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AMATEUR SPORT AND THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT University of Massachusetts November 12, 1975 Datel ine: June 19, 1975 The White House
The President ment:
of the United States, Gerald Ford, says in his state-
Today, by Executive President's Commission
I am establ ishing the The Commission the United for particiamateur
on Olympic Sports.
impede or prevent
States from fielding
its best amateur athletes
pat ion in the Olympic Games and other international sporting events. financing The Commission
will study methods of in Olympic sports.
te~ms which compete
Special emphasis will be placed on organizational of Olympic
sports including the U.S. Olympic Committee sports federations.
On that date and with those words, the President's Olympic Sports was created .. Fourteen. members were appointed Senate were 'appointed by the President by the President,
4 members of the
Pro Tempore of the Senate and
4 members of the House of Representat ives by the Speaker of the House bringing the Commission's
to 22. A permanent D.C. and
at $560,000 for one year.
staff of 16 people housed
in a suite on, "M" street
in Washington, consultants
will be on this job for the one year as researchers,
The Commission will meet a total of 6 times during the in February and the final one in July, 1976,
year and make two reports--one
to the President through the Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare. Why did President Ford appoint a President's a charge? Why is our government Commission with such
spending over 1/2 million dollars on
Why are such people as Gerald Zornow, Chairman of the Board Bud
of Directors of Eastman Kodak, Howard K. Smith, ABC commentator, Wilkinson,
former Oklahoma football coach, now a Dallas businessman,
Ch.l'e f s,
Lamar Hunt, owner of the K.C.
Rafer Johnson, Hill Toomey,
Mickey King and others asked to devote a great deal of time serving on the Commission? Let me give you a bit of background: In a brief overview we were introduced to the problem with these thoughts: Taking part in sports and physical fitness programs among the most valued traditions in American is
life and culture. or spectators in
People of all ages enjoy being participants sports--which contributes
to several positive goals:
--Sports and physical fitness help to promote the physical health of the nation. --Involvement of worthwhile
of our youth provides an active channel thereby diverting many young people
from/the social problem areas of drugs, crime, and violence. --Organized sports help to build international
standing among people from different cultures, thereby contributing
systems of government
to the development
of our objectives
in the area of international
the world, amateur athletics are by far the International amateur
most dominant form of sport participation. competition Therefore, grows out of domestic competition
in each country.
it should be our goal to achieve an efficient organsports
izational structure for our domestic and international development.
I don't believe anyone of us would quarrel with those positive goals. The problem, however, becomes more clearly revealed as it was contended that: Over the years, compelling demonstrating evidence has accumulated,
that the United States' stature in both competition has deteriorated. It
domestic and international
is no secret that the ~on~tant has b~en a significant
feuding among our sports groups Of course, other
cause of this decline.
factors must be cited as well, such as the special role of professional sports in America and the rapid emergence of new nations as powers in organized irreversible. sports. But the situation is not
We can do much to resolve the problems to help
the country and our athletes toward a better climate for taking part in sports at home and abroad. Essentially, the problems are organizational in nature.
They grow out of the way each sport is organ ized for "open" and international various multi-sport Interorganizational competition, as well as from the way the interrelate with one another. disputes between
rivalries and jurisdictional
amateur sports bodies have erupted with uncommon frequency,
athletes and teams at a tremendous disadvantage Often these feuds have prein "open" meets. and use their
in international competition.
vented us from fielding our best athletes
Because the United States sports bodies manipulate
athletes as virtual puppets as it best suits their purpose, the concept of athletes· objectives rights has been virtually in building international ignored. The United States· can be severely damaged
because often less than our best teams represent us in international competition. of development Finally, the reservoir of United States athletes at all stages is depressed because various sports groups are so preoccupied overriding interests in developing athletes
with their own squabblings-that are not served.
Let me cite two incidents which happened that caused the comments just made to be significant: A mere recent incident in which scores of amateur athletes were harshly victimized by an arbitrary judgment and power play
is the Jack Langer case involving the NCAA, Yale University and ultimately all Yale athletes. basketball In 1969, Jack Langer, a
star and student at Yale, was invited to particiGames, which were to be held that summer
pate in the Maccabiah in Israel.
Since there was no interference with academic or to
coll~~e athletic schedules, Yale gave Langer permission compete.
