AMATEUR SPORT AND THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT University of Massachusetts November 12, 1975 Datel ine: June 19, 1975 The White House


The President ment:

of the United States, Gerald Ford, says in his state-

Today, by Executive President's Commission


I am establ ishing the The Commission the United for particiamateur

on Olympic Sports.

shall determine

what factors

impede or prevent

States from fielding

its best amateur athletes

pat ion in the Olympic Games and other international sporting events. financing The Commission

will study methods of in Olympic sports.

our athletic

te~ms which compete

Special emphasis will be placed on organizational of Olympic

structure and

sports including the U.S. Olympic Committee sports federations.

the individual

On that date and with those words, the President's Olympic Sports was created .. Fourteen. members were appointed Senate were 'appointed by the President by the President,



4 members of the

Pro Tempore of the Senate and

4 members of the House of Representat ives by the Speaker of the House bringing the Commission's

total membership

to 22. A permanent D.C. and

The funding

is established

at $560,000 for one year.

staff of 16 people housed

in a suite on, "M" street

in Washington, consultants

will be on this job for the one year as researchers,



The Commission will meet a total of 6 times during the in February and the final one in July, 1976,

year and make two reports--one

to the President through the Secretary of Health, Education and Welfare. Why did President Ford appoint a President's a charge? Why is our government Commission with such

spending over 1/2 million dollars on

this project?

Why are such people as Gerald Zornow, Chairman of the Board Bud

of Directors of Eastman Kodak, Howard K. Smith, ABC commentator, Wilkinson,

former Oklahoma football coach, now a Dallas businessman,
Ch.l'e f s,

Lamar Hunt, owner of the K.C.

Rafer Johnson, Hill Toomey,

Mickey King and others asked to devote a great deal of time serving on the Commission? Let me give you a bit of background: In a brief overview we were introduced to the problem with these thoughts: Taking part in sports and physical fitness programs among the most valued traditions in American is

life and culture. or spectators in

People of all ages enjoy being participants sports--which contributes

to several positive goals:

--Sports and physical fitness help to promote the physical health of the nation. --Involvement of worthwhile

of our youth provides an active channel thereby diverting many young people


from/the social problem areas of drugs, crime, and violence. --Organized sports help to build international


standing among people from different cultures, thereby contributing

systems of government

to the development

and success

of our objectives

in the area of international



the world, amateur athletics are by far the International amateur

most dominant form of sport participation. competition Therefore, grows out of domestic competition

in each country.

it should be our goal to achieve an efficient organsports

izational structure for our domestic and international development.

I don't believe anyone of us would quarrel with those positive goals. The problem, however, becomes more clearly revealed as it was contended that: Over the years, compelling demonstrating evidence has accumulated,

that the United States' stature in both competition has deteriorated. It

domestic and international

is no secret that the ~on~tant has b~en a significant

feuding among our sports groups Of course, other

cause of this decline.

factors must be cited as well, such as the special role of professional sports in America and the rapid emergence of new nations as powers in organized irreversible. sports. But the situation is not

We can do much to resolve the problems to help

the country and our athletes toward a better climate for taking part in sports at home and abroad. Essentially, the problems are organizational in nature.

They grow out of the way each sport is organ ized for "open" and international various multi-sport Interorganizational competition, as well as from the way the interrelate with one another. disputes between


rivalries and jurisdictional

amateur sports bodies have erupted with uncommon frequency,

,, -4placing


athletes and teams at a tremendous disadvantage Often these feuds have prein "open" meets. and use their

in international competition.

vented us from fielding our best athletes

Because the United States sports bodies manipulate

athletes as virtual puppets as it best suits their purpose, the concept of athletes· objectives rights has been virtually in building international ignored. The United States· can be severely damaged


because often less than our best teams represent us in international competition. of development Finally, the reservoir of United States athletes at all stages is depressed because various sports groups are so preoccupied overriding interests in developing athletes

with their own squabblings-that are not served.

Let me cite two incidents which happened that caused the comments just made to be significant: A mere recent incident in which scores of amateur athletes were harshly victimized by an arbitrary judgment and power play


is the Jack Langer case involving the NCAA, Yale University and ultimately all Yale athletes. basketball In 1969, Jack Langer, a

star and student at Yale, was invited to particiGames, which were to be held that summer

pate in the Maccabiah in Israel.

Since there was no interference with academic or to

coll~~e athletic schedules, Yale gave Langer permission compete.


