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Communication is defined as the interchange of thoughts or opinions through shared symbols; e.g. language, words, phrases “Communication is interchange of thoughts , opinions, information, by speech, writing or signs” - Robert Anderson (Professional Selling) “Purposive interchange, resulting in workable understanding and agreement between the sender and receiver of a message” - George Vardman (Effective Communication of Ideas)
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Business Communication Defined
“Business communication is any communication used to build partnerships, intellectual resources, to promote an idea, a product, service, or an
organization – with the objective of creating value for your business.”
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PROF SURAJIT . plans. strategies.Internal and External Communication 4 Business Communication encompasses a huge body of knowledge both internal and external for any business. corporate culture. cross pollination of ideas etc… PREPARED FOR CHRIST . employee motivation. shared values and guiding principles. Internal communication includes communication of corporate vision.
5 External communication includes branding. media relations. public relations. marketing. business negotiations. Whatever form it takes. the objective remains the same – to create a business value PREPARED FOR CHRIST . advertising. etc. customer relations.PROF SURAJIT .
with messages often misinterpreted by the recipient. and explain the subject Persuade – the focus is on the receiver and not the message The purpose of communication is to get your message across to others clearly and unambiguously. Involves effort from both the sender of the message and the receiver. develop. wasted effort and missed opportunity. Is a process that can be fraught with error. it can cause tremendous confusion. When not detected.PROF SURAJIT .Purpose of communication 6 We generally communicate to : Inform – directed by desire to expose. PREPARED FOR CHRIST .
PREPARED FOR CHRIST .PROF SURAJIT . Approach Which is the better way of doing it. Objective What do I want to accomplish in this situation. Technique What specific methods should I use to solve it.Role of Communication 7 Helps us understand: What factors are relevant to this situation.
A 2007 raters rated communication skills as the most important characteristic of an ideal job candidate. One of the most inhibiting forces to successful group performance is effective communication Good communication skills is important for the carrier success.PROF SURAJIT .Communication-importance 8 Poor communication is probably the most frequently cited source of interpersonal communication. PREPARED FOR CHRIST .
PREPARED FOR CHRIST . A perfect communication is that when a thought or an idea was transmitted so that the mental picture perceived by the receiver was exactly the same as that envisioned by the sender. Communication must include both the transfer and the understanding of meaning.PROF SURAJIT .importance 9 No individual.Communication . group or organization can exist without communication: the transfer of meaning among its members.
PROF SURAJIT . PREPARED FOR CHRIST . Control member behavior. Communication Functions 1. Provide information needed to make decisions. Provide a release for emotional expression. 4. 3.Functions of Communication 10 Communication The transference and the understanding of meaning. 2. Foster motivation for what is to be done.
PROF SURAJIT .Elements of the Communication Process 11 The sender Encoding The message The channel Decoding The receiver Noise Feedback PREPARED FOR CHRIST .
PROF SURAJIT .The Communication Process Model 12 Communication Process The steps between a source and a receiver that result in the transference and understanding of meaning. PREPARED FOR CHRIST .
These informal channels are spontaneous and emerge as a response to individual choices. Types of Channels Informal Channels Used to transmit personal or social messages in the organization.PROF SURAJIT .The Communication Process 13 Channel The medium selected by the sender through which the message travels to the receiver. PREPARED FOR CHRIST . Formal Channels Are established by the organization and transmit messages that are related to the professional activities of members.
Receiver is the object to whom the message is directed.Communication process contd 14 Sender initiates a message by encoding a thought. The message is the actual physical product from the senders encoding. PREPARED FOR CHRIST .PROF SURAJIT . Channel is the medium through which the message travels.
PREPARED FOR CHRIST . Feed back loop – how successful we have in transfering our messages as originally intended.PROF SURAJIT .Communication process contd 15 Decoding – Before the message can be received. the symbols in it must be translated in to a form that can be understood by the receiver. Noise represents communication barriers that distort the clarity of the message. or cultural differences. semantic difficulties. Eg: Perceptual problems. information overload.
2. Sender must decide on a message to share Sender also puts the message into symbols or language. Transmission phase: information is shared by 2 or more people.Communication Process . PREPARED FOR CHRIST .PROF SURAJIT . Feedback phase: a common understanding is assured.Phases 16 Communication consists of two phases: 1. Noise: anything harming the communication process. a process called encoding. Starts with the Sender who wants to share information.
PROF SURAJIT Feedback Phase .Flow 17 Transmission Phase Message Encoding Medium Decoding Sender NOISE Receiver (now sender) Decoding Medium Encoding Message PREPARED FOR CHRIST .The Communication Process .
Decoding allows the receiver to understand the message. Feedback is started by receiver and states that the message is understood or that it must be re-sent. can lead to misunderstanding. letter).The Communication Process 18 Messages are transmitted over a medium to a receiver. Receiver next decodes the message. This is a critical point.PROF SURAJIT . Medium: pathway the message is transmitted on (phone. Receiver: person getting the message. PREPARED FOR CHRIST .
says what .on which channel .Process of communication 19 The Linear Model:Involves 5 basic questions – who .with what effect One way process Intended to control and manipulate the receiver.PROF SURAJIT .to whom . Assumptions that no distortions while the message passes sender media receiver action PREPARED FOR CHRIST .
