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Failed Paleo Diet - Paleolithic Caveman Diet Results in Failure - Science Behind Crossfit & Non-Vegan Primal Diet Claims Now Found Scientifically Flawed - Loren Cordain, Mark Sisson, Robb Wolf, PaleoHacks

Failed Paleo Diet - Paleolithic Caveman Diet Results in Failure - Science Behind Crossfit & Non-Vegan Primal Diet Claims Now Found Scientifically Flawed - Loren Cordain, Mark Sisson, Robb Wolf, PaleoHacks

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Failed Paleo Diet - Paleolithic Caveman Diet often Results in Heart Breaking Failure. The science behind Paleo diet & primal diet claims has now been found scientifically flawed.

False claims of Loren Cordain, Mark Sisson, Robb Wolf, PaleoHacks.

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Failed Paleo Diet - Paleolithic Caveman Diet often Results in Heart Breaking Failure. The science behind Paleo diet & primal diet claims has now been found scientifically flawed.

False claims of Loren Cordain, Mark Sisson, Robb Wolf, PaleoHacks.

TAGS:
"Paleo Diet Fail", "Paleo Diet Failure", "Failed Paleo Diet", "Paleolithic Diet Fails", "vegan diet fail", "vegan diet failure", "failure of vegan diet", "failure of paleo diet", "paleo diet failed", "reformed vegan", "reformed vegetarian", "reformed paleo", "crossfit failed", "crossfit failure", "failure of crossfit", "crossfit fail", "crossfit unhealthy", "paleo diet unhealthy", "paleo unhealthy", "Primal Diet Fail", "Primal Blueprint failure", "Primal Solution failure", "Greg Glassman", "Gregg Glassman", "Cross Fit", "Cross-Fit", "WOD", "burpees", "planking", "Planking fail", "paleo diet deficiencies", "crossfit lose weight", "paleo lose weight", "Robb Wolf", "Mark Sisson", "Marks Daily Apple", "MarksDailyApple", "PaleoHacks", "Paleo Hacks", "PaleoHacks Failure", "Paleo Fail", "Paleo Failure", "Failure of Paleo Diet", "Switch to Paleo", "Switched from Paleo", "Switched to vegan", "Switched from vegan", "changed from paleo", "Changed from vegan", "left paleo", "left vegan", "renounced paleo", "renounced vegan", "former paleo", "former vegan", "former vegetarian", "new to crossfit", "new to paleo", "science", "truth", "about", "founder of crossfit", "crossfit owner", "owner of crossfit", "CEO of crossfit", "invented crossfit", "vegan diet failure", "vegetarian diet failure", "vegetarian diet deficiencies", "vegan diet deficiencies", "diet failure", "crossfitfail", "paleofail", "diet failed", "feel better", "fat", "saturated fats", "grassfed beef", "grassfed meats", "grains", "failure of the paleo diet", "paleo science", "scientific studies on paleo", "the truth about paleo", "paleo science", "paleo studies", "studies on paleo", pubmed, 17-beta-estradiol, acupuncture, afarensis, africa, africanus, agin, aging, Agoracosmopolitan, Agoracosmopolite, AHA, Alan Goldhamer, alaska, alzheimers, amines, ancestors, ancestral, ancient, Andrew Weil, Angelina Jolie, animals, anthony bourdain, anthony colpo, anthonybourdain, anti cancer diet, apes, archaeologists, archaeology, archeologists, archeology, archevore, arctic, art de vany, Art Devany, arteriosclerosis, Arthur De Vaney, arthur devany, atherosclerosis, Atkins, Atkins Diet, australopithecines, australopithecus, b12, B-12, Baby, bacon, barbecue, barry, barry groves, barzilai, bbq, beef, ben balzer, best, bg, bicuspids, big brains, blood, blue zones, bodybuilders, Bodybuilding, boisei, breast cancer, Brian White, bullet proof executive, Bulletproofexec, burning-iron, Cancer, canine teeth, carbohydrates, cardio, carnivore, Carnivores, carnivorous, cattle, Caveman, caveman diet, Ccf, celiac disease, centenarian, centenarian study, centenarian vegan, centenarian vegetarian, centenarion, Center For Consumer Freedom, centurian, centurion, chd, Chef Tim Love, chew, chewing, chicken, chimpanzees, China Study, chinese water deer, cholesterol, Cholesterol, Chris Kresser, Chriskresser, Claims, colin campbell, conditioning, Cosmopolita_Rc, cranium, Crossfit, crossfit training, cvd, Dairy, Daniel Vitalis, Dave Asprey, David Stein, David Wolfe, Dean Ornish, debunked, deficiency, Deficient, Denise Minger, dentist, dentition, designed to be, dha, Diet, digestion, digestive tract, discovered fire, disease, diseaseproof, don matesz, Donna Gates, dr, dr barry groves, dr ben balzer, dr bg, dr eades, dr joseph mercola, dr kurt harris, Dr Oz, dr robert atkins, Dukan Diet, eades, Eatocracy, Ecoli, EPA, eskimo, estradiol, Estrogen, estroplan, evolved as, evolved to be, Fallacious, fangs, fatty acids, Fda, female, female hormones, fire, fish, fish oil, fishoil, fitness, flat, flexitarian, food, foods, for every animal, forbes, Foundation, four stomachs, France, Fraud, , fred hahn, Frederic Patenaude, free the animal, Freetheanimal, French, fried, frugiv

