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R. Jacob Baker and Vishal Saxena Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Boise State University 1910 University Dr., MEC 108 Boise, ID 83725 firstname.lastname@example.org and email@example.com
Abstract : As CMOS technology continues to evolve, the supply voltages are decreasing while at the same time the transistor threshold voltages are remaining relatively constant. Making matters worse, the inherent gain available from the nano-CMOS transistors is dropping. Traditional techniques for achieving high gain by vertically stacking (i.e. cascoding) transistors becomes less useful in sub-100nm processes. Horizontal cascading (multistage) must be used in order to realize op-amps in low supply voltage processes. This seminar discusses new design techniques for the realization of multi-stage op-amps. Both single- and fully-differential op-amps are presented where low power, small VDD, and high speed are important. The proposed, and experimentally verified, opamps exhibit significant improvements in speed over the traditional op-amp designs while at the same time having smaller layout area.
Introduction Two-stage Op-amp Compensation Multi-stage Op-amp Design Multi-stage Fully-Differential Op-amps Conclusion
Op-amps and CMOS Scaling
The Operational Amplifier (op-amp) is a fundamental building block in Mixed Signal design.
Employed profusely in data converters, filters, sensors, drivers etc.
Continued scaling in CMOS technology has been challenging the established paradigms for op-amp design. With downscaling in channel length (L)
Transition frequency increases (more speed). Open-loop gain reduces (lower gains). Supply voltage is scaled down (lower headroom) .
CMOS Scaling Trends
VDD is scaling down but VTHN is almost constant.
Design headroom is shrinking faster.
Transistor open-loop gain is dropping (~10’s in nano-CMOS)
Results in lower op-amp open-loop gain. But we need gain!
Random offsets due to device mismatches.
Integration of Analog into Nano-CMOS?
Design low-VDD op-amps.
Replace vertical stacking (cascoding) by horizontal cascading of gain stages (see the next slide).
Explore more effective op-amp compensation techniques. Offset tolerant designs. Also minimize power and layout area to keep up with the digital trend. Better power supply noise rejection (PSRR).
(Compensation not shown here) VDD VDD VDD VDD VDD VDD VDD 2 1 n-1 vm vp n vout CL Vbiasn Vbiasn Vbiasn Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage (n-1) Stage n VDDmin>4Vovn+Vovp+VTHP with wide-swing biasing.or higher stage op-amps will be indispensable in realizing large open-loop DC gain.  VDDmin=2Vovn+Vovp+VTHP. Baker/Saxena . Even if we employ wide-swing biasing for low-voltage designs. three.Cascoding vs Cascading in Op-amps A Telescopic Two-stage Op-amp A Cascade of low-VDD Amplifier Blocks.
TWO-STAGE OP-AMP COMPENSATION Baker/Saxena .
3 μm and Lmin=2. An RHP zero exists at CL 30pF 100/2 100/2 M8B VDD M3 VDD VDD M4 1 750Ω M7 220/2 vm M1 M2 vp iC ff iC fb vout CC 10pF 2 M6TL M6BL Vbias3 Vbias4 M6TR M6BR M8T Due to feed-forward component of the compensation current (iC).5μm CMOS process with scale=0. The second pole is located at The unity-gain frequency is Unlabeled NMOS are 10/2.Direct (or Miller) Compensation Compensation capacitor (Cc) between the output of the gain stages causes pole-splitting and achieves dominant pole compensation. The op-amps drive a 30pF off-chip load offered by the test-setup. Baker/Saxena . Unlabeled PMOS are 22/2. x10 All the op-amps presented have been designed in AMI C5N 0.