However, since the NCAA had not sanctioned

the games,

it declared that anyone who took part in them would be inel igible for further NCAA competition. Disregarding the NCAA·s

threat, Langer went to the Maccabiah Games, and as a consequence

-5was declared athletics. ineligible to compete in intercollegiate

In spite of this, Yale allowed Langer to play season, which resulted from in

during its 1969-1970 basketball the sixteen-month participation Another

suspension of 2111 Yale athletes events. current:

in NCAA-sponsored

incident is relatively

/ /

A long-standing

invitation by the People's Republic of

China to the U.S. to send a track and field team finally resulted in the AAU, as the sanctioning U.S. organization, The dates turned out to

setting a date for the late spring of this year. agreed upon by the U.S. and Chinese negotiators be concurrent with the NCAA championships

in track and field,

which meant that many of our top athletes would not be able to go to China. As often happens, the NCAA had not been conHowever, this time, largely due

sulted ~bout the China meet. to a great deal of criticism

and pressure that had been aired

in the news media, the NCAA and AAU sat down together and agre~d upon more mutually satisfactory dates for the China tour. scheduled

There were still some conflicts with previously athletic conference meets, but the athletes

that went to China and

this May returned the week before the NCAA championships, thus were able to take part in both competitions.

-6A dispute over television cancellation July. rights caused a momentary track meet this from

of a scheduled U.S.-U.S.S.R.

The AAU, caught in the middle, had to withdraw

the agreed-upon

competition when the Russians made a separate

contract with ABC to televise the meet in violation of longstanding contracts here and abroad. the AAU has made with CBS to cover meets both Finally, after outside pressure was brought

to bear, ABC withdrew from the picture and the AAU re-scheduled the meet. originally By this time, however, American athletes who had planned to take part in the K)ev competition and were competing had

made other commitments meets.

in various European and, as

A last-minute make-shift

team was assembled,

might be expected, was' convincingly

trounced by the superior


Russian and Bulgarian teams.

In order to understand the role 'government might or might not play in amateur sports, a very brief review of the various sports bodies which control amateur , athletics should be discussed. This will not be an easy task and if the As you recall,

only result

is confusion,

lId have to say "join the croud."

one of the reasons for the Olympic Commission's organizational

being was to examine the

structure of those various groups who control sports

included in the Olympics. To understand the overall dbmestic framework for amateur the hierarchy, organiza-

spor's, it is first necessary to understand

roles, and interrelationships tions for amateur sports.

of the international

-7The most important and ~upremeinternational tion is the International Olympic Committee (IOC). organizaFormerly

presided over by America's Avery Brundage, the organization is today headed by Lord Michael Killanin of Ireland. The International Olympic Committee body for each of the Olympic Games. is the governing

Its voting membership

is comprised of two delegates from countries who have broadbased participation in the Olympics (such as the U.S., U.S.S.R.,

Japan), or who have previously hosted the modern Olympics; and one delegate from all Other participating National Olympic Committee nations whose

(NOC) has been recognized by the 10C. body whose members can serve for

The 10C is a self-perpetuating Iife.

The delegates to the 10C are not 'representatives of their

respective country's NOCs, but rather delegates from that country only to the 10C. These delegates are appointed by the within the country they represent.

10C and not by any organization

Among the 10C's major roles are the selection of sites for the Olympic Games, the planning and preparation for the Games

(working with the host country's NOC), and the conduct of other administrative duties relating to each Olympiad. Only the 10C

can re~ognize new NOC's, such as the Peoples Republic of China, should any country choose to gain admittance

to future Games.


(Recognition and the opportunity

to form an NOC depends on a


country gaining admittance

to five international federations .

The role and composition of the international federations will be discussed later in this section.)

-8Currently, recognized there are 134 National Olympic Committees the NOC is the

by the IOC.

For the United States, (USOC). power wielded

United States Olympic Committee Perhaps the most significant is its right to determine desiring to participate

by the IOC for athletes

the rules of eligibility in the Olympic Games. organized

While each of for every:

the international individual

sports federations

sport has its own rules on el igibility and amateurism competitions, the rules for each federation set by the IOC. This is under-

in international generally standable

follow the guidelines because the"Olympics,

after all, are the ultimate from many different

in amateur competitions sports take part.

in which athletes

There has been much criticism our amateurs country's repeatedly

in the U~itedStates


have to compete against a socialist athletes. While this may at least in is not


~art be true, completely amateur

it is also true that the United States in its compliance


with international view athletic scholar-

rules either.

