, 40 left  yaxis)
5) A skateboarder, starting form rest, rolls down a 12.0 m ramp. When she arrives at the bottom of the
ramp her speed is 7.70 m/s. (a) Determine the magnitude of her acceleration, assumed to be constant. (b)
If the ramp is inclined at 25.0 with respect to the ground, what is the component of her acceleration that
is parallel to the ground?
6) A puck is moving on an air hockey table. Relative to an xy coordinate system at time t=0, the x
components of the pucks initial velocity and acceleration are
and
.
The y components of the pucks initial velocity and acceleration are
and
. Find the magnitude and direction of the pucks velocity at a time of . Specify the
direction relative to the +x axis.
7) A space vehicle is coasting at a constant velocity of 21.0 m/s in the +y direction relative to the space
station. The pilot of the vehicle fires a RCS (reaction control system) thruster, which causes it to
accelerate at
in the +x direction. After 45.0 s, the pilot shuts off the RCS thruster. After the
RCS thruster is turned off, find (a) the magnitude and (b) direction of the vehicles velocity relative to the
space station. Express the direction as an angle measure form the +y direction.
PROJECTILE MOTION
1) An object is thrown upward at an angle above the ground, eventually returning to earth. a) Is there
any place along the trajectory where the velocity and the acceleration are perpendicular? If so, where? b)
Is there any place where the velocity and the acceleration are parallel? If so Where? In each case, explain.
PHYS 151 Sample Problem and Solutions Page 2 2D Motion
2) A skateboarder shoots off a ramp with a velocity of 6.6 m/s, directed at an angle of 58 above the
horizontal. The end of the ramp is 1.2 m above the ground. Let the x axis be parallel to the ground, the +y
axis direction be vertically upward, and take as the origin the point on the ground directly below the top
of the ramp. (a) How high above the ground is the highest point that the skateboarder reaches? (b) When
the skateboarder reaches the highest point, how far is this point horizontally from the end of the ramp?
3) A ball with a horizontal speed of 1.25 m/s rolls off a bench 1.00 m above the floor. a) Now long will it
take the ball to hit the floor. b) How far from a point on the floor directly below the edge of the bench will
the ball land.
4) A rifle is aimed horizontally at a target 50 m away. The bullet hits the target 2.0 cm below the aim
point. a) What was the bullets flight time. b) What was the bullets speed as it left the barrel.
5) A ball is thrown upward at a speed
?
6) Two identical stones both have initial speeds of
, 40 left  yaxis)
Solution: The vectors are drawn in their respective quadrants.
a) Vector d points to the right and down, so the components
x
d and
y
d are positive and negative,
respectively:
cos (100 m)cos45 70.7 m
x
d d u = = =
sin (100 m)sin45 71m
y
d d u = = =
b) Vector v points to the right and up, so the components
x
v and
y
v are both positive:
cos (300 m/s) cos20 280 m/s
x
v v u = = =
sin (300 m/s)sin20 100 m/s
y
v v u = = =
c) Vector a has the following components:
2 2
cos (5.0 m/s )cos90 0 m/s
x
a a u = = =
2 2
sin (5.0 m/s )sin90 5.0 m/s
y
a a u = = =
The components have same units as the vectors and note that minus signs we have been inserted for
negative components.
PHYS 151 Sample Problem and Solutions Page 5 2D Motion
5) A skateboarder, starting form rest, rolls down a 12.0 m ramp. When she arrives at the bottom of the
ramp her speed is 7.70 m/s. (a) Determine the magnitude of her acceleration, assumed to be constant. (b)