Vbias4 M6BR Unlabeled NMOS are 10/2. Poor PSRR Supply noise feeds to the output through CC. Unlabeled PMOS are 22/2. Large layout size. CL 30pF 100/2 100/2 M8B VDD M3 VDD VDD M4 1 M7 220/2 vm M1 M2 vp CC 10pF 2 vout M6TL M6BL Vbias3 M6TR M8T Slow-speed for a given load.Drawbacks of Direct (Miller) Compensation The RHP zero decreases phase margin Requires large CC for compensation (10pF here for a 30pF load!). x10 Baker/Saxena . CL.
the compensation current is fedback from the output to node-1 indirectly through a low-Z node-A. Unlabeled PMOS are 22/2. Baker/Saxena . Since node-1 is not loaded by CC.Indirect Compensation VDD M3 VDD M4 VDD VDD M9 1 M7 220/2 The RHP zero can be eliminated by blocking the feed-forward compensation current component by using vout CL 30pF vm vp M1 M2 ic MCG A Cc 2 M6TL M6BL Vbias3 M6TR M10T M10B M8T M8B 100/2 100/2 Vbias4 M6BR A common gate stage. A voltage buffer. Now. x10 An indirect-compensated op-amp using a common-gate stage. or A current mirror buffer. this results in higher unity-gain frequency (fun). Unlabeled NMOS are 10/2. Common gate “embedded” in the cascode diff-amp.
5pF vout 2 CC CL 30pF vout CL vm vp M6TL M6BL Vbias3 M6TR M8T M8B 50/2 50/2 Vbias4 M6BR Unlabeled NMOS are 10/2. Lower power consumption. Indirect-compensation using cascoded diff-pair. Also voltage buffer reduces the swing which is avoided here. Employing the common gate device “embedded” in the cascode structure for indirect compensation avoids a separate buffer stage. Baker/Saxena . Unlabeled PMOS are 44/2.Indirect Compensation in a Cascoded Op-amp VDD M4T M3T M3B A M4B VDD ic VDD M7 110/2 Vbias2 1 vm M1 M2 vp CC 1. Indirect-compensation using cascoded current mirror load.
Small signal analytical model Baker/Saxena .Analytical Modeling of Indirect Compensation The compensation current (iC) is indirectly fed-back to node-1. Block Diagram vout ic ≈ 1 sCc + Rc RC is the resistance attached to node-A.
The small-signal model for a common gate indirect compensated opamp topology is approximated to the simplified model seen in the last slide. CC>>CA Baker/Saxena . gmc>>roc-1. RA-1.Derivation of the Small-Signal Model Resistance roc is assumed to be large.
Baker/Saxena .Analytical Results for Indirect Compensation jω −ω un σ p3 p2 z1 Pole-zero plot p1 LHP zero Pole p2 is much farther away from fun. Better slew rate as CC is smaller. Much faster op-amp with lower power and smaller CC. Can use smaller gm2=>less power! LHP zero improves phase margin.
cascoding is becoming tough. In the NMOS case. node-A is low-Z.Indirect Compensation Using Split-Length Devices As VDD scales down. Then how to realize indirect compensation as we have no low-Z node available? Solution: Employ split-length devices to create a low-Z node. NMOS PMOS Split-length 44/4(=22/2) PMOS layout Baker/Saxena . Creates a pseudo-cascode stack but its really a single device. Similarly for the PMOS. the lower device is always in triode hence node-A is a low-Z node.
Baker/Saxena Small step-input settling in follower configuration . ts The current mirror load devices are split-length to create low-Z node-A. Unlabeled PMOS are 22/2. PM=75° and ts=60ns.Split-Length Current Mirror Load (SLCL) Op-amp VDD M3T A M3B M4B 1 M7T 220/2 M7B VDD VDD M4T ic 220/2 vm M1 M2 vp CC 2pF vout 2 CL 30pF M6TL M6BL Vbias3 M6TR M8T M8B 50/2 50/2 Frequency Response Vbias4 M6BR Unlabeled NMOS are 10/2. Here. fun=20MHz.