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Caveman fad diet Failure - Paleolithic Diet - Health - NHS

Utter Failure of the Paleo Diet - Paleolithic Caveman Diet fails own scientific studies
Friday May 9 2008

Blogs and supporters of the Paleo Diet touted that a scientific study supported the Paleolithic Diet. It has now been found seriously flawed.

- Sites such as "PaleoHacks", "MarksDailyApple", and "RobbWolf" attempted to cite a diet study as "proof" that the Paleo Diet is healthy and good for your heart.

- Proponents for the Primal Diet, such as Loren Cordain, Mark Sisson, and Richard Nikoley, even say that humans were "evolved" to eat it, therefore every human should find it very easy, and no person should have any problem following it or drop out, because afterall, its very premise is that you should not only be 'able' to follow it, you were specifically "designed" to eat it. Thus it should be woven into your DNA and be as instinctual as breastfeeding and therefore no one should even need to be taught. This means that it should be one of the easiest diets to follow, and never drop out. - Blogs, comment posts, and paleo nuts residing on discussion and chat-boards like to claim that it is based on
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Caveman fad diet Failure - Paleolithic Diet - Health - NHS

'science', and that the paleo diet that they follow, and the same one promoted in their diet books is the same as man's ancient ancestors ate. - Newspaper articles posted by authors about the Paleo diet claim such things as: "Eat like a caveman for a healthy heart”, which is the diet claim in the headline from an unchecked article in The Daily Telegraph. It and several other newspapers reported on a new study which claims that a “paleolithic” or caveman diet of loads of meat, but deficient in heart-healthy grains, high in cholesterol-rich saturated animal fats, and lacking in proteinrich legumes, “could help to reduce the risk of developing heart disease”, or so went the hype and the supposed claims. However: The story and all of the headlines touting the paleo diet is based on just 1 study which had only 20 volunteers. Even despite the weak position of the starting amount, to top it off, the study found a 30% paleo diet failure rate. Over 30% of the people in the Paleo study failed on the paleo diet, didn't want to continue eating paleo foods, and renounced the paleo diet in favor of other foods.

The study proved that despite something that should be so easy to follow that it is woven into our very dna over millions of years, nearly 30% of all attempts at "going paleo" resulted in a "failed paleo diet". Only 14 people out of the entire paleo diet study were able to stomach the paleo food and complete the paleolithic diet. Out of these 14, the experimenters failed to keep thorough data and records, except on only 6 people. What this means, is that unlike other studies which have data that is tested on hundreds, or even thousands of people, showing that the tenets hold true across a large section of humanity, this study which is being used as 'proof' regarding the paleo diet is based on but merely 6 people, making the paleo diet findings very weak at best, and for all practical purposes scientifically useless to make any claims about large sections of the general public.

One of the claims hyped and cheered by diet claims is that a particular diet 'helped people lose weight', but this is often little to do with what they ate, or the fad diet, but merely that whatever gimmick diet it is happens to change people from what they were eating before, which was usually some higher number of general calories, to some new 'fad' diet that just happens to have fewer calories in it. Thus, with no surprise, the subjects lose weight. This touted paleo diet study is not exception to the study gimmick. Out of the dwindling group of only 14 people left who managed to stick with the diet and complete the study, with no surprise the dieters lost on average about 5lbs (2.3kg) in three weeks. However, as predicted, the study simply reduced their calorie intake by about 900 calories from what it was before, to about 1500 calories a day. In other words, there can be no scientific basis with regard to what's in the diet because studies already find that if you reduce how many calories someone is eating, from whatever they were eating before, it is of no surprise that lo & behold, they manage to lose weight. However this has not stopped various Paleo Diet authors, paleo bloggers, and paleolithic diet cheerleaders from still touting that somehow it was "being paleo" that lead them to lose weight. This of course is yet another point in the flawed science being used in this study to tout the paleo or primal diet. Another flaw which condemns the Paleo Diet study as un-scientific, is that there was no control group. Having a control group is so basic that it is science 101. Therefore it suggests that either the researchers are not completely educated in the scientific method, or, that they intentionally catered the experiment such that the
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Caveman fad diet Failure - Paleolithic Diet - Health - NHS