If the ramp is inclined at 25.0 with respect to the ground, what is the component of her acceleration that
is parallel to the ground?
Solution: a) We designate the direction down and parallel to the ramp as the +x direction, and the table
shows the variables that are known. Since three of the five kinematic variables have values, one of the
equations of kinematics can be employed to find the acceleration a
x
.
xDirection Data
x a
x
v
x
v
0x
t
+12.0 m ? +7.70 m/s 0 m/s
The acceleration vector points down and parallel to the ramp, and the angle of the
ramp is 25.0 relative to the ground (see the drawing). Therefore, trigonometry can be
used to determine the component a
parallel
of the acceleration that is parallel to the
ground.
The equation
( )
2 2
0
2
x x x
v v a x = + can be used to find the acceleration in terms of the three known variables.
Solving this equation for a
x
gives
( ) ( )
( )
2 2
2 2
2 0
7.70 m/s 0 m/s
2.47 m/s
2 2 12.0 m
x x
x
v v
a
x
+
= = =
+
b. The drawing shows that the acceleration vector is oriented 25.0 relative to the ground. The component
a
parallel
of the acceleration that is parallel to the ground is
( )
2 2
parallel
= cos 25.0 2.47 m/s cos 25.0 2.24 m/s
x
a a = =
6) A puck is moving on an air hockey table. Relative to an xy coordinate system at time t=0, the x
components of the pucks initial velocity and acceleration are
and
.
The y components of the pucks initial velocity and acceleration are
and
. Find the magnitude and direction of the pucks velocity at a time of . Specify the
direction relative to the +x axis.
Solution: The magnitude v of the pucks velocity is related to its x and y velocity components (v
x
and v
y
)
by the Pythagorean theorem;
2 2
x y
v v v = + . The relation
0 x x x
v v a t = + may be used to find v
x
, since
v
0x
, a
x
, and t are known. Likewise, the relation
0 y y y
v v a t = + may be employed to determine v
y
, since
v
0y
, a
y
, and t are known. Once v
x
and v
y
are determined, the angle that the velocity makes with respect
to the x axis can be found by using the inverse tangent function;
( )
1
tan /
y x
v v u
= .
25.0
a
parallel
a
x
PHYS 151 Sample Problem and Solutions Page 6 2D Motion
Using the respective
and
in the +x direction. After 45.0 s, the pilot shuts off the RCS thruster. After the
RCS thruster is turned off, find (a) the magnitude and (b) direction of the vehicles velocity relative to the
space station. Express the direction as an angle measure form the +y direction.
Solution: The vehicles initial velocity is in the +y direction, and it accelerates only in the +x direction.
Therefore, the y component of its velocity remains constant at
= +0.320 m/
, reaching a
final value
when the pilot shuts off the RCS thruster. Once we have
found vx, we will use the right triangle shown in the drawing to find the magnitude v and direction of
the vehicles final velocity.
a) During the 45.0second thruster burn, the x component of the vehicles velocity increases from zero to
( )
( )
( )
2
0
0 m/s 0.320 m/s 45.0 s 14.4 m/s
x x x
v v a t = + = + =
Applying the Pythagorean theorem to the right triangle in the drawing, we find the magnitude of the
vehicles velocity to be:
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
14.4 m/s 21.0 m/s 25.5 m/s
x y
v v v = + = + =
b) Referring again to the drawing, we see that the x and y components of the vehicles velocity are related
by the tangent of the angle . Therefore, the angle of the vehicles final velocity is
1 1
14.4 m/s
tan tan 34.4
21.0 m/s
x
y
v
v
u
 