77fun LHP zero appears at a higher frequency than fun. v1 R1 C1 ic ≈ vout 1 1 + sCc gmp Baker/Saxena .SLCL Op-amp Analysis 1 gmp 1 gmp 1 gmp g m1 − v gmp s gm1v s 2 + - A A Cc 1 Cc id2 − vs 2 id1 vs 2 vout 2 1 id1 vs 2 vout 2 CL CL v=0 (a) (b) 1 rop + − A Cc 2 + gm1v s 2 + vsgA R1 C1 gmpvsgA 1 gmp v1 1 1 gmp CA gm2v1 R2 vout C2 - gm 1 v gmp s 2 + g m1v s Cc ic gm2v1 R2 1 gmp + vout C2 - Here fz1=3.
Unlabeled PMOS are 22/2. The diff-pair devices are split-length to create low-Z node-A. fun=35MHz. ts=75ns. Baker/Saxena Small step-input settling in follower configuration . PM=62°. Better PSRR due to isolation of node-A from the supply rails.Split-Length Diff-Pair (SLDP) Op-amp VDD M3 1 VDD VDD M4 M7 110/2 M2T vm M1T 20/2 20/2 M1B A 20/2 vp ic 2pF vout CC 2 20/2 M2B CL 30pF M6TL M6BL Vbias3 Vbias4 M6TR M6BR M8T M8B 50/2 50/2 Frequency Response Unlabeled NMOS are 10/2. Here.
.94fun.SLDP Op-amp Analysis vout − vs 2 1 gmn 1 gmn vs 2 vout vs 2 gmn v s 1 gmn 4 id 2 = − Cc A ron + vgs1 gmnvgs1 vs 2 1 2 + 1 gmn + 1 gmn vA CA - gmn v s 4 R1 C1 gm2v1 R2 vout C2 - Here fz1=0. LHP zero appears slightly before fun and flattens the magnitude response. but is of great utility in multi-stage op-amp design due to higher PSRR. This may degrade the phase margin. 1 2 + gmn v s 2 Cc ic gm2v1 vout + vout C2 - v1 R1 C1 ic ≈ 1 1 + sCc gmn R2 1 gmn Baker/Saxena Not as good as SLCL.
5μm CMOS. Baker/Saxena . 1.5mmX1.5mm die size.Test Chip 1: Two-stage Op-amps Miller 3-Stage Indirect SLCL Indirect SLDP Indirect Miller with Rz AMI C5N 0.
Test Results and Performance Comparison Performance comparison of the op-amps for CL=30pF. 4X faster settling time. Miller with Rz (ts=250ns) SLCL Indirect (ts=60ns) 10X gain bandwidth (fun). 55% smaller layout area. SLDP Indirect (ts=75ns) Baker/Saxena . 40% less power consumption.
MULTI-STAGE OP-AMP DESIGN Baker/Saxena .
σ − ω un Pole-zero plot Baker/Saxena . jω Hard to compensate and stabilize.Three-Stage Op-amps Higher gain can be achieved by cascading three gain stages. ~100dB in 0. RHP zero(s) degrade the phase margin.5μm CMOS Results in at least a third order system 3 poles and two zeros. Large power consumption compared to the two-stage op-amps.
Will work in feedback configuration but will have offsets in nano-CMOS processes. Fallible Biasing Baker/Saxena . Boosts the CMRR of the opamp (needed). Robust Biasing Common source second stage should be avoided.Biasing of Multi-Stage Op-amps Diff-amps should be employed in inner gain stages to properly bias second and third gain stages Current in third stage is precisely set. Robust against large offsets.
Conventional Three-Stage Topologies Nested Miller Compensation (NMC)  Requires p3=2p2=4ωun for stability (Butterworth response) Huge power consumption RHP zero appears before the LHP zero and degrades the phase margin. Excess forward path delay (not modeled or discussed in the literature). Second stage is non-inverting Implemented using a current mirror. Baker/Saxena .