However, since the NCAA had not sanctioned
it declared that anyone who took part in them would be inel igible for further NCAA competition. Disregarding the NCAA·s
threat, Langer went to the Maccabiah Games, and as a consequence
-5was declared athletics. ineligible to compete in intercollegiate
In spite of this, Yale allowed Langer to play season, which resulted from in
during its 1969-1970 basketball the sixteen-month participation Another
suspension of 2111 Yale athletes events. current:
incident is relatively
invitation by the People's Republic of
China to the U.S. to send a track and field team finally resulted in the AAU, as the sanctioning U.S. organization, The dates turned out to
setting a date for the late spring of this year. agreed upon by the U.S. and Chinese negotiators be concurrent with the NCAA championships
in track and field,
which meant that many of our top athletes would not be able to go to China. As often happens, the NCAA had not been conHowever, this time, largely due
sulted ~bout the China meet. to a great deal of criticism
and pressure that had been aired
in the news media, the NCAA and AAU sat down together and agre~d upon more mutually satisfactory dates for the China tour. scheduled
There were still some conflicts with previously athletic conference meets, but the athletes
that went to China and
this May returned the week before the NCAA championships, thus were able to take part in both competitions.
-6A dispute over television cancellation July. rights caused a momentary track meet this from
of a scheduled U.S.-U.S.S.R.
The AAU, caught in the middle, had to withdraw
competition when the Russians made a separate
contract with ABC to televise the meet in violation of longstanding contracts here and abroad. the AAU has made with CBS to cover meets both Finally, after outside pressure was brought
to bear, ABC withdrew from the picture and the AAU re-scheduled the meet. originally By this time, however, American athletes who had planned to take part in the K)ev competition and were competing had
made other commitments meets.
in various European and, as
A last-minute make-shift
team was assembled,
might be expected, was' convincingly
trounced by the superior
Russian and Bulgarian teams.
In order to understand the role 'government might or might not play in amateur sports, a very brief review of the various sports bodies which control amateur , athletics should be discussed. This will not be an easy task and if the As you recall,
lId have to say "join the croud."
one of the reasons for the Olympic Commission's organizational
being was to examine the
structure of those various groups who control sports
included in the Olympics. To understand the overall dbmestic framework for amateur the hierarchy, organiza-
spor's, it is first necessary to understand
roles, and interrelationships tions for amateur sports.
of the international
-7The most important and ~upremeinternational tion is the International Olympic Committee (IOC). organizaFormerly
presided over by America's Avery Brundage, the organization is today headed by Lord Michael Killanin of Ireland. The International Olympic Committee body for each of the Olympic Games. is the governing
Its voting membership
is comprised of two delegates from countries who have broadbased participation in the Olympics (such as the U.S., U.S.S.R.,
Japan), or who have previously hosted the modern Olympics; and one delegate from all Other participating National Olympic Committee nations whose
(NOC) has been recognized by the 10C. body whose members can serve for
The 10C is a self-perpetuating Iife.
The delegates to the 10C are not 'representatives of their
respective country's NOCs, but rather delegates from that country only to the 10C. These delegates are appointed by the within the country they represent.
10C and not by any organization
Among the 10C's major roles are the selection of sites for the Olympic Games, the planning and preparation for the Games
(working with the host country's NOC), and the conduct of other administrative duties relating to each Olympiad. Only the 10C
can re~ognize new NOC's, such as the Peoples Republic of China, should any country choose to gain admittance
to future Games.
(Recognition and the opportunity
to form an NOC depends on a
country gaining admittance
to five international federations .
The role and composition of the international federations will be discussed later in this section.)
-8Currently, recognized there are 134 National Olympic Committees the NOC is the
by the IOC.
For the United States, (USOC). power wielded
United States Olympic Committee Perhaps the most significant is its right to determine desiring to participate
by the IOC for athletes
the rules of eligibility in the Olympic Games. organized
While each of for every:
the international individual
sport has its own rules on el igibility and amateurism competitions, the rules for each federation set by the IOC. This is under-
in international generally standable
follow the guidelines because the"Olympics,
after all, are the ultimate from many different
in amateur competitions sports take part.
in which athletes
There has been much criticism our amateurs country's repeatedly
in the U~itedStates
have to compete against a socialist athletes. While this may at least in is not
~art be true, completely amateur
it is also true that the United States in its compliance
with international view athletic scholar-
Social ist countries
ships t,o our universities by the military
and partial subsidization
of our athletes in viola-
services as forms of professionalism amateur athletic rules.
