Physics (2nd ed. • Feynman..cambridge. Springer.. (1980). Greiner. physik. Logunov. D. eds. Shirkov.I.J. A. • Loudon. (2000). Mod. Part A.. J.H.pdf)" in Butterfield. (1982). ISBN 0-691-01019-6. Quantum Field Theory in a Nutshell. Kane. Elsevier: 661-730. Articles: • Gerard 't Hooft (2007) " The Conceptual Basis of Quantum Field Theory (http://www. Princeton University Press.uu. Press. ISBN 0-19-851155-8. • Mandl. I to III.. Shaw. M. Frampton. N. S. • Kleinert. (2001) [1964]. F. W. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.1103/Rev. Wiley. Itzykson. MIT Press. Mark (2007) Quantum Field Theory. ISBN 0-07-032071-3. World Scientific. Perseus Books.phys. ISBN 0-521-33859-X.P. John Wiley & Sons. • Schumm.. Schroeder. Press.de/~kleinert/public_html/kleiner_reb11/psfiles/mvf..H.. C. R. (2006) [1985]. ISBN 978-3540604532. A. Oksak. ISBN 978-0792305408. • Frank Wilczek (1999) " Quantum field theory (http://arxiv. Schulte-Frohlinde. McGraw-Hill. Advanced texts: • Bogoliubov. Modern Elementary Particle Physics. Chpt. Electrodynamics. (1995). Oxford University Press. Müller. Gauge Theory of Weak Interactions. J. Weidenfeld & Nicolson. Vols. Philosophy of Physics. Quantum Fields. (1996).T. 4. Bruce A. Kleinert.L. H. ISBN 3-540-67672-4. I.nl/~thooft/ lectures/basisqft.

Quantum Field Theory

149

External links

• Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: " Quantum Field Theory (http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ quantum-field-theory/)", by Meinard Kuhlmann. • Siegel, Warren, 2005. Fields. (http://insti.physics.sunysb.edu/~siegel/errata.html) A free text, also available from arXiv:hep-th/9912205. • Quantum Field Theory (http://www.nat.vu.nl/~mulders/QFT-0.pdf) by P. J. Mulders • Step-by-step solutions to quantum field theory (http://substepr.com/w/index.php?title=Quantum_field_theory) problems on Substepr.

String Theory

String theory is an active research framework in particle physics that attempts to reconcile quantum mechanics and general relativity.[1] It is a contender for a theory of everything (TOE), a self-contained mathematical model that describes all fundamental forces and forms of matter. String theory posits that the electrons and quarks within an atom are not 0-dimensional objects, but rather 1-dimensional oscillating lines ("strings"). The earliest string model, the bosonic string, incorporated only bosons, although this view developed to the superstring theory, which posits that a connection (a "supersymmetry") exists between bosons and fermions. String theories also require the existence of several extra dimensions to the universe that have been compactified into extremely small scales, in addition to the four known spacetime dimensions. The theory has its origins in an effort to understand the strong force, the dual resonance model (1969). Subsequent to this, five different superstring theories were developed that incorporated fermions and possessed other properties necessary for a theory of everything. Since the mid-1990s, in particular due to insights from dualities shown to relate the five theories, an eleven-dimensional theory called M-theory is believed to encompass all of the previously-distinct superstring theories. Many theoretical physicists (e.g., Stephen Hawking, Witten, Maldacena and Susskind) believe that string theory is a step toward the correct fundamental description of nature. This is because string theory allows for the consistent combination of quantum field theory and general relativity, agrees with general insights in quantum gravity (such as the holographic principle and Black hole thermodynamics), and because it has passed many non-trivial checks of its internal consistency.[2][3][4][5] According to Hawking in particular, "M-theory is the only candidate for a complete theory of the universe."[6] Nevertheless, other physicists, such as Feynman and Glashow, have criticized string theory for not providing novel experimental predictions at accessible energy scales.[7]

Overview

String theory posits that the electrons and quarks within an atom are not 0-dimensional objects, but made up of 1-dimensional strings. These strings can oscillate, giving the observed particles their flavor, charge, mass and spin. Among the modes of oscillation of the string is a massless, spin-two state -- a graviton. The existence of this graviton state and the fact that the equations describing string theory include Einstein's equations for general relativity mean that string theory is a quantum theory of gravity. Since string theory is widely believed[8] to be mathematically consistent, many hope that it fully describes our universe, making it a theory of everything. String theory is known to contain configurations that describe all the observed fundamental forces and matter but with a zero cosmological constant and some new fields.[9] Other configurations have different values of the cosmological constant, and are metastable but long-lived. This leads many to believe that there is at least one metastable solution that is quantitatively identical with the standard model, with a small cosmological constant, containing dark matter and a plausible mechanism for cosmic inflation. It is not yet known whether string theory has such a solution, nor how much freedom the theory allows to choose the details.

String Theory String theories also include objects other than strings, called branes. The word brane, derived from "membrane", refers to a variety of interrelated objects, such as D-branes, black p-branes and Neveu–Schwarz 5-branes. These are extended objects that are charged sources for differential form generalizations of the vector potential electromagnetic field. These objects are related to one another by a variety of dualities. Black hole-like black p-branes are identified with D-branes, which are endpoints for strings, and this identification is called Gauge-gravity duality. Research on this equivalence has led to new insights on quantum chromodynamics, the fundamental theory of the strong nuclear force.[10][11][12][13] The strings make closed loops unless they encounter D-branes, where they can open up into 1-dimensional lines. The endpoints of the string cannot break off the D-brane, but they can slide around on it. The full theory does not yet have a satisfactory definition in all circumstances, since the scattering of strings is most straightforwardly defined by a perturbation theory. The complete quantum mechanics of high dimensional branes is not easily defined, and the behavior of string theory in cosmological settings (time-dependent backgrounds) is not fully worked out. It is also not clear as to whether there is any principle by which string theory selects its vacuum state, the spacetime configuration that determines the properties of our universe (see string theory landscape).

150

Basic properties

String theory can be formulated in terms of an action principle, either the Nambu-Goto action or the Polyakov action, which describe how strings propagate through space and time. In the absence of external interactions, string dynamics are governed by tension and kinetic energy, which combine to produce oscillations. The quantum mechanics of strings implies these oscillations exist in discrete vibrational modes, the spectrum of the theory. On distance scales larger than the string radius, each oscillation mode behaves as a different species of particle, with its mass, spin and charge determined by the string's dynamics. Splitting and recombination of strings correspond to particle emission and absorption, giving rise to the interactions between particles. An analogy for strings' modes of vibration is a guitar string's production of multiple but distinct musical notes. In the analogy, different notes correspond to different particles. One difference is the guitar string exists in 3 dimensions, so that there are only two dimensions transverse to the string. Fundamental strings exist in 9 dimensions and the strings can vibrate in any direction, meaning that the spectrum of vibrational modes is much richer.

Levels of magnification: 1. Macroscopic level – Matter 2. Molecular level 3. Atomic level – Protons, neutrons, and electrons 4. Subatomic level – Electron 5. Subatomic level – Quarks 6. String level

String theory includes both open strings, which have two distinct endpoints, and closed strings making a complete loop. The two types of string behave in slightly different ways, yielding two different spectra. For example, in most string theories one of the closed string modes is the graviton, and one of the open string modes is the photon. Because the two ends of an open string can always meet and connect, forming a closed string, there are no string theories without closed strings. The earliest string model, the bosonic string, incorporated only bosonic degrees of freedom. This model describes, in low enough energies, a quantum gravity theory, which also includes (if open strings are incorporated as well) gauge fields such as the photon (or, in more general terms, any gauge theory). However, this model has problems. What is

String Theory most significant is that the theory has a fundamental instability, believed to result in the decay (at least partially) of spacetime itself. In addition, as the name implies, the spectrum of particles contains only bosons, particles which, like the photon, obey particular rules of behavior. In broad terms, bosons are the constituents of radiation, but not of matter, which is made of fermions. Investigating how a string theory may include fermions in its spectrum led to the invention of supersymmetry, a mathematical relation between bosons and fermions. String theories that include fermionic vibrations are now known as superstring theories; several different kinds have been described, but all are now thought to be different limits of M-theory. Some qualitative properties of quantum strings can be understood in a fairly simple fashion. For example, quantum strings have tension, much like regular strings made of twine; this tension is considered a fundamental parameter of the theory. The tension of a quantum string is closely related to its size. Consider a closed loop of string, left to move through space without external forces. Its tension will tend to contract it into a smaller and smaller loop. Classical intuition suggests that it might shrink to a single point, but this would violate Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. The characteristic size of the string loop will be a balance between the tension force, acting to make it small, and the uncertainty effect, which keeps it "stretched". As a consequence, the minimum size of a string is related to the string tension.

151

Worldsheet

A point-like particle's motion may be described by drawing a graph of its position (in one or two dimensions of space) against time. The resulting picture depicts the worldline of the particle (its 'history') in spacetime. By analogy, a similar graph depicting the progress of a string as time passes by can be obtained; the string (a one-dimensional object — a small line — by itself) will trace out a surface (a two-dimensional manifold), known as the worldsheet. The different string modes (representing different particles, such as photon or graviton) are surface waves on this manifold. A closed string looks like a small loop, so its worldsheet will look like a pipe or, in more general terms, a Riemann surface (a two-dimensional oriented manifold) with no boundaries (i.e., no edge). An open string looks like a short line, so its worldsheet will look like a strip or, in more general terms, a Riemann surface with a boundary. Strings can split and connect. This is reflected by the form of their worldsheet (in more accurate terms, by its topology). For example, if a closed string splits, its worldsheet will look like a single pipe splitting (or connected) to two pipes (often referred to as a pair of pants — see drawing at right). If a closed string splits and its two parts later reconnect, its worldsheet will look like a single pipe splitting to two and then reconnecting, which also looks like a torus connected to two pipes (one Interaction in the subatomic world: world lines of point-like particles in the representing the ingoing string, and the Standard Model or a world sheet swept up by closed strings in string theory other — the outgoing one). An open string doing the same thing will have its worldsheet looking like a ring connected to two strips. Note that the process of a string splitting (or strings connecting) is a global process of the worldsheet, not a local one: Locally, the worldsheet looks the same everywhere, and it is not possible to determine a single point on the worldsheet where the splitting occurs. Therefore, these processes are an integral part of the theory, and are described by the same dynamics that controls the string modes.

String Theory In some string theories (namely, closed strings in Type I and some versions of the bosonic string), strings can split and reconnect in an opposite orientation (as in a Möbius strip or a Klein bottle). These theories are called unoriented. In formal terms, the worldsheet in these theories is a non-orientable surface.

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Dualities

Before the 1990s, string theorists believed there were five distinct superstring theories: open type I, closed type I, closed type IIA, closed type IIB, and the two flavors of heterotic string theory (SO(32) and E8×E8).[14] The thinking was that out of these five candidate theories, only one was the actual correct theory of everything, and that theory was the one whose low energy limit, with ten spacetime dimensions compactified down to four, matched the physics observed in our world today. It is now believed that this picture was incorrect and that the five superstring theories are connected to one another as if they are each a special case of some more fundamental theory (thought to be M-theory). These theories are related by transformations that are called dualities. If two theories are related by a duality transformation, it means that the first theory can be transformed in some way so that it ends up looking just like the second theory. The two theories are then said to be dual to one another under that kind of transformation. Put differently, the two theories are mathematically different descriptions of the same phenomena. These dualities link quantities that were also thought to be separate. Large and small distance scales, as well as strong and weak coupling strengths, are quantities that have always marked very distinct limits of behavior of a physical system in both classical field theory and quantum particle physics. But strings can obscure the difference between large and small, strong and weak, and this is how these five very different theories end up being related. T-duality relates the large and small distance scales between string theories, whereas S-duality relates strong and weak coupling strengths between string theories. U-duality links T-duality and S-duality.

String theories Type Spacetime dimensions 26 Details

Bosonic

Only bosons, no fermions, meaning only forces, no matter, with both open and closed strings; major flaw: a particle with imaginary mass, called the tachyon, representing an instability in the theory. Supersymmetry between forces and matter, with both open and closed strings; no tachyon; group symmetry is SO(32) Supersymmetry between forces and matter, with only closed strings bound to D-branes; no tachyon; massless fermions are non-chiral Supersymmetry between forces and matter, with only closed strings bound to D-branes; no tachyon; massless fermions are chiral Supersymmetry between forces and matter, with closed strings only; no tachyon; heterotic, meaning right moving and left moving strings differ; group symmetry is SO(32) Supersymmetry between forces and matter, with closed strings only; no tachyon; heterotic, meaning right moving and left moving strings differ; group symmetry is E8×E8

I IIA

10 10

IIB

10

HO

10

HE

10

Note that in the type IIA and type IIB string theories closed strings are allowed to move everywhere throughout the ten-dimensional spacetime (called the bulk), while open strings have their ends attached to D-branes, which are membranes of lower dimensionality (their dimension is odd — 1, 3, 5, 7 or 9 — in type IIA and even — 0, 2, 4, 6 or 8 — in type IIB, including the time direction).

String Theory

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Extra dimensions

Number of dimensions An intriguing feature of string theory is that it predicts extra dimensions. In classical string theory the number of dimensions is not fixed by any consistency criterion. However, in order to make a consistent quantum theory, string theory is required to live in a spacetime of the so-called "critical dimension": we must have 26 spacetime dimensions for the bosonic string and 10 for the superstring. This is necessary to ensure the vanishing of the conformal anomaly of the worldsheet conformal field theory. Modern understanding indicates that there exist less-trivial ways of satisfying this criterion. Cosmological solutions exist in a wider variety of dimensionalities, and these different dimensions are related by dynamical transitions. The dimensions are more precisely different values of the "effective central charge", a count of degrees of freedom that reduces to dimensionality in weakly curved regimes.[15] One such theory is the 11-dimensional M-theory, which requires spacetime to have eleven dimensions,[16] as opposed to the usual three spatial dimensions and the fourth dimension of time. The original string theories from the 1980s describe special cases of M-theory where the eleventh dimension is a very small circle or a line, and if these formulations are considered as fundamental, then string theory requires ten dimensions. But the theory also describes universes like ours, with four observable spacetime dimensions, as well as universes with up to 10 flat space dimensions, and also cases where the position in some of the dimensions is not described by a real number, but by a completely different type of mathematical quantity. So the notion of spacetime dimension is not fixed in string theory: it is best thought of as different in different circumstances.[17] Nothing in Maxwell's theory of electromagnetism or Einstein's theory of relativity makes this kind of prediction; these theories require physicists to insert the number of dimensions "by both hands", and this number is fixed and independent of potential energy. String theory allows one to relate the number of dimensions to scalar potential energy. In technical terms, this happens because a gauge anomaly exists for every separate number of predicted dimensions, and the gauge anomaly can be counteracted by including nontrivial potential energy into equations to solve motion. Furthermore, the absence of potential energy in the "critical dimension" explains why flat spacetime solutions are possible. This can be better understood by noting that a photon included in a consistent theory (technically, a particle carrying a force related to an unbroken gauge symmetry) must be massless. The mass of the photon that is predicted by string theory depends on the energy of the string mode that represents the photon. This energy includes a contribution from the Casimir effect, namely from quantum fluctuations in the string. The size of this contribution depends on the number of dimensions, since for a larger number of dimensions there are more possible fluctuations in the string position. Therefore, the photon in flat spacetime will be massless—and the theory consistent—only for a particular number of dimensions.[18] When the calculation is done, the critical dimensionality is not four as one may expect (three axes of space and one of time). The subset of X is equal to the relation of photon fluctuations in a linear dimension. Flat space string theories are 26-dimensional in the bosonic case, while superstring and M-theories turn out to involve 10 or 11 dimensions for flat solutions. In bosonic string theories, the 26 dimensions come from the Polyakov equation.[19] Starting from any dimension greater than four, it is necessary to consider how these are reduced to four dimensional spacetime.

