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Contents

Articles

Introduction

Electronics Voltage Electric current Frequency Direct current Alternating current 1 1 5 7 14 19 21 29 29 33 49 67 77 86 88 96 96 99 101 104 104 110 112 127 133 137 140 140 146 162

Electrical Components

Active and passive components Resistor Capacitor Inductor Electrical impedance Voltage source Current source

**Basic circuit laws
**

Kirchhoff's circuit laws Norton's theorem Thévenin's theorem

AC analysis

Phasor Electric power RLC circuit Low-pass filter High-pass filter Band-pass filter

Basic devices

p-n junction Bipolar junction transistor Amplifier

Operational amplifier

166 185 185 193 201 207 217 223 232 235

Digital circuits

Boolean algebra Logic gate Karnaugh map Finite-state machine 555 timer IC Schmitt trigger Shift register Flip-flop

References

Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 250 256

Article Licenses

License 261

1

Introduction

Electronics

Electronics is the branch of science, engineering and technology dealing with electrical circuits that involve active electrical components such as vacuum tubes, transistors, diodes and integrated circuits, and associated passive interconnection technologies. The nonlinear behaviour of active components and their ability to control electron flows makes amplification of weak signals possible and is usually applied to information and signal processing. Similarly, the ability of electronic devices to act as switches makes digital information processing possible. Interconnection technologies such as circuit boards, electronics Surface mount electronic components packaging technology, and other varied forms of communication infrastructure complete circuit functionality and transform the mixed components into a working system. Electronics is distinct from electrical and electro-mechanical science and technology, which deals with the generation, distribution, switching, storage and conversion of electrical energy to and from other energy forms using wires, motors, generators, batteries, switches, relays, transformers, resistors and other passive components. This distinction started around 1906 with the invention by Lee De Forest of the triode, which made electrical amplification of weak radio signals and audio signals possible with a non-mechanical device. Until 1950 this field was called "radio technology" because its principal application was the design and theory of radio transmitters, receivers and vacuum tubes. Today, most electronic devices use semiconductor components to perform electron control. The study of semiconductor devices and related technology is considered a branch of solid state physics, whereas the design and construction of electronic circuits to solve practical problems come under electronics engineering. This article focuses on engineering aspects of electronics.

**Electronic devices and components
**

An electronic component is any physical entity in an electronic system used to affect the electrons or their associated fields in a desired manner consistent with the intended function of the electronic system. Components are generally intended to be connected together, usually by being soldered to a printed circuit board (PCB), to create an electronic circuit with a particular function (for example an amplifier, radio receiver, or oscillator). Components may be packaged singly or in more complex groups as integrated circuits. Some common electronic components are capacitors, inductors, resistors, diodes, transistors, etc. Components are often categorized as active (e.g. transistors and thyristors) or passive (e.g. resistors and capacitors).

Electronics

2

**Early electronic components
**

Vacuum tubes were one of the earliest electronic components. They dominated electronics until the 1950s. Since that time, solid state devices have all but completely taken over. Vacuum tubes are still used in some specialist applications such as high power RF amplifiers, cathode ray tubes, and some microwave devices.

Types of circuits

Circuits and components can be divided into two groups: analog and digital. A particular device may consist of circuitry that has one or the other or a mix of the two types.

Analog circuits

Most analog electronic appliances, such as radio receivers, are constructed from combinations of a few types of basic circuits. Analog circuits use a continuous range of voltage as opposed to discrete levels as in digital circuits. The number of different analog circuits so far devised is huge, especially because a 'circuit' can be defined as anything from a single component, to systems containing thousands of components. Analog circuits are sometimes called linear circuits although many non-linear effects are used in analog circuits such as mixers, modulators, etc. Good examples of analog circuits include vacuum tube and transistor amplifiers, operational amplifiers and oscillators. One rarely finds modern circuits that are entirely analog. These days analog circuitry may use digital or even microprocessor techniques to improve performance. This type of circuit is usually called "mixed signal" rather than analog or digital.

Hitachi J100 adjustable frequency drive chassis.

Sometimes it may be difficult to differentiate between analog and digital circuits as they have elements of both linear and non-linear operation. An example is the comparator which takes in a continuous range of voltage but only outputs one of two levels as in a digital circuit. Similarly, an overdriven transistor amplifier can take on the characteristics of a controlled switch having essentially two levels of output.

Digital circuits

Digital circuits are electric circuits based on a number of discrete voltage levels. Digital circuits are the most common physical representation of Boolean algebra and are the basis of all digital computers. To most engineers, the terms "digital circuit", "digital system" and "logic" are interchangeable in the context of digital circuits. Most digital circuits use a binary system with two voltage levels labeled "0" and "1". Often logic "0" will be a lower voltage and referred to as "Low" while logic "1" is referred to as "High". However, some systems use the reverse definition ("0" is "High") or are current based. Ternary (with three states) logic has been studied, and some prototype computers made. Computers, electronic clocks, and programmable logic controllers (used to control industrial processes) are constructed of digital circuits. Digital signal processors are another example.

Circuit analysis is the study of methods of solving generally linear systems for unknown variables such as the voltage at a certain node or the current through a certain branch of a network. Also important to electronics is the study and understanding of electromagnetic field theory. Kirchhoff's laws. and reinforce laws and theorems such as Ohm's law. These experiments are used to prove. Techniques for heat dissipation can include heat sinks and fans for air cooling. electronics labs have consisted of electronics devices and equipment located in a physical space. laboratory experimentation is an important part of the study of electronics. Other types of noise. Noise may be electromagnetically or thermally generated. . Noise is not the same as signal distortion caused by a circuit. and other forms of computer cooling such as water cooling. Historically. Noise is defined[1] as unwanted disturbances superposed on a useful signal that tend to obscure its information content. To become proficient in electronics it is also necessary to become proficient in the mathematics of circuit analysis. Multisim.Electronics Building blocks: • • • • • • • Logic gates Adders Flip-Flops Counters Registers Multiplexers Schmitt triggers 3 Highly integrated devices: • • • • • Microprocessors Microcontrollers Application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) Digital signal processor (DSP) Field-programmable gate array (FPGA) Heat dissipation and thermal management Heat generated by electronic circuitry must be dissipated to prevent immediate failure and improve long term reliability. such as CircuitLogix. which can be decreased by lowering the operating temperature of the circuit. etc. Electronics theory Mathematical methods are integral to the study of electronics. A common analytical tool for this is the SPICE circuit simulator. & radiation of heat energy. Noise Noise is associated with all electronic circuits. although in more recent years the trend has been towards electronics lab simulation software. verify. These techniques use convection. Electronics lab Due to the empirical nature of electronics theory. such as shot noise cannot be removed as they are due to limitations in physical properties. conduction. and PSpice.

LabCentre Electronics (Proteus). Test Instruments & Measuring Devices.edu/ instrumentation/NEETS. Popular names in the EDA software world are NI Multisim. Basic AC Reactive Components. early electronics often used point to point wiring with components attached to wooden breadboards to construct circuits.org External links • Electrical and electronics web portal (http://www. Eagle PCB and Schematic.gov/nuclearsafety/ns/techstds/standard/hdbk1011/h1011v4. Altium (Protel). projects and software (http://www.electricalandelectronics. 2.characterised by its light yellow-to-brown colour.org/Science/Technology/Electronics//) at the Open Directory Project . 4 vols. Generators. semiconductors (such as transistors). Cadence (ORCAD). For instance. Health and environmental concerns associated with electronics assembly have gained increased attention in recent years. Transformers. Electrical Distribution Systems (http://hss.htm) • DOE 1998 Electrical Science. DC Circuits. 3. Basic AC Power.gov/nuclearsafety/ns/techstds/ standard/hdbk1011/h1011v2. AC Motors.pdf) • Vol. and integrated circuits. Batteries. Cordwood construction and wire wraps were other methods used. Mentor (PADS PCB and LOGIC Schematic).pdf) • Vol.pdf) • Electronics (http://www. Fundamentals Handbook.dmoz. energy.Electronics 4 Computer aided design (CAD) Today's electronics engineers have the ability to design circuits using premanufactured building blocks such as power supplies.org) • Electronics tutorials. Basic DC Theory (http://hss. Construction methods Many different methods of connecting components have been used over the years. • Vol. Basic AC Theory. Basic AC Generators (http://hss. gEDA. 1. KiCad and many others. Electronic design automation software programs include schematic capture programs and printed circuit board design programs.org/resources/1500) on Nanohub.davidson. Most modern day electronics now use printed circuit boards made of materials such as FR4.energy. with its Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive (RoHS) and Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive (WEEE). which went into force in July 2006. or the cheaper (and less hard-wearing) Synthetic Resin Bonded Paper (SRBP. References [1] IEEE Dictionary of Electrical and Electronics Terms ISBN 978-0-471-42806-0 Further reading • The Art of Electronics ISBN 978-0-521-37095-0 • Online course on Computational Electronics (http://nanohub.pdf) • Vol. also known as Paxoline/Paxolin (trade marks) and FR2) .electroniq.energy. especially for products destined to the European Union.gov/nuclearsafety/ns/techstds/ standard/hdbk1011/h1011v1.gov/nuclearsafety/ns/techstds/standard/hdbk1011/h1011v3. 4. Basic Electrical Theory.energy.net) • Navy 1998 Navy Electricity and Electronics Training Series (NEETS) (http://www. Motors (http://hss.phy.

A voltmeter can be used to measure the voltage (or potential difference) between two points in a system. the conventional current in a wire or resistor always flows from higher voltage to lower voltage. In the general case. or joules per coulomb) is the potential difference between two points — or the difference in electric potential energy per unit charge between two points. against a static electric field to move the charge between two points. but only when a source of energy is present to "push" it against the opposing electric field. The electric field around the rod exerts a force on the charged pith ball. for example within the phrase "high tension" (HT) which is commonly used in thermionic valve (vacuum tube) based electronics. For example. by time-varying magnetic fields.[2][3] Working on high voltage power lines.Voltage 5 Voltage Voltage. in an electroscope. Therefore. or a combination of all three. both a static (unchanging) electric field and a dynamic (time-varying) electromagnetic field must be included in determining the voltage between two points. by electric current through a magnetic field. divided by the magnitude of the charge. Pressure is now obsolete but tension is still used. Voltage is defined so that negatively-charged objects are pulled towards higher voltages. chemical reactions inside the battery provide the energy needed for current to flow from the negative to the positive terminal . while positively-charged objects are pulled towards lower voltages.[1] Voltage is equal to the work which would have to be done. Current can flow from lower voltage to higher voltage. otherwise known as electrical potential difference or electric tension (denoted ∆V and measured in volts. per unit charge. Historically this quantity has also been called "tension"[4] and "pressure". Voltage can be caused by static electric fields. A voltage may represent either a source of energy (electromotive force). inside a battery. Pearl Harbor Definition The voltage between two ends of a path is the total energy required to move a small electric charge along that path. Mathematically this is expressed as the line integral of the electric field and the time rate of change of magnetic field along that path. or it may represent lost or stored energy (potential drop). usually a common reference potential such as the ground of the system is used as one of the points.

This can be called a water circuit. in an electrical circuit. The voltage drop across the device can be understood as the difference between measurements at each terminal of the device with respect to a common reference point (or ground). A common use of the term "voltage" is in describing the voltage dropped across an electrical device (such as a resistor). then it will not turn the starter motor. Potential difference between two points corresponds to the water pressure difference between two points. Equally.Voltage 6 Hydraulic analogy A simple analogy for an electric circuit is water flowing in a closed circuit of pipework. If the pump isn't working. one electrical lead of the voltmeter must be connected to the first point. In such a system. one to the second point. Two points in an electric circuit that are connected by an ideal conductor without resistance and not within a changing magnetic field. but average voltages can be meaningfully added only when they apply to signals that all have the same frequency and phase. the work done to move electrons or other charge-carriers is equal to "electrical pressure" (an old term for voltage) multiplied by the quantity of electrical charge moved. . the current generated by an automobile battery can drive the starter motor in an automobile. the work done to move water is equal to the pressure multiplied by the volume of water moved. The various voltages in a circuit can be computed using Kirchhoff's circuit laws. This water flow analogy is a useful way of understanding several electrical concepts. Voltage is a convenient way of measuring the ability to do work. the work is independent of the path. then water flowing from the first point to the second will be able to do work. In a similar way. have a voltage of zero. work can be done by the electric current driven by the potential difference due to an electric battery: for example. The voltage drop is the difference between the two readings. Applications Specifying a voltage measurement requires explicit or implicit specification of the points across which the voltage is measured. such as driving a turbine. In relation to "flow". Instantaneous voltages can be added for direct current (DC) and AC. the larger the "pressure difference" between two points (potential difference or water pressure difference) the greater the flow between them (either electric current or water flow). driven by a mechanical pump. Any two points with the same potential may be connected by a conductor and no current will flow between them. if the automobile's battery is flat. In a static field. Addition of voltages The voltage between A and C is the sum of the voltage between A and B and the voltage between B and C. If there is a water pressure difference between two points (due to the pump). When using a voltmeter to measure potential difference. it produces no pressure difference. Similarly. When talking about alternating current (AC) there is a difference between instantaneous voltage and average voltage. and the turbine will not rotate.

McGraw-Hill. wattage P (http://www.org/EducationResources/ HighSchool/Electricity/voltage. amperage I. pp. External links • Electrical voltage V. which originates from the French phrase intensité de courant. Paris and F. New York 1969. modern practice often shortens this to simply current but current intensity is still used in many recent textbooks. is proportional to the voltage across the resistor. especially in older texts. Electric current is measured using an ammeter. and the oscilloscope. Kenneth Hurd.[1] This charge is typically carried by moving electrons in a conductor such as wire. according to Ohm's Law. The potentiometer works by balancing the unknown voltage against a known voltage in a bridge circuit. after whom the unit of electric current is named.[1] Symbol The conventional symbol for current is [3][4] . Basic Electromagnetic Theory. or by both ions and electrons in a plasma. Pergamon Press 1969 OCLC 854336. edu/ ed/ dict. com/ results. The symbol was used by André-Marie Ampère. resistivity R. Electromagnetism for Engineers.com/ calculator-ohm. impedance Z. the potentiometer.htm) • Elementary explanation of voltage at NDT Resource Center (http://www. The cathode-ray oscilloscope works by amplifying the voltage and using it to deflect an electron beam from a straight path. htm#v08).sengpielaudio. which is charge flowing through some surface at the rate of one coulomb per second. A multimeter set to measure voltage References [1] "Voltage" (http:/ / electrochem. although at least one journal did not change from using to until 1896.[6] . in formulating the eponymous Ampère's force law which he discovered in 1820.Voltage 7 Measuring instruments Instruments for measuring voltages include the voltmeter. This phrase is frequently used when discussing the value of an electric current.htm) Electric current Electric current is a flow of electric charge through a medium. Electrochemistry Encyclopedia [2] Demetrius T. collinslanguage. or in English current intensity. 135. where it became standard. aspx?context=3& reversed=False& action=define& homonym=0& text=tension). p. which. cwru. 512.[2] The SI unit for measuring the rate of flow of electric charge is the ampere. so that the deflection of the beam is proportional to the voltage. It can also be carried by ions in an electrolyte. [4] Tension (http:/ / www. 546 [3] P.ndt-ed.[5] The notation travelled from France to England. Hammond. The voltmeter works by measuring the current through a fixed resistor. ISBN 0-07-048470-8.

conventional current flows in the opposite direction as the electrons. In other media." When a metal wire is connected across the two terminals of a DC voltage source such as a battery. these electrons move about randomly due to thermal energy but. As George Gamow put in his science-popularizing book. In conductors where the charge carriers are positive. In a common lead-acid electrochemical cell. the electric current is due to the flow of both positively and negatively charged particles at the same time. These electrons are bound to the metal lattice but no longer to an individual atom. In still others. the electric current is entirely composed of flowing ions. For example. Metals A solid conductive metal contains mobile. If Q and t are measured in coulombs and seconds respectively. electric currents are composed of positive hydrogen ions (protons) flowing in one direction. The free electrons are therefore the charge carrier in a typical solid conductor. and negative sulfate ions flowing in the other. electric current can be represented as the rate at which charge flows through a given surface as: . This is the case in a p-type semiconductor. the electric currents in electrolytes are flows of positively and negatively charged ions. the source places an electric field across the conductor.. these free electrons rush in the direction of the force. a beam of ions or electrons may be formed. conventional current is defined to flow in the same direction as positive charges. the current I (in amperes) can be calculated with the following equation: where Q is the electric charge transferred through the surface over a time t.. and often let one of their electrons go free. there is zero net current within the metal. Electric currents in sparks or plasma are flows of electrons as well as positive and negative ions. the current is entirely due to positive charge flow. Three. electrons move in both directions across the surface at an equal rate. For a steady flow of charge through a surface. Given a surface through which a metal wire passes. In a semiconductor it is sometimes useful to think of the current as due to the flow of positive "holes" (the mobile positive charge carriers that are places where the semiconductor crystal is missing a valence electron). electric charge flows by means of electrons. The moment contact is made. for example) may constitute an electric current. In ice and in certain solid electrolytes. the free electrons of the conductor are forced to drift toward the positive terminal under the influence of this field. In other conductive materials. any stream of charged objects (ions. Even with no external electric field applied. Two.Electric current 8 Conduction mechanisms in various media In metallic solids. In a vacuum. thus forming what we call an electric current. So in metals where the charge carriers (electrons) are negative. on average. To provide a definition of current that is independent of the type of charge carriers flowing. conventional current flows in the same direction as the charge carriers. "The metallic substances differ from all other materials by the fact that the outer shells of their atoms are bound rather loosely.Infinity (1947). More generally. When a metal wire is subjected to electric force applied on its opposite ends. Thus the interior of a metal is filled up with a large number of unattached electrons that travel aimlessly around like a crowd of displaced persons. or free electrons. One. originating in the conduction electrons. I is in amperes. from lower to higher electrical potential.