findings could not be compared to a control group. Regardless, it is now not possible to say scientifically whether there is anything about a paleo or caveman diet compared with any other low calorie diet that produces the weight loss. Or any of the other changes noted, such as heart health, blood pressure, cholesterol, or anything else for that matter. Thus, sadly, the paleo diet is not based on true science. The paleolithic diet is based on a scientifically flawed study, where virtually a third of the people couldn't even finish the food on the diet, the findings cheered and touted are based on from 14 to as little as only 6 people out of billions, and there's no control group so virtually all of the paleo diet findings are worthless and can be thrown out. The supposed 'study' proving either that the paleo diet helps the heart, or even helps in losing weight at all, is deeply flawed and is now regarded as discredited.

Where did the story come from? - A small diet study in Sweden.
Dr Magnus Österdahl and colleagues from the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden carried out this research. The study was funded by grants from the Stockholm County Council and was published in the peerreviewed: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

What kind of scientific study was this? - Uncontrolled.
This was an uncontrolled observational study. The researchers say that they did not intend to copy stone-age eating habits but wanted to eliminate the harmful aspects of modern diets. They recruited 10 men and 10 women aged between 20 and 40 via a medical students’ association. They only included healthy people with a body mass index (BMI) of less than 30, who did not need hospital care, were not on prescription drugs, did not have an eating disorder or were already eating a special diet. Five of the 10 men and one of the 10 women did not complete the study either because of illness, an inability to complete the diet or they broke the study protocol for other reasons. Volunteers ate a "caveman diet" which included among other things, lean meat, berries and unsalted fish, etc. Keep in mind here, that if you attempt to say this study doesn't reflect a 'real' paleo diet, or anything of this ilk, what you are doing is further debunking the paleo diet itself. Why? Because it is this very study that many paleo blogs, paleo diet authors, paleo books, paleolithic diet sites, lowcarb diet websites, and paleo diet champions are posting as being part of the "proof" of the paleo diet. In other words, if you try to say this study isn't fair or isn't a real paleo diet, etc. you'll be *agreeing* with those that have found the paleolithic diet debunked, because you'll be also pointing out the flaws in the multitude of paleo proponents and sites that have cited it, such as the cavemanforum, Mark Sisson of marksdailyapple.com, Robb Wolf of RobbWolf.com, and debunking Loren Cordain himself, who attempted to use this exact study to refute the USNEWS & WORLD Reports finding that the paleo diet ranked in last place, 20th out of all 20 diets, in a survey of diets around the
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Caveman fad diet Failure - Paleolithic Diet - Health - NHS

world. Cordain cited this study as an example of paleo, so if you try to say what's in this study is not paleo, you're essentially revealing that Loren Cordain cited falsified results.

What occurred in the study: The average weight of the 14 volunteers who completed the study was 10stone 3lb (65.2kg) with a BMI of 22.2, so they were not overweight at the start of the study. What this means, is that this study can't be used as a reference for convincing someone to go on the paleo diet to lose weight. Because this study did not test whether the paleo diet was good for an overweight person to lose weight. All of the subjects were already normal to begin with. None of them were overweight. Note that this is a statement made by the very authors of the study itself. They state that the subjects were never overweight. Therefore, this study does not support that a paleo diet worked for a person who is obese or overweight to lose weight. What this study showed is that it took someone who was already healthy, and caused already fit people to drop weight. It also does not indicate whether that weight lost was fat, which apparently they didn't have (much of) to begin with at all, or whether the lost weight was in the form of lost muscle mass. Or less fit. Eating high-protein meat-based diets 'teach' the body to digest protein for energy, so it is entirely possible that the paleo dieter subjects in this study became spindlier or skinnier do to losing muscle. Afterall, none of the subjects were overweight.

The researchers measured a range of other factors, such as blood pressure and heart rate. They took blood tests for haemoglobin, glucose, cholesterol. And they tested for other markers of inflammation or clotting in the body such as plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1). PAI-1 protein is involved in the pathways that cause clotting within blood vessels. These tests were run on three occasions over 21 days.