Social ist countries

ships t,o our universities by the military

and partial subsidization

of our athletes in viola-

services as forms of professionalism amateur athletic rules.

tion bf international

'Yet, the key issue is not whether our amateurs peting against Russia's international rules. professionals

are comthe

or who is breaking

The crux of the debate should be whether

-9to change the international necessary, sportsmen rules governing amateurism, if

or to broaden opportunities

for our amateur from high are forced

so they may compete after graduation if they desire.

school or college to "retire"

Many athletes

at this time either because market, or because

their sports have

no professional fessional

they must join the pro-

ranks for economic


The United States alone cannot change the international rules. It must be done by the appropriate world bodies. influence


the United States can have a strong

on any changes made in the rules if it presents a firm, united front through capable national bodies concerned. jus t problenSAmentioned representation on the inter-

Because of the organizational

many argue that the United States does not have competent representation on the international bodies; this, in turn,

limits U.S. effectiveness ing amateurism amateurism directly

in bringing about rule changes governThe question of

and a host of other issues.

is raised here only to show that nothing done by the U.S. Government can alter amateur rules, since are set by

the rules in international international participants.

and "open" competition

bodies in which the U.S. is only one of many Sti II, the U.S. influence rests on the strength

of that participation. If the Commission is successful in helping to bring structures, the chances

about improved internal organizational

-10of amending international amateur rules are increased bodies. through


better representation

on the international

The U.S. Olympic Committee

and the various U.S. affilare forced to set their in accordance with inter-

iates of the world sports federations international national and "open" competitions


They have no choice--if

they wish to take part.

A separate U.S. jurisdiction, vary from the international competitions. For example,

however, may have rules which rules to govern in January its restricted

1974, the NCAA passed to compete as pro-

a ruling which would allow college athletes amateurs fessionals in another

in one sport even though they may be considered

by having signed a contract or played professionally sport. Thus, while a college athlete, for example

in track and field,

is el igible to compete under NCAA rules, signed a professional in international international "open" rules

that same athlete, who has already football contract, competition

could not compete

in track and field because provide for this.

do not presently Clearly, awesome athletes

the International

Olympic Committee's

power is

in setting rules which govern American in international competition--and problems within

and foreign

is naturally the organization.

fraught with many political Nonetheless, representation

changes can and have been made through effective on the 10C and the world federations. sports federation. representative

Each sport has its own international Each federation is comprised of recognized



from each country around the world that particior "open" competition federation in that sport.

pates in international Only the international

in each sport may recognize and only the international and accept a new one as federation

and accept new member countries, federation

may expel one organization in any country. for accepting

its affil iate is responsible

Each international

new world records and promoting

its sport globally.

At the time of the Olympic Games every four years, each international federation works with the IOC in planning in the sport it represents. specifications the

individual competitions certain athletic that technical

It makes

are met, plans each and helps to certify

event in the sport concerned, regulations


for the athletes who will be competing. operates,


Of the many rules under which each federation one of the most significant political

is that there can be no domestic of which of the

control exerted over the determination in a country international is the recognized federation,

organization respective


for, as has been mentioned may expel or approve

earlier, only the international membership of its affiliates.


-12While the Russians and other socialist to violate this rule, it is important is developed nations appear

to note that any

solution which Government

and brought about by the U.S. sports groups should with inter-

to reorganize

our amateur

be done in a way which national acceptance

is fully consistent

rules, in order to increase the chances of by the world federation concerned. Many countries federations

who sit as voting members on the international

may like very much to see the U.S. 's weak organizational structure a violation continue to cause us problems. If they can use

of international of a change

rules as an excuse to proin affiliates with the interMost probably the

scribe acceptance national


they are liable to do so. to continue Killanin,

they would find justification old affiliate. Lord Michael



of the 10C,

has warned of this very thing. Some American sports organizations have predicted that

the U.S. would be thrown out of the Olympic Games and the world federations if organizational changes were made that did rules. Other U.S. organizainternational rules in

not comply fully with international tions maintain

that changes which violate

would be accepted, the socialist positions closest

since it is already common practices


Many other people hold both these But no matter which viewpoint to recognize that is

to be untenable.

to actual fact, it is important


rules do not need to be abrogated lasting solutions.

to bring

about necessary,




amateur sports organization structure.


the interin the

Just as the key organizations

international federations,

sector are the 10C and the various world the United States Olympic Committee (the NOC

for the U.S.), and the various affiliates federations groups

of the world

are among the most important amateur sports

in the U.S.