In these materials. or cosmic rays. ultraviolet light. the electrons in a plasma accelerate more quickly in response to an electric field than the heavier positive ions. Thermionic emission occurs when the thermal energy exceeds the metal's work function. Due to their lower mass. For example. on a metal surface subjected to a high electrical field. A plasma can be formed by high temperature. In certain electrolyte mixtures. Since the electrical conductivity is low. once the applied electric field approaches the breakdown value. These regions may be initiated by field electron emission. brightly-coloured ions form the moving electric charges. or by application of a high electric or alternating magnetic field as noted above. Vacuum Since a "perfect vacuum" contains no charged particles. In the process. Cold electrodes can also spontaneously produce electron clouds via thermionic emission when small incandescent regions (called cathode spots or anode spots) are formed. which results in the ejection of free electrons from the metal into the vacuum. and ionizing. the complete ejection of magnetic field lines from the interior of the superconductor as it transitions into the superconducting state. Externally heated electrodes are often used to generate an electron cloud as in the filament or indirectly heated cathode of vacuum tubes. These small electron-emitting regions can form quite rapidly. gases are dielectrics or insulators. while the chloride ions move towards the positive electrode (anode). Plasma is the state of matter where some of the electrons in a gas are stripped or "ionized" from their molecules or atoms. but are then sustained by localized thermionic emission once a vacuum arc forms.Electric current 9 Electrolytes Electric currents in electrolytes are flows of electrically charged particles (ions). while field electron emission occurs when the electric field at the surface of the metal is high enough to cause tunneling. electric currents are composed of moving protons. It was discovered by Heike Kamerlingh Onnes on April 8. and hence carry the bulk of the current. Vacuum tubes and sprytrons are some of the electronic switching and amplifying devices based on vacuum conductivity. However. if an electric field is placed across a solution of Na+ and Cl− (and conditions are right) the sodium ions move towards the negative electrode (cathode). metal electrode surfaces can cause a region of the vacuum to become conductive by injecting free electrons or ions through either field electron emission or thermionic emission. even explosively. Reactions take place at both electrode surfaces. The occurrence of the Meissner effect indicates that superconductivity cannot be understood simply as the idealization of perfect . Superconductivity Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic fields occurring in certain materials when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature. Gases and plasmas In air and other ordinary gases below the breakdown field. These are incandescent regions of the electrode surface that are created by a localized high current flow. neutral gas atoms or molecules in a process called avalanche breakdown. such as a spark. Like ferromagnetism and atomic spectral lines. arc or lightning. the dominant source of electrical conduction is via relatively few mobile ions produced by radioactive gases. free electrons become sufficiently accelerated by the electric field to create additional free electrons by colliding. 1911 in Leiden. it normally behaves as a perfect insulator. It is characterized by the Meissner effect. However. Water-ice and certain solid electrolytes called proton conductors contain positive hydrogen ions or "protons" which are mobile. The breakdown process forms a plasma that contains enough mobile electrons and positive ions to make it an electrical conductor. it forms a light emitting conductive path. The slow migration of these ions means that the current is visible. superconductivity is a quantum mechanical phenomenon. as opposed to the moving electrons found in metals. absorbing each ion.

measured in amperes. σ. like the particles of a gas. The dot product of the two vector quantities (A and J) is a scalar that represents the electric current. and is the resistance. the particles must also move together with an average drift rate. which is proportional to diffusion constant and charge density . In order for there to be a net flow of charge. and A is the cross-sectional area. and is the charge on each particle. a reciprocal quantity called resistivity ρ. Current density (current per unit area) J in a material is proportional to the conductivity σ and electric field medium: in the Instead of conductivity. The current density is then: with being the elementary charge and the electron density. with higher density near the surface. bouncing from atom to atom. can be used: Conduction in semiconductor devices may occur by a combination of drift and diffusion. J is the current density. In SI units. thus increasing the apparent resistance. replace electron density by the negative of the hole density . especially at higher frequencies. ρ and D are tensors. Drift speed The mobile charged particles within a conductor move constantly in random directions. measured in ohms. In such conditions. where I is current in the conductor. measured in volts. skin effect causes the current to spread unevenly across the conductor cross-section. The carriers move in the direction of decreasing concentration. In linear anisotropic materials. . It is defined as a vector whose magnitude is the electric current per cross-sectional area. is the potential difference. In linear materials such as metals. Electrons are the charge carriers in metals and they follow an erratic path. 10 Current density and Ohm's law Current density is a measure of the density of an electric current. For alternating currents. so for electrons a positive current results for a positive density gradient. the current density is measured in amperes per square metre. but generally drifting in the opposite direction of the electric field. and under low frequencies. If the carriers are holes.Electric current conductivity in classical physics. the current density across the conductor surface is uniform. The speed at which they drift can be calculated from the equation: where is the electric current is number of charged particles per unit volume (or charge carrier density) is the cross-sectional area of the conductor is the drift velocity. Ohm's law states that the current is directly proportional to the potential difference between two ends (across) of that metal (ideal) resistor (or other ohmic device): where is the current.

gives rise to an electromagnetic wave that propagates at very high speed outside the surface of the conductor. and depends on the electromagnetic properties of the conductor and the insulating materials surrounding it. To take a different example.5 mm2. Current can also be measured without breaking the circuit by detecting the magnetic field associated with the current. the drift velocity of the electrons is on the order of a millimetre per second. but you do not observe a change in an EM field earlier than you can observe the change of current. • The low drift velocity of charge carriers is analogous to air motion. and Rogowski coils. an electric current produces a magnetic field. 11 Electromagnetism Electric current produces a magnetic field. . but this method involves breaking the electrical circuit. To illustrate the difference: The sound and the change in the air's drift velocity (the force of the wind gust) cross distance at rates equaling the speeds of sound and of mechanical transmission of force (not higher than rate of drift velocity). The magnetic field can be visualized as a pattern of circular field lines surrounding the wire. • The high speed of electromagnetic waves is roughly analogous to the speed of sound in a gas (these waves move through the medium much faster than any individual particles do) • The random motion of charges is analogous to heat – the thermal velocity of randomly vibrating gas particles. carrying a current of 5 A. For example. This analogy is extremely simplistic and incomplete: The rapid propagation of a sound wave does not impart any change in the air molecules' drift velocity. even though the electrons in the wires only move back and forth over a tiny distance. The ratio of the speed of the electromagnetic wave to the speed of light in free space is called the velocity factor. This speed is usually a significant fraction of the speed of light. You can hear wind much earlier than the force of the gust reaches you. current transformers. while a change in an EM field and the change in current (electrons' drift velocity) both propagate across distance at rates much higher than the actual drift velocity. The amount of current is particular to a reference frame. whereas EM waves do carry the energy to propagate the actual current at a rate which is much. and therefore any changing electric current. For example. Electric current can be directly measured with a galvanometer.Electric current Typically. Devices used for this include Hall effect sensors. which is sometimes inconvenient. in AC power lines. moving from a source to a distant load. The magnitudes (but. According to Ampère's law. not the natures) of these three velocities can be illustrated by an analogy with the three similar velocities associated with gases. electric charges in solids flow slowly. in the near-vacuum inside a cathode ray tube. and on their shape and size. Any accelerating electric charge. and is therefore many times faster than the drift velocity of the electrons. in other words. in a copper wire of cross-section 0. much higher than the electrons' drift velocity. the electrons travel in near-straight lines at about a tenth of the speed of light. The theory of Special Relativity allows one to transform the magnetic field into a static electric field for an observer moving at the same speed as the charge in the diagram. as can be deduced from Maxwell's Equations. current clamps. winds. the waves of electromagnetic energy propagate through the space between the wires.

and the charge carriers are electrons. This often matches conventional current direction. the electron motion in a metal conductor is in the direction opposite to that of conventional (or electric) current. The direction of conventional current is defined arbitrarily to be the direction of the flow of positive charges. direction. the charge carriers in an electrical circuit. which make up the wires and other conductors in most electrical circuits. In electronics. each circuit element is assigned a current variable with an arbitrarily chosen reference direction. other forms of electric current include the flow of electrons through resistors or through the vacuum in a vacuum tube. the positive charges are immobile. Since current can be the flow of either positive or negative charges. flow in the opposite direction of the conventional electric current. The artificial form of electric current is the flow of conduction electrons in metal wires. Occurrences Natural examples include lightning and the solar wind. the actual direction of current through a specific circuit element is usually unknown. the circuit element currents may have positive or negative values. A negative value means that the actual direction of current through that The symbol for a battery in circuit element is opposite that of the chosen reference a circuit diagram. Because the electron carries negative charge. such as the overhead power lines that deliver electrical energy across long distances and the smaller wires within electrical and electronic equipment. a convention for the direction of current which is independent of the type of charge carriers is needed. and the flow of holes within a semiconductor. In electronic circuits the reference current directions are usually chosen so that all currents flow toward ground. Reference direction When analyzing electrical circuits. The electrons. as an equal flow of negative charges in the opposite direction. the source of the polar auroras (the aurora borealis and aurora australis). and has the same effect in a circuit. the flow of ions inside a battery or a neuron. When the circuit is solved. or both. In metals. . Consequently.Electric current 12 Conventions A flow of positive charges gives the same electric current. because in many circuits the power supply voltage is positive with respect to ground.

Lima.com (2000-05-01). Calculations for A-level Physics. 2002 ISBN 0748767487. Friedrich. Hector. Merrill Pub. Kazushi. Paris: Chez Crochard Libraire 1822 (in French). there are various techniques that can be used to measure current: • • • • Shunt resistors[7] Hall effect current sensor transducers Transformers (however DC cannot be measured) Magnetoresistive field sensors[8] References [1] Lakatos. .ti. [6] Electric Power (http:/ / books. External links • Allaboutcircuits. pdf).com). p. ti. p. Principles of Electronic Instrumentation and Measurement. thinkquest. Hyun Kyu Cho (March 1998). Keiji.. [5] A-M Ampère.allaboutcircuits. Focus. Oenoki. John. Franklin D. 2. 13. 56. sensorsmag. . Retrieved on 2011-12-22. 6. The electronics companion (http:/ / books. Peru: Colegio Dr. p. com/ analog/ docs/ microsite. htm).com. [7] What is a Current Sensor and How is it Used? (http:/ / www. Nelson Thornes. 1988 ISBN 0675204496. Sensorsmag. google. CRC Press. ampere. [3] T. fr/ textes/ recueil/ pdf/ recueilobservationsd. cnrs. p. Fischer-Cripps (2004). 1894. "Learn Physics Today!" (http:/ / library. Lowe. com/ sensors/ electric-magnetic/ the-universal-current-sensor-1029). p. tsp?sectionId=560& tabId=2180& micrositeId=7). Co. a useful site introducing electricity and electronics . 37. Retrieved 2009-03-10. Frank C. com/ books?id=BCZLAAAAYAAJ). Berlin. Getz. com/ ?id=3SsYctmvZkoC& pg=PA13). Judez. google. [8] Andreas P. L. Roosevelt. Oenoki. ISBN 9780750310123. [4] Howard M. [2] Anthony C. Helmuth Lemme The Universal Current Sensor (http:/ / www.Electric current 13 Current measurement Current can be measured using an ammeter. John Rounce. 411.com (http://www. org/ 10796/ ch13/ ch13. Recuil d'Observations Électro-dynamiques (http:/ / www. Retrieved on 2011-12-22. vol. At the circuit level.

acoustics.[1] The period. such as rotation. The period is the duration of one cycle in a repeating event. and is the reciprocal of the frequency f: Three cyclically flashing lights. meaning the number of seconds per cycle. is the length of time taken by one cycle. This is called gating error and causes an average error in the calculated frequency of Δf = 1/(2 Tm). frequency is usually denoted by a Latin letter f or by a Greek letter ν (nu). abbreviated RPM. In physics and engineering disciplines. In SI units. or a fractional error of Δf / f = 1/(2 f Tm) where Tm is the timing interval and f is the measured frequency. For example.[2] The latter method introduces a random error into the count of between zero and one count. T is the period in seconds (s). or waves. meaning the number of cycles per second. so it is a problem at low frequencies where the number of counts N is small. so on average half a count. so the period is the reciprocal of the frequency. named after the German physicist Heinrich Hertz: 1 Hz means that an event repeats once per second. rather than the number of occurrences within a specified time. The horizontal axis represents time. if 71 events occur within 15 seconds the frequency is: Sinusoidal waves of various frequencies. 60 RPM equals one hertz. For example. It is also referred to as temporal frequency. Definitions and units For cyclical processes. T and f are reciprocals. it is more accurate to measure the time interval for a predetermined number of occurrences. f is the frequency in hertz (Hz). the bottom waves have higher frequencies than those above. the unit of frequency is the hertz (Hz). and radio. Measurement By counting Calculating the frequency of a repeating event is accomplished by counting the number of times that event occurs within a specific time period. oscillations. The SI unit for period is the second. frequency is defined as a number of cycles per unit time. its period (the interval between beats) is half a second. This error decreases with frequency. if a newborn baby's heart beats at a frequency of 120 times a minute. then dividing the count by the length of the time period. . such as optics. A traditional unit of measure used with rotating mechanical devices is revolutions per minute. from lowest frequency (top) to highest frequency (bottom).Frequency 14 Frequency Frequency is the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit time. A previous name for this unit was cycles per second. usually denoted by T. If the number of counts is not very large.

this process just measures the unknown frequency by its offset from the reference frequency. their frequency remains exactly the same — only their wavelength and speed change. This is an intense repetitively flashing light (strobe light) whose frequency can be adjusted with a calibrated timing circuit. Of course. so when illuminated by the strobe the object appears stationary. It uses digital logic to count the number of cycles during a time interval established by a precision quartz time base.Frequency 15 By stroboscope An older method of measuring the frequency of rotating or vibrating objects is to use a stroboscope. A downside of this method is that an object rotating at an integer multiple of the strobing frequency will also appear stationary. Frequency counters can currently cover the range up to about 100 GHz. which must be determined by some other method. mechanical vibrations. Frequency of waves For periodic waves. This is an electronic instrument which measures the frequency of an applied repetitive electronic signal and displays the result in hertz on a digital display. frequency has an inverse relationship to the concept of wavelength. can be converted to a repetitive electronic signal by transducers and the signal applied to a frequency counter. frequency is inversely proportional to wavelength λ (lambda). several stages of heterodyning can be used. and this expression becomes: When waves from a monochrome source travel from one medium to another. The strobe light is pointed at the rotating object and the frequency adjusted up and down. then v = c. the object completes one cycle of oscillation and returns to its original position between the flashes of light. The frequency f is equal to the phase velocity v of the wave divided by the wavelength λ of the wave: In the special case of electromagnetic waves moving through a vacuum. When the frequency of the strobe equals the frequency of the rotating or vibrating object. Cyclic processes that are not electrical in nature. This represents the limit of direct counting methods. simply. To reach higher frequencies. Current research is extending this method to infrared and light frequencies (optical heterodyne detection). If the two signals are close together in frequency the heterodyne is low enough to be measured by a frequency counter. . where c is the speed of light in a vacuum. such as the rotation rate of a shaft. Then the frequency can be read from the calibrated readout on the stroboscope. This creates a heterodyne or "beat" signal at the difference between the two frequencies. frequencies above this must be measured by indirect methods. A reference signal of a known frequency near the unknown frequency is mixed with the unknown frequency in a nonlinear mixing device such as a diode. Heterodyne methods Above the range of frequency counters. By frequency counter Higher frequencies are usually measured with a frequency counter. frequencies of electromagnetic signals are often measured indirectly by means of heterodyning (frequency conversion). or sound waves.

most of Asia. such waves are called infrared (IR) radiation. but it will be invisible to the human eye. Likewise. Frequency is the property of sound that most determines pitch.[3] The frequencies an ear can hear are limited to a specific range of frequencies.[4] Line current In Europe. and vice-versa. . and higher still are gamma rays. some dog breeds can perceive vibrations up to 60. an electromagnetic wave can have a frequency higher than 8 × 1014 Hz. and between these (in the range 4-8 × 1014 Hz) are all the other colors of the rainbow. the frequency of the alternating current in household electrical outlets is 60 Hz (between the tones B♭ and B. grid frequency. The frequency of the 'hum' in an audio recording can show where the recording was made. At even lower frequency. or an American. Even higher-frequency waves are called X-rays. Other species have different hearing ranges.Frequency 16 Examples Physics of light Visible light is an electromagnetic wave. Physics of sound Sound is made up of changes in air pressure in the form of waves.000 Hz (20 kHz). For example. High frequencies often become more difficult to hear with age. 8 × 1014 Hz is violet light. whereas in North America and Northern South America. The matter that supports the sound is called the medium. An electromagnetic wave can have a frequency less than 4 × 1014 Hz. and they are all called electromagnetic radiation. and Russia. such waves are called ultraviolet (UV) radiation.000 Hz. the wave is called a microwave. The wavelength is inversely proportional to the frequency. in countries using a European. liquids. consisting of oscillating electric and magnetic fields traveling through space. solids. but it will be invisible to Complete spectrum of electromagnetic radiation with the visible portion highlighted the human eye. Southern South America. Mechanical vibrations perceived as sound travel through all forms of matter: gases. and at still lower frequencies it is called a radio wave. The frequency of the wave determines its color: 4 × 1014 Hz is red light. are fundamentally the same. Sound cannot travel through a vacuum. Another property of an electromagnetic wave is its wavelength. Australia. and plasmas. the frequency of the alternating current in household electrical outlets is 50 Hz (close to the tone G). from the lowest-frequency radio waves to the highest-frequency gamma rays. Africa. so an electromagnetic wave with a higher frequency has a shorter wavelength. All of these waves. They all travel through a vacuum at the speed of light. The audible frequency range for humans is typically given as being between about 20 Hz and 20. that is. a minor third above the European frequency).

g. infrared or ultraviolet radiation. (during rotation). Short and fast waves. k. Musical instruments produce different ranges of notes within the hearing range. which is a dimensionless quantity. such as ocean surface waves. for discrete-time signals. X-rays and so on. E. . radio waves. A listing of the upper and lower limits of frequency limits for a system is not useful without a criterion for what the range represents. like audio and radio. These commonly used conversions are listed below: Frequency 1 mHz (10−3) 1 Hz (100) 1 kHz (103) 1 MHz (106) 1 GHz (109) 1 THz (1012) 1 s (100) 1 ms (10−3) 1 µs (10−6) 1 ns (10−9) 1 ps (10−12) Period (time) 1 ks (103) Other types of frequency • Angular frequency ω is defined as the rate of change of angular displacement. in oscillations and waves).g. called its bandwidth. Frequency ranges The frequency range of a system is the range over which it is considered to provide a useful level of signal with acceptable distortion characteristics. can also be expressed as radians per sample time. longer and slower waves. or the rate of change of the phase of a sinusoidal waveform (e. but the time axis is replaced by one or more spatial displacement axes. A radio communications signal must occupy a range of frequencies carrying most of its energy.Frequency 17 Period versus frequency As a matter of convenience. tend to be described by wave period rather than frequency. Allocation of radio frequency ranges to different uses is a major function of radio spectrum allocation. sometimes means the spatial frequency analogue of angular temporal frequency. Many systems are characterized by the range of frequencies to which they respond.: Wavenumber. The electromagnetic spectrum can be divided into many different ranges such as visible light. In case of more than one spatial dimension. • Spatial frequency is analogous to temporal frequency. and each of these ranges can in turn be divided into smaller ranges. are usually described by their frequency instead of period. or as the rate of change of the argument to the sine function: Angular frequency is commonly measured in radians per second (rad/s) but. θ. wavenumber is a vector quantity.