tion bf international
'Yet, the key issue is not whether our amateurs peting against Russia's international rules. professionals
or who is breaking
The crux of the debate should be whether
-9to change the international necessary, sportsmen rules governing amateurism, if
or to broaden opportunities
for our amateur from high are forced
so they may compete after graduation if they desire.
school or college to "retire"
at this time either because market, or because
their sports have
no professional fessional
they must join the pro-
ranks for economic
The United States alone cannot change the international rules. It must be done by the appropriate world bodies. influence
the United States can have a strong
on any changes made in the rules if it presents a firm, united front through capable national bodies concerned. jus t problenSAmentioned representation on the inter-
Because of the organizational
many argue that the United States does not have competent representation on the international bodies; this, in turn,
limits U.S. effectiveness ing amateurism amateurism directly
in bringing about rule changes governThe question of
and a host of other issues.
is raised here only to show that nothing done by the U.S. Government can alter amateur rules, since are set by
the rules in international international participants.
and "open" competition
bodies in which the U.S. is only one of many Sti II, the U.S. influence rests on the strength
of that participation. If the Commission is successful in helping to bring structures, the chances
about improved internal organizational
-10of amending international amateur rules are increased bodies. through
on the international
The U.S. Olympic Committee
and the various U.S. affilare forced to set their in accordance with inter-
iates of the world sports federations international national and "open" competitions
They have no choice--if
they wish to take part.
A separate U.S. jurisdiction, vary from the international competitions. For example,
however, may have rules which rules to govern in January its restricted
1974, the NCAA passed to compete as pro-
a ruling which would allow college athletes amateurs fessionals in another
in one sport even though they may be considered
by having signed a contract or played professionally sport. Thus, while a college athlete, for example
in track and field,
is el igible to compete under NCAA rules, signed a professional in international international "open" rules
that same athlete, who has already football contract, competition
could not compete
in track and field because provide for this.
do not presently Clearly, awesome athletes
in setting rules which govern American in international competition--and problems within
is naturally the organization.
fraught with many political Nonetheless, representation
changes can and have been made through effective on the 10C and the world federations. sports federation. representative
Each sport has its own international Each federation is comprised of recognized
from each country around the world that particior "open" competition federation in that sport.
pates in international Only the international
in each sport may recognize and only the international and accept a new one as federation
and accept new member countries, federation
may expel one organization in any country. for accepting
its affil iate is responsible
new world records and promoting
its sport globally.
At the time of the Olympic Games every four years, each international federation works with the IOC in planning in the sport it represents. specifications the
individual competitions certain athletic that technical
are met, plans each and helps to certify
event in the sport concerned, regulations
for the athletes who will be competing. operates,
Of the many rules under which each federation one of the most significant political
is that there can be no domestic of which of the
control exerted over the determination in a country international is the recognized federation,
for, as has been mentioned may expel or approve
earlier, only the international membership of its affiliates.
-12While the Russians and other socialist to violate this rule, it is important is developed nations appear
to note that any
solution which Government
and brought about by the U.S. sports groups should with inter-
be done in a way which national acceptance
is fully consistent
rules, in order to increase the chances of by the world federation concerned. Many countries federations
who sit as voting members on the international
may like very much to see the U.S. 's weak organizational structure a violation continue to cause us problems. If they can use
of international of a change
rules as an excuse to proin affiliates with the interMost probably the
scribe acceptance national
they are liable to do so. to continue Killanin,
they would find justification old affiliate. Lord Michael
of the 10C,
has warned of this very thing. Some American sports organizations have predicted that
the U.S. would be thrown out of the Olympic Games and the world federations if organizational changes were made that did rules. Other U.S. organizainternational rules in
not comply fully with international tions maintain
that changes which violate
would be accepted, the socialist positions closest
since it is already common practices
Many other people hold both these But no matter which viewpoint to recognize that is
to be untenable.
to actual fact, it is important
rules do not need to be abrogated lasting solutions.
amateur sports organization structure.
the interin the
Just as the key organizations
sector are the 10C and the various world the United States Olympic Committee (the NOC
for the U.S.), and the various affiliates federations groups
of the world
are among the most important amateur sports
in the U.S.