Hard to implement gmf1 which tracks gm1 for large signal swings. gmf2 is a power device and will not always be equal to gm2. Nested Gm-C Compensation (NGCC)  Employs feed-forward gm’s to eliminate zeros.Conventional Three-Stage Topologies contd. Compensation breaks down. gmf1=gm1 and gmf2=gm2 Class AB output stage. Baker/Saxena . Also wasteful of power. Still consumes large power.
Conventional Three-Stage Topologies contd. Transconductance with Capacitive Feedback Compensation (TCFC)  Four poles and double LHP zeros One LHP zero z1 cancels the pole p3. Relatively low power. Other LHP zero z2 enhances phase margin. vout vm gm1 vp VB2 VB3 VB4 1:2 VB5 VB6 gmt 2 CC2 3 Excess forward path delay. Complicated bias circuit. VDD VB1 VDD VDD VDD gm2/2 VB7 VDD VDD 1 gmf CC1 Set p2=2ωun for PM=60°. Still design criterions are complex. gm3 Baker/Saxena . More power.
Third stage is always non-inverting. Excess forward path delay. results in potentially higher fun.Three-Stage Topologies: Latest in the literature Reverse Nested Miller with Voltage Buffer and Resistance (RNMC-VBR)  Employs reverse nesting of compensation capacitors Since output is only loaded by only CC2. Biasing not robust against process variations. How do you control the current in the output buffer? Baker/Saxena . VDD VDD VDD VDD VDD VDD RC1 vm gm1 20uA Cc1 3 vp vout CL Cc2 gmVB 2 gm3 gm2 gmf 1 Uses pole-zero cancellation to realize higher phase margins.
Three-Stage Topologies: Latest in the literature contd. Again. High gain block (HGB) realizes gain by cascading stages. Baker/Saxena . 2 -A3 -gmf Ca +gma High-Speed Block (HSB) Complex design criterions. High speed block (HSB) implements compensation at high frequencies. Active Feedback Frequency Compensation (AFFC)  High-Gain Block (HGB) Input Block vs -A1 +A2 1 Cm vout 3 Reversed nested with elimination of RHP zero. Employs a complicated bias circuit. More power consumption. Excess forward path delay. uses a non-inverting gain stage.
RNMC feed-forward with nulling resistor (RNMCFNR) . Reverse active feedback frequency compensation (RAFFC) . Baker/Saxena . Further improvements are required in Eliminating excess forward path delay arising due to the compulsory noninverting stages. Robust biasing against random offsets in nano-CMOS. Better PSRR. Various topologies have been recently reported by combining the earlier techniques. Further reduction in power and circuit complexity.Three-Stage Topologies: Latest in the literature contd.
Can realize any permutation of stage polarities by just changing the sign of the fed-back compensation current using ‘fbr’ and ‘fbl’ nodes. Baker/Saxena . Reversed Nested Thus named RNIC. Note Class A (we’ll modify after theory is discussed). Employ diff-amp stages for robust biasing and higher CMRR. No compulsion on the polarity of gain stages.Indirect Compensation in Three-Stage Op-amps Indirectly feedback the compensation currents ic1 and ic2. Minimum forward path delay. Use SLDP for higher PSRR. VDD VDD VDD VDD VDD -ve 1 ic1 fbl Cc1 ic2 Vbiasn 2 vm fbl +ve fbr vp vout 3 fbr Cc2 CL Low-voltage design.
The CC’s are connected across two-nodes which move in opposite direction for overall negative feedback the compensation loops.Indirect Compensation in Three-Stage Op-amps contd. fbr and fbl are the low-Z nodes used for indirect compensation (have resistances Rc1 and Rc2 attached to them). VDD VDD VDD VDD VDD -ve 1 ic1 fbl Cc1 ic2 Vbiasn 2 vm fbl +ve fbr vp vout 3 fbr Cc2 CL Note the red arrows showing the node movements and the signs of the compensation currents. Note feedback and forward delays! Baker/Saxena .