ISBN 9788184312065. 4–14. "Frequency Range of Dog Hearing" (http:/ / hypertextbook.com/calculator-notenames.C.diracdelta.ca/research/optical_frequency_projects_e. [2] Bakshi. Bakshi (2008).A. Glenn. Michael (2007).php) • Frequency . 97. com/ ?id=jvnI3Dar3b4C& pg=PT183). pp. New York: Springer.co. http:/ / books.The English and American system versus the German system (http:// www. . com/ facts/ 2003/ TimCondon.com/calculator-wavelength. Prentice Hall.diracdelta.ikalogic.ac.sengpielaudio. p.sengpielaudio. [4] Elert. google.salford.uk (http://www. K..uk/science/source/f/r/frequency/source.Frequency 18 References [1] Davies.gc. . shtml). (1997). Music Theory for Dummies (http:/ / books. Physics for Scientists and Engineers (2nd ed.).com/ calculator-period. (1988). .htm) • A simple tutorial on how to build a frequency meter (http://www.htm) • Conversion: period. google. For Dummies. US: Technical Publications.htm) • Keyboard frequencies = naming of notes .html#femtosecond) • Conversion: frequency to wavelength and back (http://www. periodic time to frequency (http://www.acoustics.V. U.html) – JavaScript calculation. Timothy Condon (2003). Further reading • Giancoli.com/freq_meter. A.uk/schools/ index1.A. ISBN 9780412613203. com/ ?id=j2mN2aIs2YIC& pg=RA1-PA275.sengpielaudio. The measurement of optical frequencies (http:// inms-ienm. A. Bakshi.co. ISBN 013669201X External links • National Research Council of Canada: Femtosecond comb. com/ books?id=CxcviUw4KX8C). [3] Pilhofer. The Physics Factbook. cycle duration. Retrieved 2008-10-22.htm) • Teaching resource for 14-16yrs on sound including frequency (http://www. Electronic Measurement Systems (http:/ / books. google. . D.nrc-cnrc.

Various definitions Within electrical engineering. the term DC is used to refer to power systems that use only one polarity of voltage or current. electric power distribution is nearly all alternating current today. A term formerly used for direct current was galvanic current. In the mid 1950s. and is now an option instead of long-distance high voltage alternating current systems. For applications requiring direct current. current or voltage. Direct current is used for some railway propulsion. and to refer to the constant. solar cells. or even through a vacuum as in electron or ion beams. which contains electronic elements (usually) or electromechanical elements (historically) that allow current to flow only in one direction. Types of direct current. distinguishing it from alternating current (AC).[2] For example. as the power supply. and in nearly all electronic systems. It can be shown that any stationary voltage or current waveform can be decomposed into a sum of a DC component and a zero-mean . thermocouples. zero-frequency. or slowly varying local mean value of a voltage or current. See War of Currents.Direct current 19 Direct current Direct current (DC) is the unidirectional flow of electric charge. The electric charge flows in a constant direction. alternating current is distributed to a substation. Direct current may be made into alternating current with an inverter or a motor-generator set. which utilizes a rectifier to convert the power to direct current. but can also flow through semiconductors. Direct current is used to charge batteries. Because of the significant advantages of alternating current over direct current in transforming and transmission. Direct current may be obtained from an alternating current supply by use of a current-switching arrangement called a rectifier. especially in urban areas. The first commercial electric power transmission (developed by Thomas Edison in the late nineteenth century) used direct current. Very large quantities of direct-current power are used in production of aluminum and other electrochemical processes. and commutator-type electric machines of the dynamo type. High-voltage direct current is used to transmit large amounts of power from remote generation sites or to interconnect alternating current power grids. insulators. The horizontal axis measures time. HVDC transmission was developed. The DC solution of an electric circuit is the solution where all voltages and currents are constant. Direct current may flow in a conductor such as a wire. such as third rail power systems. the voltage across a DC voltage source is constant as is the current through a DC current source. the vertical.[1] Direct Current (red curve). Direct current is produced by sources such as batteries.

Robinson. such as DSLAM.html)?". . org/eng/elec/edu/contents. Most automotive applications use DC. ISBN 0750643315. p. Some forms of DC (such as that produced by a voltage regulator) have almost no variations in voltage.org/wgbh/amex/edison/sfeature/acdc. Clinical Electrophysiology: Electrotherapy and Electrophysiologic Testing (http:/ / books. or the average value of the voltage or current over all time. the DC component is defined to be the expected value. com/ books?id=C2-9bcIjPBsC& pg=PA10& dq="galvanic+ current"+ "direct+ current"#v=onepage& q="galvanic current" "direct current"& f=false) (3rd ed. Most electronic circuits require a DC power supply. 83. uses standard -48V DC power supply. Newnes. mostly due to the low voltages used. which can produce only DC. Applications using fuel cells (mixing hydrogen and oxygen together with a catalyst to produce electricity and water as byproducts) also produce only DC. from those suitable for alternating current. Many telephones connect to a twisted pair of wires. It is usually important with a direct-current appliance not to reverse polarity unless the device has a diode bridge to correct for this (most battery-powered devices do not). and fixtures. This is done to prevent electrolysis depositions. and internally separate the AC component of the voltage between the two wires (the audio signal) from the DC component of the voltage between the two wires (used to power the phone). [2] Roger S.org/eng/elec/edu/pt13. ITACA (http://www. Geoffrey William Arnold Dummer (1999). Although DC stands for "direct current". google.itacanet. Telephone exchange communication equipment. although the alternator is an AC device which uses a rectifier to produce DC.pbs. p. since solar cells can produce only DC.).). Newnes Dictionary of Electronic (http:/ / books. switches.pdf). especially where these are powered by batteries. The negative polarity is achieved by grounding the positive terminal of power supply system and the battery bank.M1) (4th ed. com/ books?id=c4qHqtC9JkgC& pg=PA83& dq=dc+ zero-frequency#PPA83. DC often refers to "constant polarity". References [1] Andrew J. DC is commonly found in many low-voltage applications. External links • " AC/DC: What's the Difference (http://www. Under this definition. ISBN 9780781744843. This symbol is found on many electronic devices that either require or produce direct current. google.itacanet. DC voltages can vary in time. 20 Applications Direct-current installations usually have different types of sockets. • "DC And AC Supplies" (http://www. . or solar power systems. .Direct current time-varying component. as seen in the raw output of a rectifier or the fluctuating voice signal on a telephone line.htm). but may still have variations in output power and current. Amos. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Lynn Snyder-Mackler (2007). 10.

these were overturned due to prior arts of Nikola Tesla and actions initiated by Sebastian Ziani de Ferranti. different waveforms are used. William Stanley. He designed the building. the flow of electric charge is only in one direction. the vertical. where it was adopted for an electric lighting system. 1884. and 1885 Gaulard and Gibbs applied for patents on their transformer. (US patent 373035 ) This basic system remains in use today around the world. also dc). inventor and developer of electrotherapy. Many homes all over the world still have electric meters with the Ferranti AC patent stamped on them. an important goal is often the recovery of information encoded (or modulated) onto the AC signal. In 1887 the London Electric Supply Corporation (LESCo) hired Ferranti for the design of their power station at Deptford. he announced that AC was superior to direct current for electrotherapeutic triggering of muscle contractions. Using pairs of coils wound on a common iron core. such as triangular axis measures time. or square waves. and was one of the few experts in this system in the UK. The abbreviations AC and DC are often used to mean simply alternating and direct. designed one of the first practical devices to transfer AC power efficiently between isolated circuits. Ferranti believed in the success of alternating current power distribution early on. Jr.[4] A power transformer developed by Lucien Gaulard and John Dixon Gibbs was demonstrated in London in 1881. The usual waveform of an AC power circuit is a sine wave. as when they modify current or voltage. also ac). The AC power system used today developed rapidly after 1886. The horizontal In certain applications. History The earliest recorded practical application of alternating current is by Guillaume Duchenne. the movement of electric charge periodically reverses direction. Many of their designs were adapted to the particular laws governing electrical distribution in the UK. however. Alternating Current (green curve).[1] [2] AC is the form in which electric power is delivered to businesses and residences. They also exhibited the invention in Turin in 1884. The AC blinking causes the lines to be dotted rather than continuous. In these applications. In 1882. Ferranti went into this business in 1882 when he set up a shop in London designing various electrical devices. current or voltage. On its completion in 1891 it was the first truly modern power station. called an induction coil. In 1855. In direct current (DC. City lights viewed in a motion blurred exposure.Alternating current 21 Alternating current In alternating current (AC. and attracted the interest of Westinghouse. supplying high-voltage AC Westinghouse Early AC System 1887 [3] power that was then "stepped down" for consumer use on each street. Audio and radio signals carried on electrical wires are also examples of alternating current. was an early transformer. his design. and includes key concepts by Nikola . the generating plant and the distribution system.

Carl Wilhelm Siemens and others contributed subsequently to this field. that is. John Dixon Gibbs. The Ames Hydroelectric Generating Plant (spring of 1891) and the original Niagara Falls Adams Power Plant (August 25. The two generators (42 Hz. the power loss will be four times greater. California. Oliver Heaviside. Alternating current circuit theory developed rapidly in the latter part of the 19th and early 20th century. Decker's design incorporated 10.000-volt three-phase transmission and established the standards for the complete system of generation. James Clerk Maxwell. Lucien Gaulard. in 1893 designed by Almirian Decker. and domestic power supply AC voltage may be increased or decreased with a transformer. 550 kW each) and the transformers were produced and installed by the Hungarian company Ganz. transmission and motors used today. AC systems overcame the limitations of the direct current system used by Thomas Edison to distribute electricity efficiently over long distances even though Edison attempted to discredit alternating current as too dangerous during the War of Currents. Calculations in unbalanced three-phase systems were simplified by the symmetrical components methods discussed by Charles Legeyt Fortescue in 1918. who subsequently sold his patent to George Westinghouse. The first commercial power plant in the United States using three-phase alternating current was at the Mill Creek No. The Jaruga Hydroelectric Power Plant in Croatia was set in operation on 28 August 1895. Notable contributors to the theoretical basis of alternating current calculations include Charles Steinmetz. It is therefore advantageous when transmitting large amounts of power to distribute the power with high voltages (often hundreds of kilovolts). 1895) were among the first AC-powered hydroelectric plants.Alternating current Tesla. the same amount of power can be transmitted with a lower current by increasing the voltage. distribution. The power losses in a conductor are a product of the square of the current and the resistance of the conductor. described by the formula This means that when transmitting a fixed power on a given wire. . Use of a higher voltage leads to significantly more efficient transmission of power. and many others. 22 Transmission. Thus. The power transmitted is equal to the product of the current and the voltage (assuming no phase difference). and the municipal distribution grid 3000 V/110 V included six transforming stations.5 kilometers (unknown operator: u'strong' mi) long on wooden towers. 1 Hydroelectric Plant near Redlands. The transmission line from the power plant to the City of Šibenik was 11. if the current is doubled.

High voltage transmission lines deliver power from electric generation plants over long distances using alternating current. they generate the same phases with reverse polarity and so can be simply wired together.g. For example. When stepping down three-phase. Three-phase electrical generation is very common. with an allowable range of voltage over which equipment is expected to operate.Alternating current 23 However. Consumer voltages vary depending on the country and size of load. From the three-phase main panel. This arrangement is sometimes incorrectly referred to as "two phase". Three current waveforms are produced that are equal in magnitude and 120° out of phase to each other.. computers) may require an oversized neutral bus and neutral conductor in the upstream distribution panel to handle harmonics. no current flows through the neutral point. a 2-pole machine running at 3600 rpm and a 12-pole machine running at 600 rpm produce the same frequency. For three-phase at utilization voltages a four-wire system is often used. Modern high-voltage. For smaller customers (just how small varies by country and age of the installation) only a single phase and the neutral or two phases and the neutral are taken to the property. a 12-pole machine would have 36 coils (10° spacing). the transmission voltage is stepped down to the voltages used by equipment. however. The simplest case is three separate coils in the generator stator that are physically offset by an angle of 120° to each other. This significantly reduces the risk of electric shock in the event that one of the live conductors becomes exposed through an equipment fault whilst still allowing a reasonable . direct-current electric power transmission systems contrast with the more common alternating-current systems as a means for the efficient bulk transmission of electrical power over long distances. If coils are added opposite to these (60° spacing). with a single center-tapped transformer giving two live conductors. A similar method is used for a different reason on construction sites in the UK. since there was then no way to economically convert AC power to DC and back again at the necessary voltages. The advantage is that lower speeds can be used. Harmonics can cause neutral conductor current levels to exceed that of one or all phase conductors. tend to be more expensive and less efficient over shorter distances than transformers. If the load on a three-phase system is balanced equally among the phases. is a common distribution scheme for residential and small commercial buildings in North America. Near the loads. Even in the worst-case unbalanced (linear) load. high voltages also have disadvantages. This is much more practical for larger machines. the neutral current will not exceed the highest of the phase currents. Westinghouse and Tesla were designing their power systems. Small power tools and lighting are supposed to be supplied by a local center-tapped transformer with a voltage of 55 V between each power conductor and earth. but generally motors and lighting are built to use up to a few hundred volts between phases. For example. a transformer with a Delta (3-wire) primary and a Star (4-wire. both single and three-phase circuits may lead off. the main one being the increased insulation required. power is generated at a convenient voltage for the design of a generator. and generally increased difficulty in their safe handling. Standard power utilization voltages and percentage tolerance vary in the different mains power systems found in the world. In practice. and then stepped up to a high voltage for transmission. higher "pole orders" are commonly used. center-earthed) secondary is often used so there is no need for a neutral on the supply side. For larger installations all three phases and the neutral are taken to the main distribution panel. In a power plant. The utilization voltage delivered to equipment such as lighting and motor loads is standardized. Non-linear loads (e. Three-wire single-phase systems. These lines are located in eastern Utah. Transmission with high voltage direct current was not feasible when Edison. HVDC systems.

This conductor provides protection from electric shock due to accidental contact of circuit conductors with the metal chassis of portable appliances and tools. and spacecraft applications sometimes use 400 Hz. This increases the effective AC resistance of the conductor. Germany. A third wire. Effects at high frequencies A direct current flows constantly and uniformly throughout the cross-section of a uniform wire. crushing and rolling applications.Alternating current voltage of 110 V between the two conductors for running the tools.7 Hz power (in former times nominal 16 2/3 cycles per second. but also causes a noticeable flicker in incandescent lighting and an objectionable flicker in fluorescent lamps. textile industry. as is the Neutral/Identified conductor if present. An alternating current of any frequency is forced away from the wire's center. the effective cross-section of the conductor is reduced. such as in Austria. called the bond (or earth) wire. most electric power is generated at either 50 or 60 Hertz. causing the overcurrent protection device (breakers. At very high frequencies the current no longer flows in the wire. Off-shore. for benefits of reduced weight of apparatus or higher motor speeds. non-uniform distribution of current still occurs in sufficiently thick conductors. so high current conductors are usually hollow to reduce their mass and cost. 16. practically invariably) is still used in some European rail systems. military. and commutator-type traction motors for applications such as railways. marine. Norway. as a compromise between low frequency for traction and heavy induction motors. The use of lower frequencies also provided the advantage of lower impedance losses. within a thickness of a few skin depths. although some 25 Hz industrial customers still existed as of the start of the 21st century. This low impedance path allows the maximum amount of fault current. Since the current tends to flow in the periphery of conductors. fuses) to trip or burn out as quickly as possible. A low frequency eases the design of low-speed electric motors. The original Niagara Falls generators were built to produce 25 Hz power. Even at relatively low frequencies used for high power transmission (50–60 Hz). . since resistance is inversely proportional to the cross-sectional area in which the current actually flows. aircraft. Bonding all non-current-carrying metal parts into one complete system ensures there is always a low electrical impedance path to ground sufficient to carry any fault current for as long as it takes for the system to clear the fault. causing a much higher energy loss due to ohmic heating (also called I2R loss). For example. computer mainframe. but effectively flows on the surface of the wire. The AC resistance often is many times higher than the DC resistance. bringing the electrical system to a safe state. particularly for hoisting. Some countries have a mixture of 50 Hz and 60 Hz supplies. This phenomenon is called skin effect. is often connected between non-current-carrying metal enclosures and earth ground. All bond wires are bonded to ground at the main service panel.57 mm at 60 Hz. This is because the acceleration of an electric charge in an alternating current produces waves of electromagnetic radiation that cancel the propagation of electricity toward the center of materials with high conductivity. toward its outer surface. the skin depth of a copper conductor is approximately 8. notably Japan. most of the 25 Hz residential and commercial customers for Niagara Falls power were converted to 60 Hz by the late 1950s. which are proportional to frequency. while still allowing incandescent lighting to operate (although with noticeable flicker). 24 AC power supply frequencies Further information: Mains power around the world The frequency of the electrical system varies by country. The skin depth is the thickness at which the current density is reduced by 63%. Sweden and Switzerland.

but rather by means of a guided electromagnetic field. Twisted pairs At frequencies up to about 1 GHz. At higher frequencies. The current flowing on the inner conductor is equal and opposite to the current flowing on the inner surface of the tube. reducing losses in flexible conductors carrying very high currents at lower frequencies. the power lost to this dissipation becomes unacceptably large. electrical resistance of the non-ideal metals forming the walls of the waveguide cause dissipation of power (surface currents flowing on lossy conductors dissipate power). In addition to this mechanical feasibility. This reduces losses from electromagnetic radiation and inductive coupling. each insulated from one other. Wire constructed using this technique is called Litz wire. forming a twisted pair. different techniques are used to minimize the loss due to radiation. Depending on the frequency.Alternating current 25 Techniques for reducing AC resistance For low to medium frequencies. This measure helps to partially mitigate skin effect by forcing more equal current throughout the total cross section of the stranded conductors. Coaxial cables with an air rather than solid dielectric are preferred as they transmit power with lower losses. Energy that is radiated is lost. Waveguides can have any arbitrary cross section. and the relative positions of individual strands specially arranged within the conductor bundle. pairs of wires are twisted together in a cable. Techniques for reducing radiation loss As written above. The surface currents are set up by the guided electromagnetic fields and have the effect of keeping the fields inside the waveguide and preventing leakage of the fields to the space outside the waveguide. Waveguides have dimensions comparable to the wavelength of the alternating current to be transmitted. which causes radiation of electromagnetic waves. A twisted pair must be used with a balanced signalling system. those surface currents do not carry power. A coaxial cable has a conductive wire inside a conductive tube. Because waveguides do not have an inner conductor to carry a return current. Power is carried by the guided electromagnetic fields. separated by a dielectric layer. Coaxial cables have acceptably small losses for frequencies up to about 5 GHz. making waveguides a more efficient medium for transmitting energy. such as switch-mode power supplies and radio frequency transformers. . with the biggest difference being that the waveguide has no inner conductor. the losses (due mainly to the electrical resistance of the central conductor) become too large. but it is effectively cancelled by radiation from the other wire. For microwave frequencies greater than 5 GHz. so they are only feasible at microwave frequencies. as both consist of tubes. and in the windings of devices carrying higher radio frequency current (up to hundreds of kilohertz). Coaxial cables Coaxial cables are commonly used at audio frequencies and above for convenience. waveguides cannot deliver energy by means of an electric current. Waveguides Waveguides are similar to coax cables. Each wire in a twisted pair radiates a signal. so that the two wires carry equal but opposite currents. and (ideally) no energy is lost to radiation or coupling outside the tube. resulting in almost no radiation loss. Litz wire is used for making high-Q inductors. conductors can be divided into stranded wires. but rectangular cross sections are the most common. Although surface currents do flow on the inner walls of the waveguides. The electromagnetic field is thus completely contained within the tube. an alternating current is made of electric charge under periodic acceleration.

