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A study about :-
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By: Mawadah Alnoor
+ n H2O + energy CnH2nOn + n O2 As noted here. and oxygen. hence their name. By: Mawadah Alnoor .Simple Sugars 1. hydrogen. . sugars. recognition sites on cell surfaces. a component of the energy transport compound ATP. Cn(H2O)n. The carbohydrates are a major source of metabolic energy.Contain the elements carbon. They originate as products of photosynthesis.The general formula for simple sugars is Cn(H2O)n.This class of compounds is better described as Polyhydroxy aldehydes and ketones. Carbohydrates are called saccharides or. A. the formulas of many carbohydrates can be written as carbon hydrates. an endothermic reductive condensation of carbon dioxide requiring light energy and the pigment chlorophyll. if they are relatively small. both for plants and for animals that depend on plants for food. . and one of three essential components of DNA and RNA.CARBOHYDRATES General Information: Carbohydrates are the most abundant class of organic compounds found in living organisms. Aside from the sugars and starches that meet this vital nutritional role. .The name carbohydrate literally means water compounds of carbon. carbohydrates also serve as a structural material (cellulose).
cannot be broken down into smaller units by hydrolysis.Aldose .can be broken into three to six monosaccharide units.If it has four carbons it is called a tetrose.Ketose . 2-Another method is based on the number of carbons found in a simple sugar. B. 1-One method of classification is based on whether the carbohydrate can be broken down into smaller units. .a monosaccharide with an aldehyde group. B. A.Several methods are used to classify carbohydrates.Usually combine the carbonyl classification and the number classification together.If it has three carbons it is called a triose. ..If it has five carbons it is called a pentose.a monosaccharide with a ketone group. Monosaccharides .Stereoconfigurations of simple sugars.The simplest carbohydrates are glyceraldehyde and dihydroxyacetone.can be broken down (hydrolyzed) into two monosaccharide units. .If it has six carbons it is called a hexose. 3-Another method uses the kind of carbonyl group. Sometimes called simple sugars. . A . By: Mawadah Alnoor . Polysaccharides .composed of 7 or more mono-saccharide units. Oligosaccharides .Methods of Classification: . . Disaccharides .
Carbohydrate Anomers: . the sugar is designated as an L sugar. .If the OH group is found on the left side of the chain of carbons. Important Carbohydrates: Monosaccharides . .Carbohydrates contain many stereocenters. By: Mawadah Alnoor .The β anomer always has the OH group oriented in an upward fashion on the anomeric carbon of a D-sugar. 2. .Five membered sugar rings are known as furanose rings.These stereoisomeric ring forms of carbohydrates are called Anomers. . . Cyclic Structures: .composed of three to seven carbon atoms..Formation of either of the cyclic form has created a new stereocenter.Anomers are carbohydrates that differ by the stereo-configuration of the carbon involved in ring formation. the sugar is designated as a D sugar.Six membered sugar rings are known as pyranose rings.The greek letters α and β are used to describe the configuration about the ring forming carbon.If the OH group is found on the right side of the carbon chain.The α anomer always has the OH group oriented in a downward fashion on the anomeric carbon of a D-sugar. 1. .
1.Found in milk and milk products. Composed of two D-glucose sugars joined by an α-1. .Sweetest of the carbohydrates. .Glucose . . . .table sugar. Galactose . .Found in the cellular membranes of the brain and nervous system. . 2. Fructose .The building block of complex carbohydrates. By: Mawadah Alnoor .most abundant hexose in our diet.Composed of one galactose and one glucose unit joined by a β-1.Galactose is the C-4 epimer of glucose.Found in the polysaccharides: starch.Product of sugar cane and sugar beets. . maltose and lactose. candies and the brewing of beverages.Sucrose .Fructose is a keto sugar. Used in cereals.Component of the disaccharide sucrose.malt sugar.1. .composed of two monosaccharide units. 2-Lactose . . 1.4 linkage. lactose.Maltose .Component of the disaccharides: sucrose. Disaccharides .milk sugar.Found in the disaccharide. cellulose and glycogen. 3.4 linkage.
Starch: Storage form of glucose found in rice wheat.. Consists of many glucose units joined by β-1. grains and cereals.Linkage is at both anomeric carbons.Glycogen: Animal starch. Polysaccharides . Consists of many glucose units joined by α-1.4 linkages.6 linkages. 1. potatoes.4 linkages. Storage form of glucose found in the liver and muscle of animals.4 linkages and branched by α-1.Cellulose: Major structural material of plant cells. 2.Composed of one glucose and one fructose unit. 3. Maltose is the disaccharide starting material.composed of many (more than 10) monosaccharide units. . By: Mawadah Alnoor . Joined by α-1. Contains many highly branched glucose units.