 
 = = =


\ .
\ .
PHYS 151 Sample Problem and Solutions Page 7 2D Motion
PROJECTILE MOTION  SOLUTIONS
1) An object is thrown upward at an angle above the ground, eventually returning to earth. a) Is there
any place along the trajectory where the velocity and the acceleration are perpendicular? If so, where? b)
Is there any place where the velocity and the acceleration are parallel? If so Where? In each case, explain.
Solution: An object thrown upward at an angle will follow the trajectory shown below. Its
acceleration is that due to gravity, and, therefore, always points downward. The acceleration is denoted
by a
y
in the figure. In general, the velocity of the object has two components, v
x
and v
y
. Since a
x
= 0,
v
x
always equals its initial value. The magnitude of the y component of the velocity, v
y
, decreases as the
object rises, drops to zero at the highest point, and then increases as the object falls downward.
a) Since v
y
= 0 when the object is at its highest point, the velocity of the object points only in the x
direction. As suggested in the figure below, the acceleration will be perpendicular to the velocity when
the object is at its highest point and v
y
= 0.
b) In order for the velocity and acceleration to be parallel, the x component of the velocity would have to
drop to zero. However, v
x
always remains equal to its initial value; therefore, the velocity and the
acceleration can never be parallel.
2) A skateboarder shoots off a ramp with a velocity of 6.6 m/s, directed at an angle of 58 above the
horizontal. The end of the ramp is 1.2 m above the ground. Let the x axis be parallel to the ground, the +y
axis direction be vertically upward, and take as the origin the point on the ground directly below the top
of the ramp. (a) How high above the ground is the highest point that the skateboarder reaches? (b) When
the skateboarder reaches the highest point, how far is this point horizontally from the end of the ramp?
Solution: Here is a summary of the data for the skateboarder, using v
0
= 6.6 m/s and = 58:
yDirection Data
y
a
y
v
y
v
0y
t
?
9.80 m/s
2
0 m/s +(6.6 m/s)sin 58 = +5.6 m/s
u
u v
0y
v
0x
v
f
a
y
a
y
v
0y
a
y
v
0x
v
0x
PHYS 151 Sample Problem and Solutions Page 8 2D Motion
xDirection Data
x
a
x
v
x
v
0x
t
?
0 m/s
2
+(6.6 m/s)cos 58 = +3.5 m/s
We will use the relation
2 2
0
2
y y y
v v a y = + to find the skateboarders vertical displacement y above the
end of the ramp. When the skateboarder is at the highest point, his vertical displacement y
1
above the
ground is equal to his initial height y
0
plus his vertical displacement y above the end of the ramp: y
1
= y
0
+ y. Next we will use
0 y y y
v v a t = + to calculate the time t from the launch to the highest point, which,
with
2 1
0 2 x x
x v t a t = + will give us his horizontal displacement x.
a) Substituting v
y
= 0 m/s into the following equation and solving for y, we find
( )
( )
( )
2 2
2 0
2
0
2
5.6 m/s
0 m/s 2 y or 1.6 m
2
2 9.80 m/s
y
y y
y
v
v a y
a
= + = = = +
Therefore, the highest point y
1
reached by the skateboarder occurs when
y
1
= y
0
+ y = 1.2 m + 1.6 m = +2.8 m above the ground.
b) We now turn to the horizontal displacement, which requires that we first find the elapsed time t.
Putting v
y
= 0 m/s into the following and solving for t yields
0
0
0 m/s or
y
y y
y
v
v a t t
a
= + = (1)
Given that a
x
= 0 m/s
2
, the relation
2 1
0 2 x x
x v t a t = + reduces to
0x
x v t = . Substituting Equation (1) for t
then gives the skateboarders horizontal displacement:
( ) ( )
0 0 0
0 0
3.5 m/s 5.6 m/s
2.0 m
9.80 m/s
y x y
x x
y y
v v v
x v t v
a a
 