. i c1 ≈ v2 1 sCc1 + Rc 1 ic 2 ≈ vout 1 sCc 2 + Rc 2 Two LHP zeros Baker/Saxena Four non-dominant poles.Analysis of the Indirect Compensated 3-Stage Op-amp Plug in the indirect compensation model developed for the two-stage opamps.
Appear due to the loading of the nodes fbr and fbl. Results in LHP zeros z1 and z2 canceling the poles p2 and p3 resp. Baker/Saxena . The resulting expression looks like a single pole system for low frequencies.5 are parasitic conjugated poles located far away in frequency. The small signal transfer function can be written as The quadratic expression in the denominator describing the poles p2 and p3 can be canceled by the numerator which describes the LHP zeros. →Phase margin close to 90°.Pole-zero Cancellation Poles p4.
e. jω Place pole-zero doublets (p2-z1 and p3z2) out of fun for clean transients. Rc1 and Rc2 are realized by adding poly R’s in series with CC1 and CC2.Pole-zero Cancellation contd. Rc2≥Rc0. σ −ω un Design Equations Robust against even 50% process variations in R’s and C’s as long as the pole-zero doublets stay out of fun. Best possible pole-zero arrangement for low power design. fp2. Baker/Saxena . fp3 > fun. Results into design equations independent of parasitics (C3≈CL here). i. Also Rc1. the impedance attached to the low-Z nodes fbr/fbl.
The presented three-stage op-amps have been designed with transient and SR performances to be comparable to their two-stage counterparts. simple. robust and manufacturable topology*. Baker/Saxena . the poly resistors are estimated as Low power.Pole-zero cancelled Class-A Op-amp A Here.
Pole-zero cancelled Class-AB Op-amp 1 A dual-gain path. The design equation for Rc1 is modified as Baker/Saxena . low-power Class-AB op-amp topology (RNIC-1).
Floating current source for biasing the output buffer.08K 2p M11 7. Vncas= 2VGS and Vpcas=VDD − 2VSG. Baker/Saxena . Here.Pole-zero cancelled Class-AB Op-amp 2 VDD M4 M5 VDD VDD M8 Vbiasp VDD M9 VDD M10 M2T 220/2 66/2 M5 fbl R1c 66/2 M6 Cc1 2 Vbiasn M3R M7L M7R Vpcas Vncas MFCN MFCP VDD M1T 1 20/2 fbl 20/2 20/2 fbr 20/2 vm M1B vp M2B 11/2 fbr R2c Cc2 vout 3 100/2 CL 30pF 10/2 4.65K 1p Vbiasn M3L Unlabeled NMOS are 10/2. Note the lack of gratuitous forward delay. Class-AB op-amp topology for good THD performance. Unlabeled PMOS are 22/2. A single-gain path.
Here. p4 and p5 are parasitic poles located at frequencies close to that of the fT limited (or mirror) poles. Baker/Saxena .Simulation of Three-stage Op-amps Bode Diagram 100 Magnitude (dB) Phase (deg) 50 0 -50 -100 -150 0 -45 -90 -135 -180 -225 10 2 10 4 10 6 10 8 10 10 Frequency (Hz) Analytical model of the Class-AB (RNIC-1) topology is simulated in MATLAB. The pole-zero plot illustrates the double pole-zero cancelation (collocation). fun≈30MHz and PM=90° for CL=30pF.
SPICE simulation match with the MATLAB simulation Our theory for three-stage indirect compensation is validated. ts=70ns. As fast as a two-stage op-amp with only 20% more power.84mW. 0. PM≈88°. SPICE simulation of the same Class AB op-amp.25V in a 5V process (25% of VDD).Simulation of Three-stage Op-amps contd. at 50% VDD and with the same layout area (simpler bias circuit). Baker/Saxena . SR=20V/μs. CL=30pF: fun=30MHz. Operates at VDD as low as 1.