By: Mawadah Alnoor . Reducing sugars: Any sugar that contains either: 1-A free aldehyde group.If the sugar gets oxidized it causes reduction.Thus the name “reducing sugar”. 2.An α-hydroxy ketone group. Dextrin: .Mixture of branched and un-branched soluble polysaccharides produced by partial hydrolysis of starch by acids or amylases. .3. 3-A hemiacetal linkage -The presence of any of these groups allows the carbohydrate to undergo easy oxidation. .
. Disaccharides and polysaccharides react slower. . Monosaccharides give a rapid positive test. The furfurals further react with -naphthol present in the test reagent to produce a purple product.The Molisch reagent dehydrates pentoses to form furfural (top reaction) and dehydrates hexoses to form 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (bottom reaction).It is the general test for all carbohydrates.QUALITATIVE TESTS FOR CARBOHYDRATES Experiment-1: Molisch Test: .All carbohydrates. By: Mawadah Alnoor .
Positive result is detected by reduction of the deep blue solution of cupric (II) to a red precipitate of insoluble cuprous oxide (Cu2O). . By: Mawadah Alnoor . Method: 1ml test solution + 2 drops of α-naphthol >> mix well >> add conc. -ve +ve Experiment-2: Fehling's Test: . H2SO4 down the side of the tube to form the ring at the interface of the two layers. Fehling's reagent is commonly used for reducing sugars but is known to be not specific for aldehydes. .A reducing sugar reacts with Fehling's reagent in alkaline medium to form an orange to red precipitate.This test is used to differentiate between reducing and non reducing sugars.→ Condensation with α-naphthol >>>> Purple ring.
lactose and maltose) .The sucrose does not react with Fehling's reagent.Sucrose is non-reducing sugar because the anomeric carbon of glucose is involved in the glucose. Method: By: Mawadah Alnoor . Fehling's Reagent: Two solutions are required: Fehling's "A" uses 7 g CuSO4..5H2O dissolved in distilled water containing 2 drops of dilute sulfuric acid. Fehling's "B" uses 35g of potassium tartrate and 12g of NaOH in 100 ml of distilled water. Sucrose is a disaccharide of glucose and fructose.g. Most disaccharides are reducing sugars (e.fructose bond and hence is not free to form the aldehyde in solution.
The colour of the final solution ranges from green to brick red depending on how many of the copper (II) ions are present.1ml test solution + 1ml Fehling's reagent > heat the mixture in BWB (5min)>>Reddish brown ppt Experiment-3: Benedict's Test: . Method: 1ml test solution + 1ml Benedict's reagent > heat the mixture in BWB (5min)>>Reddish brown ppt Experiment-4: Barfoid Test: By: Mawadah Alnoor .Benedict's reagent contains blue copper(II) sulfate (CuSO4) · 5H2O which is reduced to red copper(I) oxide by aldehydes. thus oxidizing the aldehydes to carboxylic acids.It works on the same principle but Benedict is more stable than Fehling's reagent.The copper oxide is insoluble in water and so precipitates. .This test is used also to differentiate between reducing and non reducing sugars. . .
Barfoed's reagent is copper acetate in dilute acetic acid (pH 4. Remove the tubes from the bath and allow to cool. Place test tubes into a boiling water bath and heat for 2 minutes.Formation of a green. Method: By: Mawadah Alnoor . red. 5hydroxymethylfurfural further reacts with resorcinol present in the test reagent to produce a red product within two minutes (reaction not shown). This reaction will detect reducing monosaccharides in the presence of disaccharides.The test reagent dehydrates ketohexoses to form 5-hydroxymethylfurfural.6) . Method: . or yellow precipitate is a positive test for reducing monosaccharides. as a positive test can be obtained with disaccharides if they are heated long enough. Do not heat the tubes longer than 3 minutes. Aldohexoses react to form the same product. This reagent uses copper ions to detect reducing sugars in an acidic solution.Reducing disaccharides (lactose but not sucrose) undergo the same reaction but at slower rate.Reducing monosaccharides are oxidized by the copper ions in a weak acidic medium to form a carboxylic acid and a reddish ppt of Cu2O (cuprous oxide).It is a test used to differentiate between monosaccharides and disaccharides. but do so more slowly.. . . Experiment-5: Seliwanoff Test: .1 ml of the solution to be tested + 2 ml of freshly prepared Barfoed's reagent.