Sender encodes idea in message 3.PROF SURAJIT . Sender has idea 2. Receiver decodes message PREPARED FOR CHRIST .Basic Model 14 1. Message travels over channel 4.The Communication Process .
Basic Model 21 1. Receiver decodes message PREPARED FOR CHRIST .Communication Process . Sender encodes idea in message 3. Message travels over channel 4.PROF SURAJIT . Sender has idea 2.
Message travels over channel 4. Feedback travels to sender 1.Communication Process . Sender encodes idea in message 3.Basic Model 16 5. Sender has idea 2. Receiver decodes message PREPARED FOR CHRIST .PROF SURAJIT .
Communication Process . Receiver decodes message PREPARED FOR CHRIST .Basic Model 23 5. Feedback travels to sender 1. Sender encodes idea in message 3.PROF SURAJIT . Sender has idea 2. Message travels over channel 4.
Receiver decodes message PREPARED FOR CHRIST .Basic Model 24 5.PROF SURAJIT . Sender has idea 2. Message travels over channel 4.Communication Process . Feedback travels to sender 1. Sender encodes idea in message 3.
Receiver decodes message 6. Message travels over channel 4. Sender has idea 2. Sender encodes idea in message 3.Basic Model 25 5. Possible additional feedback to receiver PREPARED FOR CHRIST .Communication Process . Feedback travels to sender 1.PROF SURAJIT .
Possible additional feedback to receiver PREPARED FOR CHRIST .PROF SURAJIT . Message travels over channel 4. Feedback travels to sender 1. Sender has idea 2.Basic Model 26 5. Receiver decodes message 6.Communication Process . Sender encodes idea in message 3.
PROF SURAJIT .Communication Process .Expanded Model 27 PREPARED FOR CHRIST .
PROF SURAJIT . 28 Shannon Weaver Model :- First to point that messages can change or be blocked Brought in the concept of noise Introduced feedback as corrective to noise which may again not be an integral part of communication process Viewed as another act of communication PREPARED FOR CHRIST .
Two Way Communication Process:Concept is more contemporary Receiver also acts as sender of feedback to complete the two way flow of communication Also known as transactional communication
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Common Problems in Two way communication:
No perceived benefit to the audience Noise, disturbances-hard to hold attention Variations in listening skills Complexity of subject matter/message Time restraints Personal biases, hostility Responding to difficult questions Sidestepping sensitive issues
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Can be classified on basis of..…..
A) number of persons/ receivers to whom message is addressed:i) Intrapersonal:- talking to one’s own self.
E.g. Dramatic works.
ii) Interpersonal :- exchange of messages between two persons.
E.g. conversation, dialogue, an interview, some other cases like… an author, a letter etc.
iii) Group:- Can be among small groups like organization, club, class rooms where all individuals retain their individual identity.
iv) Mass:- occurs when the message is sent to large groups of people
E.g. news paper, radio, T.V etc.
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Meta Communication is an implied meaning conveyed by the choice of words. tone of voice. gestures and facial expressions for exchanging information between persons E.means communicating with words.g. touch.32 B) On the basis of medium employed : i) Verbal:. personal space. iii) Meta communication:.PROF SURAJIT . sense of smell and time.‡ can be intentional or unintentional.‡ is the message communicated not It through words but along with words. silence or omission. It PREPARED FOR CHRIST . written or spoken ii) Non verbal :.the speaker’s choice of words unintentionally communicates something more than what the actual words state. eyes.includes using of pictures signs. fumbling.
Informal communications can span levels and departments. PREPARED FOR CHRIST . Vertical Communication: goes up and down the corporate hierarchy. and projects.PROF SURAJIT . goals.Organization Communication Networks 33 Organization chart depicts formal reporting channels. Grapevine: informal network carrying unofficial information through the firm. Horizontal Communication: between employees of the same level. Communication is both formal & informal and flows around issues.
PROF SURAJIT .Organizational Communications Network 34 Formal Communication Informal Communication PREPARED FOR CHRIST .
Intranets: use the same information concepts as the Internet. Groupware: software designed to let workers share information and improve communication. Best for team oriented support. but keep the network inside the firm. .Technological Advances Internet & www : global system of computer networks Many firms use it to communicate with suppliers & it provides multimedia access globally.
PREPARED FOR CHRIST .PROF SURAJIT .Communication Skills for Managers as Senders 36 Send clear and complete messages. Select a medium appropriate for the message and monitored by the receiver. Avoid filtering (holding back information) and distortion as the message passes through other workers. Ensure a feedback mechanism is included in the message. Encode messages in symbols the receiver understands. Provide accurate information to avoid rumors.
Managers should expect and plan for this. Speed. PREPARED FOR CHRIST . Be a good listener: don’t interrupt. Be empathetic: try to understand what the sender feels. pausing all impact communication.PROF SURAJIT . Understand linguistic styles: different people speak differently. Ask questions to clarify your understanding.Communication Skills for Managers as Receivers 37 Pay Attention to what is sent as a message. tone. This is particularly true across cultures.
Types of communication 38 According to the direction of communication Vertical communication Lateral communication Vertical communication is again devided in to Upward communication Downward communication.PROF SURAJIT . PREPARED FOR CHRIST .