The United States Olympic Committee which has a federal charter issued by the Congress in 1950 (Public made up of

law 805), is an extremely complex organization

more than 200 separate organizations. I The USOC is divided into 9 groups, A through I, with a Board of Directors

and an Executive Committee. sports federations

Group A consists of the national with and recognized

that are affiliated counterparts

by their international

in the sport concerned.

They number 28, with the AAU having the sanction of 8 of the Olympic sports. more than one sport. of their international and "open" competition None of the other groups controls These federations, federation, with the approval

govern all international

in which American athletes participate. (includ-

Group B is comprised of 12 sports organizations

ing the four branches of the Armed Forces), which generally

IAt the USOC groups. the USOC

its biennial meeting in Orlando, Florida, December 1974, membership voted for extensive changes in its member However, these changes have not significantly simplified organization.

-14hold national championships in two or more sports, or which Normally, there would be at National

have a national constituency. least one more organization Collegiate Athletic

in this category--the However, athletic


the NCAA and conferences and

several of the closely associated coaches groups withdrew 1972 Munich Olympics,

from the Olympic Committee because

after the


they were angered its business AAU control.

by the way the U.S. Olympic Committee and resented what they considered



Group C consists of 13 national which administer nationwide programs

sports organizations in one sport on the Games. Group D (just

program of the Olympic or Pan American added to the USOC line-up in Orlando) business and community

includes 51 independent each state

leaders, one representing

and the District of Columbia, chairmen.

who act as state fund-raising

Group E includes 131 smaller organizations that are not national in character

in the U.S.

and limited in membership

to a district or territory--57 AAUs.

of these are local or state regional college the NCAA's

This group also includes the various conferences,


except those which followed from the USOC.

lead in withdrawing

Group F consists of 34 organizations patriotic, educational, cultural,

of an "athletic,

civic or benevolent Group G

character ..." which support U.S. sport activities.

-15is made up of all past officers the two delegates the USOC--on American who represent of the USOC. Group H includes not

the United States--but

the IOC, and the U.S. representative

to the Pan


Finally, Group I includes all current officers in Groups A through H.

and directors

of the USOC not covered

The many organizations

which belong to the USOC function

together at the time of the Olympic Games to assemble our Olympic teams. Each organization also operates independently

in the conduct of the amateur

sport(s) under its jurisdiction.


The controlling


in any organization strength is divided

are deteramong the

mined by the way the voting members.

Voting power on the USOC is al located to member through a very complex regarding fairness formula, which raises

organizations many questions

and balance. which

For example,

in Group E, the Alaskan for Alaska and certainly athletes},


is the state AAU of Olympic

not a major producer

has the same number of votes as the Eastern Conference (the Ivy League, plus numerous Eight Conference Oregon State, Washfor Olympic

College Athletic

other Eastern colleges)

and the Pacific

(USC, UCLA, Cal ifornia, Stanford, ington, Washington athletes. 2


State), which are seedbeds

2The PAC-Eight followed the USOC after Munich.

the NCAA lead and withdrew


-17However, the real problem with the voting structure the controll ing interests in each

surfaces when one examines sport and their relation to major organizations USOC structure. the recognized

to the number of votes allocated throughout the whole it is

and their affiliates

The AAU controls affiliate

eight sports because

with the international

federations on the USOC which

in those sports.

It is the only organization

controls more than one sport, and the only one which enjoys membership totalled, (and voting privileges) in Groups A, S, and E. All

the AAU commands a large bloc of votes on the USOC. or change to the USOC constitution changes in USOC operations) the AAU, through (which must its

Since any amendment is central

to any meaningful

carry a two-thirds

vote of the members,

strong bloc of power can influence It also serves as a formidable sports organization holder withdraw in any sport. its membership wishing

the direction

of the USOC.

power to contend with for any an existing franchise

to challenge

This is one reason why the NCAA chose to from the USOC.

-18Many conflicts AAU as the defendant, arising in amateur sports involve the

since the challenging allocation

party is seeking

to reduce the wide-spread However, over the

of votes for the AAU.

many people believe

that the power the AAU exercises makes it very difficult membership to




bring about changes the franchise The Government disputes

in the committee

and overturn

in the sports

in question. to settle the embroiling sports

has made several attempts

and the underlying

reasons for their failure.

The MacArthur

Arbitration of a long simmering confl ict in track and to ask General Douglas

The flare-up field prompted MacArthur


John F. Kennedy

in 1961 to arbitrate sport.


dispute over con-

trol of this important reputation for fairness

By virtue of his unimpeachable public attention on

and by focusing

the issues, General MacArthur moratorium to the conflict.

was able to negotiate

a temporary

This lull in the battle'

-19lasted through the 1964 Olympic Games, after which time the controversy began allover Memorandum Kennedy asked Charles "Bud" to the President's Council on setting again.