There were strict instructions about what volunteers were allowed to eat freely, eat in restricted quantities and foods that were prohibited. They were allowed to eat fresh or frozen fruit, berries or vegetables, lean meat, unsalted fish, tomatoes, lemon or lime juice, spices and coffee or tea without milk or sugar, for three weeks. All dairy products were banned as well as beans, salt, peanuts, pasta or rice, sausages, alcohol, sugar and fruit juice. However, participants were allowed a portion of fatty meat as a weekly treat.

Yet despite the fact that the study is scientifically flawed, still paleo blogs, articles, books, and article headlines touted the study's claims such as: “Short-term intervention with a paleolithic diet in healthy volunteers showed some favourable effects on cardiovascular risk factors.”

What were some of the other bungles, scientific flaws, and failures
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Caveman fad diet Failure - Paleolithic Diet - Health - NHS

of the paleo diet study?
The volunteers were asked to record weigh everything they ate, but some of the subjects failed to correctly weigh all of their food items in the study and gave the researchers just guesses for the approximate weights of things they could not weigh. The researchers also report that, unfortunately, there was a bungle, and a mess-up which included a computer error when the food data was entered, and only the data for one man and five women was available for analysis. In other words, out of a study that was supposed to cover 20 people, and even though the study was barely only for 3 weeks, 30% of them couldn't even finish, and the subjects failed to complete the paleo diet. Out of the remaining 14, the paleo researchers screwed up the data and lost the subjects results for over half of those, and so this study quoted as "proof" of the effectiveness of the healthiness of the paleo diet by Loren Cordain and paleo sites is left based on only 6 remaining people who managed to have complete diet data.

Who is responsible for it?
Magnus Österdahl, lead author

What were the results of the study?
There were no improvements in more than half of the health factors. The paleo diet showed no improvement in 14 out of the 19 health factors. The study showed reductions in 5 of the 19 parameters measured. Average weight decreased by 5lb (2.3kg) but the subjects were NOT overweight to begin with. Body mass index was 0.8 lower, and PAI-1 by 72%, but BMI is not a valid indicator if an individual is a mesomorph or muscular. Waist circumference is a better indicator, but was lowered by only 0.2in (0.5cm). This means going paleo only reduced people's belt's by the width of a pencil. Or despite being on the paleo diet for the entire duration of the experiment, their waist size was reduced only by about the size of the word 'fad'. Systolic blood pressure was lower by 3mm Hg. In other words, if someone's blood pressure previously was 185/130 (185 over 130 for example), then the paleo diet would have only reduced it to 182/130 (182 over 130) . Or if someone's blood pressure was more average, at 125 over 80, all the reduction would have been, would be 123/80 instead of 125. This is the "whopping" proof of supposedly amazing heart benefits of the paleo diet. In other words, it's not that much.

The researchers also note that energy intake decreased by 36%. Energy decreased on the Paleo Diet.
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They observed other favourable effects such as a reduced fat composition of the diet. In other words, they are saying that despite eating a heavily meat-based and saturated fat heavy paleolithic diet, and even stated in the study that subjects were granted ability to eat even more fatty pieces of meat each week, whatever they were eating before that was even more saturated in fat. What this means, is, that the prior diet of the subjects was already not healthy, it was already too high in fat. So high previous to the experiment that going on a diet high in meat and fat actually lowered their fat intake. This means that practically whatever diet you had put these subjects on most likely would have resulted in this improvement in lowering fat. Also note that this study can now NOT be used as scientific confirmation of a lowcarb high-protein high-fat diet, because this diet actually lowered the previous diet's fat. So essentially the scientific results of this study would be the results of going on a lowfat diet. Thus, the heart health of this study could be due to the lowering of fat. This is actually opposite of what a real paleo caveman diet would be, because cavemen would have been eating pieces of animals which would have included pieces of fat. Not lowering fat, as would a plantbased diet, but paleo would be increasing fat. This study showed heart health benefits from lowering fat. This is the opposite of a paleo diet. It also showed improved antioxidant content, which is mainly due to the plant-based more vegetarian portion, such as fruits, since meat is an oxidant, and heme iron in meat is the opposite of an anti-oxidant and causes human dna damage due to free-radicals. They also point out the unfavourable effect on calcium intake – calcium levels in the blood fell by more than 50% (from 851mg to 395mg).