Direction of Communication 39 Downward Lateral Upward PREPARED FOR CHRIST .PROF SURAJIT .
offer feedback etc. It‟s used by group leaders and managers to assign goals. provide job instructions. point out problems.Types of communication contd Downward communication Communication that flows from one level of a group or organization to a lower level.PROF SURAJIT . 40 PREPARED FOR CHRIST . inform employees of policies.
PROF SURAJIT . It‟s used to provide feedback to higher ups.Upward communication 41 Flows to a higher level in the group or organization. Keeps managers aware of how employees feel about their jobs. coworkers and organization in general. Managers also rely on upward communication for ideas on how things can be improved. PREPARED FOR CHRIST . inform of progress upward goals and relay current problems.
members of work groups at the same level. any horizontally equivalent personnel. PREPARED FOR CHRIST .Lateral communication 42 Communication among the members of the same work group.PROF SURAJIT . managers at the same level.
Interpersonal communication 43 According to how group members transfer meaning between and among each other There are three basic methods Oral communication Written communication Nonverbal communication PREPARED FOR CHRIST .PROF SURAJIT .
PREPARED FOR CHRIST .Interpersonal Communication 44 According to how group members transfer meaning between and among each other. Disadvantage: Misperception of body language or gestures can influence receiver‟s interpretation of message. Disadvantage: Distortion of the message. Advantages: Supports other communications and provides observable expression of emotions and feelings. Written Communication Disadvantages: Time consuming and lacks feedback. Oral Communication Advantages: Speed and feedback.PROF SURAJIT Nonverbal Communication . Advantages: Tangible and verifiable.
No built in feedback mechanism.Interpersonal communication contd 45 Important for complex and lengthy communication The draw backs – It is time consuming. PREPARED FOR CHRIST .PROF SURAJIT .
letters. instant messaging. electronic mail. both the sender and receiver have a record of communication Message can be stored for indefinite period. organizational periodicals. fax transmissions.Written communication 46 Memos. notices placed on bulletin boards any other device transmitted via written symbols or words. They are tangible and verifiable. When printed.PROF SURAJIT . PREPARED FOR CHRIST .
Eg. PREPARED FOR CHRIST . Disadvantages surface when message has to pass through a number of people. Greater the number of people greater the distortion. informal rumor mill. group discussions. or grapevine Advantages are speed and feedback..PROF SURAJIT .Oral communication 47 This is the chief means of conveying of messages. speeches.
Organizational communication 48 At the organizational level the types of communication are .Formal small group network .Knowledge management PREPARED FOR CHRIST .Computer aided communication .The grape wine .PROF SURAJIT .
Wheel and Chain networks provide for little interaction. PREPARED FOR CHRIST . Chain Network: members communicate with people next to them in sequence. office location. Circle Network: members communicate with others close to them in terms of expertise. with high levels of communications between each member and all others. etc.PROF SURAJIT . All-Channel Network: found in teams.Communication Networks 49 Networks show information flows in an organization. Wheel Network: information flow to and from one central member.
Three Common Formal Small-Group Networks 50 E X H I B I T 10–3 PREPARED FOR CHRIST .PROF SURAJIT .
PROF SURAJIT .Communication Networks in Groups & Teams 51 Wheel Network Chain Network Circle Network All Channel Network PREPARED FOR CHRIST .
Formal organizations and groups 52 Can be complicated because it include hundreds of people and half a dozen or more of hierarchical levels Chain – Rigidly follows the formal chain of command. We might find rigid three level organization. Wheel – Relies on a central figure to act as a conduit for all the group‟s communication.PROF SURAJIT . All Channel – Network permits all group members to actively communicate with each other. This is seen in practice by self managed teams. in which all group members are free to contribute no one takes a leadership role PREPARED FOR CHRIST .
Formal small group networks contd
Effectiveness of each team depends on - Structure of wheel facilitates the emergence of a leader. - All channel network is best for high member satisfaction. - Chain is best if accuracy is most important. - No single network will be best for all occassions.
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not controlled by management.
by most employees as being more believable and reliable than formal communications.
used to serve the self-interests of those who use it.
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for information about important situations
conditions that cause anxiety
It is still an important source of information because 75% of employees hear about matters first through the roomers on the grapevine.
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Grapevine cont .Why rumors flourish in organizations 56 Secrecy and competition that prevails in large organizations around issues such as Appointment of new bosses Relocation of office Downsizing decisions Realignment of work assignments They create conditions that encourage and sustain rumors on the grapevine. PREPARED FOR CHRIST .PROF SURAJIT .
PROF SURAJIT .importance 57 Give managers a feel for the morale of their organization Identifies issues that employees consider important Helps tap in to employee anxieties. PREPARED FOR CHRIST . Serves employee needs by establishing relations among themselves.Grapevine .
pp. Hirschhorn (ed. 3. 1983). 54–56. Hirschhorn. Explain decisions and behaviors that may appear inconsistent or secretive. Source: Adapted from L. ―Managing Rumors. Openly discuss worst-case possibilities—it is almost never as anxiety-provoking as the unspoken fantasy. as well as the upside.58 Suggestions for Reducing the Negative Consequences of Rumors 1. Cutting Back (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. PREPARED FOR CHRIST . Emphasize the downside. of current decisions and future plans.PROF SURAJIT .). 2.‖ in L.