can be used. A sine wave. (unit = hertz). where • • is the peak voltage (unit: volt). by the equation .Alternating current Fiber optics At frequencies greater than 200 GHz. which represents the number of cycles per second. usually written as or . an AC voltage swings between and . over one cycle (360°). waveguide dimensions become impractically small. An AC voltage v can be described mathematically as a function of time by the following equation: . The dashed line represents the root mean square (RMS) value at about 0.707 The peak-to-peak value of an AC voltage is defined as the difference between its positive peak and its negative peak. Instead. written as . is the angular frequency (unit: radians per second) • The angular frequency is related to the physical frequency. is therefore Power and root mean square The relationship between voltage and the power delivered is where represents a load resistance. • For a triangle wave form centered about zero • For a square wave form centered about zero . . voltage. Therefore. AC voltage is often expressed as a root mean square (RMS) value. For such frequencies. Since the maximum value of is +1 and the minimum value is −1. • is the time (unit: second). which are a form of dielectric waveguides. it is more practical to use a time averaged power (where the Rather than using instantaneous power. The peak-to-peak . averaging is performed over any integer number of cycles). which varies for different waveforms. fiber optics. 26 Mathematics of AC voltages Alternating currents are accompanied (or caused) by alternating voltages. and the ohmic losses in the waveguide walls become large. because For a sinusoidal voltage: The factor is called the crest factor. the concepts of voltages and currents are no longer used.

pbs. Magnetic Particle Inspection. Interactive Java tutorial explaining alternating current. N. consider a 230 V AC mains supply used in many countries around the world. .org/wgbh/amex/edison/sfeature/acdc_insideacgenerator. C. com/ books?id=ZEpWAAAAMAAJ& pg=PA81). Edison's Miracle of Light. HyperPhysics. JC Physics (http://www.php?sub_id=17)".net/article/az/mpi/alternating_current.magnet. " Alternating current Tools (http://www. .gsu.net. Tony R. British Columbia Institute of Technology. It is so called because its root mean square value is 230 V. (National High Magnetic Field Laboratory) • "AC/DC: What's the Difference (http://www. ISBN 9780074519653. (PBS) • "AC/DC: Inside the AC Generator (http://www. "History of Electrotherapy".. New Haven: E. " Alternating Current Circuits Concepts (http://hyperphysics. Electrical meterman's handbook (http:/ / books. Analog Process Control Services. pdf [4] Licht.html)".com/).phy-astr. • " Alternating current (http://www. 2003. Kulshreshtha (1983). 1967. Licht. Meyers.html)?". 2004.org/en/stat/unitsac.AC (http://www.pbs. Note that some countries use a frequency of 50 Hz.windpower. [3] http:/ / www. • "Wind Energy Reference Manual Part 4: Electricity (http://www. The peak-to-peak value of the 230 V AC is double that. in Therapeutic Electricity and Ultraviolet Radiation. 1-70.math. February 1997. • Chan. The calculation to convert from RMS voltage to peak voltage is independent of the frequency.html).htm)".tpub. Danish Wind Industry Association. p. This means that the time-averaged power delivered is equivalent to the power delivered by a DC voltage of 230 V. R. [2] National Electric Light Association (1915). 2002. 90. 2nd ed.apcs. org/ patents/ pat373035. (PBS) • Kuphaldt. pat2pdf. Pages 22–24 External links • "Alternating Current: Alternating Current (http://www.com/neets/book2/index. Sidney Licht. Pp.com/toolbox_indiv.edu/hbase/electric/ accircon. com/ books?id=C5bt-oRuUzwC& pg=PA90). Nondestructive Testing Encyclopedia. the peak voltage is therefore . Sidney Herman.org/wgbh/amex/edison/sfeature/acdc. ed. March 8. p. Bhargava and D.jcphysics. Further reading • Willam A. "Lessons In Electric Circuits : Volume II . References [1] N. google.faqs. at about 650 V.. 81.Alternating current 27 Example To illustrate these concepts. Eric.bcit.edu/education/tutorials/java/ac/index. American Experience. • " Introduction to alternating current and transformers (http://www. American Experience (http://www.ca/ examples/elex/trig_vectors/)". Integrated Publishing.org/docs/electric/AC/ index.html)". we can rearrange the above equation to: For our 230 V AC. 2003. which is about 325 V. (Design Science License) • Nave.Making History with AC.html)". IEEE Power Engineering Review. Edison's Miracle of Light.pbs.htm) (AC)". " An Application of Trigonometry and Vectors to Alternating Current (http://www..org/wgbh/amex/index. Tata McGraw-Hill Education. • Hiob. Basic Electronics & Linear Circuits (http:/ / books. History and Reflections on the Way Things Were: Mill Creek Power Plant . google.ndt. html)". • " Alternating Current (http://www.jcphysics. Keelin. while others use a frequency of 60 Hz. C. To determine the peak voltage (amplitude).fsu. html)".. . Trow Press.htm)".au/nav/article/fg40400.

Thomas J.c voltage (http://www. Trip "Kingpin".henkpasman. " Understanding Alternating Current (http://www.Interactive.alpharubicon.it/areacomune/femas/sinus0_low.phys. " The Frequency Changer Era: Interconnecting Systems of Varying Cycles (http://www.html)".niagarac.com/ worldvol. TV Broadcasting system. • Professor Mark Csele's tour of the 25 Hz Rankine generating station (http://www. Frequency..com/altenergy/ understandingAC. 28 . by Country (http://salestores.technology.au/~jw/AC. ieee. Some more power concepts".htm).sandroronca.on. The history of various frequencies and interconversion schemes in the US at the beginning of the 20th century • (Italian) Generating an a. • " Table of Voltage.com/id1.edu.html) • AC circuits (http://www. Radio Broadcasting. html).Alternating current • Williams.unsw.html) Animations and explanations of vector (phasor) representation of RLC circuits • Blalock.html)".ca/ people/mcsele/Rankine.org/organizations/pes/public/2003/sep/peshistory.html) • 50/60 hertz information (http://www.

A passive component.[2] (which also explains the problems with many other definitions). taken from Wyatt et al. transistors. This upper bound (taken over all T ≥ 0) is the available energy in the system for the particular initial condition x. Used without a qualifier. the system is considered active.e. Under this methodology. energy). all voltage–current trajectories for a given initial condition of the system). voltage and current sources are considered active. Below is a correct.g. A component that is not passive is called an active component. . If. Otherwise. may be either a component that consumes (but does not produce) energy (thermodynamic passivity).[1] Thermodynamic passivity In control systems and circuit network theory. metamaterials and other dissipative and energy-neutral components are considered passive. define available energy EA as: where the notation supx→T≥0 indicates that the supremum is taken over all T ≥ 0 and all admissible pairs {v(·). analog designers use this term to refer to incrementally passive components and systems. While many books give definitions for passivity.. Circuit designers will sometimes refer to this class of components as dissipative.g. depending on field. certain types of nonlinear capacitors). or thermodynamically passive. occasionally. the product of voltage and current). formal definition. capacitors.. and initial state x. a passive component or circuit is one that consumes energy. the definitions do not generalize to all types of nonlinear time-varying systems with memory). but most commonly found in analog electronics and control systems. then the system is called passive.g. while control systems engineers will use this to refer to thermodynamically passive ones. A system is considered passive if EA is finite for all initial states x. transistors and tunnel diodes). i(·)} with the fixed initial state x (e. used in a variety of engineering disciplines. Typically. the term passive is ambiguous. Given an n-port R with a state representation S.29 Electrical Components Active and passive components Passivity is a property of engineering systems. An electronic circuit consisting entirely of passive components is called a passive circuit (and has the same properties as a passive component). Systems for which the small signal model is not passive are sometimes called locally active (e. while resistors.. tunnel diodes.g. glow tubes. the energy available is finite. Roughly speaking. or a component that is incapable of power gain (incremental passivity). Systems that can generate power about a time-variant unperturbed state are often called parametrically active (e. and EA is the upper bound on the integral of the instantaneous power (i. many of these contain subtle errors in how initial conditions are treated (and. for all possible initial states of the system. the inner product is the instantaneous power (e. but does not produce energy.

passive components include capacitors.[3] Other definitions of passivity In some very informal settings. voltage sources. passive circuits will not necessarily be stable under all stability criteria. Under this definition. transformers. It is not clear how this definition would be formalized to multiport devices with memory – as a practical matter. passive components refer to ones that are not capable of power gain. although this definition is now almost universally considered incorrect. devices like diodes would be considered active. and resistors are considered passive. vacuum tubes. the term "linear element" may be a more appropriate term than "passive device. incrementally passive. complex control systems (e. In addition. For this reason. . can be used to demonstrate that passive circuits will be stable under specific criteria. and current sources. this means that the current–voltage characteristic is monotonically increasing. or monotonic. Passivity is frequently used in control systems to design stable control systems or to show stability in control systems. especially filter design. this means they cannot amplify signals. circuit designers use this term informally." Stability Passivity. passivity may refer to the simplicity of the device. relays. monotone increasing. Formally. so it may not be necessary to formalize it. tunnel diodes.[4] and only very simple devices like capacitors.Active and passive components 30 Incremental passivity In circuit design. stability of airplanes). For instance. and glow tubes. inductors." In other cases. the systems may be unstable under any criteria. resistors. but will be stable in the sense of Lyapunov. and given bounded energy input will have bounded energy output. In some cases.g. Passivity is also used in some areas of circuit design. in most cases. inductors. for a memoryless two-terminal element. This is especially important in the design of large. "solid state device" may be a more appropriate term than "active device. a resonant series LC circuit will have unbounded voltage output for a bounded voltage input. Note that this only works if only one of the above definitions of passivity is used – if components from the two are mixed. diodes. control systems and circuit network theorists refer to these devices as locally passive. They exclude devices like transistors. increasing. informally. Here.

A passive filter has several advantages over an active filter: • Guaranteed stability • Scale better to large signals (tens of amperes. Charles. Houghton Mifflin. Passive filters are uncommon in monolithic integrated circuit design. ISBN 0070851832. power supply bypassing (due to low cost. Indeed. Kuh. and the lack of easy access to a power supply). it may be the desire to incorporate a passive filter that leads the designer to use the hybrid format. The antenna is connected to the screw terminals to the left of center. — Good collection of passive stability theorems. hundreds of volts). • Cruz. stable. Göknar. Desoer. ISBN 0140511873 References Further reading • Khalil. • Desoer. ISBN 0070108986.. and therefore. however. M. [4] Young EC. Television signal splitter consisting of a passive high-pass filter (left) and a passive low-pass filter (right). This needs to be verified. and in some cases. but the overall discussion of passivity is quite limited. Leon. McGraw–Hill Education. — Very readable introductory discussion on passivity in control systems. Chua. Ernest (1987). Readable and formal. Izzet C. Linear and Nonlinear Circuits. as well as a variety of discrete and home brew circuits (for low-cost and simplicity). The Penguin Dictionary of Electronics. (January 1981). [2] Wyatt Jr. Charles.Active and passive components 31 Passive filter A passive filter is a kind of electronic filter that is made only from passive elements – in contrast to an active filter. — Somewhat less readable than Chua. [3] This is probably formalized in one of the extensions to Duffin's Theorem. and inductors are prohibitively expensive. and more limited in scope and formality of theorems. Douglas N. McGraw–Hill Companies. filters in power distribution networks (due to the large voltages and currents). 1970. in most cases.. the overall system will be incrementally passive. pg 24-25. Gannett.E. passive. Ernest (1969). potentially greater linearity depending on components required They are commonly used in speaker crossover design (due to the moderately large voltages and currents. "Energy Concepts in the State-Space Theory of Nonlinear n-Ports: Part I—Passivity". Notes [1] Tellegen's Theorem and Electrical Networks. Leon O. or more complex linear elements. Jose. Since most filters are linear. . One of the extensions may state that if the small signal model is thermodynamically passive. Van Valkenberg. Kuh. such as transmission lines. where active devices are often impractical • No power supply needed • Less expensive in discrete designs (unless large coils are required) • For linear filters. John L. MIT Press. Basic Circuit Theory. but restricted to memoryless one-ports. Hassan (2001). in hybrid integrated circuits. Signals in Linear Circuits. Prentice Hall. IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems CAS-28 (1): 48–61. passive filters are composed of just the four basic linear elements – resistors. Green. (1974). and transformers. ISBN 0395169712.. More complex passive filters may involve nonlinear elements. under some conditions. Spence. ISBN 0130673897. power requirements). capacitors. — Gives a definition of passivity for multiports (in contrast to the above). inductors. Nonlinear Systems (3rd Edition). Passive filters are still found. • Chua. where active devices are inexpensive compared to resistors and capacitors. Penfield. 2nd ed.. it does not require an external power source (beyond the signal). and Duinker.. Joel W.

. Gannett. Part II: Losslessness.. I.C. L.. J.L. — A pair of memos that have good discussions of passivity. D.L. Green. University of California. (1980). Chua. Part I: Passivity. Foundations of Nonlinear Network Theory. Electronics Research Laboratory. (1978). D. J. Memorandum UCB/ERL M80/3. Foundations of Nonlinear Network Theory. I.. 32 . Memorandum UCB/ERL M78/76.Active and passive components • Wyatt. Göknar. Chua. Berkeley. L. Electronics Research Laboratory.C. Berkeley. Gannett. Göknar...O. Wyatt... J.O. Green. University of California. J.

and can also be integrated into hybrid and printed circuits. the ratio of the voltage applied across a resistor's terminals to the intensity of current through the circuit is called resistance. The temperature coefficient of the resistance may also be of concern in some precision applications. The current through a resistor is in direct proportion to the voltage across the resistor's terminals. The unwanted inductance. Practical resistors have a series inductance and a small parallel capacitance. Practical resistors can be made of various compounds and films. The tape is removed during assembly before the leads are formed and the part is inserted into the board. as well as resistance wire (wire made of a high-resistivity alloy. They are not normally specified individually for a particular family of resistors manufactured using a particular technology. The electrical functionality of a resistor is specified by its resistance: common commercial resistors are manufactured over a range of more than nine orders of magnitude. .[1] A family of discrete resistors is also characterized according to its Axial-lead resistors on tape. This relation is represented by Ohm's law: Partially exposed Tesla TR-212 1 kΩ carbon film resistor Resistors are common elements of electrical networks and electronic circuits and are ubiquitous in electronic equipment. according to its specific application. Practical resistors are also specified as having a maximum power rating which must Three carbon composition resistors in a 1960s exceed the anticipated power dissipation of that resistor in valve (vacuum tube) radio a particular circuit: this is mainly of concern in power electronics applications. When specifying that resistance in an electronic design. In a high-voltage circuit. and temperature coefficient are mainly dependent on the technology used in manufacturing the resistor. the required precision of the resistance may require attention to the manufacturing tolerance of the chosen resistor. Resistors with higher power ratings are physically larger and may require heat sinks. Thus. the noise characteristics of a resistor may be an issue. such as nickel-chrome). attention must sometimes be paid to the rated maximum working voltage of the resistor.Resistor 33 Resistor Resistor A typical axial-lead resistor A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element. particularly analog devices. excess noise. these specifications can be important in high-frequency applications. Resistors are also implemented within integrated circuits. In a low-noise amplifier or pre-amp.

the derived units of milliohm (1 mΩ = 10−3 Ω). that is. siemens is the reciprocal of an ohm: . When the value can be expressed without the need for an SI prefix. . The use of a SI prefix symbol or the letter 'R' circumvents the problem that decimal separators tend to 'disappear' when photocopying a printed circuit diagram. (a) resistor. Additional zeros imply tighter tolerance. Ohm's law can be stated: This formulation states that the current (I) is proportional to the voltage (V) and inversely proportional to the resistance (R). too. This is directly used in practical computations. an 'R' is used instead of the decimal separator. for example 15M0. Hence. if a 300 ohm resistor is attached across the terminals of a 12 volt battery. and 18R indicates 18 Ω. Although the concept of conductance is often used in circuit analysis. and replaces the decimal separator with the SI prefix symbol for the particular value.Resistor form factor. the size of the device and the position of its leads (or terminals) which is relevant in the practical manufacturing of circuits using them.2 Ω. 34 Units The ohm (symbol: Ω) is the SI unit of electrical resistance.2 kΩ.04 amperes (or 40 milliamperes) occurs across that resistor. 1R2 indicates 1. and (c) potentiometer IEC-style resistor symbol The notation to state a resistor's value in a circuit diagram varies. The European notation avoids using a decimal separator. and megohm (1 MΩ = 106 Ω) are also in common usage. Typical symbols are as follows. The reciprocal of resistance R is called conductance G = 1/R and is measured in siemens (SI unit). For example. Theory of operation Ohm's law The behavior of an ideal resistor is dictated by the relationship specified by Ohm's law: Ohm's law states that the voltage (V) across a resistor is proportional to the current (I). then a current of 12 / 300 = 0. For example. Since resistors are specified and manufactured over a very large range of values. 8k2 in a circuit diagram indicates a resistor value of 8. kilohm (1 kΩ = 103 Ω). Equivalently. American-style symbols. For example. where the constant of proportionality is the resistance (R). sometimes referred to as a mho. practical resistors are always specified in terms of their resistance (ohms) rather than conductance. named after Georg Simon Ohm. (b) rheostat (variable resistor). An ohm is equivalent to a volt per ampere. Electronic Symbols and Notations The symbol used for a resistor in a circuit diagram varies from standard to standard and country to country.

