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,,4 /V •
Iowa State University January 21, 1976
Dateline: June 19,1975 The Wh ite House The President of the United States, Gerald Ford, says in his statement:
by Execut ive Order,
I am es tab 1ish ing the Spo r ts , The Commission the United for participaamateur of sports. of
Pr es lden t.t s Commission shall determine States
impede or prevent athletes
from fieldl'"lg its best amateur Ga,mes and other'
tion in the Olympi~ sporting financing Special Olympic events.
will study methods compete
our athletic emphasis sports
wi 11 be placed including
on organizational Committee
structure and the
the U.S. Olympic
indi v idua 1 sports
federa t ions.
On that date and with those words, the Pres~dent's Sports waS created. Fourteen members were appointed by the President, were appointed
Commission on Olympic
4 members of the Senate
by the President Pro Tempore of the Senate and 4 members of the by the Speaker of the House bringing the Commission's
House of Representatives total membership The funding to 22.
for one yea r-,
A permanent staff of D.C., wi 11 bern this job The Commission
21 people housed in a suite on "M" street in Washington, for the one year as researchers, consultants
will meet at least 7 times during the year and make two reports -- one in February and the final one in September Health, Education and Welfare. Why did President Ford appoint a President's . Why is our gov.rnment Commission with such a charge? 1976, to the President
through the Secretary of
spending almost 3/4 of a million dollars on this project?
-3Why are such people as Gerald Zornow, Chai rman of the Board of Di rectors of Eastman Kodak, Howard K. Smith, ABC commentator, football coach, now a Dallas businessman, Rafer Johnson, Bud Wilkinson, former Oklahoma
Lamar Hunt, owner of the K.C. Chiefs,
Bi 11 Toomey, Mickey King and others asked to devote a great deal
of time serving on the Commission? Let me give you a bit of background: In a brief overview we were introduced to,the problem with these thoughts: is
Taking part in sports and phvs.l ca.l fitness programs among the most valued
tr ad i t
i ons in American
life and culture. or spectators in
People of all ages enjoy being participants sports--which contributes
to several positive goals:
--Sports and physical fitness help to promote the physical health of the na t ion.
-4--Involvement of our youth provides an active channel of thereby .diverting many young people
worthwhi Ie endeavors,
from the social problem areas of drugs, crime and violence. --Organized sports help to build 'international understanding systemsofgovernment and cultures, among thereby
people from different contributing
to the development
and success of our objectives
in the area of international Throughout
relations. are by far the most dominant grows out of
the world, amateur athletics
form of sport pa rt i.c lpa t ion , domestic competition
lnter.na ienel amateur competition t Therefore, structure
in each coun t.ry ,'
it should be our goal for our domestic and
to achieve an efficient organizational international sports development.
I don't believe anyone of us would quarrel with those positive goals. problem, however, becomes more clearly revealed as it is contended that:
-5Over the years, compelling demonstrating evidence has accumulated, in both domestic It is no
that the United States' stature competition has deteriorated.
secret that the constant been a significant
feuding among our sports groups has Of course, other role of proof new nations is not irreversi-
cause of this decline.
factors must be cited as well, such as the special fessional sports in America and the rapid emergence sports. But the situation
as powers in organized ble.
We can do much to resolve the problems
to help the country
and our athletes
toward a better climate for taking part in sports If we thought the games in Mun ich were a fiasco in 1900 - Things could be worse. making a determined a questionnaire
a t home and ab road.
let me take you back to the Olympics The enlightened bid to be businesslike organizers
at that Olympiad,
gave every contestant
asking the following burning and relevant questions: "Were you reared
as an infant naturally or art·ificial ly? beard?
What is the color of your beard? How strong
What was the color of your grandfather's
was your grandfather?"
Once the important bus iness of answeri ng and the distinct in favor of had been
these questions was disposed of, the games commenced possibility
arose that dirty tricks had been perpetrated It seems that the route for the Marathon
the home team.
changed drasticallyhad familiarized
and suddenly - not long after foreign entries uncomplicated course
themse)ves with the original,
between Paris and Versailles.
The new Marathon was to be run four times trail through
around a track, then off along a difficult and circuitous the streets of Paris and back to the track. French marathoners
As luck would have it, But was it luck alone?
finished first, second and third.
The winner was a fellow named Michel Teato. a baker boy who had strenqthened bread. his leqs bv runninq about Paris delivering fresh
It was also noted that the Marathon course was run over Of the three U.S. runners in the race, Club did the best, finishing
part of his bread route.