+ +
= = = = = + 

\ .
3) A ball with a horizontal speed of 1.25 m/s rolls off a bench 1.00 m above the floor. a) Now long will it
take the ball to hit the floor. b) How far from a point on the floor directly below the edge of the bench will
the ball land.
Solution: We can use the vertical part of the motion to calculate the time it takes the ball to hit the floor
and the horizontal part of the motion to find out how far from the bench it lands. Refer to the visual
overview shown.
PHYS 151 Sample Problem and Solutions Page 9 2D Motion
The initial vertical velocity is zero. Take the floor as the origin of coordinates. The ball falls from y
i
= 1.00 m
and lands at y
f
= 0 m.
a) We can use the following verticalposition equation to find the time it takes the ball to reach the floor.
2
f i i
1
( ) ( )
2
y
y y v t g t = + A A
2 2
1
0.00 m 1.00 m (9.80 m/s )( )
2
t = A
Solving for , t A
2
2( 1.00m)
0.452s
9.80m/s
t
A = =
b) The distance the ball travels horizontally is governed by the following horizontalposition equation .
f i i
( ) (1.25 m/s)(0.452 s) = 0.565 m
x
x x v t = + A =
4) A rifle is aimed horizontally at a target 50 m away. The bullet hits the target 2.0 cm below the aim
point. a) What was the bullets flight time. b) What was the bullets speed as it left the barrel.
Solution: We will apply the constantacceleration kinematic equations to the horizontal and vertical motions
as described by the following equation. The effect of air resistance on the motion of the bullet is neglected.
a) Using
2 1
f i i f i f i 2
( ) ( ) ( ) ,
y y
y y v t t a t t = + + we obtain
2 2 2 1
f 2
( 2.0 10 m) 0 m 0 m ( 9.8 m/s )( 0 s) t
= + +
f
0.0639 s t =
PHYS 151 Sample Problem and Solutions Page 10 2D Motion
b) Using
2 1
f i i f i f i 2
( ) ( ) ( ) ,
x x
x x v t t a t t = + +
i
(50 m) 0 m ( ) (0.0639 s 0 s) 0 m
x
v = + +
i
( ) 782 m/s
x
v =
5) A ball is thrown upward at a speed
?
Solution: When the ball is thrown straight up with an initial speed v
0
, the maximum height y that it
reaches can be found by using with the relation
2 2
0
2
y y y
v v a y = + Since the ball is thrown straight up,
v
0y
= v
0
, where v
0
is the initial speed of the ball. Also, the speed of the ball is momentarily zero at its
maximum height, so v
y
= 0 m/s at that point. The acceleration a
y
is that due to gravity, so the only
unknown besides y is the initial speed v
0
of the ball. To determine v
0
we will employ the previous
equation a second time, but now it will be applied to the case where the ball is thrown upward at an angle
of 52 above the horizontal. In this case the maximum height reached by the ball is y
1
= 7.5 m, the initial
speed in the y direction is v
0y
= v
0
sin 52, and the ycomponent of the speed at the maximum height is v
y
= 0 m/s.
We will start with the relation
2 2
0
2
y y y
v v a y = + (Equation 3.6b) to find the maximum height y that the
ball attains when it is thrown straight up. Solving this equation for y, and substituting in v
0y
= v
0
and v
y
=
0 m/s gives
2
y
v
y
a
2
0
= (1)
To determine v
0
, we now apply the equation
2 2
0
2
y y y
v v a y = + to the situation where the ball is thrown
upward at an angle of 52 relative to the horizontal. In this case we note that v
y
= v
0
sin 52, v
y
= 0 m/s,
and y = y
1
(the maximum height of 7.5 m reached by the ball). Solving for
2
0
v , we find
( )
2
1
2 2
0 1 0
2
sin52 2 or
sin 52
y
y y
a y
v v a y v
2
= + =
Substituting this expression for
2
0
v into Equation (1) gives
1
2
1
2 2
7.5 m
sin 52
12 m
2 2 sin 52 sin 52
y
y y
a y
v y
y
a a
2
0
2
= = = = =
PHYS 151 Sample Problem and Solutions Page 11 2D Motion
6) Two identical stones both have initial speeds of
 = =

