# Introduction to FEM

Overview

IFEM Ch 1–Slide 1

Formulation of Finite Elements III.Introduction to FEM Course Coverage This course consists of three Parts: I. Computer Implementation of FEM IFEM Ch 1–Slide 2 . Finite Element Basic Concepts II.

Introduction to FEM Where the Course Fits The field of Mechanics can be subdivided into 3 major areas:   Mechanics Theoretical Applied Computational  IFEM Ch 1–Slide 3 .

Introduction to FEM Computational Mechanics Branches of Computational Mechanics can be distinguished according to the physical focus of attention   Computational Mechanics Nano and Micromechanics Continuum Mechanics: Solids and Structures Fluids Multiphysics Systems  IFEM Ch 1–Slide 4 .

Introduction to FEM Computational Solid and Structural Mechanics A convenient subdivision of problems in Computational Solid and Structural Mechanics (CSM) is Computational Solid and Structural Mechanics (CSM)    Statics Dynamics IFEM Ch 1–Slide 5 .

Introduction to FEM CSM Statics A further subdivision of problems in CSM Statics is   CSM Statics Linear  Nonlinear IFEM Ch 1–Slide 6 .

Introduction to FEM CSM Linear Statics For the numerical simulation on the computer we must now chose a spatial discretization method:    Finite Element Method Finite Difference Method Boundary Element Method Finite Volume Method Spectral Method Mesh-Free Method CSM Linear Statics IFEM Ch 1–Slide 7 .

Introduction to FEM CSM Linear Statics by FEM Having selected the FEM for discretization. we must next pick a formulation and a solution method:   Formulation of FEM Model    Displacement Equilibrium Mixed Hybrid Stiffness Flexibility Mixed Solution of FEM Model  IFEM Ch 1–Slide 8 .

Introduction to FEM Summarizing: This Course Covers Computational structural mechanics Linear static problems Spatially discretized by displacement-formulated FEM Solved by the stiffness method IFEM Ch 1–Slide 9 .

C.Introduction to FEM What is a Finite Element? Archimedes' problem (circa 250 B.): rectification of the circle as limit of inscribed regular polygons 3 4 2 4 r d 5 1 5 2r sin(π/n) i 2π/n 6 7 8 j r IFEM Ch 1–Slide 10 .

121445152258052 3.141592653589786 3.000000000000000 2.136548490545939 3.141418327933211 3.141592653589793 IFEM Ch 1–Slide 11 .414213562373096 3.140331156954753 3.141513801144301 Extrapolated by Wynn-ε Exact π to 16 places 3.061467458920718 3.141592658918053 3.828427124746190 3.141277250932773 3.000000000000000 2.Introduction to FEM Computing π "by Archimedes FEM" n 1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 256 πn = n sin(π/n) 0.

. . . . . IFEM Ch 1–Slide 12 .Introduction to FEM The Idealization Process for a Simple Structure member Roof Truss support joint Physical Model IDEALIZATION & DISCRETIZATION Mathematical and Discrete Model .

Introduction to FEM Two Interpretations of FEM for Teaching Mathematical Numerical approximation of a Boundary Value Problem by Ritz-Galerkin discretization with functions of local support Emphasized in Part II Physical Breakdown of structural system into components (elements) and reconstruction by the assembly process Emphasized in Part I IFEM Ch 1–Slide 13 .

Introduction to FEM FEM in Modeling and Simulation: Physical FEM Ideal Mathematical model CONTINUIFICATION generally irrelevant SOLUTION Physical system FEM Discrete model VERIFICATION Discrete solution IDEALIZATION & DISCRETIZATION solution error simulation error= modeling + solution error VALIDATION IFEM Ch 1–Slide 14 .

Introduction to FEM FEM in Modeling and Simulation: Mathematical FEM Mathematical model IDEALIZATION REALIZATION Discretization + solution error FEM SOLUTION VERIFICATION Ideal physical system Discrete model IDEALIZATION & DISCRETIZATION Discrete solution VERIFICATION solution error generally irrelevant IFEM Ch 1–Slide 15 .

Introduction to FEM Model Updating in Physical FEM EXPERIMENTS Physical system Experimental database FEM Parametrized discrete model simulation error Discrete solution IFEM Ch 1–Slide 16 .

Introduction to FEM Synergy Between Mathematical and Physical FEM E PON COMEVEL L ent pon Comations equ NT ic mat athe del M mo al (Intermediate levels omitted) FEM Li y brar ent pon Comcrete dis del mo TEM SYS EL LEV e plet Com tion lu so em Syst ete iscr el d d mo l sica Phy tem ys s IFEM Ch 1–Slide 17 .

addall. It requires substantial mathematical expertise on the part of the reader Recently reprinted by Dover.Introduction to FEM Recommended Books for Linear FEM Basic level (reference): Zienkiewicz & Taylor (1988). as well as a comprehensive list of references. Malkus & Plesha (1989). Most fun (if you like British "humor"): Irons & Ahmad (1980) Best value for the \$\$\$: Przemieniecki (Dover edition 1985.. A fifth edition has appeared.g. Although outdated in many respects (e. Most readable mathematical treatment although outdated in several subjects. Not a textbook.com IFEM Ch 1–Slide 18 . Comprehensive web search engine for out-of print books: http://www3. Vols I (1988). Intermediate level: Hughes (1987). this third edition is fairly comprehensive in scope and up to date although the coverage is more superficial than Zienkiewicz & Taylor. Basic level (textbook): Cook. it is a valuable reference for programming simple elements. A comprehensive upgrade of the 1977 edition. the word "finite element" does not appear in this reprint of the original 1966 book). Primarily an encyclopedic reference work that provides a panoramic coverage of FEM. ~\$16). II (1993). Mathematically oriented: Strang & Fix (1973).