The paleo diet in this study showed that people who go on a paleo diet may suffer deficiencies.

What interpretations did the researchers draw from these results?
The researchers say “this short-term intervention showed some favourable effects on diet, but that further studies, including control group, are needed”. - In essence, the study that is serving as the basis for "proof" of the positive health benefits of the paleo diet is deeply flawed, scientifically insufficient, 30% of the study dropped out and their paleo diets ended in failure, 8 of the subjects results were botched, the entire scientific basis of the paleo diet is based on only 6 people, and there is no control group so none of the results can be compared and the study is scientifically worthless.

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What does the NHS Knowledge Service make of this study?
“Fad diets” are often promoted as a method of improving health, however they should be subject to appropriate scientific investigation by well designed and conducted, preferably randomised and, at least, controlled studies. There are several limitations to this study which mean that readers should not draw too many conclusions from it.

The researchers suggest that the high drop out rate of six people in 20 (30%) has caused the study to be underpowered, that is, they were unable to detect a significant effect for some measures. It is also possible that they did not detect a significant effect in some measures because they were not there or because the effect was harmful. More importantly, a high dropout rate suggests that there is something about the diet that makes six out of 20 people disinclined to complete a three-week study. - In other words, it is possible that the paleo diet tasted so bad, or was so awful, that huge swaths of people found the paleo diet distasteful and they did not want to continue it.

At least one of the dietary components of a “healthy diet” changed unfavourably during the study. Calcium content fell by more than 50% (from 851mg to 395mg) and this, over a long period of time, could have had harmful effects on bone strength.

A control group is important in this sort of study for a number of reasons. One important statistical error that can show up in uncontrolled trials is known as “regression toward the mean”. This refers to the fact that those with extreme scores on any measure at one point in time will, for purely statistical reasons, probably have less extreme scores the next time they are tested. This research is unable to exclude this effect.

It is not possible to say which part of this diet contributed to the reduction PAI-1, though reduction in weight on its own is thought to effect blood levels of this protein.

It is not clear if maintaining this diet for longer than three weeks is possible, or if it results in long term benefits or harms.

Low calorie, low salt diets are expected to have an effect on weight and blood pressure in people who are overweight or have high blood pressure. This somewhat extreme 1500 calorie diet in healthy young volunteers appears hard to tolerate. It is not clear if a “caveman diet” has any specific advantage beyond the modest
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weight loss. By excluding calcium it may also be harmful for some people too.

Dubious, Questionable, and hyped-up "Paleolithic Diet" claims witnessed in Newspaper Article headlines:

Hype & Tout: Eat like a Caveman! Questionable Result: Eat like a Caveman for a Healthy Heart - The Daily Telegraph, May 2008 - (No EKG's or other heart tests were done, and the study has no control so it's flawed.) Scientifically Inaccurate: "Caveman diet" lowers the risk of heart disease, new research shows" - Daily Mail, May 2008 - (Remember, it only showed 3mm reduction in Hg, and it was lowfat) Dubious Claims: "Eat like Fred Flintstone to stay Healthy" - Metro, May 2008 (No tests measured the fact that the meat in the Paleo Diet may result in diabetes, dna damage, and anal or rectal cancer.) Appearance Hype: "Was a caveman's diet the secret of Raquel's figure" - Daily Express, May 2008 (Remember, the entire experiment only reduced the belt by a quarter of an inch.) Paleo Diet is not Paleo: Stone-Age diet may lower risk of heart disease - The Guardian, May 2008 (Remember, in the StoneAge, cavemen drank pond water, which could contain parasites, not safe water, so is a real caveman diet healthy? Did the subjects on the StoneAge diet drink bacteria-infected water as a Caveman would have.) Overblown Results: Study hails "caveman diet" benefits - Channel 4 News, May 2008 - (Hailed? The study is scientifically flawed, and people had a 30% failure rate on the paleo diet, and for those that managed to stomach paleo, the ones that endured the entire experiment realised only 3mm in BP, the paleo diet was found to be deficient in vital nutrients, and they only had a waist reduction of a quarter of an inch.)

Links for further reading:
Hooper L, Bartlett C, Davey Smith G, Ebrahim S. Advice to reduce dietary salt for prevention of cardiovascular disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2004, Issue 1 Pirozzo S, Summerbell C, Cameron C, Glasziou P. Advice on low-fat diets for obesity. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2002, Issue 2

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Caveman fad diet Failure - Paleolithic Diet - Health - NHS

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Caveman fad diet Failure - Paleolithic Diet - Health - NHS

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