A resistor network that is a combination of parallel and series connections can be broken up into smaller parts that are either one or the other. however the currents through them add. The potential difference (voltage) seen across the network is the sum of those voltages. . For instance. The conductances of the resistors then add to determine the conductance of the network. For the case of two resistors in parallel. Resistors in a parallel configuration are each subject to the same potential difference (voltage). Occasionally two slashes "//" are used instead of "||". the resistance of N resistors connected in series. in case the keyboard or font lacks the vertical line symbol.Resistor 35 Series and parallel resistors In a series configuration. but the voltage across each resistor will be in proportion to its resistance. this can be calculated using: As a special case. each of the same resistance R. the resistance of N resistors connected in parallel. thus the total resistance can be found as the sum of those resistances: As a special case. each of the same resistance R. is given by R/N. is given by NR. the current through all of the resistors is the same. Thus the equivalent resistance (Req) of the network can be computed: The parallel equivalent resistance can be represented in equations by two vertical lines "||" (as in geometry) as a simplified notation.

it can be shown that the corner-to-corner resistance is 5⁄6 of the individual resistance. or even cause a fire. and external packages described below. If the average power dissipated by a resistor is more than its power rating. For instance. 1/8. Such resistors in their discrete form. Using Ohm's law. color codes. Excessive power dissipation may raise the temperature of the resistor to a point where it can burn the circuit board or adjacent components. the power rating of the individual resistors is thereby multiplied by N. Resistors required to dissipate substantial amounts of power. power conversion circuits. particularly used in power supplies. or matrix methods can be used to solve such a problem. In the special case of N identical resistors all connected in series or all connected in parallel. damage to the resistor may occur. each edge of which has been replaced by a resistor. The total amount of heat energy released over a period of time can be determined from the integral of the power over that period of time: Practical resistors are rated according to their maximum power dissipation. this is distinct from the reversible change in resistance due to its temperature coefficient when it warms. are generally referred to as power resistors. More generally. This can also be used to obtain a resistance with a higher power rating than that of the individual resistors used. some complex networks of resistors cannot be resolved in this manner.Resistor 36 However. and power amplifiers. this designation is loosely applied to resistors with power ratings of 1 watt or greater. What then is the resistance that would be measured between two opposite vertices? In the case of 12 equivalent resistors. are typically rated as 1/10.[2][3] One practical application of these relationships is that a non-standard value of resistance can generally be synthesized by connecting a number of standard values in series or parallel. including most of the packages detailed below. Power dissipation The power P dissipated by a resistor (or the equivalent resistance of a resistor network) is calculated as: The first form is a restatement of Joule's first law. consider a cube. requiring more sophisticated circuit analysis. There are flameproof resistors that fail (open . the Y-Δ transform. Power resistors are physically larger and tend not to use the preferred values. the two other forms can be derived. or 1/4 watt. The vast majority of resistors used in electronic circuits absorb much less than a watt of electrical power and require no attention to their power rating. permanently altering its resistance.

Note that the nominal power rating of a resistor is not the same as the power that it can safely dissipate in practical use. Carbon composition resistors were commonly used in the 1960s and earlier. Lead arrangements Through-hole components typically have leads leaving the body axially. The resistive element is made from a mixture of finely ground (powdered) carbon and an insulating material (usually ceramic). Rated power dissipation may be given for an ambient temperature of 25 °C in free air. 37 Construction A single in line (SIL) resistor package with 8 individual. a resistor dissipating a bit less than the maximum figure given by the manufacturer may still be outside the safe operating area and may prematurely fail. The resistance is determined by the ratio of the fill material (the powdered ceramic) to the carbon. The completed resistor was painted for color coding of its value.[4] These resistors. if internal moisture content (from exposure for some length of time to a humid environment) is significant. ambient temperature. and stress (carbon composition resistors will change value when stressed with over-voltages). Because of this. at best. if never subjected to overvoltage nor overheating were . soldering heat will create a non-reversible change in resistance value. Carbon composition resistors have poor stability with time and were consequently factory sorted to. however. but are not so popular for general use now as other types have better specifications. at the end identified by the white dot. a weak conductor. result in lower resistance. the lead wires were wrapped around the ends of the resistance element rod and soldered. only 5% tolerance. Carbon composition Carbon composition resistors consist of a solid cylindrical resistive Resistors with wire leads for through-hole element with embedded wire leads or metal end caps to which the lead mounting wires are attached. Other components may be SMT (surface mount technology) while high power resistors may have one of their leads designed into the heat sink.pin 1.Resistor circuit) before they overheat dangerously. Early 20th-century carbon composition resistors had uninsulated bodies. Air circulation and proximity to a circuit board. Others have leads coming off their body radially instead of parallel to the resistor axis. rated dissipation will be significantly less. Inside an equipment case at 60 °C. The body of the resistor is protected with paint or plastic. and other factors can reduce acceptable dissipation significantly. A resin holds the mixture together. 47 ohm resistors. Higher concentrations of carbon. such as tolerance. it is not uncommon to use resistors with rated power dissipation in excess of what is electrically called for. One end of each resistor is connected to a separate pin and the other ends are all connected together to the remaining (common) pin . Moreover. voltage dependence.

This composite of glass and conductive ceramic (cermet) material is then fused (baked) in an oven at about 850 °C.Resistor remarkably reliable considering the component's size[5] They are still available.5. Temperature coefficients of thick film resistors are high. had tolerances of 5%. and then the exposed photo-sensitive coating is developed. they are usually trimmed to an accurate value by abrasive or laser trimming. and a helix cut in it to create a long. It has 200 to 600 volts maximum working voltage range. when first manufactured. irradiated with ultraviolet light. 0. The carbon film resistor has an operating temperature range of -55 °C to 155 °C. Varying shapes. Thick film resistors may use the same conductive ceramics. bismuth ruthenate (Bi2Ru2O7). For example. are about twice the cost of 1%. . and with temperature coefficients of 5 to 25 ppm/K. However. They also have much lower noise levels. SMD thin film resistors. on the level of 10-100 times less than thick film resistors. Thick film resistors. Carbon film resistors feature a power rating range of 0. or 1%.2. the thickness of the thin film can be accurately controlled. when bought in full size reel quantities. 0.1. 250 ppm/K thick film resistors. nickel chromium (NiCr). these resistors are no longer used in most applications. but comparatively quite costly. and with 25 ppm/K temperature coefficients. The resistive element of thick films is 1000 times thicker than thin films. typically ±200 or ±250 ppm/K. Thin film resistors are usually far more expensive than thick film resistors. that is. Special carbon film resistors are used in applications requiring high pulse stability. Resistances available range from 1 ohm to 10 megohm. The type of material is also usually different consisting of one or more ceramic (cermet) conductors such as tantalum nitride (TaN). carbon resistors are used in power supplies and welding controls. narrow resistive path.[6] but the principal difference is how the film is applied to the cylinder (axial resistors) or the surface (SMD resistors).[5] 38 Carbon film A carbon film is deposited on an insulating substrate. Thick film resistors are manufactured using screen and stencil printing processes.[5] Because the time during which the sputtering is performed can be controlled. a 40 kelvin (70 °F) temperature change can change the resistance by 1%. the surface is coated with a photo-sensitive material. or bismuth iridate (Bi2Ir2O7). and underlying thin film is etched away. Thin film resistors are usually specified with tolerances of 0.[5] Thick and thin film Thick film resistors became popular during the 1970s. coupled with the resistivity of amorphous carbon (ranging from 500 to 800 μΩ m). but they are mixed with sintered (powdered) glass and a carrier liquid so that the composite can be screen-printed. then covered by a pattern film. with 0. can provide a variety of resistances. The film is then etched in a similar manner to the old (subtractive) process for making printed circuit boards. The resistance of both thin and thick film resistors after manufacture is not highly accurate. and most SMD (surface mount device) resistors today are of this type. Because of the high price. Values ranged from fractions of an ohm to 22 megohms. ruthenium oxide (RuO2).125 W to 5 W at 70 °C. but standard tolerances have improved to 2% or 1% in the last few decades.5% tolerances. Thin film resistors are made by sputtering (a method of vacuum deposition) the resistive material onto an insulating substrate. lead oxide (PbO).

Metal electrode leadless face (MELF) resistors often use the same technology. unlike thin-film resistors. or fiberglass core. The assembly is protected with a layer of paint. The ends of the wire are soldered or welded to two caps or rings. plastic. e. common and tinned for ease of soldering. but are a cylindrically shaped resistor designed for surface mounting. carbon composition) are also available in MELF packages. although winding the wire in sections with alternately reversed direction can minimize inductance. either a ceramic outer case or an aluminum outer case on top 3.[5] Metal oxide film Metal-oxide film resistors are made of metal oxides such as tin oxide. temperature coefficient and stability.Resistor 39 Metal film A common type of axial resistor today is referred to as a metal-film resistor.g. or a flat thin former (to reduce cross-section area of the coil). Because wirewound resistors are coils they have more undesirable inductance than other types of resistor. attached to the ends of the core. 1%. Large wirewound resistors may be rated for 1. but might be coated with any of the cermet materials listed above for thin film resistors.5%.. Because of the very high surface temperature these resistors can withstand temperatures of up to +450 °C. usually nichrome.[5] Wire leads in low power wirewound resistors are usually between 0. Metal film resistors are usually coated with nickel chromium (NiCr).) The result is a reasonable tolerance (0. resistors with Ayrton-Perry winding are used.000 watts or more. molded plastic. Also. Other techniques employ bifilar winding. They are used in applications with high endurance demands. or 2%) and a temperature coefficient that is generally between 50 and 100 ppm/K. the rated power is dependent on being used with a suitable heat sink.. Note that other types of resistors (e. The high frequency of wirewound resistors is substantially worse than that of a composition resistor. Unlike thin film resistors. Also beneficial are the components efficient tolerance. bifilar resistors. This results in a higher operating temperature and greater stability/reliability than Metal film. The aluminum-cased types are designed 4. Wirewound Wirewound resistors are commonly made by winding a metal wire. For higher power wirewound 2. (This is similar to the way carbon resistors are made. Applications of wirewound resistors are similar to those of composition resistors with the exception of the high frequency. Ayrton-Perry to be attached to a heat sink to dissipate the heat.6 and 0. around a ceramic. common on a thin former of an insulating layer is used. or an enamel coating baked at high temperature. the material may be applied using different techniques than sputtering (though that is one such technique).8 mm in diameter Types of windings in wire resistors: 1.[7] Metal film resistors possess good noise characteristics and low non-linearity due to a low voltage coefficient. the resistance value is determined by cutting a helix through the coating rather than by etching. For the most demanding circuits.g.[5] . a 50 W power rated resistor will overheat at a fraction of the power dissipation if not used with a heat sink.

They are used in applications such as dynamic braking and load banking for locomotives and trams. Special varieties • • • • • Metal oxide varistor Cermet Phenolic Tantalum Water resistor .14 ppm/°C. can usually accept only limited currents. One range of ultra-precision foil resistors offers a TCR of 0. with a range of resistances extending lower than 0.1 μV/°C. Current-measuring instruments. voltage coefficient 0. by themselves. Since their introduction in the 1960s. Grid resistor In heavy-duty industrial high-current applications. control loads for cranes and heavy equipment. stability under load (2000 hours) 0.5 pF.1 ppm/V.08 μH. Such industrial grade resistors can be as large as a refrigerator. foil resistors have had the best precision and stability of any resistor available. Such meters are adapted to the shunt full current rating by using an appropriately marked dial face. Large bolts threaded into the blocks make the current connections. mounted on to an insulating base. and has been further improved over the years. neutral grounding for industrial AC distribution.04 ohms. noise -42 dB.[9][10][11] The term grid resistor is sometimes used to describe a resistor of any type connected to the control grid of a vacuum tube. sometimes brass. no change need be made to the other parts of the meter. This is not a resistor technology. a grid resistor is a large convection-cooled lattice of stamped metal alloy strips connected in rows between two electrodes. The TCR of foil resistors is extremely low. while much-smaller screws provide voltage connections. One of the important parameters influencing stability is the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR).005%. To measure high currents. inductance 0. and often have a voltage drop of 50 mV at rated current. it is an electronic circuit topology.[8] Ammeter shunts An ammeter shunt is a special type of current-sensing resistor. A typical shunt consists of two solid metal blocks. Between the blocks. capacitance 0. load testing of generators and harmonic filtering for electric substations. long-term stability (1 year) 25 ppm. (3 year) 50 ppm (further improved 5-fold by hermetic sealing). where the voltage drop is measured and interpreted as current. Shunts are rated by full-scale current. thermal EMF 0. are one or more strips of low temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) manganin alloy.Resistor 40 Foil resistor The primary resistance element of a foil resistor is a special alloy foil several micrometres thick. the current passes through the shunt. some designs can handle over 500 amperes of current.03%. having four terminals and a value in milliohms or even micro-ohms. tolerance ±0. and soldered or brazed to them.

experimental and development work without needing to attach resistors one by one. invented by Edward E. Such a device is called a rheostat and has two terminals. or a pair (half bridge). Since their resistance can be large until they are allowed to heat up due to the passage of current.1%. ranging from laboratory/calibration grade accuracy of 20 parts per million. they are also commonly used to prevent excessive current surges when equipment is powered on. A common example is a volume control for a radio receiver. has a resistance which varies with illumination. and delayed-sweep oscilloscopes of recent decades included one on their panels. One sort of photodetector. the sliding resistance tap can be connected to a knob accessible to an operator. Potentiometers A common element in electronic devices is a three-terminal resistor with a continuously adjustable tapping point controlled by rotation of a shaft or knob. Metal oxide varistors drop to a very low resistance when a high voltage is applied. All types offer a convenient way of selecting and quickly changing a resistance in laboratory.[12] Accurate.1 ohm.Resistor 41 Variable resistors Adjustable resistors A resistor may have one or more fixed tapping points so that the resistance can be changed by moving the connecting wires to different terminals. . to field grade at 1%. making them useful for measuring temperatures. Similarly. The range of resistance provided. or even stock each value. or four resistors connected in a Wheatstone bridge configuration. They are usually set with dials that include a simple turns counter and a graduated dial. maximum resolution 0. the resistance of a humistor varies with humidity. A related but more recent invention uses a Quantum Tunnelling Composite to sense mechanical stress. Electronic analog computers used them in quantity for setting coefficients. and analog/digital converter. These variable resistors are known as potentiometers when all three terminals are present. The resistance of thermistors exhibit a strong negative temperature coefficient. with one or more mechanical switches which allow any one of various discrete resistances offered by the box to be dialed in. These typically offer ten turns of their shafts to cover their full range. the strain on an object can be measured. It passes a current whose magnitude can vary by a factor of 1012 in response to changes in applied pressure. although some include a conductive-plastic resistance coating over the wire to improve resolution. With the strain gauge and a filter. and the accuracy characterize the box. Inexpensive boxes with lesser accuracy are also available. is a type of resistor that changes value with applied strain. allowing a larger or smaller part of the resistance to be used. For example. The strain resistor is bonded with adhesive to an object that will be subjected to mechanical strain. Resistance decade boxes A resistance decade box or resistor substitution box is a unit containing resistors of many values. making them useful for protecting electronic equipment by absorbing dangerous voltage surges. Some wirewound power resistors have a tapping point that can slide along the resistance element. since they act as a continuously adjustable voltage divider. high-resolution panel-mounted potentiometers (or "pots") have resistance elements typically wirewound on a helical mandrel. Usually the resistance is accurate to high precision. The strain gauge. Simmons and Arthur C. the photoresistor. A single resistor may be used. Where continuous adjustment of the resistance value during operation of equipment is required. one box offers resistances from 0 to 24 megohms. accuracy 0. the maximum resolution.[13] Special devices There are various devices whose resistance changes with various quantities. amplifier. Ruge in 1938.

especially milliohmmeters. at 0 degrees Celsius. A digital multimeter. established reliability) MIL-PRF-55342 (Surface-mount thick and thin film) MIL-PRF-914 MIL-R-11 STANDARD CANCELED [15] MIL-R-39017 (Fixed. In the US. Established Reliability) MIL-PRF-32159 (zero ohm jumpers) There are other United States military procurement MIL-R. resulting in an analog meter scale which is very non-linear. in accordance with Ohm's Law. From 1900 the mercury ohm was replaced with a precision machined plate of manganin. A simple ohmmeter may apply a voltage from a battery across the unknown resistor (with an internal resistor of a known value in series) producing a current which drives a meter movement. Measuring low-value resistors. Resistance standards The primary standard for resistance. One side of each clip applies the measuring current. using one pair to carry an operating current and the other pair to measure the voltage drop. which is measured and displayed. the "mercury ohm" was initially defined in 1884 in as a column of mercury 106. for which he won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1985. while the other pair senses the voltage drop across the resistor. One pair of terminals applies a known. Standards Production resistors Resistor characteristics are quantified and reported using various national standards. which may be one function of a multimeter. MIL-STD-202[14] contains the relevant test methods to which other standards refer. In either case the low-resistance ranges of the meter pass much more current through the test leads than do high-resistance ranges. Usually. Difficulties in precisely measuring the physical constants to replicate this standard result in variations of as much as 30 ppm.standards.[17] Resistors of extremely high precision are manufactured for calibration and laboratory use. Each of the two so-called Kelvin clips has a pair of jaws insulated from each other. The voltage generated across the test resistance in that case is linearly proportional to its resistance. calibrated current to the resistor. such as fractional-ohm resistors. may instead pass a specified current through the test resistance. is inversely proportional to the sum of the internal resistance and the resistor being tested. with acceptable accuracy requires four-terminal connections. calibrated from infinity to 0 ohms. while the other connections are only to sense the voltage drop. this eliminates .Resistor 42 Measurement The value of a resistor can be measured with an ohmmeter. which may be used with special test leads. and even some of the better digital multimeters sense using four input terminals for this purpose. Some laboratory quality ohmmeters. There are various standards specifying properties of resistors for use in equipment: • • • • • • • • • BS 1852 EIA-RS-279 MIL-PRF-26 MIL-PRF-39007 (Fixed Power.3 cm long and 1 square millimeter in cross-section. The resistance is again calculated using Ohm's Law as the measured voltage divided by the applied current.[16] Since 1990 the international resistance standard has been based on the quantized Hall effect discovered by Klaus von Klitzing. probes on the ends of test leads connect to the resistor. in order for the voltages present to be at reasonable levels (generally below 10 volts) but still measurable. using active electronics. They may have four terminals. General Purpose. The current.