Text messaging Networking software Internet or web logs (blogs) Video conferencing PREPARED FOR CHRIST .PROF SURAJIT .Electronic communication 59 The primary medium of communication E-mail.
Disadvantages: Instant messaging Advantage: Disadvantage: PREPARED FOR CHRIST . cold and impersonal. “real time” e-mail transmitted straight to the receiver‟s desktop.PROF SURAJIT . can be intrusive and distracting. lack of emotional content. sent. and stored. information overload. low cost for distribution.Computer-Aided Communication 60 E-mail Advantages: quickly written.
Computer-Aided Communication (cont‟d) 61 Intranet A private organization-wide information network. Extranet An information network connecting employees with external suppliers. and strategic partners. PREPARED FOR CHRIST .PROF SURAJIT . Videoconferencing An extension of an intranet or extranet that permits face-to-face virtual meetings via video links. customers.
Can be read.E-mail 62 Uses the internet and computer generated text and documents. in their entirety. at the convenience of the reciepient. Can be distributed among a number of persons at a time with a click of a mouse. PREPARED FOR CHRIST .PROF SURAJIT . Cost economic.edited and stored. Messages are quickly written.
PROF SURAJIT .E-Mail drawbacks 63 Misinterpreting the message Communicating negative messages Overuse of E-mail E-mail emotions Privacy concerns PREPARED FOR CHRIST .
a set of symbols (emoticons) has evolved that e-mail users have developed for expressing emotions. THIS PROJECT NEEDS YOUR IMMEDIATE ATTENTION!) is the e-mail equivalent of shouting. The following highlights some emoticons: PREPARED FOR CHRIST . Over the years.PROF SURAJIT ..e. the use of all caps (i. For instance.Emoticons: Showing Emotion in E-Mail 64 Electronic mail needn’t be emotion free.
Pay attention to spelling and treat like a written letter.E-Mail Trends 65 E-mail use is growing rapidly in large firms. where workers can work from home and be in touch with e-mail. and there are even special e-mail etiquette: Words in all CAPITALS are seen as “screaming” at the receiver.PROF SURAJIT . PREPARED FOR CHRIST . Punctuate your messages for easy reading and don’t ramble on. E-mail has allowed telecommuting.
PROF SURAJIT .Instant messaging and text messaging 66 IM is sent via desktop or laptop computer TM is transmitted via cellphones. They are the fast and inexpensive way of communication to stay in touch with the employees and the employees to stay in touch with PREPARED FOR CHRIST .
PROF SURAJIT .Information Richness and Media Type 67 High Richness Face-to-face communication Verbal communication electronically transmitted Impersonal written communication Low Richness PREPARED FOR CHRIST .
but no visual nonverbal cues. Video Conferences: provide much of this richness. sender’s emphasis and quick feedback. PREPARED FOR CHRIST . Reduce travel costs and meeting times. Verbal Communication electronically transmitted: has next highest richness. Management by wandering around takes advantage of this with informal talks to workers. Do have tone of voice. Provides for instant feedback.Communication Media 68 Face-to-Face: highest information richness. Can take advantage of verbal and nonverbal signals. Phone conversations.PROF SURAJIT .
reports are examples.PROF SURAJIT . Letters and e-mail are common forms.Communication Media 69 Personally Addressed Written Communication: lower richness than the verbal forms. PREPARED FOR CHRIST . but still is directed at a given person. Personal addressing helps ensure receiver reads it. Cannot provide instant feedback to sender but can get feedback later. Excellent for complex messages needing follow-up. Little feedback is expected. Newsletters. Impersonal Written Communication: lowest richness. Good for messages to many receivers.
dress. body language. Effective Managers avoid communicating based on a pre-set belief. Sender and receiver communicate based on their perception. Nonverbal: facial gestures. PREPARED FOR CHRIST .Communication Issues 70 Encoding of messages can be done verbally or non-verbally Verbal: spoken or written communication. Subjective perception can lead to biases and stereotypes that hurt communication.PROF SURAJIT .
Consider information richness: the amount of information a medium can carry.PROF SURAJIT .Dangers of Ineffective Communication 71 Managers spend most of their time communicating so both they and the subordinates must be effective communicators. Is there a need for a paper/electronic trail to provide documentation? PREPARED FOR CHRIST . Medium with high richness can carry much information to aid understanding. There is no one “best” medium. To be effective: Select an appropriate medium for each message.
Barriers of effective communication 72 Filtering Selective perception Information overload Emotion Language Communication apprehension Gender differences PREPARED FOR CHRIST .PROF SURAJIT .
Global implications 73 Cross cultural barriers barriers caused by semantics .of meaning in language word connotations – imply in addition to its literal meaning Tone differences Differences among perceptions PREPARED FOR CHRIST .PROF SURAJIT .
vivid. enthusiastic.PROF SURAJIT . friendly. • Other examples of tone of voice are: aggressive. persuasive. critical. nervous. • PREPARED FOR CHRIST . etc.TONE OF VOICE The tone of voice is a means by which the speaker implies his or her attitude to the message. • 74 It is also a means by which he seeks a reaction from the hearer. disappointed. monotonous.