String Theory Compact dimensions Two different ways have been proposed to resolve this apparent contradiction. The first is to compactify the extra dimensions; i.e., the 6 or 7 extra dimensions are so small as to be undetectable by present day experiments. To retain a high degree of supersymmetry, these compactification spaces must be very special, as reflected in their holonomy. A 6-dimensional manifold must have SU(3) structure, a particular case (torsionless) of this being SU(3) holonomy, making it a Calabi–Yau space, and a 7-dimensional manifold must have G2 structure, with G2 holonomy again being a specific, simple, case. Such spaces have been studied in attempts to relate string theory to the 4-dimensional Standard Model, in part due to the computational simplicity afforded by the assumption of Calabi–Yau manifold (3D projection) supersymmetry. More recently, progress has been made constructing more realistic compactifications without the degree of symmetry of Calabi–Yau or G2 manifolds. A standard analogy for this is to consider multidimensional space as a garden hose. If the hose is viewed from a sufficient distance, it appears to have only one dimension, its length. Indeed, think of a ball just small enough to enter the hose. Throwing such a ball inside the hose, the ball would move more or less in one dimension; in any experiment we make by throwing such balls in the hose, the only important movement will be one-dimensional, that is, along the hose. However, as one approaches the hose, one discovers that it contains a second dimension, its circumference. Thus, an ant crawling inside it would move in two dimensions (and a fly flying in it would move in three dimensions). This "extra dimension" is only visible within a relatively close range to the hose, or if one "throws in" small enough objects. Similarly, the extra compact dimensions are only "visible" at extremely small distances, or by experimenting with particles with extremely small wavelengths (of the order of the compact dimension's radius), which in quantum mechanics means very high energies (see wave-particle duality). Brane-world scenario Another possibility is that we are "stuck" in a 3+1 dimensional (three spatial dimensions plus one time dimension) subspace of the full universe. Properly localized matter and Yang-Mills gauge fields will typically exist if the sub-space-time is an exceptional set of the larger universe.[20] These "exceptional sets" are ubiquitous in Calabi–Yau n-folds and may be described as subspaces without local deformations, akin to a crease in a sheet of paper or a crack in a crystal, the neighborhood of which is markedly different from the exceptional subspace itself. However, until the work of Randall and Sundrum,[21] it was not known that gravity too can be properly localized to a sub-spacetime. In addition, spacetime may be stratified, containing strata of various dimensions, allowing us to inhabit a 3+1-dimensional stratum -- such geometries occur naturally in Calabi–Yau compactifications.[22] Such sub-spacetimes are D-branes, hence such models are known as brane-world scenarios. Effect of the hidden dimensions In either case, gravity acting in the hidden dimensions affects other non-gravitational forces such as electromagnetism. In fact, Kaluza's early work demonstrated that general relativity in five dimensions actually predicts the existence of electromagnetism. However, because of the nature of Calabi–Yau manifolds, no new forces appear from the small dimensions, but their shape has a profound effect on how the forces between the strings appear in our four-dimensional universe. In principle, therefore, it is possible to deduce the nature of those extra dimensions by requiring consistency with the standard model, but this is not yet a practical possibility. It is also possible to extract information regarding the hidden dimensions by precision tests of gravity, but so far these have only put

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String Theory upper limitations on the size of such hidden dimensions.

155

D-branes

Another key feature of string theory is the existence of D-branes. These are membranes of different dimensionality (anywhere from a zero dimensional membrane—which is in fact a point—and up, including 2-dimensional membranes, 3-dimensional volumes, and so on). D-branes are defined by the fact that worldsheet boundaries are attached to them. D-branes have mass, since they emit and absorb closed strings that describe gravitons, and — in superstring theories — charge as well, since they couple to open strings that describe gauge interactions. From the point of view of open strings, D-branes are objects to which the ends of open strings are attached. The open strings attached to a D-brane are said to "live" on it, and they give rise to gauge theories "living" on it (since one of the open string modes is a gauge boson such as the photon). In the case of one D-brane there will be one type of a gauge boson and we will have an Abelian gauge theory (with the gauge boson being the photon). If there are multiple parallel D-branes there will be multiple types of gauge bosons, giving rise to a non-Abelian gauge theory. D-branes are thus gravitational sources, on which a gauge theory "lives". This gauge theory is coupled to gravity (which is said to exist in the bulk), so that normally each of these two different viewpoints is incomplete.

**Testability and experimental predictions
**

Several major difficulties complicate efforts to test string theory. The most significant is the extremely small size of the Planck length, which is expected to be close to the string length (the characteristic size of a string, where strings become easily distinguishable from particles). Another issue is the huge number of metastable vacua of string theory, which might be sufficiently diverse to accommodate almost any phenomena we might observe at lower energies. On the other hand, all string theory models are quantum mechanical, Lorentz invariant,[23] unitary, and contain Einstein's General Relativity as a low energy limit.[24] Therefore, to falsify[25] string theory, it would suffice to falsify quantum mechanics, fundamental Lorentz invariance,[23] or general relativity.[26] Other potential falsifications of string theory would include the confirmation of a model from the swampland[27] [28]or observations of positive curvature in cosmology[26][29] [30]. However, these falsifications do not necessarily correspond to predictions which are unique to string theory, and finding a way to experimentally verify string theory via unique predictions remains a major challenge.[31]

Predictions

String harmonics One unique prediction of string theory is the existence of string harmonics: at sufficiently high energies, the string-like nature of particles would become obvious. There should be heavier copies of all particles, corresponding to higher vibrational harmonics of the string. It is not clear how high these energies are. In most conventional string models they would be not far below the Planck energy, around 1014 times higher than the energies accessible in the newest particle accelerator, the LHC, making this prediction impossible to test with any particle accelerator in the foreseeable future. However, in models with large extra dimensions they could potentially be produced at the LHC or at energies not far above its reach.

String Theory Cosmology String theory as currently understood makes a series of predictions for the structure of the universe at the largest scales. Many phases in string theory have very large, positive vacuum energy [32]. Regions of the universe that are in such a phase will inflate exponentially rapidly in a process known as eternal inflation. As such, the theory predicts that most of the universe is very rapidly expanding. However, these expanding phases are not stable, and can decay via the nucleation of bubbles of lower vacuum energy. Since our local region of the universe is not very rapidly expanding, string theory predicts we are inside such a bubble. The spatial curvature of the "universe" inside the bubbles that form by this process is negative, a testable prediction [33]. Moreover, other bubbles will eventually form in the parent vacuum outside the bubble and collide with it. These collisions lead to potentially observable imprints on cosmology [30] [34]. However, it is possible that neither of these will be observed if the spatial curvature is too small and the collisions are too rare. Cosmic strings Under certain circumstances, fundamental strings produced at or near the end of inflation can be "stretched" to astronomical proportions. These cosmic strings could be observed in various ways, for instance by their gravitational lensing effects. However, certain field theories also predict cosmic strings arising from topological defects in the field configuration. Strength of gravity Theories with extra dimensions predict that the strength of gravity increases much more rapidly at small distances than is the case in 3 dimensions (where it increase as r-2). Depending on the size of the dimensions, this could lead to phenomena such as the production of micro-black holes at the LHC, or be detected in microgravity experiments. Quantum chromodynamics String theory was originally proposed as a theory of hadrons, and its study has led to new insights on quantum chromodynamics, a gauge theory, which is the fundamental theory of the strong nuclear force. To this end, it is hoped that a gravitational theory dual to quantum chromodynamics will be found.[35] A mathematical technique from string theory (the AdS/CFT correspondence) has been used to describe qualitative features of quark–gluon plasma behavior in relativistic heavy-ion collisions;[10][11][12][13] the physics, however, is strictly that of standard quantum chromodynamics, which has been quantitatively modeled by lattice QCD methods with good results.[36] Supersymmetry The discovery of supersymmetry could also be considered evidence, since it was discovered in the context of string theory, and all consistent string theories are supersymmetric. However, the absence of supersymmetric particles at energies accessible to the LHC would not necessarily disprove string theory, since the energy scale at which supersymmetry is broken could be well above the accelerator's range. A central problem for applications is that the best-understood backgrounds of string theory preserve much of the supersymmetry of the underlying theory, which results in time-invariant spacetimes: At present, string theory cannot deal well with time-dependent, cosmological backgrounds. However, several models have been proposed to predict supersymmetry breaking, the most notable one being the KKLT model,[32] which incorporates branes and fluxes to make a metastable compactification.

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since usually there is an event horizon around (or at) the gravitational source. also. is much less controversial today than string theories of everything (although two decades ago.[38] The LHC will be used both for testing AdS/CFT. one of the directions in spacetime is the radial direction.e. Description of the duality In certain cases the gauge theory on the D-branes is decoupled from the gravity living in the bulk. As the particles approach the gravitational source. Therefore in such cases it is often conjectured that the gravitational theory on spacetime with the appropriate background fields is dual (i. or usually supergravity). and the other close to the source — then the latter region can also be described by a gauge theory on D-branes. In the gravitational theory.e. they can still be described by closed strings. the D-branes have two independent alternative descriptions. they can be described by objects similar to QCD strings. From the point of view of open strings. This duality can be thought of as follows: suppose there is a spacetime with a gravitational source. physically equivalent) to the gauge theory on the boundary of this spacetime (since the subspace filled by the D-branes is the boundary of this spacetime). but is shared by grand unified theories.1 or a three-sphere with time S3 × R). the D-branes are gravitational sources. and allows contact with low energy experiments in quantum chromodynamics. This means that each predicted phenomenon and quantity in one theory has an analogue in the other theory. so it does not include the . they are described by closed strings (i. This is known as the AdS/CFT correspondence.[39] 157 Gauge-gravity duality Gauge-gravity duality is a conjectured duality between a quantum theory of gravity in certain cases and gauge theory in a lower number of dimensions. with a "dictionary" translating from one theory to the other. this duality has not been proven in any cases. In those cases. The gauge theory lives only on the D-brane itself.[44] When particles are far away from this source. which describes only the strong interactions.[37] Coupling constant unification Grand unification natural in string theories of everything requires that the coupling constants of the four forces meet at one point under renormalization group rescaling. a gravitational theory. thus open strings attached to the D-branes are not interacting with closed strings. As discussed above. so there is also disagreement among string theorists regarding how strong the duality applies to various models. the physics of the D-branes is described by the appropriate gauge theory. going from the gravitational source and away (toward the bulk). and to check if the electroweakstrong unification does happen as predicted.[48] So if one is able (in a decoupling limit) to describe the gravitational system as two separate regions — one (the bulk) far away from the source.. So far. and N = 4 supersymmetric Yang–Mills theory on the four-dimensional boundary of the Anti de Sitter space (either a flat four-dimensional spacetime R3. This type of string theory. This is also a falsifiable statement. Such a situation is termed a decoupling limit.[45][46][47] which are made of gauge bosons (gluons) and other gauge theory degrees of freedom.String Theory AdS/CFT correspondence AdS/CFT relates string theory to gauge theory. from the point of view of closed strings.[40][41][42][43] a name often used for Gauge / gravity duality in general. but it is not restricted to string theory. Examples and intuition The best known example and the first one to be studied is the duality between Type IIB superstring on AdS5 × S5 (a product space of a five-dimensional Anti de Sitter space and a five-sphere) on one hand. it was the other way around). This latter region (close to the source) is termed the near-horizon limit. for example an extremal black hole. and thus we have a gravitational theory on spacetime with some background fields.

e. The S-matrix approach was started by Werner Heisenberg in the 1940s as a way of constructing a theory that did not rely on the local notions of space and time. the UV regime of the field theory). so that particles that arrive at the source from different directions will be seen in the gauge theory as (off-shell) quantum fluctuations far apart from each other. Working with experimental data.it is wrapped into a small circle. D. the other giving peaks at certain energies. The angle between arriving particles in the gravitational theory is related to the radial distance from the gravitational source at which the particles interact: The larger the angle the closer the particles have to get to the source in order to interact with each other. the scale of the distance between quantum fluctuations in a quantum field theory is related (inversely) to the energy scale in this theory. while particles arriving at the source from almost the same direction in space will be seen in the gauge theory as (off-shell) quantum fluctuations close to each other. it was clear that the peaks were stealing from the background--. These ideas would be revived within string theory. Holger Bech Nielsen and Leonard Susskind to be the relationship expected from rotating strings. the two contributions add together.String Theory radial direction: it lives in a spacetime with one less dimension compared to the gravitational theory (in fact. R.the authors interpreted this as saying that the t-channel contribution was dual to the s-channel one. While the scale was off by many orders of magnitude.e. the subatomic particles like the proton and neutron that feel the strong interaction. In the gauge theory. so small radius in the gravitational theory translates to low energy scale in the gauge theory (i. Geoffrey Chew and Steven Frautschi discovered that the mesons make families called Regge trajectories with masses related to spins in a way that was later understood by Yoichiro Nambu. The first person to add a fifth dimension to general relativity was German mathematician Theodor Kaluza in 1919. where they are demanded by consistency conditions. the approach he advocated was ideally suited for a theory of quantum gravity. The on-shell states in the near-horizon gravitational theory can be thought of as describing only particles arriving from the bulk to the near-horizon region and interacting there between themselves. When a particle and antiparticle scatter. Einstein introduced a non-symmetric metric tensor. Horn and C. who noted that gravity in five dimensions describes both gravity and electromagnetism in four. A simple example to this principle is that if in the gravitational theory there is a setup in which the dilaton field (which determines the strength of the coupling) is decreasing with the radius. but would construct their interactions from self-consistency conditions on the S-matrix. while large radius in the gravitational theory translates to high energy scale in the gauge theory (i. which Heisenberg believed break down at the nuclear scale. 158 History Some of the structures reintroduced by string theory arose for the first time much earlier as part of the program of classical unification started by Albert Einstein. Chew advocated making a theory for the interactions of these trajectories that did not presume that they were composed of any fundamental particles. one giving a continuous background contribution. then its dual field theory will be asymptotically free. In the s-channel. while much later Brans and Dicke added a scalar component to gravity. Thus the angle between the arriving particles in the gravitational theory translates to the distance scale between quantum fluctuations in the gauge theory. Let us understand how the two theories are still equivalent: The physics of the near-horizon gravitational theory involves only on-shell states (as usual in string theory). In the 1960s. Schmid[49] developed some sum rules for hadron exchange.. In the t-channel. virtual particles can be exchanged in two qualitatively different ways. the two particles annihilate to make temporary intermediate states that fall apart into the final state particles. while the field theory includes also off-shell correlation function. String theory was originally developed during the late 1960s and early 1970s as a never completely successful theory of hadrons. the IR regime of the field theory). In the data.. the particles exchange intermediate states by emission and absorption. On the other hand. the Swedish physicist Oskar Klein gave a physical interpretation of the unobservable extra dimension--. In field theory. Dolen. these are "projected" onto the boundary. In 1926. it lives on a spacetime identical to the boundary of the near-horizon gravitational theory). meaning both described the .e. its coupling will grow weaker in high energies. i.