4. For example. It is important in small value resistors (100–0. Cases are usually tan. etc.7. Accordingly a selection of 100 ohms resistors with a tolerance of ±10%. 125. 96. A sensible spacing. E24. Earlier power wirewound resistors. 300. A second color of paint was applied to one end of the element. its E6 neighbors are 68 (54-82) and 150 (120-180) ohms. E6 is used for ±20% components. or green. if they are big enough to permit marking. E48 for ±2%. 22.5. The actual values used are in the IEC 60063 lists of preferred numbers. Default tolerance was ±20%. more-recent small sizes are impractical to mark. of course by 15. Early 20th century resistors. 0. may not lay just around 100 ohm (but no more than 10% off) as one would expect (a bell-curve).5 times its predecessor. because no charge flows through voltage sensing leads. Surface-mount resistors are marked numerically. It should be noted however. this may become a consideration.Resistor errors caused by voltage drops across the lead resistances. In practice the factor used is 1. that manufacturers may sort resistors into tolerance-classes based on measurement. Any resistors the factory measured as being less than 5% off.1–1 and 10–100 are other examples).5% or better. for a tolerance of ±20% it makes sense to have each resistor about 1. 3. Wider spacing leaves gaps.0001 ohm) where lead resistance is significant or even comparable with respect to resistance standard value. so that each value is greater than its predecessor by a fixed multiplier or percentage. … and preceded by … 0. a series might have 100. E96 and E192 series for components of ever tighter tolerance.68. such as brown vitreous-enameled types. This scheme has been adopted as the E6 series of the IEC 60063 preferred number values. brown. these are rounded in practice to 1. such as some of those mentioned in the first sentence of this section.15. 33. A logical scheme is to produce resistors in a range of values which increase in a geometrical progression. 4. E48. 200.4678. but rather be in two groups . and a color dot (or band) in the middle provided the third digit. 6. and it makes sense to manufacture values that correlate with the tolerance. . narrower spacing increases manufacturing and inventory costs to provide resistors that are more or less interchangeable. though other colors are occasionally found such as dark red or dark gray.3. 3. 10. 6. E192 for ±0. would have been marked and sold as resistors with only ±5% tolerance or better. 2.2. were dipped in paint to cover their entire body for color coding.47. When designing a circuit. The rule was "body. and 192 different values within each decade. were made with a different system of preferred values. Preferred values Early resistors were made in more or less arbitrary round numbers. so that the actual value of a resistor overlaps slightly with its neighbors. 2. blue. tip. with 12. dot". however. chosen to match the tolerance of the range.either between 5 to 10% too high or 5 to 10% too low (but non closer to 100 ohm than that). providing two significant digits for value and the decimal multiplier. 1.47. Resistors as manufactured are subject to a certain percentage tolerance. There are also E12. essentially uninsulated. A resistor of 100 ohms ±20% would be expected to have a value between 80 and 120 ohms. E24 for ±5%.[18] 43 Resistor marking Most axial resistors use a pattern of colored stripes to indicate resistance. E12 for ±10%. Closer-tolerance resistors had silver (±10%) or gold-colored (±5%) paint on the other end.8. followed. in that sequence. 10 for the 1–10 decade (a decade is a range increasing by a factor of 10.64. E96 for ±1%. Resistors are manufactured in values from a few milliohms to about a gigaohm in IEC60063 ranges appropriate for their tolerance.81.16. 150. 0. giving values of 1. covering a decade in 6 values. 24.

The 4th band is the tolerance and the 5th the temperature coefficient.1%). so that they can be inserted by a resistor-inserting machine. Of course. although quite low. 334 = 33 × 104 ohms = 330 kilohms 222 = 22 × 102 ohms = 2. Zero-ohm links are often used instead of wire links. The final zero represents ten to the power zero.Resistor 44 Five-band axial resistors Five-band identification is used for higher precision (lower tolerance) resistors (1%. their resistance is non-zero. 470. in which the first two digits are the first two significant digits of the value and the third digit is the power of ten (the number of zeroes).0 megohm Resistances less than 100 ohms are written: 100. SMD resistors Surface mounted resistors are printed with numerical values in a code related to that used on axial resistors. 0.25%. For example: . 0. Five-band resistors with a gold or silver 4th band are sometimes encountered. For example: This image shows four surface-mount resistors (the component at the upper left is a capacitor) including two zero-ohm resistors. For example: 100 = 10 × 100 ohm = 10 ohms 220 = 22 × 100 ohm = 22 ohms Sometimes these values are marked as 10 or 22 to prevent a mistake. Zero is simply a brief description of their function. The first three bands represent the significant digits. which is 1. to specify a third significant digit. 0. 220. and the fifth is the tolerance.5%. the fourth is the multiplier.2 kilohms 473 = 47 × 103 ohms = 47 kilohms 105 = 10 × 105 ohms = 1. Standard-tolerance surface-mount technology (SMT) resistors are marked with a three-digit code. generally on older or specialized resistors. Resistances less than 10 ohms have 'R' to indicate the position of the decimal point (radix point).

More recent surface-mount resistors are too small.1% J M K G F D C B .25% ±0. Industrial type designation Format: [two letters]<space>[resistance value (three digit)]<nospace>[tolerance code(numerical . Power MIL-R-11 MIL-R-39008 rating Style Style (watts) BB CB EB GB HB GM HM ⅛ ¼ ½ 1 2 3 4 RC05 RC07 RC20 RC32 RC42 RCR05 RCR07 RCR20 RCR32 RCR42 - Tolerance Code Industrial type designation Tolerance MIL Designation 5 2 1 ±5% ±20% ±10% ±2% ±1% ±0. For example: 1001 = 100 × 101 ohms = 1.30 ohms 0R22 = 0. to permit practical markings to be applied.22 ohms 0R01 = 0.5% ±0.one digit)] [19] Power Rating at 70 °C Type No.7 ohms R300 = 0. since these have (approximately) zero resistance.Resistor 45 4R7 = 4. in which the first three digits are the significant figures and the fourth is the power of ten.01 ohms Precision resistors are marked with a four-digit code. physically.9 kilohm 1000 = 100 × 100 ohm = 100 ohms 000 and 0000 sometimes appear as values on surface-mount zero-ohm links.00 kilohm 4992 = 499 × 102 ohms = 49.

usually making the excess noise of metal foil resistors insignificant. care has to be taken (for example) to mount the resistors horizontally to avoid temperature gradients and to mind the air flow over the board.Resistor 46 Electrical and thermal noise In amplifying faint signals. There can also be failure of resistors due to mechanical stress and adverse environmental factors including humidity. This Johnson–Nyquist noise is a fundamental noise source which depends only upon the temperature and resistance of the resistor. Using a larger resistor produces a larger voltage noise. The μV/V/decade value is frequently given in dB so that a resistor with a noise index of 0 dB will exhibit 1 μV (rms) of excess noise for each volt across the resistor in each frequency decade. Carbon composition resistors can exhibit a noise index of 0 dB while bulk metal foil resistors may have a noise index of -40 dB. even an ideal resistor will naturally produce a randomly fluctuating voltage or "noise" across its terminals. While not an example of "noise" per se. Common metal film resistors show such an effect at a magnitude of about 20 µV/°C. This is often the case for the startup resistors feeding the SMPS integrated circuit. it is often necessary to minimize electronic noise. This is specified in unit of μV/V/decade . wire-wound and thin-film resistors. a resistor may act as a thermocouple. even below maximum specified voltage and below maximum power rating. Excess noise is also size-dependent: in general excess noise is reduced as the physical size of a resistor is increased (or multiple resistors are used in parallel). As dissipative elements. Such voltages appear in the junctions of the resistor leads with the circuit board and with the resistor body. Thick-film and carbon composition resistors generate more excess noise than other types at low frequencies. This induced DC voltage can degrade the precision of instrumentation amplifiers in particular.[21] Failure modes The failure rate of resistors in a properly designed circuit is low compared to other electronic components such as semiconductors and electrolytic capacitors.[22] Carbon film and composition resistors can fail (open circuit) if running close to their maximum dissipation. Damage to resistors most often occurs due to overheating when the average power delivered to it (as computed above) greatly exceeds its ability to dissipate heat (specified by the resistor's power rating). whereas with a smaller value of resistance there will be more current noise. whereas specially constructed resistors can reduce this number to 0. Operating a resistor too close to its power rating can limit the resistor's lifespan or cause a change in its resistance over time which may or may not be noticeable. assuming a given temperature. Low-power thin-film resistors can be damaged by long-term high-voltage stress.μV of noise per volt applied across the resistor per decade of frequency. The thermal noise of a practical resistor may also be somewhat larger than the theoretical prediction and that increase is typically frequency-dependent.05 µV/°C. Excess noise is thus an example of 1/f noise. . This may be due to a fault external to the circuit. If not enclosed.[20] Thin film surface mount resistors typically have lower noise and better thermal stability than thick film surface mount resistors. but is frequently caused by the failure of another component (such as a transistor that shorts out) in the circuit connected to the resistor. are often utilized for their better noise characteristics. When overheated. This is also possible but less likely with metal film and wirewound resistors. A safe design generally uses overrated resistors in power applications to avoid this danger. wirewound resistors can corrode. However the "excess noise" of a practical resistor is an additional source of noise observed only when a charge flows through it. carbon-film resistors may decrease or increase in resistance. producing a small DC voltage differential across it due to the thermoelectric effect if its ends are at somewhat different temperatures. and is predicted by the fluctuation–dissipation theorem. In applications where the thermoelectric effect may become important. though much more expensive. Some carbon composition resistors can exhibit thermoelectric offsets as high as 400 µV/°C. as the independently fluctuating resistances of smaller components will tend to average out. particularly in the first stage of amplification.

Application note AN0003. Retrieved 23 July 2011. pdf).co. ietlabs. Retrieved 2008-06-11. p. . Maini. html). This is similar to crackling caused by poor contact in switches. . This may be due to dirt or corrosion and is typically perceived as "crackling" as the contact resistance fluctuates.Resistor Variable resistors degrade in a different manner. org/ 0305-4470/ 37/ 26/ 004). K. mil/ Programs/ MilSpec/ ListDocs. Essentials of electric circuits.26. pp. Potentiometers which are seldom adjusted. vol. gov/ ora/ Inspect_ref/ itg/ itg31. com/ grid_resistors. co. nist. html). potentiometers are to some extent self-cleaning: running the wiper across the resistance may improve the contact. avtron. tinsley. [22] "Electronic components . Mac E.Resistance Decade Boxes" (http:/ / www. available at http:/ / www. "Theory of resistor networks: the two-point resistance" (http:/ / iopscience. Harter. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. The English Universities Press Ltd. 7. Lin.37. fda. digikey. .18-21. co. . and like switches. [3] F Y Wu. element-14. iop.jp. analog. "Chapter 7 – Hardware and Housekeeping Techniques" (http:/ / www. and communications (9 ed. com/ html/ products/ grid. Tinsley. analog. [5] Vishay Beyschlag Basics of Linear Fixed Resistors Application Note. US Food and Drug Administration. Wendy. (2002). Khanna Publications (India) [20] Audio Noise Reduction Through the Use of Bulk Metal Foil Resistors – "Hear the Difference" (http:/ / www. [21] Walt Jung. alpha-elec. Retrieved 2010-03-18. Retrieved 2008-09-22. ISBN 0750672919. . pdf). 1961. kennethkuhn. Document Number 28771. computer. pp. org/ nobel_prizes/ physics/ laureates/ 1985/ klitzing-lecture. com/ students/ ee431/ text/ ee431lab3. co. pdf [18] "Standard Resistance Unit Type 4737B" (http:/ / www. resistances larger than the critical resistance will fail first from exceeding the maximum voltage rating. electronics.). this is especially noticed as the device is adjusted.. especially in dirty or harsh environments. [8] "Alpha Electronics Corp. Retrieved 2008-09-22. com/ library/ analogDialogue/ archives/ 39-05/ op_amp_applications_handbook. The crackling noise associated with turning the shaft of a dirty potentiometer in an audio circuit (such as the volume control) is greatly accentuated when an undesired DC voltage is present. pp. html).【Metal Foil Resistors】" (http:/ / www. Reference data for engineers: radio. archive. 1978-01-16. pdf). Op Amp Applications Handbook (http:/ / www. gov/ pub/ nistpubs/ sp958-lide/ 063-065. htm). Applying a constant voltage across resistors in that family below the critical resistance will exceed the maximum power rating first. typically involving poor contact between the wiper and the body of the resistance. [2] Farago. 2008 . Retrieved 2008-09-22. are most likely to develop this problem. c-c-i. Digi-Key (SEI). landandmaritime. com/ library/ analogDialogue/ archives/ 39-05/ Web_Ch7_final_J. 1982 ISBN 0835917673.6653-6673. Inspector's Technical Guide. 9thEd. aspx?BasicDoc=MIL-R-11 [16] http:/ / nvl. Paul Y. jp/ e_machine. uk/ products/ standard-resistors/ 4737b.96-97.11. uk/ books?id=H-k8dhB7lmwC& pg=PA489& & hl=en& ei=uZ9FTZapCcyXhQeknviyAQ& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=8& ved=0CFsQ6AEwBw#v=onepage& q="theory of resistor networks"& f=false) [4] James H. . See also (http:/ / books. Grid Resistors: High Power/High Current (http:/ / www. . dla. PS. milwaukeeresistor. Van Valkenburg. When self-cleaning of the contact is insufficient. html) [12] Digitally controlled receivers may not have an analog volume control and use other methods to adjust volume. dla. html). htm) [11] Filnor. mil/ Programs/ MilSpec/ ListDocs. 12 July 2005. com/ sites/ default/ files/ vse-an00. improvement can usually be obtained through the use of contact cleaner (also known as "tuner cleaner") spray. Vishay Intertechnology Inc. . html) [10] Avtron Loadbank. pp. no. "Measuring the Temperature Coefficient of a Resistor" (http:/ / www.com. Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and General. Alpha-elec. 47 References [1] A family of resistors may also be characterized according to its critical resistance. org/ web/ 20080403111045/ http:/ / www. [7] Kenneth A.resistors" (http:/ / web. 5–10. dscc. com/ Web Export/ Supplier Content/ Stackpole_738/ PDF/ Stackpole_ThickFilmXThinFilm.uk. google. Reston Publishing Company. com/ gridresistors. Newnes. Grid Resistors (http:/ / www. often implicating the failure of a DC blocking capacitor in the circuit. Kuhn. filnor. com/ decaderes. Ietlabs. [19] Electronics and Communications Simplified by A.co. [9] Milwaukee Resistor Corporation. com/ community/ docs/ DOC-22086 retrieved 2010 April 26 [6] "Thick Film and Thin Film" (http:/ / www. pdf). . An Introduction to Linear Network Analysis. asp?BasicDoc=MIL-STD-202 [15] http:/ / www. [14] http:/ / www. fda. [13] "Decade Box . ISBN 0750678445. See Middleton. Grid Resistor (http:/ / www. gov/ ora/ Inspect_ref/ itg/ itg31.. html) on 2008-04-03. pdf [17] http:/ / nobelprize.

htm) • Ask The Applications Engineer .html) .com/electronics/resistor/resistor.com/beg_1_res_v_c. htm) • Color Coded Resistance Calculator (http://www.com/library/ analogDialogue/archives/31-1/Ask_Engineer.Does It Matter? (http://www.com/ResistorNoise.ipass.com/pots.upenn.seas.html) • Resistors and their uses (http://www.robotplatform.net/teara/resistor-frm. including description of different tapers (http://sound.Resistor 48 External links • 4-terminal resistors .html) • A very well illustrated tutorial about Resistors.How ultra-precise resistors work (http://www.php) • Beginners guide to resistors and resistance (http://www. Volt and Current (http://ikalogic.westhost.analog.htm) • Beginner's guide to potentiometers.Difference between types of resistors (http://www.html) • Resistor Types .aikenamps.powerstandards.edu/ese/rca/calcjs.com/4terminal.

In practice. while the conductors and leads introduce an undesired inductance and resistance. An ideal capacitor is characterized by a single constant value. When there is a potential difference (voltage) across the conductors. The capacitance is greatest when there is a narrow separation between large areas of conductor. measured in farads. and for many other purposes. in electric power transmission systems for stabilizing voltage and power flow. Energy is stored in the electrostatic field. hence capacitor conductors are often called "plates. for example. resulting in a breakdown voltage. a static electric field develops across the dielectric. in the resonant circuits that tune radios to particular frequencies." referring to an early means of construction. for smoothing the output of power supplies. the dielectric between the plates passes a small amount of leakage current and also has an electric field strength limit.Capacitor 49 Capacitor Miniature low-voltage capacitors. one common construction consists of metal foils separated by a thin layer of insulating film. Capacitors are widely used as parts of electrical circuits in many common electrical devices. but all contain at least two electrical conductors separated by a dielectric (insulator). in filter networks. This is the ratio of the electric charge on each conductor to the potential difference between them. Capacitors are widely used in electronic circuits for blocking direct current while allowing alternating current to pass. by a cm ruler A capacitor (formerly known as condenser) is a passive two-terminal electrical component used to store energy in an electric field. causing positive A typical electrolytic capacitor charge to collect on one plate and negative charge on the other plate. . The forms of practical capacitors vary widely. capacitance.

and the jar as a dielectric (although details of the mechanism were incorrectly identified at the time). Von Kleist found. Early capacitors were also known as condensers. leaving a space at the mouth to prevent arcing between the foils. the Netherlands. after removing the generator. not in the water as others had assumed."[2] The following year. and the steady move to higher frequencies required capacitors with lower inductance.[4][5] (denoting the increasing of power with a row of similar units as in a battery of cannon). The earliest unit of capacitance was the 'jar'. after the University of Leiden where he worked.[7] . the Dutch physicist Pieter van Musschenbroek invented a similar capacitor.Capacitor 50 History In October 1745. A more compact construction began to be used of a flexible dielectric sheet such as oiled paper sandwiched between sheets of metal foil. subsequently applied to clusters of electrochemical cells. Ewald Georg von Kleist of Pomerania in Germany found that charge could be stored by connecting a high-voltage electrostatic generator by a wire to a volume of water in a hand-held glass jar. The term was first used for this purpose by Alessandro Volta in 1782.[6] Leyden jars were later made by coating the inside and outside of jars with metal foil. rolled or folded into a small package.[1] Von Kleist's hand and the water acted as conductors. a term that is still occasionally used today.[3] Daniel Gralath was the first to combine several jars in parallel into a "battery" to increase the charge storage capacity. equivalent to about 1 nanofarad. when the invention of wireless (radio) created a demand for standard capacitors. that touching the wire resulted in a painful spark. Leyden jars or more powerful devices employing flat glass plates alternating with foil conductors were used exclusively up until about 1900. He also adopted the Boerhaave. Leiden. In a letter describing the experiment. he said "I would not take a second shock for the kingdom of France. which was named the Leyden jar. term "battery". Benjamin Franklin investigated the Leyden jar and "proved" that the charge was stored on Battery of four Leyden jars in Museum the glass. with reference to the device's ability to store a higher density of electric charge than a normal isolated conductor.