The United States Olympic Committee which has a federal charter issued by the Congress in 1950 (Public made up of
law 805), is an extremely complex organization
more than 200 separate organizations. I The USOC is divided into 9 groups, A through I, with a Board of Directors
and an Executive Committee. sports federations
Group A consists of the national with and recognized
that are affiliated counterparts
by their international
in the sport concerned.
They number 28, with the AAU having the sanction of 8 of the Olympic sports. more than one sport. of their international and "open" competition None of the other groups controls These federations, federation, with the approval
govern all international
in which American athletes participate. (includ-
Group B is comprised of 12 sports organizations
ing the four branches of the Armed Forces), which generally
IAt the USOC groups. the USOC
its biennial meeting in Orlando, Florida, December 1974, membership voted for extensive changes in its member However, these changes have not significantly simplified organization.
-14hold national championships in two or more sports, or which Normally, there would be at National
have a national constituency. least one more organization Collegiate Athletic
in this category--the However, athletic
the NCAA and conferences and
several of the closely associated coaches groups withdrew 1972 Munich Olympics,
from the Olympic Committee because
they were angered its business AAU control.
by the way the U.S. Olympic Committee and resented what they considered
Group C consists of 13 national which administer nationwide programs
sports organizations in one sport on the Games. Group D (just
program of the Olympic or Pan American added to the USOC line-up in Orlando) business and community
includes 51 independent each state
leaders, one representing
and the District of Columbia, chairmen.
who act as state fund-raising
Group E includes 131 smaller organizations that are not national in character
in the U.S.
and limited in membership
to a district or territory--57 AAUs.
of these are local or state regional college the NCAA's
This group also includes the various conferences,
except those which followed from the USOC.
lead in withdrawing
Group F consists of 34 organizations patriotic, educational, cultural,
of an "athletic,
civic or benevolent Group G
character ..." which support U.S. sport activities.
-15is made up of all past officers the two delegates the USOC--on American who represent of the USOC. Group H includes not
the United States--but
the IOC, and the U.S. representative
to the Pan
Finally, Group I includes all current officers in Groups A through H.
of the USOC not covered
The many organizations
which belong to the USOC function
together at the time of the Olympic Games to assemble our Olympic teams. Each organization also operates independently
in the conduct of the amateur
sport(s) under its jurisdiction.
in any organization strength is divided
are deteramong the
mined by the way the voting members.
Voting power on the USOC is al located to member through a very complex regarding fairness formula, which raises
organizations many questions
and balance. which
in Group E, the Alaskan for Alaska and certainly athletes},
is the state AAU of Olympic
not a major producer
has the same number of votes as the Eastern Conference (the Ivy League, plus numerous Eight Conference Oregon State, Washfor Olympic
other Eastern colleges)
and the Pacific
(USC, UCLA, Cal ifornia, Stanford, ington, Washington athletes. 2
State), which are seedbeds
2The PAC-Eight followed the USOC after Munich.
the NCAA lead and withdrew
-17However, the real problem with the voting structure the controll ing interests in each
surfaces when one examines sport and their relation to major organizations USOC structure. the recognized
to the number of votes allocated throughout the whole it is
and their affiliates
The AAU controls affiliate
eight sports because
with the international
federations on the USOC which
in those sports.
It is the only organization
controls more than one sport, and the only one which enjoys membership totalled, (and voting privileges) in Groups A, S, and E. All
the AAU commands a large bloc of votes on the USOC. or change to the USOC constitution changes in USOC operations) the AAU, through (which must its
Since any amendment is central
to any meaningful
carry a two-thirds
vote of the members,
strong bloc of power can influence It also serves as a formidable sports organization holder withdraw in any sport. its membership wishing
of the USOC.
power to contend with for any an existing franchise
This is one reason why the NCAA chose to from the USOC.
-18Many conflicts AAU as the defendant, arising in amateur sports involve the
since the challenging allocation
party is seeking
to reduce the wide-spread However, over the
of votes for the AAU.
many people believe
that the power the AAU exercises makes it very difficult membership to
bring about changes the franchise The Government disputes
in the committee
in the sports
in question. to settle the embroiling sports
has made several attempts
and the underlying
reasons for their failure.