A. L. Newton of the New York Athletic fifth, approximately
an hour behind Teato. Newton, because about half-
Al I of which was very strange to the confused he recalled later he had overtaken
the French contingent
way through the race, and ~ad never seen them again until he arrived at the finish line only to find the three winning Swede cool ing their heels. Frenchmen and a
Newton also found it somewhat surprising
that although much of the course led through great areas covered with mud and water, none of the first four participants on them. Essentially,
had so much as a drop of mud
the problems are organizational
out of the way each sport is organized competition,
f0r "open" and international
as well as from the way the various
-6multi-sport organizations interrelate with one another. Inter-
rivalries and jurisdictional
disputes between amateur placing U.S.
sports bodies have erupted with uncommon athletes and teams at a tremendous competition. best athletes
in international us from fielding our
Often these feuds have prevented in "open" meets.
Because the United States sp0rts bodies manipulate as virtual puppets as it best suits their purpose, rights has been Virtually international understanding
and use their athletes
the concept of athletes' in building
ig'nored. The Un.l.te d States' objectives
damaged because often less than competition. Finally, the
our best teams represent
uS in international atall
reservoir of United States.athletes
stages of development
because various sports groups are so preoccupied that overriding interests in developing athletes
with their own squabbl lnqs are not served.
-7In order to understand the role government might or might not play in
amateur sports, a very brief review of the var Ious vspo rt s bodies which control amateur athletics should be discussed.
This wil l not be an easy task and if crowd." As· you recall, the included
the only result is'confusion,
have to say, "join.the
one of the reasons for the Olympic Commission's organizational structure
being was to examine
of those various groups who control sports
in the Olympics. The most important and supreme national Brundage, Olympic Committee the organization international organization is the InterAvery
Formerly presided over by America's
is today headed by Lord Michael Committee is the governing
Killanin of Ireland. body for each of the from countries
The International Olympic Games.
Its voting membership participation
of two delegates
who have broad~based
in the Olympics
(such as the U.S., U.S.S.R., and one delegate from (NOC) has been
Japan), or who havefreviouslY all other participating
hosted the modern Olympics;
nations whose National
by the IOC.
The IOC is a self-perpetuating
body whose members can
-8serve unti I 72 years of age. of their respective country's The delegates to the 10C arengt representatives
NOC's, but rather delegates
from that country
only to the 10.c. These de leqat es are appointed tion within selection the country they represent.
by the 10C and not by any organiza-
Among the 10C's major roles are the and ~reparation for the
of sites for the Olympic Games, the planning
Games, and the conduct of other administrative Only the 10C can recognize should any country choose the opportunity international Currently, the 10C. Committee
duties re lat lnq to each Olympiad.
new NOC's, such as the Peoples RepL1blic of China, to gain admittance to future Games. (Recognition and
to form an NOC depends on a country gaining admittance federations.) there are 134 National Olympic Committees recognized
For the United States, (USOC). the most significant
the NOC is the United States Olympic
power wielded for athletes
by the IOC is its right to desiring to participilte in
the rules of eligibility
-9the Olympic Games. for.every in While individual each of sport the has ln te rne its the
i ena l sports
federations and generally
own rules rules for
on eligibility each federation
compe tl t l ons.;
guidelines after all,
by the the
because in which
from many different There repeatedly has have been
part. in the United States country's that our amateurs
much criticism against
athletes. United amateur universities as forms of
While States roles is
be true, in its
is also with
comp l iance
international to our services rules.
either. and partial professionalism
v~ew athletic athletes internationl
shoclarships by the military athletic
subsidization in violation
of our of
or who is breaking
of the debate should be whether ing amateurism,
to change the international
if necessary, or to broaden opportunities
for our amateur
sportsmen so .they may compete after g raduati on from high schoo 1 or co 11 ege if they desire. Many athletes are forced to "retire" at this time either market, or because they must reasons. rules. the
because their sports have no professional join the professional rank& for economic
The United States alone cannot change the international It must be done by the approp~iate world bodies.
United States can have a strong influence on any changes made in the rules if it presents a firm, united front through capable representation on the international problems just mentioned, have competent bodies concerned. Because of the organizational
many argue that the United States does not on the Jnternational bodies; this, in turn,
1imits U.S. ~ffectiveness
in bringing about rule changes governing is
amateurism 'and a host of other issues.. The question of amateurism
to show that rules, since
notihing the rules bodies U.S.
done di rectly
Government comone of
can alter petition
amateur are set
in international in which rests the U.S.
and "open" is only
by international Still, the
s.tr enq th of
If the internal
in helping the chances
to bring of amending
is comprised around that
from each or "open"
the world sport.
in international federation
competition may recognize
-12and accept new member countries, expel one organization Each international and only the international federation may in any country. records
and accept a new one as its affiliate is responsible for accepting
and p romot ing its sport g Ioba-l 1y. At the time of· the Olympic Games every four years, each international in the are met,
federation works with the IOC in plannimg the individual competitions
sport it represents.
It makes certain that technical specifications
plans each athletic event in the sport concerned, eligibility regulations for th~ athletes whowHI mirrors
and helps to certify be competing.