and Charles Thorn. and there is a special mathematical function whose poles are evenly spaced on half the real line— the Gamma function— which was widely used in Regge theory. later renamed world-sheet duality. giving a space-time picture to the vertex operators introduced by Veneziano and Fubini and a geometrical interpretation to the Virasoro conditions. At the same time. Jeffrey Goldstone. John Schwarz and Joel Scherk came to the same conclusion and made the bold leap to suggest that string theory was a theory of gravity. and was proven to have space-time supersymmetry by John Schwarz and Michael Green in 1981. Peter Goddard and Richard Brower went on to prove that there are no wrong-sign propagating states in dimensions less than or equal to 26. and noted that there is an inconsistency unless the dimension of the theory is 26. In 1979. the lightest particle must be a tachyon. The resulting theory did not have a tachyon. and went on to develop conformal field theory extensively. which led him to formulate a two-dimensional supersymmetry to cancel the wrong-sign states. an obvious self-consistency condition. Over the next years. while Ziro Koba and Holger Nielsen generalized Veneziano's integral representation to multiparticle scattering. The same year. Joel Scherk. and David Olive realized in 1976 that the original Ramond and Neveu Schwarz-strings were separately inconsistent and needed to be combined. which are generalizations of the Einstein equations of General Relativity. and had a suggestive integral representation that could be used for generalization. the critical dimension was 10. String theory eventually made it out of the dustbin.IIA and IIB related by T-duality. and Leonard Susskind recognized that the theory could be given a description in space and time in terms of strings. on straight line trajectories. Veneziano and Sergio Fubini introduced an operator formalism for computing the scattering amplitudes that was a forerunner of world-sheet conformal theory. John Schwarz and André Neveu added another sector to the fermi theory a short time later. Veneziano was able to find a consistent scattering amplitude with poles on straight lines. By manipulating combinations of Gamma functions. The result was widely advertised by Murray Gell-Mann. In 1969. but for the following decade all work on the theory was completely ignored. Tamiaki Yoneya discovered that all the known string theories included a massless spin-two particle that obeyed the correct Ward identities to be a graviton. and type I theories with open strings. Claudio Rebbi. Michio Kaku and Keiji Kikkawa gave a different formulation of the bosonic string. Ferdinando Gliozzi. quantum chromodynamics was recognized as the correct theory of hadrons. giving a two-dimensional field theoretic path-integral to generate the operator formalism. The amplitude could fit near-beam scattering data as well as other Regge type fits. Stanley Mandelstam formulated a world sheet conformal theory for both the bose and fermi case. In 1974. leading Gabriele Veneziano to construct a scattering amplitude that had the property of Dolen-Horn-Schmid duality. while Virasoro understood how to remove the poles with wrong-sign residues using a constraint on the states.String Theory whole amplitude and included the other. not a theory of hadrons. Veneziano himself discovered that for the scattering amplitude to describe the scattering of a particle that appears in the theory. with mostly positive residues. emerge from the Renormalization group equations for the two-dimensional field theory. The consistency 159 . Alexander Polyakov gave the theory a modern path integral formulation. Still. Claud Lovelace calculated a loop amplitude. as a string field theory. Yoichiro Nambu. hundreds of physicists worked to complete the bootstrap program for this model. with many surprises. In the fermion theories. shifting the attention of physicists and apparently leaving the bootstrap program in the dustbin of history. Miguel Virasoro and Joel Shapiro found a different amplitude now understood to be that of closed strings. Schwarz and Green discovered T-duality. and constructed two different superstring theories--. The scattering amplitudes were derived systematically from the action principle by Peter Goddard. with infinitely many particle types and with fields taking values not on points. Charles Thorn. Daniel Friedan showed that the equations of motions of string theory. Pierre Ramond added fermions to the model. but on loops and curves. the theory continued to develop at a steady pace thanks to the work of a handful of devotees. The amplitude needed poles where the particles appear. Holger Bech Nielsen. which obeyed duality and had the appropriate Regge scaling at high energy. They reintroduced Kaluza–Klein theory as a way of making sense of the extra dimensions. In 1970.

which restricted the gauge group of the type I string theory to be SO(32). Edward Witten became convinced that string theory was truly a consistent theory of gravity. while Lance Dixon and others worked out the physical properties of orbifolds. but all nearby objects too. with only a few discrete choices. It is an example of a gauge-gravity duality and is now understood to be a special case of the AdS/CFT correspondence. David Gross. the world-sheet or world-volume theory. Following Witten's lead. Andrew Strominger and Edward Witten found that the Calabi-Yau manifolds are the compactifications that preserve a realistic amount of supersymmetry. showing that orbifolds solve the chirality problem. a full holographic description of M-theory using IIA D0 branes. In coming to understand this calculation. Witten noted that the effective description of the physics of D-branes at low energies is by a supersymmetric gauge theory. hundreds of physicists started to work in this field.String Theory conditions had been so strong. in collaboration with Luis Alvarez-Gaumé to study violations of the conservation laws in gravity theories with anomalies. M-theory was also foreshadowed in the work of Paul Townsend at approximately the same time. the fluctuations of the black hole horizon. at the annual conference of string theorists at the University of Southern California (USC). not just strings. identifying the long highly-excited string states with ordinary thermal black hole states. concluding that type I string theories were inconsistent. and found geometrical interpretations of mathematical structures in gauge theory that he and Nathan Seiberg had earlier discovered in terms of the location of the branes. This led him. Leonard Susskind had incorporated the holographic principle of Gerardus 't Hooft into string theory. He noted that in this limit 160 . that the entire theory was nearly uniquely determined. Petr Hořava and Edward Witten found the eleven-dimensional formulation of the heterotic string theories. Gary Horowitz. and giving birth to a new 11-dimensional theory called M-theory. and either copy could easily and naturally include the standard model. describes not only the degrees of freedom of the black hole. David Gross and Vipul Periwal discovered that string perturbation theory was divergent. formed the matter content of the string theories. Stephen Shenker and Leonard Susskind formulated matrix theory. Cumrun Vafa generalized T-duality from circles to arbitrary manifolds. Andrew Strominger and Cumrun Vafa calculated the entropy of certain configurations of D-branes and found agreement with the semi-classical answer for extreme charged black holes. In 1997. Tom Banks. and Ryan Rohm discovered heterotic strings. Stephen Shenker showed it diverged much faster than in field theory suggesting that new non-perturbative objects were missing. between 1984 and 1986. and the physical interpretation of the strings and branes was revealed--.they are a type of black hole. and he became a high-profile advocate. In the early 1980s. Emil Martinec and Stephen Shenker further developed the covariant quantization of the superstring using conformal field theory techniques. The flurry of activity that began at this time is sometimes called the second superstring revolution. It quickly became clear that D-branes and other p-branes. and this is sometimes called the first superstring revolution. creating the mathematical field of mirror symmetry. In the 1990s. and they opened up a new field with rich mathematical structure. During this period. Daniel Friedan. These were understood to be the new objects suggested by the perturbative divergences. The gauge group of these closed strings was two copies of E8. Edward Witten discovered that most theories of quantum gravity could not accommodate chiral fermions like the neutrino. Philip Candelas. Joseph Polchinski discovered that the theory requires higher-dimensional objects. Edward Witten gave a speech on string theory that in essence united the five string theories that existed at the time. As suggested by 't Hooft. called D-branes and identified these with the black-hole solutions of supergravity. [50] This was the first definition of string theory that was fully non-perturbative and a concrete mathematical realization of the holographic principle. Jeffrey Harvey. Green and Schwarz discovered a contribution to the anomaly that Witten and Alvarez-Gaumé had missed. Emil Martinec. During this period. Willy Fischler. In 1995. which for extreme charged black holes looks like an anti de Sitter space. Juan Maldacena noted that the low energy excitations of a theory near a black hole consist of objects close to the horizon. distinctive geometrical singularities allowed in string theory.

and so we happen to live in the most "friendly" universe. It is a concrete realization of the holographic principle. can be used to select among these vacua is an open issue. which may be radically different from each other. Generally speaking. While there are no continuous parameters in the theory.[62][63] The argument is that most universes contain values for physical constants that do not lead to habitable universes (at least for humans). the effects of quantum gravity are extremely weak. So he hypothesized that string theory on a near-horizon extreme-charged black-hole geometry. This hypothesis. if any. which has far-reaching implications for black holes. a very small quantity. with a different collection of particles and forces. This is because strings themselves are expected to be only slightly larger than the Planck length.[32] What principle. It is also suggested that the landscape is surrounded by an even more vast swampland of consistent-looking semiclassical effective field theories.[59] and Carlo Rovelli. which is called the AdS/CFT correspondence. Philip Warren Anderson. and it is now well-accepted. String theory contains an infinite number of distinct meta-stable vacua. a high planck scale. bringing string theory back to its roots. in particular the small value of the cosmological constant. is equally well described by the low-energy limiting gauge theory. as well as the nature of the gravitational interaction. Number of solutions String theory as it is currently understood has a huge number of solutions. The vacuum structure of the theory. . called string vacua.[60] Some common criticisms include: 1.[32] and these vacua might be sufficiently diverse to accommodate almost any phenomena we might observe at lower energies. Igor Klebanov and Alexander Polyakov.[51][52][53][54][55][56] Notable critics include Peter Woit. and high energies are required to probe small length scales. because it may allow a natural anthropic explanation of the observed values of physical constants. 161 Criticisms Some critics of string theory say that it is a failure as a theory of everything. was further developed by Steven Gubser. Lack of uniqueness of predictions due to the large number of solutions. locality and information in physics. and by Edward Witten. Very high energies needed to test quantum gravity. 3. As a result. Each of these corresponds to a different possible universe. called the string theory landscape (or the anthropic portion of string theory vacua). the N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. and because quantum effects are controlled by Planck's constant h.[57] Sheldon Glashow. quantum gravity is difficult to test because the gravity is much weaker than the other forces. Lee Smolin. which is twenty orders of magnitude smaller than the radius of a proton. This principle is already employed to explain the existence of life on earth as the result of a life-friendly orbit around the medium-sized sun among an infinite number of possible orbits (as well as a relatively stable location in the galaxy). and chiral fermions.String Theory the gauge theory describes the string excitations near the branes. an anti-deSitter space times a sphere with flux. gauge groups. there is a very large set of possible universes. 2. is not well understood. string theory has been shown to be related to gauge theories like quantum chromodynamics and this has led to more quantitative understanding of the behavior of hadrons.[58] Lawrence Krauss. and perhaps 10520 of these or more correspond to a universe roughly similar to ours — with four dimensions. Through this relationship. Lack of background independence. which are actually inconsistent. Some physicists believe this is a good thing. High energies It is widely believed that any theory of quantum gravity would require extremely high energies to probe directly. higher by orders of magnitude than those that current experiments such as the Large Hadron Collider[61] can attain.

americanscientist. a non-perturbative definition of the theory in arbitrary spacetime backgrounds is still lacking. BROWN-HET-1439. " Calabi–Yau moduli space. 10-12 (5 January 2006) | doi:10. ".200510264. which is believed to provide a full. [18] The calculation of the number of dimensions can be circumvented by adding a degree of freedom. The RHIC fireball as a dual black hole. Hübsch. Nastase. [11] H. Ofer Aharony and Eva Silverstein(2006):" Supercritical stability. html) [6] Hawking. Volume 18 . The Grand Design. Ovrut (2006). [12] H. D. in/ ~mukhi/ Physics/ string2.1002/prop. " A Hitchhiker’s Guide to Superstring Jump Gates and Other Worlds (http:/ / homepage. Supl. Nature 439. This is because. Aspinwall. Minasian Eleven Dimensional Origin of String/String Duality: A One Loop Test (http:/ / arxiv. html) [8] (http:/ / www. transitions and (pseudo)tachyons (http:/ / arxiv. Nature.Issue 03. html)" [2] Joseph Polchinski. cbpf. K. co. U. R. pbs. non-perturbative definition of string theory in spacetimes with anti-de Sitter space asymptotics. and the exchange of gravitons is equivalent to a change in the background — mathematical calculations in the theory rely on preselecting a background as a starting point. Wiedemann. (Proc. Rev. org/ pdf/ hep-th/ 9309097)". much of string theory is still only formulated perturbatively. Liu. like many quantum field theories. American Scientist. Times Higher Education. SUSY 96 Conference. J.16. Nastase. Phys. BROWN-HET-1466. "Our Universe: Outrageous fortune". aspx?cid=1284) "Lecture 23 – Can I Have That Extra Dimension in the Window?".54. com/ nature/ journal/ v439/ n7072/ full/ 439010a. or a non-perturbative treatment of string theory (such as "background independent open string field theory") will have a background-independent formulation.The elegant Universe" (http:/ / www. Jr. January-February 2007 Volume 95. " An Alternative to compactification (http:/ / arXiv. pdf) [20] See. Nucl.. tifr. [10] H. Morrison and B. More on the RHIC fireball and dual black holes. MIT-CTP-3757. Mohapatra and A. org/ wgbh/ nova/ elegant/ ) [9] Burt A.) 52A (1997) 347–351 [21] L. Interview with Professor Edward Witten. Rajagopal. Superstring Theory: The DNA of Reality (http:/ / www. org/ abs/ hep-th/ 0612031v2)". Lett. U. arXiv:hep-th/0603176. com/ fline/ fl1803/ 18030830. arXiv:hep-ph/0607062 July 2006. January 2005. Ph. References [1] Sunil Mukhi(1999)" The Theory of Strings: A Detailed Introduction (http:/ / theory. Phys. Nucl. Duff. 03 . Nevertheless. "A Heterotic Standard Model". [15] Simeon Hellerman and Ian Swanson(2006): " Dimension-changing exact solutions of string theory (http:/ / arxiv. com/ ttcx/ coursedesclong2. pdf)". However.1038/439010a. uk/ story. 2001 (http:/ / www. [7] "NOVA . and the produced theory is not Lorentz invariant. Calculating the Jet Quenching Parameter from AdS/CFT. [19] "Quantum Geometry of Bosonic Strings – Revisited" (ftp:/ / ftp2. and has other characteristics that do not appear in nature.. Bantam Books. String Theory. htm) [4] Leonard Susskind. org/ pdf/ hep-th/ 9906064)" Phys. James T.2006 arXiv:hep-ph/0605178 [13] H..97:182301. Texas A&M University [17] Polchinski.. Number 1 (http:/ / www.Lett. K. This is known as the linear dilaton or non-critical string. Joseph (1998).String Theory 162 Background independence A separate and older criticism of string theory is that it is background-dependent — string theory describes perturbative expansions about fixed spacetime backgrounds. arXiv:hep-th/0501068. T. org/ bookshelf/ pub/ all-strung-out) [3] "On the right track. Wiedemann. Phys. org/ abs/ hep-th/ 0612051v3)". 0:04:54. Fortschritte der Physik 54-(2-3): 160–164. mirror manifolds and space-time topology change in string theory (http:/ / arXiv. [14] S. Bibcode 2006ForPh. Published online 4 January 2006 (http:/ / www. res. 83 (1999) 4690–4693 [22] P. Feb. in Proc. This criticism has been addressed to some extent by the AdS/CFT duality. A. mac. An AdS/CFT Calculation of Screening in a Hot Wind.. timeshighereducation. Liu. hinduonnet. Rasin (eds.". pbs. "All Strung Out?". A. Although the theory has some background-independence — topology change is an established process in string theory.. asp?storyCode=204991& sectioncode=26) [5] Geoff Brumfiel. 0:21:00. this degree of freedom behaves similar to spacetime dimensions only in some aspects. [16] M. for example. Greene. Liu and R. org/ wgbh/ nova/ elegant/ view-glashow.Rev.160O. Rajagopal. Sundrum. March 2006. Stephen (2010). teach12. nature. com/ thubsch/ HSProc. Department of Physics. James Gates. Randall and R. biblioteca. org/ abs/ hep-th/ 9506126v2) Center for Theoretical Physics. Some hope that M-theory.D. Cambridge University Press. 25 August 2006 (http:/ / www. "Hold fire! This epic vessel has only just set sail. doi:10. which compensates for the "missing" quantum fluctuations..). Frontline. br/ pub/ apub/ 1999/ nf/ nf_zip/ nf04299. as a divergent series of approximations. B416 (1994) 414–480 .

