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Individual Differences-210910 120702

Individual Differences-210910 120702

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Published by Ikram Razak

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Published by: Ikram Razak on Mar 03, 2012
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Salbiah Abd Rahman

Interpersonal Influence and Group Behavior

The Individual •Skills & Abilities •Perception •Personality •Attitudes •Values

Organizational Processes
Leadership Communications Decision

behavior and work teams Intergroup conflict and negotiations Organizational power and politics Communication

making Reward System Job Design


Individual Behavior  First law of human behavior:  ―People are different. What one person considers a golden opportunity another considers a threat.‖  Definition:A process by which individuals organize and interpret sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment .

Individuals organize and interpret information from their environments using perceptual filters  personality. beliefs-based differences  Objective vs. perceived realities . preferences. experience. psychology.Perception   Perception is the process by which individuals make sense of their world.

Perception   People perceive the world uniquely Differences in perceptions can cause problems      Communication Conflict Motivation Judgment Decision Making .

Object Perception Proximity – things close together are seen as belonging together. .

Object Perception Figure-Ground: The figure and the background “switch” .

but  People are more dynamic than objects  We’re trying to figure out intentions.Social Perception How we gather information about the social world--about peoples’ behavior. motives. motives. moods. and traits Similar to object perception. and causes of behavior .

Attribution Why did they do that?  internal causes traits  skills  abilities   external causes  situational constraints .

4 attributions for the cause of performance Stable Internal External Unstable .

How do we determine cause? (Kelley)  Consensus .this person in other situations .this person on other occasions   Distinctiveness .how do others behave Consistency .

Errors/Biases in Social Perception  Selective perception  notice stimuli which are salient due to our interests. background. experiences tendency to fill in the gaps when information is missing Assume what we don’t know is consistent with what we do know  Closure   .

Errors/Biases in Social Perception  Halo Effects    Contrast Stereotyping  Impression on one dimension affects impression of unrelated dimension  Primacy/Recency effects  A person has beliefs about a class of stimulus objects and generalizes those beliefs to encounters with members of that class of objects. Disproportionately high weight is given to the first/last information obtained about a stimulus .

First Impressions    Influences what subsequent information we notice and how it is interpreted ―Fill-in‖ information consistent with first impression Anchoring  Failure to adjust for subsequent information Seek out information & perceive stimuli in ways that confirm expectations Discount contradictory information  Confirmation Bias     Self fulfilling prophecy (2-way) Recency—availability bias .

Errors/Biases in Social Perception  Actor-observer difference (aka ―the fundamental attribution error‖)   Actors attribute their behavior to external causes Observer attribute actors’ behavior to internal cause .

internal attribute failures to the environment – external .Errors/Biases in Social Perception  Self-serving bias   attribute successes to ourselves .

Performance appraisal and errors in social perception  Supervisor:    Subordinate:   .

Perception Implications .

Guard against specific biases  Stereotypes   Be aware that stereotyping can occur with very little information. remain open to new information Recognize that stereotypes rarely apply to a specific individual     Fundamental attribution error? Primacy/recency? Halo? Confirmation? .

Perception Implications .

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