Arbitration of a long simmering confl ict in track and to ask General Douglas
The flare-up field prompted MacArthur
John F. Kennedy
in 1961 to arbitrate sport.
dispute over con-
trol of this important reputation for fairness
By virtue of his unimpeachable public attention on
and by focusing
the issues, General MacArthur moratorium to the conflict.
was able to negotiate
This lull in the battle'
-19lasted through the 1964 Olympic Games, after which time the controversy began allover Memorandum Kennedy asked Charles "Bud" to the President's Council on setting again.
In May 1963, President Wilkinson, Physical then a consultant
Fitness and Sports, to prepare a memorandum amateur
forth the major problems affecting ing how they could best be solved.
sports and suggestfocused
The memo correctly
on the USOC as the point of approach effective changes. President
to bring about the most was going to His successor, in
act on the memorandum President Johnson,
when he was assassinated.
simply did not share the same interest Kennedy, and the momentum
sports as President matter was lost.
to pursue the
It is interesting tions of the problems appreciably different
to note that, in substance, in 1963 in the Wilkinson from those today.
memo are not
Twelve years have
-20elapsed, yet the problems remain essentially the same, and in
some cases appear to have become even more aggravated. The Arthur D. Little Reports A second action requested Little, taken by President Kennedy in 1963
the Boston management
firm of Arthur D.
Inc., under Lt. Gen. James Gavin, to review the status sports in the United States. The resulting study
was funded by the Boston-based Sidestepping the conflicts
Fuller Foundation. among existing organizations, Sports in the
the study recommended Foundation
the creation of a National Amateur As suggested
to promote amateur athletics. was to be financed
report, the foundation ment contributions. memorandum,
by private and gover-
Yet, as in the case of the Wilkinson
nothing was done with the study; for by the time President Johnson had assumed office and his However, the
it was submitted, priorities
did not include sports matters.
Arthur D. Little report did provide the basis for several Congressional bills discussed in the next section.
-21Senate Commerce Committee Hearings of 1965 reignited following bills
After the track and field conflict the 1964 Olympics, to rectify chaired August General primarily involving
a number of Congressmen
The Senate Commerce
by Senator Warren Magnuson,
1965 as a result of these bills. MacArthur's efforts, the hearings
As in the case of were restricted testimony
to the area of track and field, although other sports was also taken.
The end result of testimony
which 10 days of hearings, containe!
and many new ideas, was Senate Resolution for the appointment field. Kheel Arbitration Board blue-ribbon
No. 147, which called on track and
of a board of arbitration
The five-member President Resolution
Hubert H. Humphrey 147 became commonly
in 1967 pursuant
known as the Kheel Arbitration
-22Board. Theodore W. Kheel, a New York attorney and labor was selected to be chairman. to develop relating recommendations
The Kheel Board was created for the settlement development of "disputes
to the conduct, In
of amateur athletics."
actual fact, however,
the board concentrated
on the track in
and field problems and sought to induce the four parties the dispute collegiate (AAU, NCAA, National Association Athletics, of Inter-
and the U.S. Track and Field Federasettlement. The board members of a new, single
tion) to reach a voluntary unanimously organization was necessary
agreed that the formation to govern and promote
track and field sports and to foster
to insure the rights of athletes
the success of U.S. teams in international It was the board's opinion to establish such an organization the willing
that it would be impossible by decision of the board of the four involved
-23parties. consider Hence a stalemate was reached: any organization outside the AAU would not
the AAU on any terms, nor within
would the NCAA or USTFF agree to join any organization the AAU. to abandon Therefore, the Sports Arbitration
Board was forced and
its plans for a new track and field federation The
turned instead to interim methods of accommodation. board did secure an agree.ment among the rival groups the old moratorium its findings for five more years. 1968.
The board submitted
Congress was also busy trying to draft bil Is which would cure some of the ills of our amateur sport picture. into the Senate of the
was The Amateur Athletic Act of 1974 (S3500 ~introduced and subsequently passed by Senate. However,
it died in a committee
House before the close of the last Congress. This bill had two major provisions: Board to coordinate one established an Amateur Sports
amateur athletic activity Sports Development
in this country and the to support and
other created a National encourage
and physical fitness.
-24Although contained this bill was not passed. there were many excellent studied by the Commission. features
in it which will be thoroughly Bill (H.R.11242)
The principle for compulsory. tion Association purported
elements of H.R. 11242 were its provisions by the American Arbitrawhich
binding arbitration of challenges
to sports organizations
the United States internationally. also would have settled claims
The Arbitration by athletes.
trainers. etc. that they had been denied in. international
the right to qualify for. or participate amateur amendment sports competition.