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Amanda (December 2005). Michael (September 1986). Retrieved December 19. and the Extraordinary Search for a Theory of Everything. ISBN 0-618-55105-0. ISBN 0-375-41288-3. #11. p. 235. • Green. The Trouble with Physics: The Rise of String Theory. 244. Paul. London: Little Brown and Company. New York: Ecco Press. and What Comes Next. edu/ chapters/ s8456.String Theory [61] Elias Kiritsis(2007)" String Theory in a Nutshell (http:/ / press. and the Theory of Everything. Arkani-Hamed. Michio (April 1994). Leonard (December 2006). p. ISBN 0-316-32975-4. Hidden Dimensions. S. Hoboken. "Is string theory in trouble?" (http://www. Edward (June 2002). New York: Hill and Wang.uk/user/mbg15/superstrings/ superstrings. 392. • Hooper. Alex (2006). and the Tenth Dimension. Dark Cosmos: In Search of Our Universe's Missing Mass and Energy. p. on the first superstring revolution.org/journals/doc/PHTOAD-ft/vol_62/iss_1/28_1. The Great Beyond: Higher Dimensions. New York: Houghton Mifflin Co. Julian R.).pdf) (PDF). • Randall. ISBN 0-06-053108-8. 2005. Indianapolis: Alpha. ISBN 0-521-43775-X. ISBN 0-19-508514-0. • Klebanov. • Halpern. SU-ITP-04-44. arXiv:hep-th/0501082. arXiv:hep-th/0302219. Retrieved December 19.. • Taubes. 224.shtml). ISBN 978-1-59-257702-6. ISBN 0-316-01333-1. 2005. 2005. p. • Susskind. Astronomy Magazine. • Kaku. (Popular article.aip. New York: Hachette Book Group/Back Bay Books. Gary (November 1986). Physics Today.W. ISBN 978-0-06-113032-8. the Fall of a Science. p. "Everything's Now Tied to Strings" Discover Magazine vol 7. The Cosmic Landscape: String Theory and the Illusion of Intelligent Design. Many Worlds in One: The Search for Other Universes. Brown (Eds. 569. p. January 2005 [63] L. Igor and Maldacena. Lee (2006). ISBN 0-471-46595-X. George (2008). . ISBN 0-393-05858-1. New Scientist. Retrieved December 19. New York: HarperCollins. Paul (2004).cam. Time. Parallel Universes. Lisa (September 1 2005). p. New York: W. Brian (2004). Hyperspace: A Scientific Odyssey Through Parallel Universes. p. Time Warps.) (July 31 1992). p. Susskind The Anthropic Landscape of String Theory. • Gefter. Predictive Landscapes and New Physics at a TeV. Dan (2006). 464.800-is-string-theory-in-trouble. Knopf. 403. Superstrings: A Theory of Everything? (Reprint ed.ias. – An easy nontechnical article on the very basics of the theory. the theoretical physicist who discovered that string theory is based on one-dimensional objects and now is promoting the idea of multiple universes. The Fabric of the Cosmos: Space. • Greene. Scientific American.).newscientist. and the Texture of Reality.com/article/ mg18825305. – An interview with Leonard Susskind. p.) • Vilenkin. Oxford: Oxford University Press. • Witten. Juan (January 2009). Kachru. 368. Dimopoulos and S.sns. Norton & Company. "The Universe on a String" (http://www.html?full=true). • Musser. Symmetry. New York: Alfred A. Solving Quantum Field Theories via Curved Spacetimes (http://ptonline. The Search for Superstrings. and the Quest for the Ultimate Theory (Reissue ed. 326. Warped Passages: Unraveling the Mysteries of the Universe's Hidden Dimensions. pdf)" [62] N. The Elegant Universe: Superstrings.edu/~witten/papers/string. SLAC-PUB-10928. February 2003 164 Further reading Popular books and articles • Davies. princeton. probably the first ever written. HUTP-05-A0001. The Complete Idiot's Guide to String Theory. Brian (October 20 2003).damtp. p. Two nontechnical books that are critical of string theory: • Smolin. 384.ac. 240. Inc. • Gribbin. "Superstrings" (http://www. New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.html). 512. ISBN 0-8090-9523-8.. p. • Greene. John (1998). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

ISBN 0-521-35752-7. Imperial College Press. Joseph (1998) String Theory. Dual Resonance Models. Retrieved December 16. • Marolf. ISBN 0-521-86069-5 • Binétruy. arXiv:hep-ex/0008017. p. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-850954-7. Maurizio (2007) Elements of String Cosmology.edu/online/ plecture/witten/). Princeton University Press. – Invited Lecture at COSLAB 2004. 1136. and addressed to an audience of graduate students in experimental high energy physics. Becker.ucsb. – Slides and audio from an Ed Witten lecture where he introduces string theory and discusses its challenges. St. "Resource Letter NSST-1: The Nature and Status of String Theory". Michael (2007) Supersymmetry and String Theory: Beyond the Standard Model. ISBN 0-521-35753-5. Croix. 2: Loop amplitudes.itp. survey basic concepts in string theory. "Duality. • Szabo. Schwarz (2007) String Theory and M-Theory: A Modern Introduction . United Kingdom. Melanie. Frampton (1974). Tom. 290. in June 2000. • Polchinski. Edward (1998).0333. Cumbria. The lectures assume a working knowledge of quantum field theory and general relativity. from 10 to 17 September 2004. Schwarz and Edward Witten (1987) Superstring theory. ISBN 978-1-86094-427-7. . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. presented at the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Techniques and Concepts of High Energy Physics. held at Ambleside. • Vol. • Johnson. ISBN 978-0-521-86875-4. 2005.The Failure of String Theory And the Search for Unity in Physical Law. Experiment. • Schwarz. • Paul H. ISBN 0-521-63303-6. D-branes. Not Even Wrong . Cambridge University Press. – Four lectures. "Introduction to Superstring Theory". Barton (2004) A First Course in String Theory. Knopf. Cambridge University Press. Virgin Islands. "Lectures on String Theory". John H. 165 Textbooks • Becker. Online material • David Tong. • Michael Green. • Vol. (Reprinted 2007) An Introduction to String Theory and D-brane Dynamics. ISBN 0-521-63304-4. John H. • Witten. Richard J. Roger (February 22 2005). London: Jonathan Cape &: New York: Basic Books. 2: Superstring theory and beyond. – This is a one semester course on bosonic string theory aimed at beginning graduate students. Spacetime and Quantum Mechanics" (http://online. arXiv:astro-ph/0410073. ISBN 0-679-45443-8. • Kiritsis. Peter (2006). Oxford University Press. • Dine. 1: Introduction. • Gasperini. Katrin. ISBN 0-805-32581-6. ISBN 978-0-691-12230-4. arXiv:0908. Clifford (2003). Cambridge University Press. Cambridge University Press. Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics. ISBN 0-521-85841-0. The Road to Reality: A Complete Guide to the Laws of the Universe.String Theory • Woit. ISBN 0-521-80912-6. and John H. Don. anomalies and phenomenology.. • Vol. p. Pierre (2007) Supersymmetry: Theory. • Zwiebach. "Cosmic strings reborn?". arXiv:hep-th/0311044. Frontiers in Physics. ISBN 978-0-465-09275-8. Cambridge University Press. Contact author for errata. • Kibble. ISBN 0-521-83143-1. – A guide to the string theory literature. The original textbook. and Cosmology. • Vol. 1: An introduction to the bosonic string. Elias (2007) String Theory in a Nutshell. Technical and critical: • Penrose.

com/) • The Elegant Universe (http://www.com/jpierre/strings/) – Online tutorial • CI.A criticism of string theory. .org/wgbh/nova/elegant/) – A Three-Hour Miniseries with Brian Greene by NOVA (original PBS Broadcast Dates: October 28.blorge.uk/scholar?hl=en&lr=& q=author:McKie+intitle:Setback+as+string+theory+of+the+universe+is+de-bunked&as_publication=& as_ylo=&as_yhi=&btnG=Search)).americanscientist.physics.co. 166 External links • Dialogue on the Foundations of String Theory (http://www.m.edu/ online/colloq/schwarz1/). ISBN 0-465-09275-6 (Basic Books) • Schwarz. • Not Even Wrong (http://www. Peter (2002). Wieland et al.slate. • Woit.itp.com/articles/health_and_science/ science/2005/11/theory_of_anything.String Theory • Ajay. Physics World (http://physicsworld.php?storyId=6377252). "The Myth of the Beginning of Time" (http://www. Matthew (2007-09-03). Retrieved December 16.html). [news:tech.com/ article. J. Scientific American • Chalmers.math.com]. • McKie. Richard (2006-11-07).perimeterinstitute. — An up-to-date and thorough review of string theory in a popular way.com/article. Peter.pbs.com). • Superstring Theory (http://www.org/issues/pub/ is-string-theory-even-wrong). videos and animations explaining string theory. (http://banyancollege.ca/en/Outreach/What_We_Research/Superstring_Theory/ ) Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics • The Official String Theory Web Site (http://superstringtheory. and November 4. • A website dedicated to creative writing inspired by string theory.columbia.harvard. 2005. 2006. Retrieved July 17.npr. Slate (http://www.mathpages. "Is string theory even wrong?" (http://www. R. – A criticism of string theory.hindu. ISBN 0-224-07605-1 (Jonathan Cape).google. " Theory of everything put to the test (news:ID109828243)".it/virgiliowizard/) • George Gardner (2007-01-24). "Theory of Anything?" (http://www. Retrieved December 16. Shakeeb. Lawrence (2005-11-23).ucsb. (Web link) (http://tech.' String Theorists Accused of Nothing" (http://www.org/ templates/story/story. Gabriele (May 2004).. 8-9 p. Retrieved September 6.com/2011/03/ a-laymans-explanation-for-string-theory/). Retrieved 2007-03-05. (http://nardelli.cfm?chanId=sa003&articleId=1475A684-E7F2-99DF-355B95296BE6031C). Not Even Wrong: The Failure of String Theory & the Continuing Challenge to Unify the Laws of Physics. "Early History of String Theory: A Personal Perspective" (http://online. .org/scriblerus/) • An Italian Website with various papers in English language concerning the mathematical connections between String Theory and Number Theory. "A Prediction from String Theory. Various images. • Zidbits (2011-03-27). Scientific American • Krauss.htm) at MathPages • Superstrings! String Theory Home Page (http://www. 2003). "A Layman's Explanation For String Theory?" (http://zidbits. Robin (2006-10-09).htm) (– Scholar search (http://scholar. • Minkel. American Scientist. 2005. – A comprehensive compilation of materials concerning string theory. • Woit. Retrieved 2007-03-03.edu/~woit/blog/) – A blog critical of string theory. STRINGS newsgroup (http://schwinger. (2006-03-02). with Strings Attached" (http://www.sukidog. John (2001). 2007.blorge. texts. "Stringscape" (http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/indepth/30940). The Hindu • Harris.com tech. National Public Radio.edu/~sps/) – A moderated newsgroup for discussion of string theory (a theory of quantum gravity and unification of forces) and related fields of high-energy physics.com/home/kmath632/kmath632.sciam.com/Structure: /2007/01/24/ theory-of-everything-put-to-the-test/). • Veneziano.com/ thehindu/holnus/008200610091240.com/). (2004).sciam.com).blorge. "Short of 'All. Created by an international team of students.m.xoom. "The nth dimension" (http://thenthdimension. 2009. "Setback as string theory of the universe is de-bunked" (http://www.slate. cfm?chanID=sa006&articleID=00042F0D-1A0E-1085-94F483414B7F0000). 8-10 p.

They are sometimes described as theories of everything (TOE). Quantum effects are usually important only for the "very small". It is hoped that development of such a theory would unify into a single consistent model all fundamental interactions and to describe all known observable interactions in the universe. that is. so strong-field effects—any effects of gravity beyond lowest nonvanishing order in φ/c2—have not been observed even in the gravitational fields of planets and main sequence stars). There is a lack of experimental evidence relating to quantum gravity. for objects no larger than typical molecules. gravity). Observed physical phenomena can be described well by quantum mechanics or general relativity.. show up mainly for the "very large" bodies such as collapsed stars.fr/~troost/beyondstringtheory/) – A project by a string physicist explaining aspects of string theory to a broad audience. i. blogspot. General relativistic effects. and from experimental evidence suggesting that gravity can be made to show quantum effects. unless large extra dimension conjectures are correct). others such as loop quantum gravity make no such attempt.phys. This can be thought of as due to an extreme separation of mass scales at which they are important. and classical physics adequately describes the observed effects of gravity over a range of 50 orders of magnitude of mass. Such theories would yield the same experimental results as ordinary quantum mechanics in conditions of weak gravity (gravitational potentials much less than c2) and the same results as Einsteinian general relativity in phenomena at scales much larger than individual molecules (action much larger than reduced Planck's constant). 167 Quantum Gravity Quantum gravity (QG) is the field of theoretical physics which attempts to develop scientific models that unify quantum mechanics (describing three of the four known fundamental interactions) with general relativity (describing the fourth. at both subatomic and cosmological scales.String Theory • Beyond String Theory (http://www.e. are well-described by linearized gravity except for Mercury's perihelion precession. without needing both. Motivation for quantizing gravity comes from the remarkable success of the quantum theories of the other three fundamental interactions.ens.[1][2][3] Although some quantum gravity theories such as string theory and other unified field theories (or 'theories of everything') attempt to unify gravity with the other fundamental forces. for masses of objects from about 10−23 to 1030 kg.com) – A Science Studies' approach to the history of string theory (an elementary knowledge of string theory is required). as of 2011.spinningthesuperweb. • Spinning the Superweb: Essays on the History of Superstring Theory (http://www. on the other hand. they simply quantize the gravitational field while keeping it separate from the other forces. (Planets' gravitational fields. . and be able to predict the outcome of situations where both quantum effects and strong-field gravity are important (at the Planck scale.