5mm die size.Chip 2: Low-VDD 3-Stage Op-amps Best Performance AMI C5N 0.5μm CMOS.5mmX1. 1. Baker/Saxena .
stable and production worthy.CL/IDD RNIC op-amp designed for 500pF load for a fair comparison. Practical.Performance Comparison Figures of Merit FoMS=funCL/Power FoML=SR. Comparable performance even at lower VDD=2V. Baker/Saxena .CL/Power IFoMS=funCL/IDD IFoML=SR. FoMs>2X than state-ofthe-art at VDD=3V.
2 ( FF N IC Thi C L R N -3 s w P IC (T o R -2A hi s rk ) N IC (T wo -3 hi rk A sw ) (T hi ork s ) w or k) M N N G M C FOM_S FOM_L IFOM_S IFOM_L Higher performance figures than state-of-the-art. 10X faster settling. Layout area same or smaller. Baker/Saxena N .Performance Comparison contd. 60000 50000 40000 30000 20000 10000 0 C M C C FN R D FC FC AF F AC C B C F TC FC R DP N M ZC C VB F SM NR R FF N M C C F R NR R AF N IC RA F C R . Better phase margins.
Select the overdrive (% of VDD) which will set VGS. Is either of R1c and R2c negative? Are the parasitic poles p4. CL.e. and SR. No No More Speed? No Increase gm1 or decrease Cc2. No Better SR? Yes Increase bias current in the first stage (i. Can initially set gm2 equal to gm1 or a to lower value. Nothing works! Revisit biasing.5 degrading PM by closing on fun? Yes Increase gm2. No Simulate the design for frequency response and transient settling. Yes Does the design meet the specifications? Lower power? No Smaller layout area? No Yes Decrease gm3 or gm2. A2 and A3. In the worst case scenario decrease gm1. Calculate R1c and R2c. ISS1) or use smaller CC’s Baker/Saxena . fT and transistor gain gm*ro. May have to sacrifice fun. Select Cc2 = gm1/fun Select Cc1 and gm3 such that the p2-z1 and p3-z2 doublet locations are outside fun. Yes End Yes Reduce Cc1. Identify gm1.Flowchart for RNIC Op-amp Design Start with the initial specifications on fun. Split DC gain AOLDC across A1. Cc2 or gm3. Av. Yes Move the corresponding pi-zj doublet to a lower frequency by changing Cci and Rci.
Cc Cc Cc 2 n−1 n−2 ic Cc ic n−2 n−1 1 ic 2 ic 1 Baker/Saxena .N-Stage Indirect Compensation Theory The three-stage indirect compensation theory has been extended to Nstages and the closed form small signal transfer function is obtained.
MULTI-STAGE FULLY-DIFFERENTIAL OP-AMPS Baker/Saxena .
vop-vom=-A(vinp-vinm) Baker/Saxena .Fully Differential Op-amps Analog signal processing uses ‘only’ fully differential (FD) circuits. Common-mode feedback circuit (CMFB) is employed. Cancels switch non-linearities and even order harmonics. Needs additional circuitry to maintain the output common-mode level. Double the dynamic range.
performance and may cause instability.Three-Stage FD Op-amp Design: Problems Block Diagram VDD VDD Circuit Implementation VDD VDD VDD VDD VDD vom1 20/2 VCM fbl 20/2 20/2 20/2 vop1 20/2 fbr 20/2 vom2 Cc1 R1c vp vop1 fbr Vbiasp fbl R1c Cc1 vop2 vom1 vm Vbiasn VCMFB1 Vbiasn VDD First Stage VDD Second Stage vom2 110/2 VDD fbl vop2 VDD R2c Cc2 fbr 110/2 vop 30K 100f vom Cc2 R2c 50/2 vop 50/2 VCM 30K 100f VCMFB1 100/2 VCM 100/2 vom 100/2 Unlabeled NMOS are 10/2. Unlabeled PMOS are 22/2. Baker/Saxena . 100/2 VCMFB3 Output Buffer (Third Stage) The CMFB loop disturbs the DC biasing of the intermediate gain stages. Degrades the gain.