\ .
2
2
0
2
2
2 sin cos
2(13.0 m/s) sin 30.0 cos 30.0
14.9 m
9.80 m/s
y
v
x
a
u u
= = =
u
u
u
1
2
P
2
x
Ax
PHYS 151 Sample Problem and Solutions Page 12 2D Motion
7) A golfer hits a shot to a green that is elevated 3.0 m above the point where the ball is struck. The ball
leaves the club at a speed of 14.0 m/s at an angle of 40.0 above the horizontal. It rises to its maximum
height and then falls down to the green. Ignoring air resistance, find the speed of the ball just as it lands
on the ground.
Solution: The magnitude (or speed) v of the balls velocity is related to its x and y velocity components
(v
x
and v
y
) by the Pythagorean theorem;
2 2
x y
v v v = + .
The horizontal component v
x
of the balls velocity never changes during the flight, since, in the absence
of air resistance, there is no acceleration in the x direction (a
x
= 0 m/s
2
). Thus, v
x
is equal to the
horizontal component v
0x
of the initial velocity, or
0 0
cos40.0
x x
v v v = = . Since v
0
is known, v
x
can be
determined.
The vertical component v
y
of the balls velocity does change during the flight, since the acceleration in
the y direction is that due to gravity (a
y
= 9.80 m/s
2
). The relation
2 2
0
2
y y y
v v a y = + may be used to
find
2
y
v , since a
y
, y, and v
0y
are known (v
0y
= v
0
sin 40.0).
The speed v of the golf ball just before it lands is
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
2
2 2 2
0 0
2
2 2
0 0
2 2
2
cos40.0 2
cos40.0 sin40.0 2
14.0 m/s cos40.0 14.0 m/s sin40.0 2 9.80 m/s 3.00 m 1
x y y y
y
y
v v v v v a y
v
v v a y
= + = + +
= + +
= + + = ( (
1.7 m/s
PHYS 151 Sample Problem and Solutions Page 13 2D Motion
8) A marble is thrown horizontally with a speed of 15 m/s from the top of a building. When it strikes the
ground, the marble has a velocity that makes an angle of 65 with the horizontal. From what height above
the ground was the marble thrown?
Solution: Since the vertical height is asked
for, we will begin with the vertical part of the
motion, treating it separately from the
horizontal part. The directions upward and to
the right are chosen as the positive directions
in the drawing. The data for the vertical
motion are summarized in the following table.
Note that the initial velocity component v
0y
is
zero, because the marble is thrown
horizontally. The vertical component y of the
marbles displacement is entered in the table
as H where H is the height we seek.
The minus sign is included, because the
marble moves downward in the negative y
direction. The vertical component v
y
of the
final velocity is checked as an important
variable in the table, because we are given the
angle that the final velocity makes
yDirection Data
y a
y
v
y
v
0y
t
H
9.80 m/s
2
\
0 m/s
with respect to the horizontal. Ignoring air resistance, we apply the equations of kinematics. With the data
indicated in the table, we apply the following equation
( ) ( )
2
2
2 2
0
2 0 m/s 2 or
2
y
y y y y
y
v
v v a y a H H
a
= + = + = (1)
To use Equation (1), we need to determine the vertical component v
y
of the final velocity. We are given
that the final velocity makes an angle of 65 with respect to the horizontal, as the inset in the drawing
shows. Thus, from trigonometry, it follows that
0
tan65 or tan65 or tan65
y
y x y x
x
v
v v v v
v
= = =
where the minus sign is included, because v
y
points downward in the negative y direction. In the absence
of air resistance, there is no acceleration in the x direction, and the horizontal component v
x
of the final
velocity is equal to the initial value v
0x
. Substituting this result into Equation (1) gives
( ) ( )
( )
2 2
2
0
2
15 m/s tan65 tan65
53 m
2 2
2 9.80 m/s
y x
y y
v v
H
a a
(
= = = =
v
0x
H
v
y
v
x
65
v
x
v
y
PHYS 151 Sample Problem and Solutions Page 14 2D Motion
9) An airplane is flying with a velocity of 240 m/s at an angle of
30.0 with the horizontal, as the figure shows. When the altitude of
the plane is 2.4 km, a flare is released from the plane. The flare hit s
the target on the ground. What is the angle .
Solution: The angle can be found from
1
2400 m
tan
x
u
 
=

\ .
(1)
where x is the horizontal displacement of the flare. Since 0
x
a = , it
follows that
0
( cos 30.0 ) x v t = . The flight time t is determined by the vertical motion. In particular,
the time t can be found from the following equation. Once the time is known, x can be calculated.
Applying the following equation and assuming upward is the positive direction, we have
2 1
0 2
( sin 30.0 )
y
y v t a t = +
which can be rearranged to give the following equation that is quadratic in t:
2 1
0 2
( sin 30.0 ) 0
y
a t v t y =
Using y = 2400 m and
2
9.80 m/s
y
a = and suppressing the units, we obtain the quadratic equation
2
4.9 120 2400 0 t t + =
Using the quadratic formula, we obtain t = 13 s. Therefore, we find that
x v t = = ( cos . ) ( ) (
0
30 0 13 240 m/ s (cos 30.0 ) s) = 2700 m
Equation (1) then gives
1
2400 m
tan 42
2700 m
u
 
= =

\ .