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International Relations and Autonomy: 1914-2000

Three things I should understand by the end of this unit

Important Understandings in this unit
Canada developed into a politically autonomous (independent) nation in the 20th Century.

What you know or guess Genuine questions 1. Canada used to be a British colony. 2. 1. Did we have to fight Britain for independence? 2. 1. 2.

Canada contributed to the Allied 1. victories in WW I and WW II 2. with efforts at home and abroad.

Through its participation in the Cold War and the United Nations Canada has become a major player on the world stage in modern conflicts

1. 2.

1. 2.


The next 75 minutes of your life

Big Questions (BQ) Why did World War I start? How was Canada involved What you could learn Causes of WW I Canadas contributions to the war The effects of the war on Canada What it was like to fight in this war What youll do with what youve learned Write a series of Pithy versions while watching a video on Canadas role in WW I


Why did this war start? What was it like to fight in this war? How significant was Canadas contribution? How did the war affect Canada at home?

UNIT A: Final Challenge

Prepare and present a speech for the United Nations General Assembly. It is in the process of choosing a country for the job of UN advisor on achieving autonomy and maintaining responsible international involvement. Your speech should persuade the assembly either that Canada should get the job or that Canada shouldnt get the job.

World War I
formerly: The Great War or The War to End All Wars

The M.A.I.N. causes of WWI

There were many long-term causes of the war. At the turn of the century Europe was a mess of affairs.

Militarism - the competition to build bigger/more weapons Alliance System the two sides form competing gangs Imperialism the competition over colonies and business Nationalism the fierce pride in ones country History there is a long history between the European countries Spark the event that causes the long-term problems to blow

Triple Entente vs. Triple Alliance

The two gangs


A. Imperialism

Extending the rule of authority of one country over other countries. In the early 1900s the major European powers (Germany, France, Great Britain (GB), Austria-Hungary (AH) and Russia) all had various desires to control different parts of Europe and the Globe Russia on collision course with AH in the Balkans Germany on collision course with GB and France in Africa


B. Militarism

The massive build up of armaments (tanks, guns)

GB had largest navy Germany started to build its navy to compete which irritated GB creating an arms race Germany was competing with France and Russia to build largest army

HMS Dreadnought


C. Nationalism

Strong feeling of pride for ones country or the desire to form a country as an ethnic group

In the Balkans, a number of ethnic groups wanted independence Russian, AH and Serbia also wanted to control the Balkans This was called the powder keg of Europe


D. Alliances

A group of countries united for the purpose of military protection By the early 1900s there were two alliances established: Triple Alliance (Central Powers): Germany, Austria Hungary and Italy/ Ottoman Empire Triple Entente (Allied Powers): Great Britain, Russia and France

Triple Entente vs. Triple Alliance

The two gangs


George, Wilhelm, and Nicholas were cousins Wilhelm and Nick were autocrats All had military training Monarchy had traditions of war Each jealous of the other

King George V

Kaiser Wilhelm II

Tsar Nicholas II

France had had many battles with the Germanic people, esp. Prussia Germany took Alsace and Lorraine French wanted revenge Germany prepared for war
Not if war but when

British challenged by German shipbuilding, and French wars

The Spark
Serbian nationalists want to start a revolution of the Slavic people against the A-H Serbs form a terrorist group The Black Hand Decide to assassinate Archduke Franz Ferdinand and Sofie trying to spark the revolution Assassinate FF in Sarajevo after several failed attempts A-H demands Serbia turn over terrorists and allow A-H troops into Serbia to search, ultimatum Serbia refuses latter

Serbia asks for help from Russia

Russia wanted to gain in Balkans

A-H asks for German assistance

Germans give Blank Cheque

Russia mobilizes army Germany institutes Schlieffen Plan





4. 5.

Assassination On June 28th 1914, Archduke Ferdinand, the heir to the Austiran throne, was killed by Gavrilo Princip, a Serbian nationalist. Blank Cheque Germany guarantees its support to AH no matter what War Begins - AH issues ultimatum to Serbia which agrees to most terms but AH declares war on Serbia anyways on July 28, 1914 Russia Mobilizes - Russia starts mobilizing its forces against AH because it wants the Balkans Germany Declares War on Russia Germany demands that Russia demobilize. They dont so Germany declares war.


France Supported Russia by telling them it would declare war on Germany Germany Declares War on France because they wouldnt stop mobilizing. Schlieffen Plan Germany invades France though Belgium with all of its might trying to end the war on the Western front quickly (6 weeks) so it could then turn its attention to Russia in the east. Britain Declares War on Germany Because GB had guaranteed the neutrality of Belgium they declare war on Germany.