PROF SURAJIT .INTONATION Intonation is the way that the sender‟s pitch of voice rises and falls when speaking. exclamation mark or question mark. intonation indicates the end of an entity of information. • 75 At the same time. • Another function of intonation is to lay emphasis on a particular word or idea. point. which – in written communication – is shown by means of a comma. • PREPARED FOR CHRIST . a detail that the interpreter must not fail to be aware of. semicolon.
PREPARED FOR CHRIST .Intonations: It‟s the Way You Say It! 76 Change your tone and you change your meaning: Placement of the emphasis What it means Why don’t I take you to dinner tonight? Why don’t I take you to dinner tonight? I was going to take someone else. Instead of the guy you were going with. Why don’t I take you to dinner tonight? Why don’t I take you to dinner tonight? Why don’t I take you to dinner tonight? Why don’t I take you to dinner tonight? Why don’t I take you to dinner tonight? I’m trying to find a reason why I shouldn’t take you.PROF SURAJIT . Instead of lunch tomorrow. Not tomorrow night. Do you have a problem with me? Instead of going on your own.
PROF SURAJIT – Tom Wolfe . How you make sense of what you see. How you express yourself. It is central to what you see.77 Culture is the "lens" through which you view the world. "Culture is the arts elevated to a set of beliefs." PREPARED FOR CHRIST .
4 rules Assume differences until similarity is proven Emphasize description rather than interpretation or evaluation Practice empathy Treat your interpretations as a working hypothesis. 4. 3. PREPARED FOR CHRIST . 2.PROF SURAJIT .A cultural guide 78 1.
Cultural context 79 High context cultures Low context cultures PREPARED FOR CHRIST .PROF SURAJIT .
80 PREPARED FOR CHRIST .Cross Culture Communication Intercultural Communication is the process of sending and receiving messages between people whose cultural background could lead them to interpret verbal and non-verbal signs differently.PROF SURAJIT .
◦ Business Opportunities ◦ Job Opportunities ◦ Improves the contribution of employees in a diverse workforce ◦ Sharing of views and ideas ◦ Talent improvisation ◦ An understanding of diverse market 81 PREPARED FOR CHRIST .Why Cross Culture Communication is important ? Globalization: Cross border movement of people. goods and data brings more and more cultures into contact with one another and increases the potential of cross culture communication.PROF SURAJIT .
PROF SURAJIT . PREPARED FOR CHRIST . looking people in the eye is assumed to indicate honesty and straightforwardness.Case In Point : Eye Contact 82 In some cultures. in others it is seen as challenging and rude.
In USA.PROF SURAJIT . the cheapest. most effective way to connect with people is to look them into the eye. 83 PREPARED FOR CHRIST .
PROF SURAJIT little as disrespectful. .84 "Most people in Arab culture share a great deal of eye contact and may regard too PREPARED FOR CHRIST .
but too much makes many people uncomfortable. 85 PREPARED FOR CHRIST .In English culture.PROF SURAJIT . a certain amount of eye contact is required.
86 In South Asian and many other cultures direct eye contact is generally regarded as aggressive and rude. PREPARED FOR CHRIST .PROF SURAJIT .
87 Case in Point : Gesture PREPARED FOR CHRIST .PROF SURAJIT .
PROF SURAJIT 88 BODY GESTURES A body gesture is a movement made with a limb. especially the hands. to express. • Body gestures are always perceived interpreted together with facial expressions. •This non-verbal activity is regularly used in oral discourse. emphasize or back up the speaker‟s attitude or intention. confirm.PREPARED FOR CHRIST . • and .
PROF SURAJIT . head or body to emphasize an idea or emotion.Gestures •A motion of the hands.. Perfect! OK! 89 Zero! Worthless! Rubbish! PREPARED FOR CHRIST . How can a Gestures distort the message……………….
USA=OK JAPAN=MONEY RUSSIA=ZERO BRAZIL=INSULT 90 PREPARED FOR CHRIST .PROF SURAJIT .
PROF SURAJIT .How can the same Gestures be treated differently in different cultures 91 PREPARED FOR CHRIST .
PROF SURAJIT .“Do you have a telephone ?” Brazil .Gestures – Around the World Western.“Sign for the Texas Long Horns” 92 PREPARED FOR CHRIST .“Cuckold (Your wife is cheating to you)” USA .
" 3.Blocks to Cultural Communication 1. "we just aren't equipped to serve people like that..PROF SURAJIT . actual and perceived." 93 PREPARED FOR CHRIST . "she's like that because she's Asian – all Asians are nonverbal. "my way is the best.g. e. e.g. Stereotyping : Generalizing about a person while ignoring presence of individual difference. Discrimination : Differential treatment of an individual due to minority status.. Ethnocentrism : Inability to accept another culture's world view." 2.
Cultural Imposition: Belief that everyone should conform to 6. 94 PREPARED FOR CHRIST .Tone Difference : Formal tone change becomes embarrassing and off-putting in some cultures. "we know what's best for you.g.." 5.Blocks to Cultural Communication 4.g..Cultural Blindness: Differences are ignored and one though differences did not exist. if you don't like it you can go elsewhere. e. e. "there's no person's culture proceeds as need to worry about a the majority.PROF SURAJIT .
Skills To Overcome Differences 95 Respecting Differences and Working Together PREPARED FOR CHRIST .PROF SURAJIT .