(By comparison.Quantum Gravity 168 Overview Much of the difficulty in meshing these theories at all energy scales comes from the different assumptions that these theories make on how the universe works. since it appears to be valid all the way up to its cutoff at the Planck scale. gravity particles the hierarchy of physics theories would attract each other and adding together all of the interactions results in many infinite values which cannot easily be cancelled out mathematically to yield sensible. beyond which we do not expect that the theory provides a good description of nature. Indeed. the Standard Model is expected to start to break down above its cutoff at the much smaller scale of around 1000 GeV. One problem with this approach is that it is unknown whether quantum gravity will actually conform to a simple and elegant theory. finite results. the problem of combining quantum mechanics and gravity becomes an issue only at very high energies. accordingly. but those are few enough in number to be removable via renormalization. a new model of nature will be needed. as it should resolve the dual conundrums of special relativity with regard to the uniformity of acceleration and gravity. Diagram showing where quantum gravity sits in In the old-fashioned understanding of renormalization. These quantities can then be absorbed into an infinite collection of coupling constants. and may well require a totally new kind of model. and general relativity with regard to spacetime curvature. Quantum field theory depends on particle fields embedded in the flat space-time of special relativity. In fact. the most obvious way of combining the two (such as treating gravity as simply another particle field) ran quickly into what is known as the renormalization problem. . and the origin of the universe. Historically. Effective quantum field theories come with some high-energy cutoff. it is clear that near or above the fundamental cutoff of our effective quantum theory of gravity (the cutoff is generally assumed to be of the order of the Planck scale). This is in contrast with quantum electrodynamics where. General relativity models gravity as a curvature within space-time that changes as a gravitational mass moves. the first quantum-mechanical corrections to graviton-scattering and Newton's law of gravitation have been explicitly computed[4] (although they are so astronomically small that we may never be able to measure them). Such a theory is required in order to understand problems involving the combination of very high energy and very small dimensions of space.) While confirming that quantum mechanics and gravity are indeed consistent at reasonable energies. This same logic works just as well for the highly successful theory of low-energy pions as for quantum gravity. and at energies well below the fundamental cutoff of the theory. unified theory. to any desired precision. to study symmetries and other clues offered by current theories that might suggest ways to combine them into a comprehensive. The "infinities" then become large but finite quantities proportional to this finite cutoff scale. only a finite number of these coupling constants need to be measured in order to make legitimate quantum-mechanical predictions. while the series still do not converge. Quantum gravity theory for the highest energy scales The general approach to deriving a quantum gravity theory that is valid at even the highest energy scales is to assume that such a theory will be simple and elegant and. Specifically. the interactions sometimes evaluate to infinite results. and correspond to processes that involve very high energies near the fundamental cutoff. gravity is in many ways a much better quantum field theory than the Standard Model. such as the behavior of black holes. Effective field theories Quantum gravity can be treated as an effective field theory.

quantization and even the electromagnetic interaction. contrary to the popular claim that quantum mechanics and general relativity are fundamentally incompatible. known as R=T theory[11] (as opposed to the general G=T theory) was amenable to exact solutions in terms of a generalization of the Lambert W function. Generally. superstring theory. This problem must be put in the proper context. More recently. all assume. The dilaton The dilaton made its first appearance in Kaluza–Klein theory. with quantum mechanics. The impetus arose from the fact that complete analytical solutions for the metric of a covariant N-body system have proven elusive in General Relativity. a five-dimensional theory that combined gravitation and electromagnetism.[12] Thus. galaxies). In particular. their coupling could potentially lead to a means of vindicating the theory. which describes gravitation. . This model problem. they have dubbed these hypothetical particles gravitons. While there is no concrete proof of the existence of gravitons. one can demonstrate that the structure of general relativity essentially follows inevitably from the quantum mechanics of interacting theoretical spin-2 massless particles [5][6][7][8][9] (called gravitons). the field equations are amenable to such generalization as shown with the inclusion of a one-graviton process[13] and yielding the correct Newtonian limit in d dimensions if a dilaton is included. through cosmology and perhaps even experimentally. it is not yet clear what the full field equation will govern the dilaton in higher dimensions. However. it has appeared in the lower-dimensional many-bodied gravity problem[10] based on the field theoretic approach of Roman Jackiw. However. one had a theory which combined gravity. planets. This is further complicated by the fact that gravitons can propagate in (3+1) dimensions and consequently that would imply gravitons and dilatons exist in the real world. M-theory. Supporting this theory is the observation that all fundamental forces except gravity have one or more known messenger particles. promising ingredients of a fundamental physical theory. since this approach allows for the combination of gravitational. Gravity Probe B (GP-B) has measured spacetime curvature near Earth to test related models in application of Einstein's general theory of relativity. To simplify the problem. this theory needs to be generalized in (2+1) or (3+1) dimensions although. However. the number of dimensions was lowered to (1+1) namely one spatial dimension and one temporal dimension. detection of the dilaton is expected to be even more elusive than the graviton. It is worth noting that the outcome revealed a previously unknown and already existing natural link between general relativity and quantum mechanics. loop quantum gravity. it appears in string theory. quantized theories of matter may necessitate their existence. Moreover. including string theory. in principle. which describes the other three fundamental forces acting on the atomic scale. one of the deepest problems in theoretical physics is harmonizing the theory of general relativity. and applies to large-scale structures (stars.Quantum Gravity 169 Quantum mechanics and general relativity The graviton At present. Many researchers view the detection of the graviton as vital to validating their work. leading researchers to believe that at least one most likely does exist. Many of the accepted notions of a unified theory of physics since the 1970s. and to some degree depend upon. It was also found that the field equation governing the dilaton (derived from differential geometry) was the Schrödinger equation and consequently amenable to quantization. however. the existence of the graviton. electromagnetic and quantum effects.

as with electromagnetism. • One possibility is that normal perturbation theory is not a reliable guide to the renormalizability of the theory. the spacetime geometry is dynamic. we do not have a meaningful physical theory: • At low energies.[4] (A very similar situation occurs for the very similar effective field theory of low-energy pions. On the other hand. there are infinitely many independent parameters (counterterm coefficients) needed to define the theory. and that there really is a UV fixed point for gravity. but since we can never do infinitely many experiments to fix the values of every parameter. Thus. • Another possibility is that there are new symmetry principles that constrain the parameters and reduce them to a finite set. but some people still pursue this option. where all of the excitations of the string essentially manifest themselves as new symmetries. As explained below. For a given choice of those parameters. and its consequences are profound and not fully explored. gravity is nonrenormalizable. like electromagnetism. For example. quantum gravity will reduce to the usual Einstein theory of general relativity. This is the route taken by string theory. at least for low-energy phenomena. While easy to grasp in principle. there is a way around this problem by treating QG as an effective field theory. in quantum electrodynamics. The theory must be characterized by a choice of finitely many parameters. in principle. it is difficult to find a reliable answer.[15] in which the only physically relevant information is the relationship between different events in space-time.[14] Also in one loop approximation ultraviolet divergencies cancel on mass shell. One might expect that. the model is indeed a predictive quantum field theory. even at the classical level. An example is the well-known calculation of the tiny first-order quantum-mechanical correction to the classical Newtonian gravitational potential between two masses. To a certain extent. if we could probe very high energies where quantum effects take over. one could make sense of the theory. as found in Newtonian mechanics and special relativity. .Quantum Gravity 170 Nonrenormalizability of gravity Further information: Renormalization General relativity. it must be asymptotically free or asymptotically safe. as measured at a particular energy scale. However. Spacetime background dependence A fundamental lesson of general relativity is that there is no fixed spacetime background. all but the first few of the infinite set of parameters in a non-renormalizable theory are suppressed by huge energy scales and hence can be neglected when computing low-energy effects. the logic of the renormalization group tells us that. there should be a corresponding quantum field theory. and we could make no predictions at all. which could. • On the other hand. many theorists agree that even the Standard Model should really be regarded as an effective field theory as well. is a classical field theory. these parameters are the charge and mass of the electron. despite the unknown choices of these infinitely many parameters. one can actually make legitimate predictions for quantum gravity. with "nonrenormalizable" interactions suppressed by large energy scales and whose effects have consequently not been observed experimentally. general relativity can be seen to be a relational theory. at least in the low-energy regime. in quantizing gravity. Since this is a question of non-perturbative quantum field theory. be set by experiment. QG as an effective field theory In an effective field theory. For a quantum field theory to be well-defined according to this understanding of the subject. Recent work[4] has shown that by treating general relativity as an effective field theory. this is the hardest idea to understand about general relativity.) Furthermore. then every one of the infinitely many unknown parameters would begin to matter. Any meaningful theory of quantum gravity that makes sense and is predictive at all energy scales must have some deep principle that reduces the infinitely many unknown parameters to a finite number that can then be measured.

just as in Newtonian classical mechanics. and it has been successfully quantized in several different ways. This is inadequate to describe gravity in 3+1 dimensions which has local degrees of freedom according to general relativity. . In the case of quantum mechanics.Quantum Gravity On the other hand. in the AdS/CFT correspondence) which is a weak form of background dependence. has shown many promising early results. it is time that is given and not dynamic. including spin networks. The vacuum state is the state with least energy (and may or may not contain particles). and only finitely many degrees of freedom globally. the consideration of quantum field theory on a curved background has led to predictions such as black hole radiation. In an analogous way to the development of quantum electrodynamics in the early part of the 20th century (when physicists considered quantum mechanics in classical electromagnetic fields). 171 Interaction in the subatomic world: world lines of point-like particles in the Standard Model or a world sheet swept up by closed strings in string theory Semi-classical quantum gravity Quantum field theory on curved (non-Minkowskian) backgrounds. In this sense. quantum mechanics has depended since its inception on a fixed background (non-dynamic) structure. String theory String theory started out as a generalization of quantum field theory where instead of point particles. while not a full quantum theory of gravity. it was soon discovered that the string spectrum contains the graviton. just as in classical field theory. do not pose any difficulty when considered on a curved background (the Unruh effect occurs even in flat Minkowskian backgrounds). string-like objects propagate in a fixed spacetime background. but with no local degrees of freedom. See Quantum field theory in curved spacetime for a more complete discussion. however. string perturbation theory exhibits exactly the features one would expect of a perturbation theory that may exhibit a strong dependence on asymptotics (as seen. Minkowski spacetime is the fixed background of the theory. Phenomena such as the Unruh effect. In 2+1 dimensions. for example. Background independent theories Loop quantum gravity is the fruit of an effort to formulate a background-independent quantum theory. gravity is a topological field theory. In relativistic quantum field theory. Although string theory had its origins in the study of quark confinement and not of quantum gravity. in which particles exist in certain accelerating frames but not in stationary ones. Topological quantum field theory provided an example of background-independent quantum theory. and that "condensation" of certain vibration modes of strings is equivalent to a modification of the original background.

classical general relativity breaks down at singularities. while this leads to an acceptable effective (quantum) field theory of gravity at low energies.[19][20] String theory One suggested starting point is ordinary quantum field theories which. however. there is no way to put quantum gravity predictions to experimental tests.[22] gravity turns out to be nonrenormalizable: at high energies. no one is certain that classical general relativity applies near singularities in the first place).Quantum Gravity 172 Points of tension There are other points of tension between quantum mechanics and general relativity.[23] One attempt to overcome these limitations is to replace ordinary quantum field theory.[25] The theory is successful in that one mode will always correspond to a graviton. although there is hope for this to change as future data from cosmological observations and particle physics experiments becomes available. Where. and the candidate models still need to overcome major formal and conceptual problems.[16] • Third. The resolution of these points may come from a better understanding of general relativity. However. • Second. different modes of oscillation of one and the same type of fundamental string appear as particles with different (electric and other) charges. since under the Heisenberg uncertainty principle of quantum mechanics its location and velocity cannot be known with certainty. there is the Problem of Time in quantum gravity. Time has a different meaning in quantum mechanics and general relativity and hence there are subtle issues to resolve when trying to formulate a theory which combines the two. They also face the common problem that. after all. these strings are indistinguishable from point-like particles. there is still no complete and consistent quantum theory of gravity. string theory promises to be a unified description of all particles and interactions. which is based on the classical concept of a point particle. the messenger particle of gravity. for ordinary field theories such as quantum electrodynamics. it is not clear how to determine the gravitational field of a particle. one of the ways of compactifying the extra dimensions posited by string theory .[21] gravity turns out to be much more problematic at higher energies. • First. a technique known as renormalization is an integral part of deriving predictions which take into account higher-energy contributions.[18] Currently. applying the recipes of ordinary quantum field theory yields models that are devoid of all predictive power. crucially. with a quantum [24] theory of one-dimensional extended objects: string theory. In this way. but. the price to pay are unusual features such as six extra dimensions of space in addition to the usual three for space and one for time. are successful in describing the other three basic fundamental forces in the context of the standard model of elementary particle physics.[26] Projection of a Calabi-Yau manifold. At the energies reached in current experiments.[17] Candidate theories There are a number of proposed quantum gravity theories. and quantum mechanics becomes inconsistent with general relativity in the neighborhood of singularities (however. as yet.

[31][32] The resulting candidate for a theory of quantum gravity is Loop quantum gravity. 173 Loop quantum gravity Another approach to quantum gravity starts with the canonical quantization procedures of quantum theory. in which space is represented by a network structure called a spin network.[33][34][35][36] Simple spin network of the type used in loop quantum gravity Other approaches There are a number of other approaches to quantum gravity. the section on evolution equations.[28][29] As presently understood.k. theory of BEC vacuum Supergravity Twistor models[44] . Sorting through this large family of solutions remains one of the major challenges. which some argue is ill-defined. and which features are modified. above). however. comprising the so-called "string landscape". string theory admits a very large number (10500 by some estimates) of consistent vacua. Starting with the initial-value-formulation of general relativity (cf. Path-integral based models of quantum cosmology[42] Regge calculus String-nets giving rise to gapless helicity ±2 excitations with no other gapless excitations[43] Superfluid vacuum theory a. The approaches differ depending on which features of general relativity and quantum theory are accepted unchanged.[37][38] Examples include: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Acoustic metric and other analog models of gravity Asymptotic safety Causal Dynamical Triangulation[39] Causal sets[40] Group field theory[41] MacDowell–Mansouri action Noncommutative geometry.[30] A major break-through came with the introduction of what are now known as Ashtekar variables. which would constitute a uniquely defined and consistent theory of quantum gravity. which represent geometric gravity using mathematical analogues of electric and magnetic fields. the result is an analogue of the Schrödinger equation: the Wheeler–DeWitt equation. it was conjectured that both string theory and a unification of general relativity and supersymmetry known as supergravity[27] form part of a hypothesized eleven-dimensional model known as M-theory.a. evolving over time in discrete steps.Quantum Gravity In what is called the second superstring revolution.

