CHAPTER 16: COMPOSITE MATERIALS

ISSUES TO ADDRESS...
• What are the classes and types of composites? • Why are composites used instead of metals, ceramics, or polymers? • How do we estimate composite stiffness & strength? • What are some typical applications?

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Composites: Best of Both Worlds
Pros • electrically, thermally conductive • good strength & ductility • high toughness • magnetic

Metals

Cons • dense • low creep resistance • low/moderate corrosion resistance

Pros • electrically, thermally insulating • wear and corrosion resistant • high strength & stiffness • creep resistant • low density

Composites

Pros • very ductile • easy to form • corrosion resistant • high strength-to-weight ratio

Ceramics
Cons • difficult to form/machine • very low toughness

Polymers
Cons • low stiffness & strength • poor high temperature properties
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1996.. 26. New York. Clyne.4 . An Introduction to Composite Materials. Fig.edu/aplab/Table_of_Contents/Lab_05/Bone_Model_1/bone_model_1.5 mm SiC fibers in vitroceramic. Acta Mater. 49. Composition of Mature Bone • ~45 wt% mineral salts (calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate) • ~35 wt% organics (collagen protein) • ~20 wt% water 16 .P. 3. Szeucs. From F.onera. L.6. Hull and T. Johnson.uwlax. Cambridge University Press.3 Classifications Matrix Phase: Ceramic Matrix Composites • Improve fracture toughness Metal Matrix Composites • Improve strength-to-weight • Improve creep resistance Polymer Matrix Composite • Increase stiffness • Improve creep resistance woven fibers 0. and W.fr/dmsc-en/matcer downloaded Feb. doenloaded feb 26.W. p. Dispersed Phase: Fiber Particle Structural/Layered 16 .html. showing fiber pullout.Bone: A Natural Composite http://bioweb. 1507 (2001) Reprinted with permission from D.Kim. www. C. 47. 2005 Zr-Ti-Nb dendritic phase in bulk metallic glass matrix. 2005. 2nd ed.

6 . perpendicular • Orientation: aligned vs. continous • Loading direction: parallel vs.Fiber Reinforcement How does it work? Stiff fiber • Strains less • Supports matrix Weak Matrix • Strains more • Breaks first σ∗f = fiber tensile strength τc = interface shear strength Factors to consider • Fiber length: discontinuous vs.5 Fiber Reinforcements: Length Discontinuous vs. Continuous L c > 15 σ* d f 2τ c Discontinous (short) fibers: fiber length < Lc σ(x) Continuous Fibers: fiber length > Lc σ(x) 16 . random 16 .

Rawlings.L. in plane: K = 1 Aligned perpendicular. Aligned Random Carbon fibers in carbon matrix. 2000.3 is H. 1964. Boca Raton..L.L. Engineering and Science. Boca Raton. Composite Materials. Matthews and R. From F. Fibre Reinforcement. Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag. CRC Press. FL. in plane: K=0 Random in plane: K = 3/8 Random 3D: K = 1/5 Values from Table 16. Engineering and Science.Fiber Reinforcements: Loading Direction Loading parallel to fibers: Isostrain σc σm σf Ef Em springs in parallel Note: valid for L>Lc Composite stress: σc = σfVf + σmVm Composite strain: εc = εf = εm σ c σ f σm = = Hooke’s Law: E c E f Em Composite Stiffness: Composite Strength: 16 . Krenchel.L. Reprint ed. FL. Callister 6e.. Ec = KE f Vf + Em Vm efficiency factor: • • • • Aligned parallel. CRC Press.7 Fiber Reinforcement: Orientation Aligned Fibers vs.3. 2000. Reprint ed.8 . Composite Materials. Matthews and R. Adapted from F. (Source for Table 16. Random Distribution C fibers: very stiff very strong C matrix: less stiff less strong fibers lie in plane fracture surface view onto plane SiC fibers in glass matrix. Rawlings.) 16 .

Callister 6e. 10. 1963. (Fig.Particle Reinforcement cobalt matrix (Vm = 10-15 vol%) WC particles Adapted from Fig. σe: replace E by σe.) εc = εpVp + εmVm ∴ Lower bound: isostress σ c σp σ = Vp + m Vm E c Ep Em 1 Vf Vm Lower Bound = + Composite Stiffness Ec E f Em Application to other properties: • Electrical conductivity. (Fig.) 0. (Fig. 16.3.4 is courtesy Carboloy Systems.5 is courtesy Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company.H. 10. 1971.10 is copyright United States Steel Corporation. Department.) α ferrite matrix Fe3C particles Adapted from Fig. 16.3 is from R. (Fig.10 . 16. Vol.9 Particle Reinforcement: Stiffness Upper bound: isostrain “Rule of Mixtures” Isostress springs in series 350 300 Data: Cu matrix with W particles εf εm Ef Em E (GPa) 250 200 150 0 20 40 60 80 100 σc = σp = σm Vol% W particles Adapted from Fig. ASTM Proc. 16. 63. Callister 6e.10. 16.4.) 250 µm WC/Co cemented carbide 20 µm spheroidite steel rubber matrix C particles Adapted from Fig. • Thermal conductivity. Callister 6e. 16 .25 µm tire rubber 16 . General Electric Company. Krock. κ: replace E by κ. 16.5. Callister 6e.

1984. Vol. Composites.17 is from Engineered Materials Handbook. 15(1)..1 0. 16. 0/90 Sandwich panels • low density. "Creep rupture of a siliconcarbide reinforced aluminum composite". Callister 6e. 6061 Al w/SiC whiskers 50 100 200 σ (MPa) 16 .g. Materials Park. 1. 139-146.G.12 . (Fig. Used with permission. 1987. ASM International. ρ (MG/m3) 6061 Al εss (s-1) • MMCs 10-6 10-8 10-10 20 Adapted from T.3 1 ceramics PMCs metals polymers 3 10 30 Force particle-reinf un-reinf Bend displacement 10-4 Density.01 0.1 0.Structural/Layered Composites Stacked and bonded fiber-reinforced sheets • stacking sequence: e. OH. honeycomb core face sheet adhesive layer honeycomb Adapted from Fig. Metall. 16. A Vol. Trans. Nieh. pp. 16 .17.11 Benefits of Composites • CMCs E (GPa) fiber-reinf • PMCs 103 102 10 1 0.

PMC) • the reinforcement geometry (fibers. MMC. • Properties can be isotropic or anisotropic • Minimum fiber length needed for effective reinforcement • Particulate-reinforced: • Elastic modulus can be estimated • Properties are isotropic • Structural: • Based on build-up of sandwiches in layered form 16 .Summary • Composites are classified according to: • the matrix material (CMC. TS. creep performance • CMC: enhance Kc • PMC: enhance E. TS.13 . σy. layers) • Composites enhance matrix properties: • MMC: enhance σy. creep performance • Fiber-reinforced: • Elastic modulus and TS can be estimated along fiber dir. particles.

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