•When the Japanese want to give the impression that they are in deep thought.PROF SURAJIT . •When sitting. keep both feet on the ground. as well as for greetings and farewells. they will sometimes fold their arms. •The "thumbs up" sign is offensive throughout the Arab world. PREPARED FOR CHRIST . U.S. 96 Skills To Overcome Differences Understanding Body Language United States of America •Americans tend to refrain from greetings that involve hugging and other close physical contact. •When sitting. citizens often look very relaxed. Arab Countries •The left hand is considered unclean in the Arab countries. South Korea •Bows are used for expressing appreciation. making apologies and requests. They may sometimes sit with the ankle of one leg on their knee.
Things To Remember While Interacting And Connecting With People 97 PREPARED FOR CHRIST .PROF SURAJIT .
PROF SURAJIT .98 PREPARED FOR CHRIST .
Business Attire 99 PREPARED FOR CHRIST .PROF SURAJIT .
100 Selecting and Presenting Business Gifts PREPARED FOR CHRIST .PROF SURAJIT .
funerals such as clocks. cut flowers.Wine or liquor if you are sure your hosts drink alcohol. Candy. pastries & Roses. or decanter make prized gifts • Gifts to avoid UAE . 101 PREPARED FOR CHRIST . goblet. USA . such as tokens memento of your country or your company logo Turkey .Gifts.Do not give anything in sets of four or gifts that carry the association of death.Gifts are opened in private.PROF SURAJIT .Alcohol / perfumes containing alcohol and pork and pigskin products to be avoided China . Glassware. such as a vase.Gifts are opened in public •Appreciated Gifts Indonesia .• Unwrapping gifts Saudi Arabia . white objects.
Improving Cross Culture Communication 102 PREPARED FOR CHRIST .PROF SURAJIT .
103 PREPARED FOR CHRIST .PROF SURAJIT .
104 PREPARED FOR CHRIST .PROF SURAJIT .
PROF SURAJIT .105 PREPARED FOR CHRIST .
both intentional and unintentional. PREPARED FOR CHRIST .NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION Nonverbal communication includes all unwritten and unspoken messages.PROF SURAJIT .
Every body movement has a meaning and no movement is accidental.PROF SURAJIT .107 NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION Every time we verbally give a message to some one. PREPARED FOR CHRIST . we also impart a non verbal message.
PREPARED FOR CHRIST . body gestures. body posture. tone of voice. vocally produced noises. facial expressions or pauses • . these symbolic messages are transferred by means of intonation. • In oral communication.PROF SURAJIT 108 NON VERBAL COMMUNICATION Non-verbal communication consists of all the messages other than words that are used in communication.
PROF SURAJIT .FORMS OF NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION 109 • • • • Eye contact Facial expression Posture and gestures Appearance of people PREPARED FOR CHRIST .
PROF SURAJIT . This is how much it influences any message: Words Tone of voice Non-verbal cues Message 8% 34% 58% 100% PREPARED FOR CHRIST . known as “body language” sends strong positive and negative signals.Body language 110 Nonverbal communication.
KOPPACT 111 PREPARED FOR CHRIST . whilst a closed in body that makes itself small can signal inferiority. although it is not the only way to talk with others without words. trust and liking. Body posture The way that the body is held can communicate many different messages. Copying of the other person's body shows agreement. .PROF SURAJIT K-KINESICS Kinesics communication is communicating by body movement and is perhaps the most well known non-verbal form of communication. An open body that takes up a lot of space can indicate comfort and domination.
PROF SURAJIT 112 Body posture is the bearing or the position of the speaker‟s body.BODY POSTURE PREPARED FOR CHRIST . • It is a more or less stable state and thus not to be confused with body gestures which are movements. • .
emphasize or back up the speaker‟s attitude or intention. •This non-verbal activity is regularly used in oral discourse. to express.PROF SURAJIT 113 BODY GESTURES A body gesture is a movement made with a limb. confirm. especially the hands. • and . • Body gestures are always perceived interpreted together with facial expressions.PREPARED FOR CHRIST .
· Affect displays: shows of emotion. · Adaptors: Self-oriented tension relievers and other forms. · Regulators: for controlling the flow of conversation. · Illustrators: Shaping what is being said.Continued 114 Gestures Gesture is communicating through the movement of body and arms.PROF SURAJIT . Ekman and Friesen (1969) identified five types of gesture: · Emblems: Direct replacements for words.KOPPACT . PREPARED FOR CHRIST .
intentions. emotions. •Eye movement is a key part of facial behaviour because the eyes are invariably involved in facial displays. frown. raised eyebrow.PROF SURAJIT 115 Facial expressions are dynamic features which communicate the speaker‟s attitude. and so on. . •The face is the primary source of emotions. yawn or sneer.FACIAL EXPRESSIONS AND EYE MOVEMENT • PREPARED FOR CHRIST . •Examples are: a smile.