Creating effective pithy versions

My name is Maria Sanchez. I live in a favela, or poor area, in a city on the east coast of Brazil. It is a shantytown, but almost 120,000 poor Brazilians live here. Our homes are shacks or huts, made from left-over material. The town is built on the side of a hill and is a source of cheap labour for nearby neighbourhoods where rich people live. My husband and I did not go to school beyond grade four. Because we have few skills, both of us are employed in very low-paying jobs even though we work long hours. The only place we can afford to live is this shantytown. Northey, Nichol, and Case. Editors. Brazilian Rain Forest. (Vancouver: The Critical Thinking Consortium, 2002), 9

Rate this pithy version out of 5

Maria Sanchez lives in neighborhood built from scrap. She works hard but makes very little money because shes uneducated.
A Good PV is CABO Captures main ideas Accurate Brief Own Words

Rate this pithy version out of 5

Maria Sanchez lives in bad neighborhood right next to where the rich people live fabulous lives and she has to work for them.
A Good PV is CABO Captures main ideas Accurate Brief Own Words

Rate this pithy version out of 5

Maria Sanchez is a poor Brazilian woman who lives in a bad neighborhood because she has no education. Her husband is in the same boat. We dont know if they have kids but it would be a bad idea since theyre so poor.
A Good PV is CABO Captures main ideas Accurate Brief Own Words

Rate this pithy version out of 5

Maria Sanchez lives in a shack settlement called a favela in the poor part of a city in Brazil. Because she is poorly educated and poorly paid she cannot afford to live anywhere else.
A Good PV is CABO

Captures main ideas Accurate Brief Own Words

Learning Log #

Political Cartoon Analysis

Do the interpreting a Political Cartoon exercise (1-5) on page 23 in Counterpoints.


As soon as Britain declared war on Germany, Canada was automatically at war because we were part of the British Empire.

Widespread support for war in Canada at the start of war

Patriotism Feelings of excitement and adventure people thought it would be a short war home by Christmas

Sam Hughes (Minister of Militia and Defense) set up training camp at Valcartier Quebec which got soldiers to Europe in a hurry

Stalemate and Trench Warfare Germans attacked through Belgium and into France but were stopped by French and British (including Canadians). Neither side could advance = stalemate Both sides dug into trenches and attacked periodically by going over the top into no mans land toward the other opposing trenches Particularly because of the machine gun this tactic did not work well and very little progress was made by either side for the next three years = stalemate Conditions in the trenches were awful wet, cold, rats, lice, dangerous rn_front.shtml one/launch_vt_frontline.shtml

WAR IN EUROPE Trench Warfare

Try to sleep with a belt full of ammunition around you, your rifle bolt biting into your ribs, entrenching tool handle sticking into the small of your back, with a tin hat for a pillow; and feeling very damp and cold with cooties boring for oil in your arm pits, and the air foul from the stench of grimy human bodies being whiffed into your nostrils. Note from and unknown soldier

Learning Log #

Trench Warfare Reflection

Write a reflection about trench warfare in your learning log

The Changing Face of War New Types of Fighting

Battles of Attrition (grinding down) rather than trying to win a decisive victory the two sides are trying to grind each other down (bleed the enemy white). You could also think of the whole war as one of attrition Total War when all resources of a country are organized to win the war A new concept in the 20th century -massive materials needed, money through victory bonds and income tax, women in factories,

New Technology Tanks Not used until 1916 (Somme) but became increasingly effective and ultimately proved to be one of the reasons for allied victory Poison Gas First used by Germans at Ypres nasty but not a major factor in the war Machine Guns Hugely important responsible for most deaths during the war Submarines Germans used these very effectively until 1917 to destroy GB merchant ships trying to starve GB into submission Airplanes not a big impact used for scouting and dogfights one/launch_ani_mark_one_tank.shtml one/launch_vt_dogfight.shtml

Land Battles
Ypres, April 1915

Germans attacked allies with poison gas First taste of trench warfare for Canadian troops 6000 Canadians killed

Somme, July 1916

Huge Allied attack which failed 20000 + Canadians killed 90% casualty rate in Newfoundland regiment 1.25 million casualties in total das Blutbad 23 Canadians shot at dawn

Vimy Ridge, April 1917

Captured successfully by Canadians alone even though French and British had failed Extremely well planned and executed Turning point in the war first decisive victory Became a symbol for Canadian independence and nationhood Canadian troops recognized as some of the best on the western front Resulted in the Canadian corps being led by a Canadian, General Arthur Currie, rather than a British general we ran our own show after that

Passchendale, October 1917

A muddy nightmare Canadians ordered to attack despite protests from General Currie They attacked and took Passchendale but 16000 died (4 out of 5) for only 7 km of mud that the Germans soon won back

The Hundred Days

By early 1918 Russia had made peace leaving Germany with just the Western front to worry about The US had entered the war in 1917 but still needed time to train Germans tried one last massive offensive and by summer of 1918 made it within 75 km of Paris However, they had overextended themselves. In the next 100 days, with Canadians playing a huge part, the allies drove them back until they surrendered

War in the Air

Canadians in the Air

a number of Canadians flew planes for the British Air Force Germans had the upper hand in the air because they had more planes Duals between pilots in the air were called dogfights Billy Bishop was a famous Canadian pilot who shot down 72 planes and was awarded the Victoria cross

The next 75 minutes of your life

Big Questions (BQ) Evaluate World War Ones effects on Canadas homefront. How do I write a good social studies essay? What you could learn Propaganda, conscription crisis, womens roles, Halifax explosion, supplying the war, war measures act, paying for the war, rationing What youll do with what youve learned Write a text book article based on primary sources of your topic and share it with the rest of us.