In May 1963, President Wilkinson, Physical then a consultant

Fitness and Sports, to prepare a memorandum amateur

forth the major problems affecting ing how they could best be solved.

sports and suggestfocused

The memo correctly

on the USOC as the point of approach effective changes. President

to bring about the most was going to His successor, in

Kennedy reportedly

act on the memorandum President Johnson,

when he was assassinated.

simply did not share the same interest Kennedy, and the momentum

sports as President matter was lost.

to pursue the

It is interesting tions of the problems appreciably different

to note that, in substance, in 1963 in the Wilkinson from those today.

the defini-

memo are not

Twelve years have

-20elapsed, yet the problems remain essentially the same, and in

some cases appear to have become even more aggravated. The Arthur D. Little Reports A second action requested Little, taken by President Kennedy in 1963

the Boston management


firm of Arthur D.

Inc., under Lt. Gen. James Gavin, to review the status sports in the United States. The resulting study

of amateur

was funded by the Boston-based Sidestepping the conflicts

Fuller Foundation. among existing organizations, Sports in the

the study recommended Foundation

the creation of a National Amateur As suggested

to promote amateur athletics. was to be financed

report, the foundation ment contributions. memorandum,

by private and gover-

Yet, as in the case of the Wilkinson

nothing was done with the study; for by the time President Johnson had assumed office and his However, the

it was submitted, priorities

did not include sports matters.

Arthur D. Little report did provide the basis for several Congressional bills discussed in the next section.

-21Senate Commerce Committee Hearings of 1965 reignited following bills

After the track and field conflict the 1964 Olympics, to rectify chaired August General primarily involving

a number of Congressmen


the situation.

The Senate Commerce

Committee, in

by Senator Warren Magnuson,

held hearings

1965 as a result of these bills. MacArthur's efforts, the hearings

As in the case of were restricted testimony

to the area of track and field, although other sports was also taken.

The end result of testimony

which 10 days of hearings, containe!

much contradictory

and many new ideas, was Senate Resolution for the appointment field. Kheel Arbitration Board blue-ribbon

No. 147, which called on track and

of a board of arbitration

The five-member President Resolution

panel appointed

by Vice

Hubert H. Humphrey 147 became commonly

in 1967 pursuant

to Senate

known as the Kheel Arbitration

-22Board. Theodore W. Kheel, a New York attorney and labor was selected to be chairman. to develop relating recommendations


The Kheel Board was created for the settlement development of "disputes

to the conduct, In

and protection

of amateur athletics."

actual fact, however,

the board concentrated

on the track in

and field problems and sought to induce the four parties the dispute collegiate (AAU, NCAA, National Association Athletics, of Inter-

and the U.S. Track and Field Federasettlement. The board members of a new, single

tion) to reach a voluntary unanimously organization was necessary

agreed that the formation to govern and promote

track and field sports and to foster

to insure the rights of athletes

the success of U.S. teams in international It was the board's opinion to establish such an organization the willing


that it would be impossible by decision of the board of the four involved

alone, without


-23parties. consider Hence a stalemate was reached: any organization outside the AAU would not

the AAU on any terms, nor within

would the NCAA or USTFF agree to join any organization the AAU. to abandon Therefore, the Sports Arbitration

Board was forced and

its plans for a new track and field federation The

turned instead to interim methods of accommodation. board did secure an agree.ment among the rival groups the old moratorium its findings for five more years. 1968.

to extend

The board submitted

in February

Congress was also busy trying to draft bil Is which would cure some of the ills of our amateur sport picture. into the Senate of the

was The Amateur Athletic Act of 1974 (S3500 ~introduced and subsequently passed by Senate. However,

it died in a committee

House before the close of the last Congress. This bill had two major provisions: Board to coordinate one established an Amateur Sports

amateur athletic activity Sports Development

in this country and the to support and

other created a National encourage


athletic activity

and physical fitness.

-24Although contained this bill was not passed. there were many excellent studied by the Commission. features

in it which will be thoroughly Bill (H.R.11242)

The Mathias

The principle for compulsory. tion Association purported

elements of H.R. 11242 were its provisions by the American Arbitrawhich

binding arbitration of challenges

to sports organizations

to represent

the United States internationally. also would have settled claims

The Arbitration by athletes.



trainers. etc. that they had been denied in. international

the right to qualify for. or participate amateur amendment sports competition.