Benedict and all the previous tests. By: Mawadah Alnoor . Experiment-6: Iodine test: Test for Polysaccharides 1. . avoid over-boiling because sucrose may be hydrolyzed to its component (glucose and fructose) and gives false positive result.1/2 mL of the fresh starch solution + 1 drop of the iodine solution. . Method: 6 ml of 1% sucrose in a test tube + 2 drops of concentrated hydrochloric acid (HCl).A dark blue color indicates a positive test for starch.Starch: . 2. If the yellow color of the iodine reagent simply becomes diluted.Sucrose is the only non-reducing sugar so it does not reduce the alkaline Cu solutions (Fehling and Benedict). -ve +ve Experiment-5: Hydrolysis test: . . no starch is present. .A positive test is indicated by the formation of a red product.In case of sucrose. The solution is then heated in a boiling water bath for two minutes. Sucrose must first be hydrolyzed to its component and then test for.Dextrin: . Heat the tube in a boiling water bath for 15 minutes.1/2 ml of a sample + 2ml of Seliwanoff's reagent (a solution of resorcinol and HCl) is added.Then test for Fehling. Record the observation as positive (blue) or negative (yellow).1/2 mL of the fresh dextrin solution + 1 drop of the iodine solution.
Experiment-6: The preparation of osazone: .Because both carbons 1 and 2 are involved in the reaction C-2 epimers produce the same osazone.2-diphenylhydrazone.A violet color indicates a positive test for dextrin. These 1. Ketoses with configurations identical to aldoses below C-2 give the same osazones e.g.Phenyl hydrazine reacts with normal carbonyls to produce phenyl hydrazones.2-diphenylhydrazones are known as osazones.. . If the yellow color of the iodine reagent simply becomes diluted.Sugars undergo a variation of this reaction in which 3 molecules of phenylhydrazine react with the sugar to produce a 1. 1. 1. glucose and fructose. By: Mawadah Alnoor . no dextrin is present. Record the observation as positive (violet) or negative (yellow).
References: www. Have a characteristic shape.chemtopics. .You are supplied with samples of different sugars carry on all the previous experiments. .Draw the form of crystals. Compare the crystal shapes with the supplied photographs. Have characteristic melting points. 3.Glucose + Phenyl hydrazine>>>>>>>>>>> Glucosazone (broomed shape) .org www.com RESULTS & LAB REPORT .Fructose + Phenyl hydrazine>>>>>>>>>>> Fructosazone (broomed shape) .wikipedia. observations and inferences in the three-column format .Maltose + Phenyl hydrazine>>>>>>>>>>> Maltosazone (spherical shape) .Explain glucose and fructose form the same osazone? Characteristics of osazones: 1.Sucrose + Phenyl hydrazine>>>>>>>>>>> -ve (WHY?) Method: 1/2 g of phenyl hydrazine + 1 spoon sodium acetate + 2ml of glucose solution >>>>>BWB (45 min) until yellow crystals appear >>> cold and examine a sample of crystals under microscope. By: Mawadah Alnoor .Record your methods. 2. Specific time and whether the osazone is formed from hot solutions or only on cooling.Lactose + Phenyl hydrazine>>>>>>>>>>> Lactosazone .
SCHEME FOR UNKNOWN SUGAR Solution of carbohydrate Benedict’s test (2ml sugar+2ml Benedicts reagent….boiling 5 min.) -ve for non reducing sugars Iodine test (1ml of iodine + 5 drops of sugar) +ve for reducing sugars Iodine test (1ml of iodine + 5 drops of sugar) By: Mawadah Alnoor .
+ve Starch -ve Non-reducing Reducing monosaccharides (sucrose) -ve +ve Reducing Dextrin Disaccharide and disaccharides *Hydrolysis of sucrose (5ml of sugar + o. Seliwanoff and Barfoid tests) Barfoed`s Test (2ml Barfoed reagent+ 1ml sugar >>boiling 5min) -ve Reducing disaccharides (Lactose) Seliwanoff`s test (1ml sugar+1ml Seliwanoff reagent>>>boiling 2 min.5 ml conc. Then perform Fehling. Hcl heat in boiling bath for 5 min.) +ve Keto-sugar -ve Aldo-sugar +ve monosaccharides By: Mawadah Alnoor . Benedict.
Resources : Wikipedia The Free Encyclopedia Google Scholar Science Magazine Web Site By: Mawadah Alnoor .
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