Three-Stage FD Op-amp Design: Solutions Employ CMFB 1. + Cc2 Cc1 1p 2p 3p vp -A1 - +A2 -A3 vop vbiasp vbiasn vCM vm -A1 + - 1m +A2 2m -A3 3m vom Cc1 Cc2 2. Individually across all the stages. -A3 vop vp + Cc2 Cc1 1p 2p 3p -A1 - +A2 vCMFB -A1 - +A2 -A3 vCMFB vop vCM -A3 -A1 + vCM vm -A1 + - 1m +A2 2m 3m vom vm - 1m +A2 2m -A3 3m vom Cc1 Cc2 Cc1 Cc2 Baker/Saxena . 1. Only in the third stage (output buffer). 2. 3. vp + Cc2 Cc1 1p 2p 3p 3. Only across the last two stages as the biasing of the output buffer need not be precise.
Employ diff-amp pairs in the second stage for robust biasing. Leaves the biasing of second and third stage alone without disturbing them. Baker/Saxena 100f 100/2 VCM 100/2 VCM VCMFB3 . vom2 110/2 VDD Cc2 R2c fbr vop2 VDD R2c Cc2 fbl 110/2 vom 50/2 vop 50/2 30K vop 100f 30K 100/2 VCMFB3 Output Buffer (Third Stage) 100/2 vom Use CMFB only in the output (third) stage. Unlabeled PMOS are 22/2. → Manufacturable design.Three-Stage FD Op-amp Design Block Diagram VDD VDD Circuit Implementation Second Gain Stage VDD VDD VDD VDD VDD vom2 Cc1 R1c vom1 fbl 20/2 VCM fbl 20/2 vop1 fbr 20/2 fbr 20/2 R1c Cc1 vop2 vm 20/2 20/2 vp Vbiasn Vbiasn Vbiasn First Gain Stage VDD VDD Unlabeled NMOS are 10/2.
Three-Stage FD Op-amp: Enlarged 30K Baker/Saxena 30K 100f 100f .
Chip 3: Low-VDD FD Op-amps Best Performance AMI C5N 0. 1.5μm CMOS.5mm die size.5mmX1. Baker/Saxena .
5X figure of merit (FoM).Simulation and Performance Comparison DC behavior Transient response 82dB gain ts=275ns >2. Baker/Saxena .
Add a CMFB circuit in the output buffer. Av. Does the design meet specifications? Yes End Baker/Saxena . Use a pair of diff-pairs for the second stage for robust biasing. and SR.Flowchart for Three-Stage FD Op-amp Design Start with the initial specifications on fun. Design a singly-ended pole-zero cancelled three-stage op-amp for the given specifications. CL. Convert the singly-ended op-amp into a fully differential one by mirroring it. Simulate the design. No Update the value of gm3 corresponding to the output buffer and recalculate R1C and R2C.
lower power op-amps with smaller layout area.Conclusions Indirect compensation leads to significantly faster. Indirect compensation using split-length devices facilitates low-VDD opamp design. A theory for multi-stage op-amps is presented. Novel pole-zero canceled three-stage RNIC op-amps exhibit substantial improvement over the state-of-the-art. New methodologies for designing multi-stage FD op-amps proposed which improve the state-of-the-art. Baker/Saxena . All proposed op-amps are low voltage Open new avenues for low-VDD mixed signal system design.
Design of low-VDD systems in nano-CMOS process Pipelined and Delta-Sigma data converters. etc. Audio drivers. Analog filters. Further investigation into indirect-compensated op-amps for n≥4 stages. Baker/Saxena .Future Scope Mathematical optimization of PZC op-amps.
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