[8] Gupta. bbc. "Canonical reduction of two-dimensional gravity for particle dynamics".96. and Polchinski.98. Singapore: World Scientific. [14] Feynman. Reviews of Modern Physics 29 (3): 334–336.170. Cambridge University Press. & Hatfield. uk/ news/ science-environment-13097370). [3] Palmer. Feynman lectures on gravitation. Geltenbort.. Basic Books. "The Problem of Time in Quantum Gravity". doi:10..29. Wagner. In Cornet. ISBN 0-521-83143-1. [15] Smolin.conf. Scott (2007). "Quantum states of neutrons in the Earth's gravitational field" (http:/ / www. Marc H.1103/PhysRev.1103/PhysRev.96. "Einstein's and Other Theories of Gravitation". the Weinberg–Witten theorem places some constraints on theories of composite gravity/emergent gravity. [7] Gupta. Joseph (1998).334G. A E. "N-body Gravity and the Schroedinger Equation". "String Theory: Progress and Problems".. Peter.1...334. 26 June–1 July 1995. "Quantum Theory of Gravitation". Lemmel & Abele. Hartmut. Bibcode 1970GReGr. Morinigo. B. [16] Hunter Monroe (2005).24.. "Singularity-Free Collapse through Local Inflation". "Realization of a gravity-resonance-spectroscopy technique" (http:/ / www. [24] An accessible introduction at the undergraduate level can be found in Zwiebach.. R. I: An Introduction to the Bosonic String. T (1997). Retrieved 2011-04-21. . 126.. doi:10. com/ nature/ journal/ v415/ n6869/ abs/ 415297a..1683G. "17-18".415. N. ISBN 0201627345. (1962).. Augusto (1985).1103/RevModPhys. Bibcode 1954PhRv. Nesvizhevsky et al (2002-01-17). F. "Neutrons could test Newton's gravity and string theory" (http:/ / www. Abele. doi:10. [13] Mann. "Exact solution for the metric and the motion of two bodies in (1+1)-dimensional gravity". nature.13. (2007). (1995). pp. Steven (1996). arXiv:astro-ph/0506506 [astro-ph].... arXiv:hep-th/0702219.2222.297N. doi:10. arXiv:gr-qc/9512024 [gr-qc]. Bibcode 1955PhRv. N. B. 20–25. .1103/PhysRevD. Phys. [22] Weinberg. [6] Gupta. H. pp. Joseph (1998b). References [1] Nesvizhevsky.1118K. Almunecar. Rev.. [5] Kraichnan. S. html). Carlo (2000). [9] Deser.Quantum Gravity 174 Weinberg–Witten theorem In quantum field theory. Bibcode 1996CQGra. Spain. [18] A timeline and overview can be found in Rovelli. arXiv:gr-qc/0006061 [gr-qc]. II: Superstring Theory and Beyond. P. Cambridge University Press.55. However. Bibcode 2007PThPS. [10] Ohta. Mann.2157 [gr-qc]... Bibcode 1997PhRvD.29. (1954).. Classical and Quantum Gravity 24 (18): 4647–4659.81G.. pp. Bibcode 1957RvMP. Abhay (2007). "Quantum gravity at two loops". doi:10. Recent Developments in General Relativity. Lemmel. A First Course in String Theory. "Gravitation and Electromagnetism". Physics Letters B 160: 81–86. (1970). the Weinberg–Witten theorem would not be valid. recent developments attempt to show that if locality is only approximate and the holographic principle is correct. ISBN 0-521-55002-5.1038/nphys1970. doi:10. Retrieved 2011-04-21.. Nature 415 (6869): 297–299. Three Roads to Quantum Gravity. .(editor). Classical and Quantum Gravity 8: 219–235. BBC News. "Gravitation and cosmology in (1+1) dimensions". Sagnotti. 11th Marcel Grossmann Meeting on Recent Developments in Theoretical and Experimental General Relativity. N.126A.. arXiv:gr-qc/0411023. W.. arXiv:gr-qc/9611008. arXiv:gr-qc/9605004. doi:10. [23] Goroff. "Introduction to the Effective Field Theory Description of Gravity". Effective Theories: Proceedings of the Advanced School. doi:10. Fernando.8. [17] Edward Anderson (2010). Cambridge University Press. [11] Sikkema. [2] Jenke. .219S.4723. [19] Ashtekar.1142/9789812834300_0008. Robert (1996). String Theory Vol.1007/BF00759198.. Retrieved 2011-04-21. doi:10. Pages 220-226 are annotated references and guide for further reading. "Loop Quantum Gravity: Four Recent Advances and a Dozen Frequently Asked Questions". arXiv:gr-qc/0611144.. nature. arXiv:1009.1088/0264-9381/8/1/022. [4] Donoghue (1995).4723M. (1995).2585O. Hartmut (2011-04-17)..98.. Nature 7 (6): 468–472. John H. Lee (2001). "Special-Relativistic Derivation of Generally Covariant Gravitation Theory".9D. co.55.1143/PTPS. Bibcode 1985PhLB.468J.7. S.1016/0370-2693(85)91470-4. G. ISBN 0-521-63304-4. arXiv:gr-qc/9512024.1088/0264-9381/24/18/006..1038/415297a. String Theory Vol. Bibcode 2002Natur. Bibcode 2011NatPh.. Physical Review 96 (6): 1683–1685. S.1683. ISBN 9810229089. com/ nphys/ journal/ vaop/ ncurrent/ full/ nphys1970.214.1088/0264-9381/13/9/022. Bibcode 2007CQGra. General Relativity and Gravitation 1: 9–18.. ISBN 0-465-08735-4. R B (1991).. Classical and Quantum Gravity 13 (9): 2585–2602. [21] Donoghue. Mann. "Notes for a brief history of quantum gravity". Bibcode 2008mgm. [20] Schwarz. html). Progress of Theoretical Physics Supplement 170: 214–226. arXiv:0705. John F. Tadayuki. R B. 55 (8): 4723–4747.214S. Bibcode 1991CQGra. "Introduction to the Effective Field Theory Description of Gravity". R. doi:10. S. (1957)... Physical Review 98 (4): 1118–1122.4647F. Jason (2011-04-18). D.. and more complete overviews in Polchinski. Pergamon Press. doi:10. (1955). Barton (2004). Geltenbort.1118.. doi:10. ISBN 0-521-63303-6. The Quantum Theory of Fields II: Modern Applications. Ohta. [12] Farrugia. Cambridge University Press. "Self-Interaction and Gauge Invariance".170. Mann..160. doi:10. Addison-Wesley. 251–258. Tobias.

Classical & Quantum Gravity 17 (5): 1117–1128. Steven (2000). org/ lrr-1998-1). Approaches to Fundamental Physics 721: 185. (1994). ISBN 0-387-23995-2. Bibcode 2002MPLA. Abhay (1987). Paul K. Stephen W. Quantum Gravity. ISBN 0-521-55002-5. "Background Independent Quantum Gravity: A Status Report". Bibcode 2006AnP.200510175 • Lämmerzahl. arXiv:gr-qc/0508120.13L.. Springer.53A. doi:10. Rafael D.1088/0034-4885/64/8/301 • Kiefer.. "Discrete Approaches to Quantum Gravity in Four Dimensions" (http:/ / www. International Journal of Theoretical Physics 36 (12): 2759–2781.. [39] Loll. doi:10.47. pp. Rafael D. 300 Years of Gravitation.1002/andp. 2. 631–651. L. Springer. (2003). Claus (2005). [38] Sorkin.Quantum Gravity [25] Ibanez.. International Journal of Modern Physics A 11 (32): 5623–5642. (2002).. "Loop Quantum Gravity" (http:/ / www.631. (1996).. In Gomberoff. 175 Further reading • Ahluwalia. Michael (1996). Annalen der Physik 15: 129–148..1142/S0217751X96002583. ISBN 0521837332 • Trifonov. 385. "The second string (phenomenology) revolution". doi:10. google. arXiv:gr-qc/9805049. Bibcode 2000CQGra.pdf). D. "The winding road to quantum gravity" (http://www.1142/S021773230200765X • Ashtekar. ICTP Series in Theoretical Physics.. Donald. arXiv:gr-qc/0210094. . Jürgen..g. arXiv:hep-th/0608210. arXiv:gr-qc/9310031. doi:10... Living Reviews in Relativity 1: 13.. (2000). Abhay.. "Forks in the Road.. [35] Ashtekar. Vladimir (2008). [36] Thiemann. [28] Townsend. ISBN 3-540-58339-4. Werner. pp. In Hawking.1587. [41] See Daniele Oriti and references therein.. E.64. Werner. on the Way to Quantum Gravity". Claus. ISBN 019921252X • Kiefer.2759S. arXiv:gr-qc/0205121. (2005). Four Lectures on M-Theory. 4. International Journal of Theoretical Physics 47 (2): 492–510.1587A.in/currsci/dec252005/ 2064. "Loop Quantum Gravity: An Inside View".ias. Claus (2007).. Lecture Notes in Physics 631: 41–135. [34] Rovelli.1103/PhysRevD.. [31] Ashtekar. Bibcode 2001RPPh. livingreviews. Jerzy (2004). Springer. Thomas (2003). (1997). "New Hamiltonian formulation of general relativity".. "Quantum Gravity: a Progress Report". Physical Review D 36 (6): 1587–1602. "GR-friendly description of quantum systems". arXiv:hep-th/9612121. "Causal Sets: Discrete Gravity". "Quantum Gravity: General Introduction and Recent Developments". Lecture Notes in Physics.36. PMID 10033673..2244. Lectures on Quantum Gravity.1117I.17. arXiv:gr-qc/9706002. Bibcode 1996IJMPA. sec. "Interface of Gravitational and Quantum Realms". Classical & Quantum Gravity 21 (15): R53–R152. arXiv:math-ph/0702095. Reports on Progress in Physics 64 (8): 885–942. e. doi:10. "Canonical Quantization of Gravity". .17. Living Reviews in Relativity 1. In Israel.57. Bibcode 2008IJTP. Bibcode 2007LNP. livingreviews.129K. arXiv:gr-qc/0108040. [32] Ashtekar. [27] Weinberg. Bibcode 1986PhRvL. ibid sec.. [33] Thiemann. Helmut. Cambridge University Press..36. Schwarz & Witten 1987. doi:10. Cambridge University Press.. Current Science 89: 2064–2074 • Carlip. Marolf. for the extra dimensions. Carlo (2004). Cambridge University Press... arXiv:hep-th/9608117.2244A. [29] Duff. (1987). "Prima facie questions in quantum gravity".2. Modern Physics Letters A 17 (15–17): 1135. Karel (1973).. arXiv:gr-qc/0309009.1103/PhysRevLett.185T. The Quantum Theory of Fields II: Modern Applications. Bibcode 2004CQGra. arXiv:gr-qc/0404018.. arXiv:hep-ph/9911499. Abhay (2005). D. Abhay (1986).. Lewandowski. V.. Oxford University Press.518. Thomas (2006). In Ehlers.1135A.3 and 5. doi:10. ISBN 0-521-37976-8.. 237–288 (section 3). Relativity. Green. doi:10. "New variables for classical and quantum gravity". Bibcode 1997IJTP. org/ lrr-1998-13). ed. Physical Review Letters 57 (18): 2244–2247. com/ books?id=aYDDRKqODpUC& printsec=frontcover). Renate (1998).385T.5623D.. 33 in Penrose 2004 and references therein.1088/0264-9381/21/15/R01. [37] Isham. [40] Sorkin. "31" (http:/ / books. Andres.11. doi:10. Christopher J. .1007/s10773-007-9474-3 .1088/0264-9381/17/5/321. [43] Wen 2006 [44] See ch.. Friedrich. "Lectures on Loop Quantum Gravity". Bibcode 2003LNP. Reidel.885C..1. "Quantum cosmology". pp. Israel. Quantum Gravity: From Theory to Experimental Search.. "M-Theory (the Theory Formerly Known as Strings)". Steven (2001). Bibcode 1987PhRvD.ac. Astrophysics and Cosmology. Quantum Gravity. Bibcode 1997hepcbconf.. [26] For the graviton as part of the string spectrum. ISBN 354040810X • Rovelli. [42] Hawking.492T.1007/BF02435709. Retrieved 2008-03-13.21R. Retrieved 2008-03-09. Canonical Gravity: From Classical to Quantum.41T. Stephen W.57.36. Bibcode 1998LRR. ISBN 90-277-0369-8.. doi:10.721. Carlo (1998). [30] Kuchař.3.

or equivalently.[4] Later. Symbol: electric charge e Unit conversions 1 e in... e is 4. To avoid confusion over its sign.80320425(10) × 10−10 [1] In some natural unit systems. the particle we now call the electron was not yet discovered and the difference between the particle electron and the unit of charge electron was still blurred. the name electron was assigned to the particle and the unit of charge e lost its name. the negation (opposite) of the electric charge carried by a single electron.176 Appendix . the unit of energy electronvolt reminds us that the elementary charge was once called electron.602176565(35) × 10−19 C[1] The elementary charge. Millikan's noted oil drop experiment in 1909.. called Stoney units.80320425(10) × 10−10 statcoulombs. coulomb statcoulomb is equal to.[3] Elementary charge as a unit Elementary charge (as a unit of charge) Unit system: Atomic units Unit of..602176565(35) × 10−19 4. e functions as the unit of electric charge. This charge has a measured value of approximately 1. The use of elementary charge as a unit was promoted by George Johnstone Stoney in 1874 for the first system of natural units. is the electric charge carried by a single proton.602176565(35) × 10−19 coulombs.Quantisation of Charge The Elementary Charge Elementary charge Definition: Symbol Charge of a proton e Value in Coulombs: 1. 1.. he proposed the name electron for this unit. The magnitude of the elementary charge was first measured in Robert A.[5] .[1] In the cgs system. such as the system of atomic units. At the time. that is e is equal to 1 e in those unit systems. Later. However. e is sometimes called the elementary positive charge. usually denoted as e..[2] This elementary charge is a fundamental physical constant.

etc. What is the quantum of charge? All known elementary particles. have quantized charge. or exactly 1 e. In 1982 Robert Laughlin explained the fractional quantum Hall effect by postulating the existence of fractionally-charged quasiparticles. see below. In this case.8 e. Therefore. an object's charge can be exactly 0 e. this method is not how the most accurate values are measured today: Nevertheless. both terminologies are used. say. estimated the average diameter of the molecules in air by a method that is equivalent to calculating the number of particles in a given volume of gas. since quasiparticles are not elementary particles. On the other hand. which consists of three quarks) all have charges that are integer multiples of e. one says that the "elementary charge" is three times as large as the "quantum of charge". 1⁄2 e. it is a legitimate and still quite accurate method. In fact. unless further specification is given. the charge of one mole of electrons. For this reason. the term "elementary charge" is unambiguous: It universally refers to the charge of a proton. Charges less than an elementary charge There are two known sorts of exceptions to the indivisibility of the elementary charge: quarks and quasiparticles. except in combinations like protons that have total charges that are integer multiples of e. one can say that the "quantum of charge" is 1⁄3 e. (There may be exceptions to this statement. 2 e. However. often silicon). e. In this case. the value of the elementary charge can be deduced. divided by the number of electrons in a mole. with the proviso that quarks are not to be included. all isolatable particles have charges that are integer multiples of e. On the other hand. and experimental methodologies are described below: The value of the Avogadro constant NA was first approximated by Johann Josef Loschmidt who. or −3. but the charge is quantized into multiples of 1⁄3 e. This theory is now widely accepted.) In practice.. Experimental measurements of the elementary charge In terms of the Avogadro constant and Faraday constant If the Avogadro constant NA and the Faraday constant F are independently known. "elementary charge" would be synonymous with the "quantum of charge". and stable groupings of quarks (such as a proton. • Quasiparticles are not particles as such. one can say that the "quantum of charge" is e. but rather an emergent entity in a complex material system that behaves like a particle.[6] For this reason.) Therefore.[7] Today the value of NA can be measured at very high accuracy by taking an extremely pure crystal (in practice.The Elementary Charge 177 Quantization Charge quantization is the principle that the charge of any object is an integer multiple of the elementary charge e. etc. either 1 e or 1⁄3 e can be justifiably considered to be "the quantum of charge". in 1865. using the formula (In other words. they exist only in groupings. • Quarks. but this is not considered to be a violation of the principle of charge quantization. −1 e. have charges that are integer multiples of 1⁄3 e. but not. Thus. first posited in the 1960s.g. including quarks.) This is the reason for the terminology "elementary charge": it is meant to imply that it is an indivisible unit of charge. quarks cannot be seen as isolated particles. measuring how far apart the atoms are spaced using X-ray diffraction or another . phrases like "the quantum of charge" or "the indivisible unit of charge" can be ambiguous. depending on the context. depending on how "object" is defined. (Quarks cannot be isolated. equals the charge of a single electron..

namely e.6 ppm. instead. Faraday's laws of electrolysis are quantitative relationships based on the electrochemical researches published by Michael Faraday in 1834. Shot noise Any electric current will be associated with noise from a variety of sources. and the total charge passing through the wire (which can be measured as the time-integral of electric current). By measuring the charges of many different oil drops. in turn. about thirty times higher than other modern methods of measuring or calculating the elementary charge.[9] In an electrolysis experiment. one can deduce F. the elementary charge can be deduced: . From these two constants. The von Klitzing constant is It can be measured directly using the quantum Hall effect.[12] From the Josephson and von Klitzing constants Another accurate method for measuring the elementary charge is by inferring it from measurements of two effects in quantum mechanics: The Josephson effect. From this information. Since electric force. it can be seen that the charges are all integer multiples of a single small charge. voltage oscillations that arise in certain superconducting structures. a quantum effect of electrons at low temperatures. A small drop of oil in an electric field would move at a rate that balanced the forces of gravity. and electric force. the charge of an electron can be calculated. Schottky. and since the molar mass (M) is known. This method. Measuring the mass change of the anode or cathode.[11] However. strong magnetic fields. and also taking into account the molar mass of the ions. It can be measured directly using the Josephson effect. and confinement into two dimensions. implicated in the fractional quantum Hall effect. it was used in the first direct observation of Laughlin quasiparticles. the electric charge of the oil drop could be accurately computed. The forces due to gravity and viscosity could be calculated based on the size and velocity of the oil drop. and the quantum Hall effect. the number of atoms in a mole can be calculated: NA = M/m. one of which is shot noise. a current is made up of discrete electrons that pass by one at a time. one can deduce the mass (m) of a single atom. there is a one-to-one correspondence between the electrons passing through the anode-to-cathode wire and the ions that plate onto or off of the anode or cathode. Shot noise exists because a current is not a smooth continual flow. The Josephson constant is (where h is the Planck constant). so electric force could be deduced. viscosity (of traveling through the air). first proposed by Walter H.[8] The limit to the precision of the method is the measurement of F: the best experimental value has a relative uncertainty of 1. and accurately measuring the density of the crystal.[8][10] 178 Oil-drop experiment A famous method for measuring e is Millikan's oil-drop experiment. By carefully analyzing the noise of a current. can give only a value of e accurate to a few percent.[8] The value of F can be measured directly using Faraday's laws of electrolysis.The Elementary Charge method. is the product of the electric charge and the known electric field.