The bill would have been an
of the Olympic Charter.
The O'Hara Bill (H.R.7918) The O'Hara Bill was proposed in an effort to amend the the freedom of as inter-
Higher Education Act of 1965 to protect student athletes and their coaches representatives
to participate in amateur
of the United States events. While
its concern was in a
-25vital area, the bill limited itself to solving only the rights.
part of the problem which dealt with athletes' H.R.7918 did not touch on the more critical and control.
sports organization athletes'
Many feel that the
are only a symptom of the overcontrol dilemma; never-
all organization theless,
some form of protection
of rights to participate in any attempt sports. to
in competitions correct
should be included of amateur
The Tunney Bill (S.1018) Sponsored a commission by Senator John Tunney, be established S.1018 proposed that of
to review the participation
the United States
in the Olympic Games. was expected to take into the
In its study the commission account manner the objectives in which
of the modern Olympic movement;
the Olympic games are administered; in international
the role the
of the U.S. Olympic Committee policies which control
-26judges, welfare and officials of athletes for Olympic during participation; and the
training and actual competition
in the Olympic Games. The Presidential Olympic commission approach to solving our however, the
has obvious merit;
scope and direction
of the commission For example,
in the Tunney bill the commission in
were not fully adequate. S. 1018 would have confined associated problems outside
to the problems
with the Olympic Games. of amateur sports manifest
Yet it is clear that the themselves most commonly
the Games themselves. deficiencies of the Tunney Bill: to include its the
Other apparent areas of examination analysis
were not broad enough Committee
of the U.S. Olympic
and its vote allocation evaluation
nor did problems,
it include a sport-by-sport such as development amateur sports. programs
and funding of
-27The Kemp Bill (H.R.15241) H.R.15241 direction represented an attempt to correct originally the proposed in
and scope of the commission
in the Tunney bill.
Using the same framework
as S.1018, be appoint-
the Kemp bill also suggests a national ed to recommend Congressman paralleled President's solutions
to our amateur
sports problems. model which the
Kemp's bill was the legislative Executive Order creating
the eventual Commission
on Olympic Sports. but
This once over lightly may only serve to confuse you thoroughly, I hope it also makes you realize the complexity trying to be solved. In our meeting with President Ford in September one statement of the problems
he made does not
to us still rings loud and clear in my ears. accomplish the tasks assigned,
"If this Commission
you may be sure there will be government
intervention." If the problems were purely organizational plicated, they may have more ready answers. in nature, although com-
I'm sure you gleaned
-28from my remarks that there may be some deep-seated that many times defy solutions course, is where the government philosophical problems
because of their very nature.
might step in should an impasse be reached who or what organizations if the Commission should
on what constitutes
control what sports, and what would be the outcome decided
there is no way in our thinking that our "best" could always be Is it better to have more young men and boys
assured a spot on our team. wrestling in the
than in the whole rest of the world combined or is on only the highest level of talent in that sport
it better to concentrate
to assure us those coveted gold medals? and those Congressmen compatible athletics? diplomatic who are vitally
Are the motives of the President interested and the State Department involved in
with society as whole or that part of society Are we using athletes and political in international
to do a do? We do
job for us?
Is that what Universities
know the Federal Government
must tread lightly because of the rules of
the IOC, but we also know there are indirect ways of accomplishing desired ends. competitive Or should there be Government subsidy for our international
so, what form should it take?
-29What should be the role of business no end to the questions in subsidizing athletes? There is
is a deadl ine, however, when
answers must be forthcoming. Let me close with the words of Gerald Zornow, Chairman of the Commission, as he opened the first meeting of the Commission . ...We are not judges, we are seekers of fact. strive not to point accusing blame, but rather to determine that undeniably fingers or to establish direction, to find the laws We
exist in the selection amateur athletic
and the treatment competitors, and to
of our international sand them smooth,
to recommend change where where
it is warranted,
and recognize excellence This Commission Olympics.
it is deserved. with the
has a very real relationship
In fact, with all our amateur
sports competition, against woman.
but our job is more than merely a contest
time or space or man against man or woman against At stake are facets of our country's reputation, our
image in the world community,
our national character,
and our ideals.
This ... makes our job an important one.
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