This is not a coincidence as many signals are sent with the 80-odd muscles in the face. The eyes are particularly important.KOPPACT .Continued 116 Facial signals When we communicate with others. Eyebrows and forehead also add significant signals. from surprise to fear to anger. The mouth. The way the head tilts also changes the message. we look mostly at their face. We then break and re-establish contact many times during the discussion. when not talking can be pursed.PROF SURAJIT . PREPARED FOR CHRIST . downturned or turned up in a smile. and when communicating we first seek to make eye contact.
our blinking rate decreases and our eyes begin to dilate.Continued 117 O-OCCULESICS This non-verbal communication is how the eyes and eye movement speak in addition to the facial expressions. Interest in a person or thing will result in decrease in blinking rate and dilation of pupils. The way we look. This is more than just eye gaze.PROF SURAJIT . Occulesics includes the movement of pupils as well as orbital movement of the eye ball. When we take interest in something. the pupils will contract. stare. PREPARED FOR CHRIST . blink and the pupil reactions can be nonverbal forms of communication. With something we dislike. blink rate and eyelid movement. if we dislike something our pupil's contract.KOPPACT .
or the invasion of one's personal space.Continued 118 P-PARALINGUISTICS Paralinguistic communication is the study of voice and how words are said. a firm that conveys conviction is more nuanced than a pointing finger. big gestures. These may be a bit subtler other forms of nonverbal behaviors in communicating our intent. However. Certainly a booming. When we open our mouths we reveal all kinds of things about ourselves that have nothing at all to do with the words we are uttering and manipulating the nonverbal elements of our message can completely change its meaning.PROF SURAJIT .KOPPACT . Paralinguistic cues refer to everything having to do with speech for the words we actually utter. PREPARED FOR CHRIST . yelling voice is not subtle.
people from the north-east speak with more rapidity than do Southerners and generally men speak faster than women.Continued PREPARED FOR CHRIST . Rapid rates of speech have been correlated with composure and self assurance. We associate lower pitches with greater credibility. and boldness are reflected in louder speech.PROF SURAJIT 119 PARALINGUISTICS Vocal cues include: Rate: How many words per minute? In the United States. More men are born with lowbaritone or bass-pitched voices. How song-like does one sound? Imagine a storyteller reading a book to children. assertiveness. Volume: How loud or soft is the voice? Researchers have found that confidence. They rarely use the highest level of pitch that women use.KOPPACT . Inflection: Inflection refers to variations in pitch. Pitch: Is the voice high or low in pitch? A high-pitched voice can sound squeaky and childlike. We would expect inflection. .
pitch. grating. Intensity: How emphatic are the statements? For example. thin. allow the speaker to explore his or her own thoughts and feelings. or fronted (aloof). It also impacts the rhythm and cadence or flow of the speech. say nothing. harsh. or tremulous. nasal. prevent communication. convey feelings.Continued 120 PARALINGUISTICS Quality: Quality generally refers to those vocal characteristics that allow you to differentiate one voice from another.KOPPACT . isolate oneself. " Pausing is a form of silence that can be motivated by anxiety. or create interpersonal distance. accent or emphasize certain messages. signal respect and reverence. hurt another person.PROF SURAJIT . PREPARED FOR CHRIST . flat. throaty. and volume. It can provide thinking time. "I really want you to do it now!" The intensity can be a direct indicator of the speaker's passion and commitment or lack of it! Silence: Silence can speak Volumes. provide greater opportunity for increasing awareness of the self and others. create personal distance.tense. feminine. or shrill? All of these represent different combinations of rate. Is the voice small.
The distance or space we feel we need is influenced by social norms.Continued 121 P-PROXEMICS Vertical distance or proxemics.KOPPACT . the personal distance needed when speaking to a crowd of people is around 10 to 12 feet. from the word proximity. situational factors. On the other hand. and level of familiarity.PROF SURAJIT . personality characteristics of those around us as well as ourselves. are some of the types of nonverbal communication. For example. PREPARED FOR CHRIST . the amount of personal space needed when having a casual conversation with another person usually varies between 18 inches to four feet.
KOPPACT - Continued
Put another way, what is your comfort zone around your body?
Edward Hall, an anthropologist, found that North Americans have four distinct ranges where face to face interactions have related levels of comfort. Later studies found that these are circles around us. The comfort zones vary from culture to culture. Based on the original work of 1959,the four distances are :
0-18 inches : Intimate distance 18 inches - 4 feet : Personal distance
4 feet -12 feet
: Social distance
: Public distance
Likewise the distance behind us that we feel uncomfortable if someone enters varies by who and when. You may feel totally comfortable if your wife is right behind you. A stranger may make you feel uncomfortable. However, standing in a line to get into see a movie may not be as uncomfortable as someone walking up behind you in an otherwise open space.
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KOPPACT - Continued
Artifacts have symbolic significance of personal identities, territories and personal environments. Like the other forms of nonverbal communication, artifacts and their significance differ from culture to culture. For example, the American flag only symbolizes America to other countries, but in America it can symbolize freedom and prosperity. There are several different artifacts that may have great spiritual value to some cultures, while in others are a symbol of anger, hatred and other feelings which affect how these two cultures would communicate with each other. Another artifact that symbolizes different things to different people within the United States is military symbols on uniforms. Depending on the symbol, a soldier would have to change the way he is communicating with that person. For example, if he were talking to a fellow soldier who has few, if any, symbols, he would have little concern. On the other hand, if he were talking to a general or someone of higher rank who has more symbols, he would have to choose his words and actions carefully. Different artifacts can have a number of different meanings to different cultures.