(1865). J. com/ books?id=zBsDkgI1uQsC& pg=RA1-PA296) [7] Loschmidt. juliantrubin. Newell. Phys.. com/ bigten/ millikanoildrop. in atomic physics. "Faraday's Electrochemical Laws and the Determination of Equivalent Weights". June 2011. [10] Mohr. Umansky. Nature 389 (162–164): 162. Wiley. Web link (http:/ / books. Bibcode 2008RvMP. [8] Mohr. "CODATA recommended values of the fundamental physical constants: 1998".. doi:10. [12] de-Picciotto. Christian." or Atom of Electricity" (http:/ / www.1103/RevModPhys. Phys. (1997). Sitzungsberichte der kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften Wien 52 (2): 395–413. Ihde. Taylor.. . J.351. [9] Ehl. Data 28 (6): 1713–1852. G. Taylor. Halliday. . (1999). html). Instead. e sometimes denotes the electron charge. "Of the "Electron. Philosophical Magazine. Bibcode 1954JChEd. R. US National Institute of Standards and Technology..80. Units. gov/ cuu/ Constants/ index. k12.. ca. [2] Note that the symbol e has many other meanings. us/ webdocs/ Chem-History/ Loschmidt-1865. D. M. Rosemary Gene.) [4] G. by John R. The most precise values of the fine structure constant come from comparisons of the measured and calculated value of the gyromagnetic ratio of the electron. The most precise values of the Planck constant come from watt balance experiments. chemteam.The Elementary Charge 179 CODATA method In the most recent CODATA adjustments. nist.633.31. The NIST Reference on Constants. Jonathan Gribbin. Barry N. V. gov/ cuu/ index. using the fact that one coulomb is exactly 2997924580 statcoulombs. English translation (http:/ / dbhs. μ0 is the magnetic constant and c0 is the speed of light. M. gov/ cgi-bin/ cuu/ Value?e). Bunin. Stoney (1894). 80 (2): 633–730.e. α is the fine structure constant. nist. [5] Robert Millikan: The Oil-Drop Experiment (http:/ / www.. Carlo. Peter J. Heiblum. page 296. doi:10.633M. doi:10.162D. html).. the negative of the elementary charge. Mary Gribbin. nist.. Journal of Chemical Education 31 (May): 226–232...80. Retrieved 2011-06-23. "CODATA Recommended Values of the Fundamental Physical Constants: 2006" (http:/ / physics. Mod. a value is derived from the relation where h is the Planck constant..226E. arXiv:cond-mat/0605025. Aaron (1954). . which are currently used to measure the product K RK. (2008). and Uncertainty (http:/ / physics. Somewhat confusingly. Direct link to value (http:/ / physics..389. Schönenberger.1021/ed031p226.. 7th Ed. Chem.. [11] Beenakker. gov/ cgi-bin/ cuu/ Value?e). . 5 38: 418–420. David B. "Quantum Shot Noise. and Jearl Walker. Reznikov. Fluctuations in the flow of electrons signal the transition from particle to wave behavior". i. Peter J. Robert Resnick. info/ Chem-History/ Stoney-1894. wvusd.72... nist.1103/RevModPhys. "Direct observation of a fractional charge". html). Barry N.[8] References • Fundamentals of Physics. [3] This is derived from the NIST value and uncertainty. html) [6] Q is for Quantum. 2005 [1] "CODATA Value: elementary charge" (http:/ / physics. Mahalu. Rev. html). Gribbin. google. Ref.1038/38241. (The conversion is ten times the numerical speed of light in meters/second. J.[8] the elementary charge is not an independently defined quantity. The uncertainty in the value of e is currently determined entirely by the uncertainty in the Planck constant.. Bibcode 1997Natur. doi:10. "Zur Grösse der Luftmoleküle".

and spin. Quarks are the only elementary particles in the Standard Model of particle physics to experience all four fundamental interactions. strong interaction. color charge. Weak q Antiquark (q) Murray Gell-Mann (1964) George Zweig (1964) SLAC (~1968) 6 (up. much of what is known about quarks has been drawn from observations of the hadrons themselves. strange.[1] Due to a phenomenon known as color confinement. down. strange. composed of two up quarks and one down quark. 3rd Electromagnetism. Quarks combine to form composite particles called hadrons. known as flavors: up. There are six types of quarks. −1⁄3 e Yes 1 Discovered Types Electric charge Color charge Spin Baryon number ⁄2 ⁄3 1 A quark ( /ˈkwɔrk/ or /ˈkwɑrk/) is an elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter. and top. bottom. gravitation.[4] Up and down quarks have the lowest masses of all quarks. whereas strange. and bottom quarks can only be produced in high energy collisions (such as those involving cosmic rays and in particle accelerators).[2][3] For this reason. charm. top. the components of atomic nuclei. quarks are never directly observed or found in isolation. Quarks have various intrinsic properties. The heavier quarks rapidly change into up and down quarks through a process of particle decay: the transformation from a higher mass state to a lower mass state. as well as the only known particles whose electric charges are not integer multiples of the elementary charge. the most stable of which are protons and neutrons.) Composition Statistics Generation Interactions Symbol Antiparticle Theorized Elementary particle Fermionic 1st. charm. mass. only that all three colors are present. (The color assignment of individual quarks is not important. Gravitation. up and down quarks are generally stable and the most common in the universe. down. 2nd. including electric charge. they can only be found within baryons or mesons. and weak interaction). charm. bottom. also known as fundamental forces (electromagnetism. Strong. and top) +2⁄3 e.Quarks 180 Quarks Quark A proton. For every quark . Because of this.

[11] Unlike leptons. charm (c). This is in contrast to bosons (particles with integer spin). The quarks which determine the quantum numbers of hadrons are called valence quarks. As with antimatter in general. with three valence quarks. that differs from the quark only in that some of its properties have equal magnitude but opposite sign. and are denoted by a bar over the symbol for the corresponding quark. and gluons which do not influence its quantum numbers. All searches for a fourth generation of quarks and other elementary fermions have failed. which causes them to engage in the strong interaction. known as antiquark. Each of simultaneously occupy the same quantum the first three columns forms a generation of matter. quarks possess color charge. any hadron may contain an indefinite number of virtual (or sea) quarks. implying that they are fermions according to the spin-statistics theorem. any number of which can be in the same state. such as tetraquarks (qqqq) and pentaquarks (qqqqq). each comprising two leptons and two quarks. and spin as their respective quarks. has been conjectured[15] but not proven. antiquarks. as well as the unobserved[8] Higgs boson. named up (u).Quarks flavor there is a corresponding type of antiparticle. and the third bottom and top quarks. They are subject to the Pauli exclusion principle.[5] 181 Classification The Standard Model is the theoretical framework describing all the currently known elementary particles.[18] and there is strong . the building blocks of the atomic nucleus. and mesons. down (d).[5] Quarks were introduced as parts of an ordering scheme for hadrons.[4] Antiparticles of quarks are called antiquarks. The existence of "exotic" hadrons with more valence quarks. apart from these. the second strange and charm quarks.[14] A great number of hadrons are known (see list of baryons and list of mesons). state. was the last to be discovered.[16][15][17] Elementary fermions are grouped into three generations. strange (s).[10] Quarks are spin-1⁄2 particles. which states that no two identical fermions can Six of the particles in the Standard Model are quarks (shown in purple). and there was little evidence for their physical existence until deep inelastic scattering experiments at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in 1968.[12] There are two families of hadrons: baryons. antiquarks have the same mass. The resulting attraction between different quarks causes the formation of composite particles known as hadrons (see "Strong interaction and color charge" below). mean lifetime. and top (t). such as u for an anti-up quark. the top quark.[6][7] All six flavors of quark have since been observed in accelerator experiments. first observed at Fermilab in 1995. bottom (b). most of them differentiated by their quark content and the properties these constituent quarks confer. The quark model was independently proposed by physicists Murray Gell-Mann and George Zweig in 1964. The first generation includes up and down quarks.[9] This model contains six flavors of quarks (q).[13] The most common baryons are the proton and the neutron. but the electric charge and other charges have the opposite sign. with a valence quark and an antiquark.

when the universe was in an extremely hot and dense phase (the quark epoch). There was particular contention about whether the quark was a physical entity or an abstraction used to explain concepts that were not properly understood at the time. causing them to decay into lower-generation particles by means of weak interactions. antiquarks. down.[36][37] The number of supposed quark flavors grew to the current six in 1973. they are thought to have been present during the first fractions of a second after the Big Bang. Murray Gell-Mann at TED in 2007.[35] In a 1970 paper. point-like objects and was therefore not an elementary particle. but it provided an explanation for the kaon (K) and pion (π) hadrons discovered in cosmic rays in 1947.[22][23][24] The initial reaction of the physics community to the proposal proposed the quark model in 1964. instead calling them "partons"—a term coined by Richard Feynman. mass. . Glashow. "parton" remains in use as a collective term for the constituents of hadrons (quarks. and implied a mass formula that correctly reproduced the masses of the known mesons. such as in particle accelerators. Gell-Mann and Zweig posited that they were not elementary particles. color charge. deep inelastic scattering experiments at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) showed that the proton contained much smaller. Heavier quarks can only be created in high-energy collisions (such as in those involving cosmic rays). Only first-generation (up and down) quarks occur commonly in nature. extensions to the Gell-Mann–Zweig model were proposed.[6][7][30] Physicists were reluctant to identify these objects with quarks at the time.[34] Nevertheless. 182 History The quark model was independently proposed by physicists Murray Gell-Mann[22] and George Zweig[23][24] in 1964. Sheldon Lee Glashow and James Bjorken predicted the existence of a fourth flavor of quark. The addition was proposed because it allowed for a better description of the weak interaction (the mechanism that allows quarks to decay).[26][27] At the time of the quark theory's inception. which they called charm. and gluons). in more technical terms. SU(3) flavor symmetry. the "particle zoo" included. Studies of heavier quarks are conducted in artificially created conditions.[19][20] Particles in higher generations generally have greater mass and less stability.[29] In 1968. The strange quark's existence was indirectly validated by the SLAC's scattering experiments: not only was it a necessary component of Gell-Mann and Zweig's three-quark model. and flavor. amongst other particles.[25] Physicist Yuval Ne'eman had independently developed a scheme similar to the Eightfold Way in the same year. but were instead composed of combinations of quarks and antiquarks. John Iliopoulos and Luciano Maiani presented further reasoning for the existence of the as-yet undiscovered charm quark. See the table of properties below for a more complete overview of the six quark flavors' properties.[31][32][33] The objects that were observed at the SLAC would later be identified as up and down quarks as the other flavors were discovered. and weak interaction. and decay quickly.[14] Gravitation is too weak to be relevant to individual particle interactions except at extremes of energy (Planck energy) and distance scales (Planck distance). however. quarks are the only known elementary particles that engage in all four fundamental interactions of contemporary physics: electromagnetism. gravitation is not described by the Standard Model. However.Quarks indirect evidence that no more than three generations exist. strong interaction. and strange—to which they ascribed properties such as spin and electric Gell-Mann and George Zweig charge. a multitude of hadrons. gravitation. equalized the number of known quarks with the number of known leptons. was mixed.[28] In less than a year. since no successful quantum theory of gravity exists.[21] Having electric charge.[5] The proposal came shortly after Gell-Mann's 1961 formulation of a particle classification system known as the Eightfold Way—or. Their model involved three flavors of quarks—up.

The discovery finally convinced the physics community of the quark model's validity.[51] Strange quarks were given their name because they were discovered to be components of the strange particles discovered in cosmic rays years before the quark model was proposed. were chosen because they are "logical partners for up and down quarks". that perhaps one of the multiple sources of the cry "Three quarks for Muster Mark" might be "Three quarts for Mister Mark". coined by Harari. but Gell-Mann's terminology came to prominence once the quark model had been commonly accepted. However. I had the sound first. The two parties had assigned the discovered meson two different symbols. these particles were deemed "strange" because they had unusually long lifetimes. but these names have somewhat fallen out of use. accelerator complexes devoted to massive production of bottom quarks are sometimes called "beauty factories". Charm quarks were produced almost simultaneously by two teams in November 1974 (see November Revolution)—one at the SLAC under Burton Richter. J and ψ. I argued. I had to find an excuse to pronounce it as "kwork". The charm quarks were observed bound with charm antiquarks in mesons. therefore. Gell-Mann was undecided on an actual spelling for the term he intended to coin. for one thing."[53] The names "bottom" and "top".[5] It had a mass much greater than had been previously expected[46]—almost as great as a gold atom. I came across the word "quark" in the phrase "Three quarks for Muster Mark". ” Zweig preferred the name ace for the particle he had theorized. until he found the word quark in James Joyce's book Finnegans Wake: Three quarks for Muster Mark! Sure he has not got much of a bark And sure any he has it's all beside the mark. for we were fascinated and pleased by the symmetry it brought to the subnuclear world. like the "portmanteau" words in "Through the Looking-Glass". phrases occur in the book that are partially determined by calls for drinks at the bar. Finnegans Wake[48] Gell-Mann went into further detail regarding the name of the quark in his book. who coproposed charm quark with Bjorken. in one of my occasional perusals of Finnegans Wake. In any case. Since "quark" (meaning. the bottom quark was observed by a team at Fermilab led by Leon Lederman. From time to time. and one at Brookhaven National Laboratory under Samuel Ting. But the book represents the dream of a publican named Humphrey Chimpden Earwicker. without the spelling. Of these.[40][41][52] In the past. which could have been "kwork". Then. the 1975 paper by Haim Harari[40] was the first to coin the terms top and bottom for the additional quarks. is quoted as saying. as well as "bark" and other such words. "We called our construct the 'charmed quark'. Words in the text are typically drawn from several sources at once.[41] In 1977. the bottom quark would have been without a partner.[33] In the following years a number of suggestions appeared for extending the quark model to six quarks. thus. The up and down quarks are named after the up and down components of isospin. it was not until 1995 that the top quark was finally observed. The Quark and the Jaguar:[49] “ In 1963.[54] While "truth" never did catch on. the number three fitted perfectly the way quarks occur in nature. by James Joyce. the cry of the gull) was clearly intended to rhyme with "Mark".[42][43] This was a strong indicator of the top quark's existence: without the top quark. in which case the pronunciation "kwork" would not be totally unjustified.[52] Glashow.[47] 183 Etymology For some time. which they carry. it became formally known as the J/ψ meson. when I assigned the name "quark" to the fundamental constituents of the nucleon.[50] The quark flavors were given their names for a number of reasons. bottom and top quarks were sometimes referred to as "beauty" and "truth" respectively. —James Joyce.Quarks when Makoto Kobayashi and Toshihide Maskawa noted that the experimental observation of CP violation[38][39] could be explained if there were another pair of quarks.[55] . also by the CDF[44] and DØ[45] teams at Fermilab.