When the external influence is removed the charge separation persists in the electric field and energy is stored to be released when the charge is allowed to return to its equilibrium position. air. The conductors thus hold equal and opposite charges on their facing surfaces. and hence the amount of energy stored.[9] and the dielectric develops an electric field. a constant of integration is added to represent the initial voltage v (t0). causing its capacitance to vary. Thus the charge on the electrodes is equal to the integral of the current as well as proportional to the voltage as discussed above. the dielectric is just an electrical insulator. This is the integral form of the capacitor equation. Sometimes charge build-up affects the capacitor mechanically. with no net electric charge and no influence from any external electric field. An ideal capacitor is wholly characterized by a constant capacitance C. The work done in establishing the electric field.[10] The capacitor is a reasonably general model for electric fields within electric circuits. resulting in an electron depletion and consequent positive charge on one electrode that is equal and opposite to the accumulated negative charge on the other. is given by:[11] Current-voltage relation The current i(t) through any component in an electric circuit is defined as the rate of flow of a charge q(t) passing through it. In simpler terms. In SI units. vacuum.Capacitor 51 Theory of operation A capacitor consists of two conductors separated by a non-conductive region.[12] . Examples of dielectric media are glass. defined as the ratio of charge ±Q on each conductor to the voltage V between them:[8] Charge separation in a parallel-plate capacitor causes an internal electric field. but actual charges. capacitance is defined in terms of incremental changes: A simple demonstration of a parallel-plate capacitor Energy of electric field Work must be done by an external influence to "move" charge between the conductors in a capacitor. electrons. a capacitance of one farad means that one coulomb of charge on each conductor causes a voltage of one volt across the device. In this case. A capacitor is assumed to be self-contained and isolated. cannot pass through the dielectric layer of a capacitor.[8] The non-conductive region is called the dielectric. paper. As with any antiderivative. and even a semiconductor depletion region chemically identical to the conductors. rather an electron accumulates on the negative plate for each one that leaves the positive plate. A dielectric (orange) reduces the field and increases the capacitance.

and the switch is closed at t = 0. etc. Fourier analysis allows any signal to be constructed from a spectrum of frequencies. With this assumption. AC circuits Impedance. The dual of the capacitor is the inductor. the voltage across the capacitor is zero and the voltage across the resistor is V0. Taking the derivative of this. the vector sum of reactance and resistance. DC circuits A series circuit containing only a resistor. yields the derivative form. which stores energy in a magnetic field rather than an electric field. a switch and a constant DC source of voltage V0 is known as a charging circuit. The reactance and impedance of a capacitor are respectively where j is the imaginary unit and ω is the angular frequency of the sinusoidal signal. the differential equation yields where is the time constant of the system.[14] If the capacitor is initially uncharged while the switch is open. As the capacitor reaches equilibrium with the source voltage. The initial current is then i (0) =V0 /R. describes the phase difference and the ratio of amplitudes between sinusoidally varying voltage and sinusoidally varying current at a given frequency.j phase indicates that the AC voltage V = Z I lags the AC current by 90°: the positive current phase corresponds to increasing voltage as the capacitor charges.[13] . Its current-voltage relation is obtained by exchanging current and voltage in the capacitor equations and replacing C with the inductance L. zero current corresponds to instantaneous constant voltage. . gives a first-order differential equation. the voltages across the resistor and the current through the entire circuit decay exponentially. it follows from Kirchhoff's voltage law that Taking the derivative and multiplying by C. and multiplying by C. A simple resistor-capacitor circuit demonstrates charging of a capacitor. The case of discharging a charged capacitor likewise demonstrates exponential decay.Capacitor 52 . At t = 0. but with the initial capacitor voltage replacing V0 and the final voltage being zero. The . whence the circuit's reaction to the various frequencies may be found. a capacitor.

Assuming that the width of the plates is much greater than their separation d. However solving for maximum energy storage using Ud as the dielectric strength per distance and capacitor voltage at the capacitor's breakdown voltage limit V = Vbd = Udd. Networks For capacitors in parallel Capacitors in a parallel configuration each have the same applied voltage. capacitance. The plates are considered to extend uniformly over an area A and a charge density ±ρ = ±Q/A exists on their surface.Capacitor Impedance decreases with increasing capacitance and increasing frequency. Using the schematic diagram to visualize parallel plates. it is apparent that each capacitor contributes to the total surface area.e. the reactance will be high. Charge is apportioned among them by size. we see that the maximum energy is a function of dielectric volume. large plate area. i. Their capacitances add up. The capacitance is therefore greatest in devices made from materials with a high permittivity. the electric field near the centre of the device will be uniform with the magnitude E = ρ/ε. each of area A and with a separation of d Solving this for C = Q/V reveals that capacitance increases with area and decreases with separation . Conversely. For capacitors in series . 53 Parallel plate model . Capacitors are different from resistors and inductors in that the impedance is inversely proportional to the defining characteristic. This implies that a higher-frequency signal or a larger capacitor results in a lower voltage amplitude per current amplitude—an AC "short circuit" or AC coupling. permittivity. The simplest capacitor consists of two parallel conductive plates separated by a dielectric with permittivity ε (such as air). So increasing the plate area while decreasing the separation between the plates while maintaining the same volume has no change on the amount of energy the capacitor can store. Several capacitors in parallel. Care must be taken when increasing the plate separation so that the above assumption of the distance between plates being much smaller than the area of the plates is still valid for these equations to be accurate. The model may also be used to make qualitative predictions for other device geometries. The voltage is defined as the line integral of the electric field between the plates Dielectric is placed between two conducting plates. and dielectric strength per distance. for very low frequencies. and small distance between plates. so that a capacitor is nearly an open circuit in AC analysis—those frequencies have been "filtered out".

all capacitors made with a particular dielectric have approximately equal maximum energy density.[15] This arrangement can lead to premature failure as the anode film is broken down during the reverse-conduction phase and partially rebuilt during the forward phase. such capacitors have about half the capacitance per unit volume of polarized capacitors. the dielectric must be thicker. In other cases. In such an application. which may be linear but invalidate the assumption in the analysis that capacitance is a constant. The breakdown voltage is critically affected by factors such as the geometry of the capacitor conductive parts. Due to the scaling of capacitance and breakdown voltage with dielectric thickness. and is given by the product of the dielectric strength and the separation between the conductors. the effect must be dealt with separately.[19] The dielectric is used in very thin layers and so absolute breakdown voltage of capacitors is limited. on occasion series strings are connected in parallel. Breakdown voltage Above a particular electric field. The entire series acts as a capacitor smaller than any of its components. and can be dealt with by adding virtual components to the equivalent circuit of the capacitor. add up. Two polarized electrolytic capacitors are connected back to back to form a bipolar capacitor with half the capacitance. The usual methods of network analysis can then be applied. The voltage at which this occurs is called the breakdown voltage of the device. Capacitors are combined in series to achieve a higher working voltage. There is yet another group. the schematic diagram reveals that the separation distance. such as with breakdown voltage. to the extent that the dielectric dominates their volume. The voltage ratings. Several capacitors in series. the effect is non-linear and normal (i. not the plate area.. if capacitance and leakage currents for each capacitor are identical. for example for smoothing a high voltage power supply. and can be much less when other materials are used for the dielectric. linear) network analysis cannot be used. such as leakage current and parasitic effects are linear.Capacitor 54 Connected in series. resistance. or dielectric losses can exhibit non-uniform behavior at variable frequencies of operation. combined parasitic effects such as inherent inductance.[17] The maximum energy that can be stored safely in a capacitor is limited by the breakdown voltage. Some of these. The goal is to maximize the energy storage of the network without overloading any capacitor. The anode film can only withstand a small reverse voltage however. the dielectric in a capacitor becomes conductive. As the voltage increases. Typical ratings for capacitors used for general electronics applications range from a few volts to 1 kV.[16] A non-polarized electrolytic capacitor has both plates anodized so that it can withstand rated voltage in both directions. known as the dielectric strength Eds. making high-voltage capacitors larger per capacitance than those rated for lower voltages. Finally. Series connection is also sometimes used to adapt polarized electrolytic capacitors for bipolar AC use. forming a matrix. Non-ideal behaviour Capacitors deviate from the ideal capacitor equation in a number of ways. for oil 15 to 25 MV/m. for mica the breakdown is 100 to 300 MV/m. adds up. or can be assumed to be linear. The total voltage difference from end to end is apportioned to each capacitor according to the inverse of its capacitance.e. The capacitors each store instantaneous charge build-up equal to that of every other capacitor in the series. Such an example is temperature dependence.[18] For air dielectric capacitors the breakdown field strength is of the order 2 to 5 MV/m. sharp . which are based on plate separation.

humidity and temperature. the most common type of electrolytic. ESR does not exactly equal the actual resistance of the plates. • Aluminium electrolytic capacitors. imperfections in the crystal structure can result in an avalanche breakdown as seen in semi-conductor devices. The equivalent series resistance (ESR) is the amount of external series resistance one would add to a perfect capacitor to model this. and. all capacitors have imperfections within the capacitor's material that create resistance. Other scenarios are possible. • Tantalum electrolytic capacitors are limited by ripple current and generally have the highest ESR ratings in the capacitor family.[10] and slowly discharges over time (time may vary greatly depending on the capacitor material and quality). Once this starts to happen. usually have a rating for maximum ripple current. such as impurities in the dielectric. Exceeding their ripple limits tends to result in explosive failure. As the reactance becomes negligible. Some types of capacitors. without dissipating any.[21] 55 Equivalent circuit An ideal capacitor only stores and releases electrical energy. above a certain frequency capacitance will be canceled by inductance. leaving carbon behind causing a short circuit. power dissipation approaches PRMS = VRMS² /RESR. the capacitive impedance (or reactance) approaches zero and the ESR becomes significant. This is usually significant only at relatively high frequencies. • Ceramic capacitors generally have no ripple current limitation and have some of the lowest ESR ratings. This adds a real component to the impedance: As frequency approaches infinity. Similarly to ESR. High-frequency engineering involves accounting for the inductance of all connections and components.[20] The usual breakdown route is that the field strength becomes large enough to pull electrons in the dielectric from their atoms thus causing conduction. This is specified as the equivalent series resistance or ESR of a component. the capacitor's leads add equivalent series inductance or ESL to the component. Two different circuit models of a real capacitor Ripple current Ripple current is the AC component of an applied source (often a switched-mode power supply) (whose frequency may be constant or varying). the breakdown quickly tracks through the dielectric until it reaches the opposite plate. primarily tantalum and aluminium electrolytic capacitors. As inductive reactance is positive and increases with frequency. .Capacitor edges or points increase the electric field strength at that point and can lead to a local breakdown. Ripple current causes heat to be generated within the capacitor due to the current flow across the slightly resistive plates in the capacitor. suffer a large shortening of life expectancy if rated ripple current is exceeded. Breakdown voltage is also affected by pressure. if the dielectric is of a crystalline nature. If the conductors are separated by a material with a small conductivity rather than a perfect dielectric. In reality. The capacitor therefore has a finite parallel resistance. then a small leakage current flows directly between them.

until the system reaches an equilibrium. See the data sheet in the leakage current section above for an example. in turn inducing AC current. In power amplifiers this can cause the plates to glow red. potentially causing feedback or unintended recording. Similar considerations apply to component fabricated solid-state (transistor) amplifiers.Capacitor 56 Capacitance instability The capacitance of certain capacitors decreases as the component ages. but drains energy and stresses the dielectric and the electrolyte. Capacitors. sometimes even amongst different samples of the same type. causes excess heating of both the dielectric and the conductors. while under-damped DC circuits will experience less than 100%. interstage coupling capacitors are used to conduct a varying signal from the plate of one tube to the grid circuit of the next stage. with each peak being lower than the previous. It can usually be taken as a broadly linear function but can be noticeably non-linear at the temperature extremes. forming a harmonic oscillator between the inductance and capacitance. Voltage reversal is encountered in RLC circuits that are under-damped. The resulting interference is especially problematic in audio applications. and the device stabilizes over time. capacitors usually need to be able to handle the maximum amount of reversal that a system will experience. but owing to lower . In contrast with ceramic capacitors. Reversal creates excess electric fields in the dielectric. In DC circuits this will usually be less than 100%. especially ceramic capacitors. causing excessive current or signal distortion in the downstream tube. whereas AC circuits experience 100% reversal. Reversal ratings will often affect the design considerations for the capacitor. Some dielectrics also generate piezoelectricity. An AC circuit will experience 100% voltage reversal. A leaky capacitor can cause the grid circuit voltage to be raised from its normal bias setting. The temperature coefficient can be either positive or negative. and older designs such as paper capacitors. critically damped or over-damped systems usually do not experience a voltage reversal. and can dramatically shorten the life-expectancy of the capacitor. In many vacuum tube circuits. where the peak current will be equal in each direction. The current and voltage will tend to oscillate and may reverse direction several times. this is caused by degradation of the dielectric. ambient operating and storage temperatures are the most significant aging factors. Reversal is also encountered in AC circuits. the spread in the range of temperature coefficients can encompass zero. The current and voltage reverse direction. Vibration moves the plates. while the operating voltage has a smaller effect. (often in the range of 0 to 90%). moving them as a speaker. This can generate audible sound. causing the capacitance to vary. can absorb sound waves resulting in a microphonic effect. from the choice of dielectric materials and voltage ratings to the types of internal connections used. For maximum life. a problem often seen in older vacuum tube circuits. In ceramic capacitors.[22] Electrolytic capacitors age as the electrolyte evaporates. The aging process may be reversed by heating the component above the Curie point. even fail. Reversal is generally described as the percentage of the maximum rated voltage that reverses polarity.[23] Leakage Leakage is equivalent to a resistor in parallel with the capacitor. In other words. In the reverse microphonic effect. Constant exposure to heat can cause dielectric breakdown and excessive leakage. This is often referred to as ringing. or current limiting resistors to overheat. particularly where oiled paper and foil capacitors were used. In comparison. Aging is fastest near the beginning of life of the component. Voltage reversal is the change of polarity in a circuit. current and voltage reversal are affected by the damping of the system. the varying electric field between the capacitor plates exerts a physical force. this occurs towards the end of life of the component. In DC circuits and pulsed circuits. Temperature dependence of capacitance is usually expressed in parts per million (ppm) per °C. The type of dielectric. Current and voltage reversal Current reversal occurs when the flow of current changes direction. if any.

metalized polyester film. including paper. polystyrene. Several solid dielectrics are available. multilayer polyester film. life and polarised nature make them unsuitable. the dielectric material needs to have as high a permittivity as possible. which allows extremely high voltage operation and low losses. However. ceramic capacitors are often used in resonators. Variable capacitors with their plates open to the atmosphere were commonly used in radio tuning circuits. stable and tolerant to high temperatures and voltages. which increases their capacitance. Values available range from very low (picofarad range. glass. Transistor equipment is more problementic as such equipment may be sensitive to low voltage ("brownout") conditions. Dielectric materials Most types of capacitor include a dielectric spacer. permanently damaging the capacitor. but are too expensive for most mainstream applications. ceramic disc. with no significant air space between them. To prevent this in tube equipment. it is susceptible to water absorption. while arbitrarily low values are in principle possible. Later designs use polymer foil dielectric between the moving and stationary plates. Major scale divisions are in centimetres. . with excessive currents due to improper bias in some circuits. over a twenty or thirty minute interval. However. This state is maintained by regular use of the equipment. From left: multilayer ceramic. Ceramic capacitors are generally small. unless their relatively poor stability. tubular ceramic. stray (parasitic) capacitance in any circuit is the limiting factor) to about 5 kF supercapacitors. while also having as high a breakdown voltage as possible. These dielectrics are most often insulators. and will generally fail with a short circuit when next operated.Capacitor heat production and the use of modern polyester dielectric barriers this once-common problem has become relatively rare. Glass and mica capacitors are extremely reliable. and parasitic capacitance occurs in circuits wherever the simple conductor-insulator-conductor structure is formed unintentionally by the configuration of the circuit layout. and its applications. the voltage can be slowly brought up using a variable transformer (variac) on the mains. cheap and useful for high frequency applications. They are broadly categorized as class 1 dielectrics. low capacitance devices are available with a vacuum between their plates. aluminum electrolytic. although their capacitance varies strongly with voltage and they age poorly. which makes them useful in timer circuits. Paper was used extensively in older devices and offers relatively high voltage performance. which can operate at higher voltage. although they may be limited to low operating temperatures and frequencies. plastic. and has been largely replaced by plastic film capacitors. the structure of the plates and the device packaging all strongly affect the characteristics of the capacitor. Electrolytic capacitors and supercapacitors are used to store small and larger amounts of energy. Capacitor materials. The type of internal dielectric. 57 Electrolytic failure from disuse Electrolytic capacitors are conditioned when manufactured by applying a voltage sufficient to initiate the proper internal chemical state. respectively. Capacitor types Practical capacitors are available commercially in many different forms. which have predictable variation of capacitance with temperature or class 2 dielectrics. If a system using electrolytic capacitors is disused for a long period of time it can lose its conditioning. Plastics offer better stability and aging performance. In order to maximise the charge that a capacitor can hold. mica and ceramic materials. Above approximately 1 microfarad electrolytic capacitors are usually used because of their small size and low cost compared with other technologies. Very high capacity supercapacitors use a porous carbon-based electrode material.

the plates and dielectric are staggered so that connection is made at the common edge of the rolled-up plates. carbon nanotubes. The conductivity of the electrolyte drops at low temperatures. connected to the circuit by another foil plate. Such remedies may not be applicable to modern high-frequency power supplies as these produce full output voltage even with reduced input. permanently damaging the capacitor and usually blowing a fuse or causing arcing in rectifier tubes. To reduce the series resistance and inductance for long plates. They are usually ruggedly packaged. Larger values can be made by multiple stacks of plates and disks. not at the ends of the foil or metalized film strips that comprise the plates. ceramic disks use metallic coatings. which increases equivalent series resistance. and high leakage current. gradual loss of capacitance especially when subjected to heat. through-hole tantalum at top right. offer extremely high capacitance (up to 5 kF as of 2010) and can be used in some applications instead of rechargeable batteries. Supercapacitors made from carbon aerogel. They also are designed with direct current breakdown voltages of at least five times the maximum AC voltage. They can be restored before use (and damage) by gradually applying the operating voltage. Large capacitors for high-voltage use may have the roll form compressed to fit into a . requiring that the power supply first be isolated from the consuming circuits. Major scale divisions are cm. The assembly is encased to prevent moisture entering the dielectric – early radio equipment used a cardboard tube sealed with wax. and a dielectric film of impregnated paper or plastic – these are rolled up to save space. while not serving as its main use. Poor quality capacitors may leak electrolyte. Modern paper or film dielectric capacitors are dipped in a hard thermoplastic. The second electrode is a liquid electrolyte. Alternating current capacitors are specifically designed to work on line (mains) voltage AC power circuits. the use of this technique may be less satisfactory for some solid state equipment. often done on antique vacuum tube equipment over a period of 30 minutes by using a variable transformer to supply AC power. or highly porous electrode materials.[24] Polymer capacitors (OS-CON. A Feedthrough is a component that. often in metal cases that can be easily grounded/earthed. but higher dielectric absorption and leakage. Electrolytic capacitors will self-degrade if unused for a period (around a year). and when full power is applied may short circuit. For small values of capacitance (microfarads and less). with wire leads bonded to the coating. Several other types of capacitor are available for specialist applications. Tantalum capacitors offer better frequency and temperature characteristics than aluminum. 58 Structure The arrangement of plates and dielectric has many variations depending on the desired ratings of the capacitor. Capacitor packages: SMD ceramic at top left. has capacitance and is used to conduct signals through a circuit board. high instability. While widely used for power-supply conditioning. which is harmful to printed circuit boards. They are commonly used in electric motor circuits and are often designed to handle large currents. Supercapacitors store large amounts of energy.Capacitor Electrolytic capacitors use an aluminum or tantalum plate with an oxide dielectric layer. which may be damaged by operation below its normal power range. Larger value capacitors usually use a metal foil or metal film layer deposited on the surface of a dielectric film to make the plates. SMD tantalum at bottom left. Unfortunately. poor high-frequency characteristics make them unsuitable for many applications. through-hole electrolytic at bottom right. so they tend to be physically large. OC-CON) capacitors uses solid conductive polymer (or polymerized organic semiconductor) as electrolyte and offer longer life and lower ESR at higher cost than standard electrolytic capacitors. Electrolytic capacitors offer very high capacitance but suffer from poor tolerances.