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KOPPACT - Continued
Chronemics is the study of the use of time in nonverbal communication. The way we perceive time, structure our time and react to time is a powerful communication tool, and helps set the stage for the communication process. Across cultures, time perception plays a large role in the nonverbal communication process. Time perceptions include punctuality, willingness to wait, and interactions. The use of time can affect lifestyles, daily agendas, speed of speech, movements and how long people are willing to listen. Time can also be used as an indicator of status. For example, in most companies the boss can interrupt progress to hold an impromptu meeting in the middle of the work day, yet the average worker would have to make an appointment to see the boss. The way different cultures perceive time can influence communication as well. For example, most Europeans will schedule a meeting for a specific time, such as 2:15 p.m., and expect all involved parties to be punctual.
In many cultures in Africa and Latin America, however, they may set a time to meet "sometime in the afternoon" and on occasions the schedule may be broken, changed or deadline not met.
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tend to fare much better. and vital in conveying physical intimacy.Continued 125 T. It is a component of nonverbal communication in interpersonal relationships. Touch is an extremely important sense for humans. Babies who can perceive through touch.KOPPACT . PREPARED FOR CHRIST . Human babies have been observed to have enormous difficulty surviving if they do not possess a sense of touch. even if they retain sight and hearing. even without sight and hearing. as well as providing information about surfaces and textures. Touch is the earliest sense to develop in the fetus.PROF SURAJIT . The development of an infant's haptic senses and how it relates to the development of the other senses such as vision has been the target of much research.TACTILICS/HAPTICS Haptic communication is the means by which people and other animals communicate via touching.
touching someone's head may be thought rude. pinching. Remland and Jones (1995) studied groups of people communicating and found that in England (8%). Touching is treated differently from one country to another. Striking. Socially acceptable levels of touching varies from one culture to another.KOPPACT . France (5%) and the Netherlands (4%) touching was rare compared to their Italian (14%) and Greek (12. In the Thai culture. PREPARED FOR CHRIST . In a sentence like "I never touched him/her" or "Don't you dare to touch him/her" the term touch may be meant as euphemism for either physical abuse or sexual touching. pulling.Continued 126 T. while only a subset have sight and hearing.PROF SURAJIT . kicking. strangling and hand-to-hand fighting are forms of touch in the context of physical abuse. pushing.5%) sample.TACTILICS/HAPTICS Touch can be thought of as a basic sense in that most life forms have a response to being touched.
disgust or other forms of emotional rejection unless used in a sarcastic manner. PREPARED FOR CHRIST .PROF SURAJIT . During a study conduced by University of Miami School of Medicine. It was noted that French women touched their children more often than the American parents.TACTILICS/HAPTICS The word touch has many other metaphorical uses. One can be emotionally touched. referring to an action or object that evokes an emotional response. American children were said to be more aggressive than their French counterparts while playing at a playground. Touch Research Institutes. It usually does not include anger.KOPPACT .Continued 127 T. Stoeltje (2003) wrote about how Americans are „losing touch‟ with this important communication skill. To say "I was touched by your letter“ implies the reader felt a strong emotion when reading it.
The boy above has pressed lips with a slight pushing up of the chin. Lowered eyebrows. PREPARED FOR CHRIST . A.Anger Expression. and tension in lips and mouth characterize the anger expression. that are pulled together to form wrinkles in the skin of the forehead tensed and straightened lower eyelids.PROF SURAJIT 128 .
this image shows a naturallooking surprise expression.PROF SURAJIT 129 . The eyebrows are slightly raised straight up. PREPARED FOR CHRIST . and the lips are relaxed. the mouth is opened by the jaw drop.LOOKING SURPRISE EXPRESSION Disregarding the gum.NATURAL. the upper eyelid is raised slightly. making faint horizontal wrinkles on the forehead.
PROF SURAJIT 130 . the lower eyelid is tensed and the eye opening narrowed. The pressing of the lips and raising of the upper eyelids are relevant to an anger expression. Her turn of the head to the left is consistent with a disgust expression.DISGUST EXPRESSION: This portrayal captures the essential actions of one kind of disgust expression: a wrinkled nose with the eyebrows pulled down and the upper lip drawn up. whereas the mouth would be open and the upper eyelids relaxed in the typical disgust expression. and with avoiding something PREPARED FOR CHRIST .
SAD EXPRESSION The crying baby face shows elements of the sad expression: narrowed eyes and raised cheeks. but also includes lateral lip stretching and has no raising of the eyebrows in the center of the forehead PREPARED FOR CHRIST . lip corners pulled down.PROF SURAJIT 131 . chin boss pushed up. eyebrows pulled together.
Each happy expression shows signs of actual joy. PREPARED FOR CHRIST .HAPPY EMOTION From infancy to old age. smiling is a stable indicator of a happy emotion in the images .PROF SURAJIT 132 .
Can't make up your mind? Look carefully at the picture again.133 Which way is the bus below travelling ? To the left or to the right? .PROF SURAJIT . Still don't know? PREPARED FOR CHRIST .
." When asked." PREPARED FOR CHRIST . 90% of them gave this answer: "The bus is travelling to the right.PROF SURAJIT .Primary school children were shown this picture and asked the same question. "Why do you think the bus is travelling to the right?" 134 They answered: "Because you can't see the door to get on the bus.
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PROF SURAJIT .141 THANK YOU PREPARED FOR CHRIST .
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