[59] Weak interaction A quark of one flavor can transform into a quark of another flavor only through the weak interaction. The CKM matrix (discussed below) encodes the probability of this and other quark decays. and top quarks (collectively referred to as up-type quarks) have a charge of +2⁄3. the neutron is composed of two down quarks and one up quark. For quarks. Antiquarks have the opposite charge to their corresponding quarks. hadron notation) udd → uud + e− + νe (Beta decay. transforming the neutron into a proton (uud).Quarks 184 Properties Electric charge Quarks have fractional electric charge values — either 1⁄3 or 2⁄3 times the elementary charge. placed after the symbol for flavor.[57] Spin can be represented by a vector whose length is measured in units of the reduced Planck constant ħ (pronounced "h bar").[56] For example. strange. This flavor transformation mechanism causes the radioactive process of beta decay. neutrons and protons. and bottom quarks (down-type quarks) have −1⁄3. It is sometimes visualized as the rotation of an object around its own axis (hence the name "spin"). n → p + e− + νe (Beta decay. The W− boson then decays into an electron and an electron antineutrino.[60] Feynman diagram of beta decay with time flowing upwards. and the proton of two up quarks and one down quark. charm. charm. in which a neutron (n) "splits" into a proton (p). quark notation) Both beta decay and the inverse process of inverse beta decay are routinely used in medical applications such as positron emission tomography (PET) and in high-energy experiments such as neutrino detection. For example. for this reason quarks are classified as spin-1⁄2 particles. one of the four fundamental interactions in particle physics. and top quarks) can change into any down-type quark (down. though this notion is somewhat misguided at subatomic scales because elementary particles are believed to be point-like. all hadrons have integer charges: the combination of three quarks (baryons). the hadron constituents of atomic nuclei. an electron (e−) and an electron antineutrino (νe) (see picture). while down. This occurs when one of the down quarks in the neutron (udd) decays into an up quark by emitting a virtual W− boson. and bottom quarks) and vice versa. an up quark with a spin of +1⁄2 along the z axis is denoted by u↑. By absorbing or emitting a W boson. strange. and its direction is an important degree of freedom. a measurement of the spin vector component along any axis can only yield the values +ħ/2 or −ħ/2. three antiquarks (antibaryons).[58] The component of spin along a given axis—by convention the z axis—is often denoted by an up arrow ↑ for the value +1⁄2 and down arrow ↓ for the value −1⁄2. any up-type quark (up. depending on flavor. up-type antiquarks have charges of −2⁄3 and down-type antiquarks have charges of +1⁄3. have charges of 0 and +1 respectively. Up. .[14] Spin Spin is an intrinsic property of elementary particles. or a quark and an antiquark (mesons) always results in integer charges. Since the electric charge of a hadron is the sum of the charges of the constituent quarks.

called the Pontecorvo–Maki–Nakagawa–Sakata matrix (PMNS matrix). The approximate magnitudes of the entries of the CKM matrix are:[61] The strengths of the weak interactions between the six quarks. The relative tendencies of all flavor transformations are described by a mathematical table. the CKM and PMNS matrices describe all flavor transformations.[63] Together.[62] There exists an equivalent weak interaction matrix for leptons (right side of the W boson on the above beta decay diagram). The "intensities" of the lines are determined by the elements of the CKM matrix. where Vij represents the tendency of a quark of flavor i to change into a quark of flavor j (or vice versa).Quarks 185 While the process of flavor transformation is the same for all quarks. called the Cabibbo–Kobayashi–Maskawa matrix (CKM matrix). each quark has a preference to transform into the quark of its own generation. but the links between the two are not yet clear.[64] .

while constituent quark mass refers to the current quark mass plus the mass of the gluon particle field surrounding the quark. arbitrarily labeled blue. the combination of three quarks or three antiquarks. of which the rest mass of its three valence quarks only contributes about 11 MeV/c2. and green. gauge symmetries—a kind of symmetry group—relate interactions between particles (see gauge theories). rather than from the quarks themselves. each with different color charges. the physics All types of hadrons have zero of quantum chromodynamics is independent of which directions in total color charge. Every quark flavor f. and red. which is related to the unobserved Higgs boson. The result of two attracting quarks will be color neutrality: a quark with color charge ξ plus an antiquark with color charge −ξ will result in a color charge of 0 (or "white" color) and the formation of a meson. three-dimensional color space are identified as blue. will similarly be bound together. which was found to be approximately equal to that of a gold nucleus (~171 GeV/c2). green. they possess energy—more specifically. There are three types of color charge. mathematically speaking. this is discussed at length below.[76] . will result in the same "white" color charge and the formation of a baryon or antibaryon.[65] Each of them is complemented by an anticolor—antiblue. and remain unchanged if the coordinate axes are rotated to a new orientation. A quark charged with one color value can form a bound system with an antiquark carrying the corresponding anticolor. a proton has a mass of approximately 938 MeV/c2. quantum chromodynamics binding energy (QCBE)—and it is this that contributes so greatly to the overall mass of the hadron (see mass in special relativity). Every quark carries a color.[66] The system of attraction and repulsion between quarks charged with different combinations of the three colors is called strong interaction. fG. which is mediated by force carrying particles known as gluons.[68][71] Mass Two terms are used in referring to a quark's mass: current quark mass refers to the mass of a quark by itself. antigreen.Quarks 186 Strong interaction and color charge Quarks possess a property called color charge.[67] In modern particle physics. much of the remainder can be attributed to the gluons' QCBE. each with subtypes fB. that its transformations be allowed to vary with space and time—determines the properties of the strong interaction. three (anti)quarks.[68] Just as the laws of physics are independent of which directions in space are designated x. and antired. SU(3)c color transformations correspond to "rotations" in color space (which. y.[73][75] might reveal more about the origin of the mass of quarks and other elementary particles. Physicists hope that further research into the reasons for the top quark's large mass. is a complex space). Color SU(3) (commonly abbreviated to SU(3)c) is the gauge symmetry that relates the color charge in quarks and is the defining symmetry for quantum chromodynamics. The theory that describes strong interactions is called quantum chromodynamics (QCD). while every antiquark carries an anticolor.[69] forms a triplet: a three-component quantum field which transforms under the fundamental representation of SU(3)c. in particular the existence of eight gluon types to act as its force carriers. Analogous to the additive color model in basic optics. Most of a hadron's mass comes from the gluons that bind the constituent quarks together. and z. fR corresponding to the quark colors. For example. red. one of each (anti)color.[70] The requirement that SU(3)c should be local—that is.[72] These masses typically have very different values.[73][74] The Standard Model posits that elementary particles derive their masses from the Higgs mechanism. While gluons are inherently massless.

the chromodynamic binding force between them weakens.8 1 ⁄2 +1⁄3 +2⁄3 +1⁄2 ⁄2 +1⁄3 −1⁄3 −1⁄2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Antiup Antidown u d 1 Second generation Charm Strange c s 1270 101 1 ⁄2 +1⁄3 +2⁄3 ⁄2 +1⁄3 −1⁄3 0 0 +1 0 0 −1 0 0 0 0 Anticharm Antistrange c s 1 Third generation Top Bottom t b 172000 ± 900 ±1. their strong interaction is preserved. Q = electric charge. C.Quarks 187 Table of properties The following table summarizes the key properties of the six quarks. I3. Above a certain energy threshold.7 to 3. as baryons are made of three quarks. equal to spin for point particles) do not change sign for the antiquarks. while each quark's color constantly changes. as the distance between quarks increases. * Notation such as 4190 denotes measurement uncertainty. This phenomenon is known as color confinement: quarks never appear in isolation. In the case of the top quark. When a gluon is transferred between quarks. and denote qualities of quark-based systems and hadrons. a color change occurs in both. strangeness (S. it becomes green.[78][81] This process of hadronization occurs before quarks. Quark flavor properties[73] Name Symbol Mass (MeV/c2)* J B Q I3 C S T B′ Antiparticle Antiparticle symbol First generation Up Down u d 1. T. and if a green quark absorbs a red–antigreen gluon. the binding force strengthens. and bottomness (B′)) are assigned to certain quark flavors. it becomes red. Flavor quantum numbers (isospin (I3). Therefore. and the second is systematic. gluons are constantly exchanged between quarks through a virtual emission and absorption process.[82] . and B′) are of opposite sign. B = baryon number. The only exception is the top quark. they themselves are able to emit and absorb other gluons. This causes asymptotic freedom: as quarks come closer to each other. Each gluon carries one color charge and one anticolor charge. topness (T). In the standard framework of particle interactions (part of a more general formulation known as perturbation theory). which may decay before it hadronizes.1 to 5. charm (C). the strong interaction between quarks is mediated by gluons.3 4. T = topness. S = strangeness. These pairs bind with the quarks being separated. not to be confused with spin).[80] Conversely.[77][78][79] Since gluons carry color charge. B′ = bottomness. S. The baryon number (B) is +1⁄3 for all quarks. if a red quark emits a red–antigreen gluon. pairs of quarks and antiquarks are created. Interacting quarks As described by quantum chromodynamics. massless vector gauge bosons. The color field becomes stressed. much as an elastic band is stressed when stretched. the first uncertainty is statistical in nature. and more gluons of appropriate color are spontaneously created to strengthen the field. I3 = isospin. C = charm. are able to interact in any other way. the electric charge (Q) and all flavor quantum numbers (B. Mass and total angular momentum (J. For antiquarks.300 4190 1 ⁄2 +1⁄3 +2⁄3 ⁄2 +1⁄3 −1⁄3 0 0 0 0 0 0 +1 0 0 −1 Antitop Antibottom t b 1 J = total angular momentum. causing new hadrons to form. for example. formed in a high energy collision.

[84] Other phases of quark matter Under sufficiently extreme conditions. The result is a constant flux of gluon splits and creations colloquially known as "the sea". While a state of entirely free quarks and gluons has never been achieved (despite numerous attempts by CERN in the 1980s and 1990s). color confinement would be lost and an extremely hot plasma of freely moving quarks and gluons would be formed.[92] . Eventually.02 × 1012 the diagram are the subject of ongoing research. and they typically annihilate each other within the interior of the hadron. Despite this. the strong interaction becomes weaker at higher temperatures. such a phase of quark matter would be color superconductive. It is believed that in the period prior to 10−6 seconds after the Big Bang (the quark epoch). Sea quarks form when a gluon of the hadron's color field splits. this process also works in reverse in that the annihilation of two sea quarks produces a gluon. In the course of asymptotic freedom. This theoretical phase of matter is called quark–gluon plasma. The precise details of [85][86] needed temperature at 1. contain virtual quark–antiquark (qq) pairs known as sea quarks (qs).[87] The exact conditions needed to give rise to this state are unknown and have been the subject of a great deal of speculation and experimentation. that is. Because quark Cooper pairs harbor color charge.90 ± 0. quarks may become deconfined and exist as free particles.[90] The quark–gluon plasma would be characterized by a great increase in the number of heavier quark pairs in relation to the number of up and down quark pairs. color charge would be able to pass through it with no resistance.[91] Given sufficiently high baryon densities and relatively low temperatures—possibly comparable to those found in neutron stars—quark matter is expected to degenerate into a Fermi liquid of weakly interacting quarks. [88] kelvin. A recent estimate puts the A qualitative rendering of the phase diagram of quark matter. This liquid would be characterized by a condensation of colored quark Cooper pairs. as the temperature was too high for hadrons to be stable. along with the valence quarks (qv) that contribute to their quantum numbers.[89] recent experiments at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider have yielded evidence for liquid-like quark matter exhibiting "nearly perfect" fluid motion. thereby breaking the local SU(3)c symmetry. the universe was filled with quark–gluon plasma.[83] Sea quarks are much less stable than their valence counterparts. sea quarks can hadronize into baryonic or mesonic particles under certain circumstances.Quarks 188 Sea quarks Hadrons.

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European Physical Journal H 36 (2): 245..org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/ 1976/ting-lecture. The Hunting of the Quark: A true story of modern physics.1140/epjh/e2011-10047-1. .. G. Introduction to Elementary Particles (2nd ed. Riordan (1987).36.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/ 1976/richter-lecture. ISBN 0-226-66799-5. Particles and Nuclei: An Introduction to the Physical Concepts. • A. • B. Pickering (1984).245A. • R.edu/openbook. Johns Hopkins University Press. External links • 1969 Physics Nobel Prize lecture by Murray Gell-Mann (http://nobelprize. Hughes (1985). • B.html) • The Top Quark And The Higgs Particle by T.J.A.A. ISBN 0-387-59439-6.).html) • 1976 Physics Nobel Prize lecture by Samuel C. doi:10. php?isbn=0309048931&page=236) – A description of CERN's experiment to count the families of quarks. Povh (1995). ISBN 0132366789. Simon & Schuster. • D. Springer–Verlag.C.html) • 1976 Physics Nobel Prize lecture by Burton Richter (http://nobelprize. ISBN 3527406018. The University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-521-26092-2. ISBN 0-671-64884-5.Quarks 192 References Further reading • A. Deep Down Things: The Breathtaking Beauty of Particle Physics. "JETS and QCD: A historical review of the discovery of the quark and gluon jets and its impact on QCD". The Theory of Almost Everything: The Standard Model. Schumm (2004).nap. Ali. Elementary particles (2nd ed.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/ 1969/index. • M. Oerter (2005). Pi Press. ISBN 0-8018-7971-X. Griffiths (2008). Kramer (2011).).html) • 2008 Physics Nobel Prize lecture by Toshihide Maskawa (http://nobelprize. Wiley–VCH. Constructing Quarks: A Sociological History of Particle Physics. Cambridge University Press.. Bibcode 2011EPJH. the Unsung Triumph of Modern Physics.html) • 2008 Physics Nobel Prize lecture by Makoto Kobayashi (http://nobelprize.S. • I. Heppenheimer (http://books. Ting (http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/ 2008/kobayashi-lecture.org/nobel_prizes/physics/ laureates/2008/maskawa-lecture.

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