U.S. amateur sports organization structure.
the international sector
Just as the key organizations
in the international
are the IOC and the various world federations, Committee federations
the United States Olympic of the world
(the NOC for the U.S.), and the various affiliates
are among the most important amateur sports groups in the U.S.
-13The United States Olympic Committee whish has a federal charter
Congress made up of
in 1950 more
is an extremely
200 separate belong to the
The many organizations at the time of the Olympic operates jurisdiction.
function teams. of the
together Each amateur
Games to assemble independently
organization sport(s) under
Committee ly confused
and how it but among the etc. of
you would as we II.
sufficient are past and
to say the
200 organizations state AAU's,
within sport the
U.S.O.C. officers, is complex
N.C.A.A., etc. the etc.
conferences, voting power body
officers, is a part
-14appears or actually does have the power to garner vo t es to rule or override, a power struggles ensues. problems for our athletes. The Government has made several a t.t empts vte settle the embroiling reasons for their failure. This struggle has created many
sports disputes and the underlying
Only citing the more recent ones, we start in 1961 with President Kennedy's appointment of General McArthur to arbitrate the AAU-NCAA dispute 1964 Olympic
over control of Track and Field. Games only. In 1963 President
Peace lasted throuqh.vthe
Kennedy askecl Bud Wilkinson
to prepare a memo
which would set forth the major problems affecting amateur sports and to make suggestions as to their solution. With Kennecly's assassination, lack of interest
the whole issue was dropped because of Presidel'1tJohnson's in sports.
A second action President Kennedy took in that same year of
-151963 was to request the Borston management to review the status of amateur sports firm of Atthur D. Lltt1e, Inc.
in the U.S.
This study recommended to promote amateur Johnson let the
the creation of a National Amateur S~orts Foundation athletics. idea die. The Little report led to much congressional Senate Commerce Committee Hearings of 1~65-which As in the case of the Wilkinson
action such as the led to the appointment Hubert Humphrey. in the old
in 1967 of the Kneel Arbitration
Board by Vice President
They were not able to do more than get a period of' moratorium Track and Field jurisdiction dispute.
Congress has tried to draft bi ll-s to eur e some of the ills in our amateur sports picture such as the Amateur Athletic Act of 1974 (S 3500), Mathias Bill (H.R. 11242)" O'Hara BUl (H.R. 7918), Tunney Bill (S 1018), to the problem
Kemp Bill (H.R. 15241), but in each bill the solution
-16tackled was only a band-aid approach and would not have sotved the major
issues. it was Congressman Kemp'.s b i-ll- that was the legislative model
eventual Sports. lightly you
Commission This I hope trying it
on Olympic once also over makes
may only.serve realize the
to confuse of the
you thoroughly, problems that
to be solved.
in September, "If
made to us still
.i n my ears,
may be sure
wi 11 be
government If the
inter!:,vention." problems were purely o rqaniaa l ona l in nature, although corn-
-17from my remarks that there may be some deep-seated that many times defy solutions because o~ thei~very course, is where the government on what constitutes phi losophical problems nature. This, of
might step -i n should an impasse be reached should
amateur compeit>iol'l,ho or what organizations w
control what sports, and what would be the outcome
if the Commission
decided there is no way in our thinking that our "best" could always be assured a spot on our boys wrestling
Is it better to have more young men and
in the U.S. than in the whole rest of the world combined~ on only the highest level of talent in that Are the motives of the President
or is. it better to concentrate
sport to assure us those coveted gold medals?
and those Congressmen who are vital·ly interested and the State Department compatible with society as whole or that part of society ~nvolved in athletics? Are we using athletes in international compe t.l.t to do a ion do?
diplomatic arid pol it ca l.job. for us?
Is that what Universities
-18We do know the Federal Government must tread lightly because of the
rules of the IOC, but we also know there are indirect ways of accompl ishing desired ends. competitive Or should there be Government subsidy for our international What should be the
so, what form should it take? athletes1
role of business being asked--there
There is no end to the questions
is a deadline, however, when answers must be forthcoming.
Let me close with the words of Gerald Zornow, Chairman of the Commission, as he opened the first meeting of the Commission . ...We are not judges, we are seekers of fact. strive not to point accusing fingers or to establish blame, but rather to determine direction, to find the laws We
that undeniably exist in the selection and the treatment of our international amateur athletic competitors, sand them smooth, to recommend change where and recognize excellence where
it is warranted,
it is deserved.
-19This Commission has a very real relationship with the Olympics.competition, In fact, with all our amateur international sports
but our job is more than merely a contest against At
time or space or man against man or woman against woman. stake are facets of our country's
reputation, our image in the
world community, our national character, and our ideals. This ... makes The Commission's job an important one.
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