The bill would have been an

of the Olympic Charter.

The O'Hara Bill (H.R.7918) The O'Hara Bill was proposed in an effort to amend the the freedom of as inter-

Higher Education Act of 1965 to protect student athletes and their coaches representatives

to participate in amateur

of the United States events. While

national athletic

its concern was in a

-25vital area, the bill limited itself to solving only the rights.

part of the problem which dealt with athletes' H.R.7918 did not touch on the more critical and control.

issues of

sports organization athletes'

Many feel that the

rights problems

are only a symptom of the overcontrol dilemma; never-

all organization theless,

and franchise

some form of protection

of rights to participate in any attempt sports. to

in competitions correct

should be included of amateur

the deficiencies

The Tunney Bill (S.1018) Sponsored a commission by Senator John Tunney, be established S.1018 proposed that of

to review the participation

the United States

in the Olympic Games. was expected to take into the

In its study the commission account manner the objectives in which

of the modern Olympic movement;

the Olympic games are administered; in international

the role the

of the U.S. Olympic Committee policies which control


the selection

of athletes,


-26judges, welfare and officials of athletes for Olympic during participation; and the

training and actual competition

in the Olympic Games. The Presidential Olympic commission approach to solving our however, the

sports problems

has obvious merit;

scope and direction

of the commission For example,

in the Tunney bill the commission in

were not fully adequate. S. 1018 would have confined associated problems outside

its investigation

to the problems

with the Olympic Games. of amateur sports manifest

Yet it is clear that the themselves most commonly

the Games themselves. deficiencies of the Tunney Bill: to include its the

Other apparent areas of examination analysis

were not broad enough Committee

of the U.S. Olympic

organization, practices;

member groups,

and its vote allocation evaluation

nor did problems,

it include a sport-by-sport such as development amateur sports. programs

of recurring

for athletes

and funding of

-27The Kemp Bill (H.R.15241) H.R.15241 direction represented an attempt to correct originally the proposed in

and scope of the commission

in the Tunney bill.

Using the same framework

as S.1018, be appoint-

the Kemp bill also suggests a national ed to recommend Congressman paralleled President's solutions


to our amateur

sports problems. model which the

Kemp's bill was the legislative Executive Order creating

the eventual Commission

on Olympic Sports. but

This once over lightly may only serve to confuse you thoroughly, I hope it also makes you realize the complexity trying to be solved. In our meeting with President Ford in September one statement of the problems

that are

he made does not

to us still rings loud and clear in my ears. accomplish the tasks assigned,

"If this Commission

you may be sure there will be government

intervention." If the problems were purely organizational plicated, they may have more ready answers. in nature, although com-


I'm sure you gleaned

-28from my remarks that there may be some deep-seated that many times defy solutions course, is where the government philosophical problems

because of their very nature.

This, of

might step in should an impasse be reached who or what organizations if the Commission should

on what constitutes

amateur competition,

control what sports, and what would be the outcome decided

there is no way in our thinking that our "best" could always be Is it better to have more young men and boys

assured a spot on our team. wrestling in the


than in the whole rest of the world combined or is on only the highest level of talent in that sport

it better to concentrate

to assure us those coveted gold medals? and those Congressmen compatible athletics? diplomatic who are vitally

Are the motives of the President interested and the State Department involved in

with society as whole or that part of society Are we using athletes and political in international


to do a do? We do

job for us?

Is that what Universities

know the Federal Government

must tread lightly because of the rules of

the IOC, but we also know there are indirect ways of accomplishing desired ends. competitive Or should there be Government subsidy for our international


so, what form should it take?

-29What should be the role of business no end to the questions in subsidizing athletes? There is

being asked--there

is a deadl ine, however, when

answers must be forthcoming. Let me close with the words of Gerald Zornow, Chairman of the Commission, as he opened the first meeting of the Commission . ...We are not judges, we are seekers of fact. strive not to point accusing blame, but rather to determine that undeniably fingers or to establish direction, to find the laws We

exist in the selection amateur athletic

and the treatment competitors, and to

of our international sand them smooth,

to recommend change where where

it is warranted,

and recognize excellence This Commission Olympics.

it is deserved. with the

has a very real relationship

In fact, with all our amateur


sports competition, against woman.

but our job is more than merely a contest

time or space or man against man or woman against At stake are facets of our country's reputation, our

image in the world community,

our national character,

and our ideals.

This ... makes our job an important one.