Explain Canadas impact on WW I.

Explain Canadas impact on WW I

Thesis: Canada made an important contribution in helping the Allies to victory in WW I. P I: Battles participated in Ypres/ Somme casualties/ part of war effort attrition/ trenches PII: Battles won Vimy Ridge help turn the war around/ big victory Passchendale lead our own army and won but with lots of casualties P III: Supplied the war effort Away from fighting/ supplied guns, ammunition, clothing, wheat

Next big WW I questino

Evaluate World War Ones effects on Canadas homefront.


Sam Hughes (Minister of Militia and Defense) in charge of Canadas armament industry Gave lots of contracts for weapons to his friends who were profiteers people more interested in making money than making quality products. Ex. Cardboard soled shoes Hughes fired in 1916

B. War Measures Act Passed in 1914

Govt could control the economy and censor the mail Could arrest people without laying charges Recent immigrants from Germany and AH (enemy aliens) were treated harshly had to carry special ID cards and report to registration officers. 8579 were held in isolation in internment camps

C. Paying for the War

Because of new weapons, the length of the war and the large Canadian contribution, the govt needed money which it raised through:

Victory bonds bought by Canadians to be repaid after war with interest Taxes- introduced income tax as a temporary measure on the wealthy (3%) and a profit tax (4%)on businesses Late in the war borrowing money from the US

D. The Halifax Explosion, 1917

A French munitions ship collided with another ship and blew up in Halifax harbor Over 2000 people were killed and many left homeless US donated generously to help rebuild Halifax

E. Rationing

During the war food and fuel became scarce and prices soared because so much was being exported to Europe Honour rationing was introduced people limited themselves to 1.5 lbs of butter and 2 lbs of sugar/ month Mandatory waste reduction was introduced

F. Propaganda

Propaganda is any strategy to persuade people to believe something or act a certain way it often distorts the truth or is very one sided Used to get people to join the war and to keep people patriotic about the war

Propaganda is communication that uses a one-sided, sometimes untrue message to try to influence the attitudes and actions of a community. Propaganda usually takes the form of posters, commercials, songs, poems, or other mass media. What attitudes and actions is this propaganda trying to inspire? Describe at least five techniques used in the propaganda. Consider use of images, colours, facial expressions, symbols and text. Define propaganda in your own words. Provide one modern day example of propaganda and explain why it fits your definition.



3. 4.

Conscription Crisis

By 1917 voluntary enlistments were not keeping up with casualties (see graph on page 40 in counterpoints) PM Robert Borden called for conscription mandatory military service for men aged 20 35 Most of English Canada supported him while most of Quebec was against him Many Quebeckers were not feeling patriotic since they felt little connection to either France or Britain and they felt that they were not being treated equally within Canada There was also the feeling that Canada had done enough, that we needed our men at home to produce for the war Borden called an election on the conscription issue but first he passed two laws War Time Elections Act. - one giving all men and women overseas the vote, the other giving the vote to all women directly related to servicemen He won the election (with only 3 of 65 seats in Quebec) and conscription was introduced There were major protests in Quebec and Canada was divided Over 90% of all conscripts applied for exemptions for medical and other reasons and only 25000 conscripted soldiers actually reached France before the war ended

H. New Roles for Women

Hundreds of women volunteered in the war as nurses and ambulance drivers At home many women worked in war production industries and other jobs vacated by men off at war this was a huge change because before 1914 it would have been unheard of to have women in these kinds of mens jobs The contribution women were making led them to organize as suffragettes (women trying to the right to vote) and by the end of the war most women over 21 had earned the right to vote in federal elections

The Paris Peace Conferences

After Germany surrendered a peace was dictated to them by the victories countries. Canada got its own seat at the peace conference (a big deal for a country many still saw as a British tag-along before the war The Treaty of Versailles which came out of the conference really stuck it to Germany and many argue it sowed the seeds for the rise of Hitler and WW II

Effects of the War in Canada

Our great contributions to the war showed that we were an independent (autonomous) country. Some changes as a result of the war: Women got the vote and their roles changed Troops gained respect Economy grew Debt grew so we introduced income tax which we still have 60000 Canadians killed/ 178,000 wounded Conscription deepened the differences between French and English