Electrical control of capacitance is achievable with varactors (or varicaps). Capacitors may have their connecting leads arranged in many configurations. the capacitor may show its working voltage. ±10% and ±20% respectively). . and extend in the same direction. so the term is inexact. They are used in phase-locked loops. however. they are rarely actually aligned along radii of the body's circle. with bolted terminals and bushings for connections. allowing them to be soldered directly onto the surface of printed circuit boards. although universal. 220 μF). for example axially or radially. Smaller capacitors like ceramics. The dielectric in larger capacitors is often impregnated with a liquid to improve its properties. These packages are extremely small and lack connecting leads. Low cost variable capacitors squeeze together alternating layers of aluminum and plastic with a screw. K or M for ±5%. Capacitor markings Most capacitors have numbers printed on their bodies to indicate their electrical characteristics. although manual handling is made difficult due to their small size. cheap discoidal ceramic capacitors have existed since the 1930s. "Axial" means that the leads are on a common axis. for example by rotating or sliding a set of movable plates into alignment with a set of stationary plates. they are often parallel as manufactured. and remain in widespread use. Radial leads might more accurately be referred to as tandem. which are reverse-biased semiconductor diodes whose depletion region width varies with applied voltage. amongst other applications.Capacitor rectangular metal case. where the numbers show the capacitance in pF (calculated as XY × 10Z for the numbers XYZ) and the letter indicates the tolerance (J. surface mount packages for capacitors have been widely used. Small. Additionally. The leads (until bent) are usually in planes parallel to that of the flat body of the capacitor. Larger capacitors like electrolytics usually display the actual capacitance together with the unit (for example. typically the axis of the capacitor's cylindrical body – the leads extend from opposite ends. Surface mount components avoid undesirable high-frequency effects due to the leads and simplify automated assembly. 59 Several axial-lead electrolytic capacitors. Since the 1980s. use a shorthand consisting of three numbers and a letter. Mechanically controlled variable capacitors allow the plate spacing to be adjusted. temperature and other relevant characteristics.

oil-filled capacitor has very low inductance and low resistance. Pulsed power and weapons Groups of large. a conventional alkaline battery has a density of 590 kJ/kg. fusion research. In car audio systems. (This prevents loss of information in volatile memory.2 microsecond) discharge needed to operate a dye laser.[25] However. Marx generators.Capacitor 60 Example A capacitor with the text 473K 330V on its body has a capacitance of 47 × 103 pF = 47 nF (±10%) with a working voltage of 330 V. Large capacitor banks (reservoir) are used as energy sources for the exploding-bridgewire detonators or slapper detonators in nuclear weapons and other specialty weapons. . large capacitors store energy for the amplifier to use on demand. pulsed lasers (especially TEA lasers). specially constructed. Experimental work is under way using banks of capacitors as power sources for electromagnetic armour and electromagnetic railguns and coilguns.) Conventional capacitors provide less than 360 joules per kilogram of energy density. Applications Energy storage A capacitor can store electric energy when disconnected from its charging circuit. so it can be used like a temporary battery.52 kilojoules per kilogram. radar. Capacitors are commonly used in electronic devices to maintain power supply while batteries are being changed. while capacitors using developing technologies could provide more than 2. pulse forming networks. low-inductance high-voltage capacitors (capacitor banks) are used to supply huge pulses of current for many pulsed power applications. Also for a flash tube a capacitor is used to hold the high voltage. to provide the high-power (70 megawatt) and high speed (1. This mylar-film. These include electromagnetic forming. and particle accelerators.

Such capacitors often come as three capacitors connected as a three phase load. when a stiffening capacitor compensates for the inductance and resistance of the leads to the lead-acid car battery. This is used in car audio applications. They can also be used in charge pump circuits as the energy storage element in the generation of higher voltages than the input voltage. capacitors are used for power factor correction. for example.Capacitor 61 Power conditioning Reservoir capacitors are used in power supplies where they smooth the output of a full or half wave rectifier. and bypass AC currents from the power supply. or larger sets of capacitors (usually with automatic switching devices) may be installed at a load center within a building or in a large utility substation. the values of these capacitors are given not in farads but rather as a reactive power in volt-amperes reactive (VAr). to shunt away power line hum before it A 10 millifarad capacitor in an amplifier power supply gets into the signal circuitry. The purpose is to counteract inductive loading from devices like electric motors and transmission lines to make the load appear to be mostly resistive. Capacitors are connected in parallel with the power circuits of most electronic devices and larger systems (such as factories) to shunt away and conceal current fluctuations from the primary power source to provide a "clean" power supply for signal or control circuits. Power factor correction In electric power distribution. . The capacitors act as a local reserve for the DC power source. Usually. Individual motor or lamp loads may have capacitors for power factor correction. uses several capacitors in this way. Supression and coupling A high-voltage capacitor bank used for power factor correction on a power transmision system. Audio equipment.

It is most commonly used between the power supply and ground. for instance to suppress noise or transients. causing the contact points to oxidize. In schematic diagrams. more negative. Such resistor-capacitor combinations are available in a single package. Here. in smaller scale circuits. plate drawn as an arc. A snubber capacitor across the newly opened circuit creates a path for this impulse to bypass the contact points. These are called capacitor-start motors. Noise filters and snubbers When an inductive circuit is opened. When the rotor comes close to operating speed. the spark may not be enough to damage the switch but will still radiate undesirable radio frequency interference (RFI). Typically they can have up-to 4 times as much starting torque than a split-phase motor and are used on applications such as compressors. .Capacitor Signal coupling Because capacitors pass AC but block DC signals (when charged up to the applied dc voltage). is employed. An alternative name is bypass capacitor as it is used to bypass the power supply or other high impedance component of a circuit. a capacitor used primarily for DC charge storage is often drawn vertically in circuit diagrams with the lower. creating a large voltage across the open circuit of the switch or relay. Capacitors are also used in parallel to interrupt units of a high-voltage circuit breaker in order to equally distribute the voltage between these units. Capacitor-run induction motors have a permanently connected phase-shifting capacitor in series with a second winding. a centrifugal switch (or current-sensitive relay in series with the main winding) disconnects the capacitor. the primary winding within the motor housing is not capable of starting a rotational motion on the rotor. Snubber capacitors are usually employed with a low-value resistor in series. thereby preserving their life. deteriorate. If the inductance is large enough. The straight plate indicates the positive terminal of the device. pressure washers and any small device requiring high starting torques. To start the motor. these were commonly found in contact breaker ignition systems. Motor starters In single phase squirrel cage motors. The start capacitor is typically mounted to the side of the motor housing. the current through the inductance collapses quickly. Decoupling 62 A decoupling capacitor is a capacitor used to protect one part of a circuit from the effect of another. but is capable of sustaining one. Polyester film capacitors are frequently used as coupling capacitors. they are often used to separate the AC and DC components of a signal. The motor is much like a two-phase induction motor. reducing the effect they have on the rest of the circuit. a large value of capacitance. but is sufficient to start the rotor spinning. Similarly. if it is polarized (see electrolytic capacitor). or sometimes weld together. to dissipate energy and minimize RFI. The force of the rotational field is not constant. the energy will generate a spark. In this case they are called grading capacitors. a secondary "Start" winding has a series non-polarized starting capacitor to introduce a lead in the sinusoidal current. but whose reactance is small at the signal frequency. a rotating electric field is created. When the secondary(Start) winding is placed at an angle with respect to the primary(Run) winding. or destroying a solid-state switch. This method is known as AC coupling or "capacitive coupling". for instance. whose value need not be accurately controlled. that have relatively high starting torque. which a filter capacitor absorbs. Noise caused by other circuit elements is shunted through the capacitor.

as in DRAMs. while running capacitors are conventional paper or plastic film dielectric types. For example. Capacitors are used as the sensor in condenser microphones. Tuned circuits Capacitors and inductors are applied together in tuned circuits to select information in particular frequency bands. The resonant frequency f of a tuned circuit is a function of the inductance (L) and capacitance (C) in series. and in many other applications. Speakers use passive analog crossovers. Capacitors with an exposed and porous dielectric can be used to measure humidity in air. as tilt sensors or to detect free fall. Signal processing circuits also use capacitors to integrate a current signal.Capacitor Motor-starting capacitors are typically non-polarized electrolytic types. the circuit capacitance increases. Changing the distance between the plates: Capacitors with a flexible plate can be used to measure strain or pressure. as in analog sampled filters and CCDs. relative to the fixed position of the other plate. Capacitors are used to accurately measure the fuel level in airplanes. e. various factors can change the structure of the capacitor. Industrial pressure transmitters used for process control use pressure-sensing diaphragms. However. . as sensors triggering airbag deployment. which form a capacitor plate of an oscillator circuit. Additionally. where one plate is moved by air pressure. either in binary form. and is given by: where L is in henries and C is in farads. and analog equalizers use capacitors to select different audio bands. Some fingerprint sensors use capacitors. and the resulting change in capacitance can be used to sense those factors.g. They are used to detect changes in acceleration. 63 Signal processing The energy stored in a capacitor can be used to represent information. Sensing Most capacitors are designed to maintain a fixed physical structure. Changing the dielectric: The effects of varying the characteristics of the dielectric can be used for sensing purposes. as the fuel covers more of a pair of plates. radio receivers rely on variable capacitors to tune the station frequency. a user can adjust the pitch of a theremin musical instrument by moving his hand since this changes the effective capacitance between the user's hand and the antenna. Capacitors can be used in analog circuits as components of integrators or more complex filters and in negative feedback loop stabilization. Some accelerometers use MEMS capacitors etched on a chip to measure the magnitude and direction of the acceleration vector. Changing the effective area of the plates: Capacitive touch switches are now used on many consumer electronic products. or in analogue form.

(1905). Joseph (1999). Capacitors may also have built-in discharge resistors to dissipate stored energy to a safe level within a few seconds after power is removed.5 volt AA battery contains a capacitor which may be charged to over 300 volts. Capacitors used in RF or sustained high-current applications can overheat. Notes [1] Henry Smith Williams. The Story of Electrical and Magnetic Measurements From 500 BC to the 1940s (http:/ / books. Service procedures for electronic devices usually include instructions to discharge large or high-voltage capacitors. Capacitors may catastrophically fail when subjected to voltages or currents beyond their rating. Swollen caps of electrolytic capacitors . Edwin J. High-voltage capacitors can benefit from a pre-charge to limit in-rush currents at power-up of high voltage direct current (HVDC) circuits. Dielectric or metal interconnection failures may create arcing that vaporizes the dielectric fluid. It is known that waste PCBs can leak into groundwater under landfills. 500 joule dose of energy. P. p. Some old. as protection from potentially dangerous voltages due to dielectric absorption. A resistor is connected between the terminals for safety. 23. Part VI: The Leyden Jar Discovered" (http:/ / www. . [2] Houston. google. For example. . or even an explosion. ISBN 0-7803-1193-0. to allow the stored energy to be released. "A History of Science Volume II. Capacitors used within high-energy capacitor banks can violently explode when a short in one capacitor causes sudden dumping of energy stored in the rest of the bank into the failing unit. even a seemingly innocuous device such as a disposable camera flash unit powered by a 1. html). Electricity in Every-day Life (http:/ / books. High-voltage capacitors are stored with the terminals shorted. this charge can cause dangerous or even potentially fatal shocks or damage connected equipment. worldwideschool. [3] Keithley.special design of semi-cut caps prevents capacitors from bursting This high-energy capacitor from a defibrillator can deliver a lethal. Capacitors containing PCB were labelled as containing "Askarel" and several other trade names. google. . rupture.Capacitor 64 Hazards and safety Capacitors may retain a charge long after power is removed from a circuit. or as they reach their normal end of life. com/ ?id=uwgNAtqSHuQC& printsec=frontcover& q). High voltage vacuum capacitors can generate soft X-rays even during normal operation. This will extend the life of the component and may mitigate high-voltage hazards. . resulting in case bulging. Proper containment. Collier & Son. large oil-filled paper or plastic film capacitors contain polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). PCB-filled paper capacitors are found in very old (pre-1975) fluorescent lamp ballasts. This is easily capable of delivering a shock. and preventive maintenance can help to minimize these hazards. especially in the center of the capacitor rolls. fusing. F. and other applications. com/ ?id=ko9BAAAAIAAJ& pg=PA71& dq=jar+ "von+ Kleist"). org/ library/ books/ sci/ history/ AHistoryofScienceVolumeII/ chap49. IEEE Press.

pdf) (PDF). Steve Guinta. google. Electromagnetism for Engineers. pdf Retrieved 10/28/2011 [17] Ulaby. Benjamin Franklin (http:/ / books. World Scientific. Retrieved 2009-02-19. pp44-45. Wright Center for Science Education. pp. F. Retrieved 2009-08-10. ga-esi. [5] Franklin. Ph.170 [18] S. (page 28). . com/ news/ 4278/ next-gen-car-solution-capacitor) . [12] Dorf. 136. 1965. allaboutcircuits. johansondielectrics. com/ ?id=oIW915dDMBwC& lpg=PA135& dq="benjamin franklin" leyden jar& pg=PA136#v=onepage& q=). All About Circuits. edu/ as/ wright_center/ personal_pages/ bob_m/ 04_Franklin_Lab_Part_IV. Pergamon Press. com/ support/ ep/ tech-bulletins/ voltage-reversal.D. 2006. Tufts University. chemteam.168 [9] Ulaby. p100. [15] F. "After Volta’s discovery of the electrochemical cell in 1800. p.169 [11] Hammond. 118–119. page 71 [16] http:/ / electrochem.157 [10] Ulaby. google. (September 2004). com/ vol_6/ chpt_3/ 17. P. P. [19] Stephen A. ISBN 9810217145. p. McGraw-Hill Professional. . Pai and Qi Zhang (1995). Analog Devices [25] Next-gen car solution? Scientists expand uses for electrostatic capacitor (http:/ / cleantech. Practical Electronics for Inventors. Robert A. ISBN 0071452818. edu/ encycl/ misc/ c04-appguide. The Popular Science Monthly (New York): pp. p501. Newnes. Simon and Schuster. . pdf) (PDF). . . p.263 [13] Dorf. 2001 ISBN 047139484X page 397 [20] Scherz. [21] Bird. Electrical Circuit Theory and Technology. p. p. tufts. com/ ?id=spZ_H4nwIN0C& pg=PA47& dq=breakdown+ field+ energy-density+ dielectric). html) . Discrete electronic components. [8] Ulaby. Benjamin (1749-04-29).. p. com/ books?id=eCADAAAAMBAJ& pg=PA117& source=gbs_toc_r& cad=1#v=onepage& q& f=false). May–Oct 1892. cwru. pdf [24] Ask The Applications Engineer – 21 (http:/ / www. the term was then applied to a group of electrochemical cells" [7] "Sketch of Alessandro Volta" (http:/ / books. com/ library/ analogDialogue/ Anniversary/ 21. Walter (2003). "Experiments & Observations on Electricity: Letter IV to Peter Collinson" (http:/ / www. 2007. google. (page 23). ISBN 075068139X. Cambridge University Press. T. p. J.Capacitor [4] Isaacson. 65 Catastrophic failure [6] Morse. [22] Ceramic Capacitor Aging Made Simple (http:/ / www.Wiley-IEEE. html).1981 ISBN 0521234700. ISBN 0684807610. Introduction to High Power Pulse Technology (http:/ / books.260 [14] "Capacitor charging and discharging : DC CIRCUITS" (http:/ / www. Mazda. Dyer (ed) Survey of instrumentation and measurement . com/ technicalnotes/ age/ ) [23] http:/ / www. analog. info/ Chem-History/ Franklin-1749/ Franklin-1749-all. . pp. "Franklin and Electrostatics—Ben Franklin as my Lab Partner" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2009-08-09. 9780684807614.

sparkmuseum. • Huelsman.htm/printable) How Capacitors are made (http://www. ISBN 0-13-057430-9. ISBN 0-471-38689-8. Newington CT USA: The Amateur Radio Relay League. ISBN 0-13-011554-1. New York: John Wiley and Sons.howstuffworks.1377872.au/AIC/VON_KLEIST_BIO. ISSN 0018-9235. "Pustak Mahal".ieee. 2nd Edition: March.org/jan05/2777).com/insight/how-capacitor-works) CapSite 2009: Introduction to Capacitors (http://my.).sentex. • Ulaby.Capacitor Markings and Color Codes (http://freecircuits.1109/MSPEC.com/low-esr-capacitor-manufacturers/) • How Capacitor Works . "Super Charged: A Tiny South Korean Company is Out to Make Capacitors Powerful enough to Propel the Next Generation of Hybrid-Electric Cars" (http://www. K. (1999). Fundamentals of Applied Electromagnetics (1999 ed.).com/BOOK_LEYDEN.ca/~mec1995/gadgets/caps/caps.html) External links • • • • Howstuffworks. James A. 1782 (Volta coins the word condenser) • A.. IEEE Spectrum 42 (1): 32. • Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society LXXII.robotplatform. (2001). Appendix 8.. Richard C.engineersgarage. (1972).html) • Low ESR Capacitor Manufacturers (http://www. Glenn (2005). Fawwaz T. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.net. Series in computer applications in electrical engineering. doi:10. Maini "Electronic Projects for Beginners". 1991. Inc.capacitorlab. 1998 (INDIA) • Spark Museum (http://www.spectrum.org/2012/01/ capacitors-basics-working/) . Upper Saddle River.HTM) (von Kleist and Musschenbroek) • Biography of von Kleist (http://www.2005. • Zorpette. Svoboda. Basic Circuit Theory with Digital Computations. • The ARRL Handbook for Radio Amateurs (68th ed.Capacitor 66 References • Dorf.html) – Includes how to read capacitor temperature codes • Introduction to Capacitor and Capacitor codes (http://www. Introduction to Electric Circuits (5th ed.).com/electronics/capacitor/ capacitor.com/~endlr/) Capacitor Tutorial (http://www. Lawrence P.com/capacitor. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.acmi.execpc.com: How Capacitors Work (http://electronics.

Energy is dissipated by the resistance of the wire. becoming self-resonant. coil or reactor) is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores energy in its magnetic field. and does not dissipate or radiate energy. a voltage is induced. the magnetic flux linking these turns can be increased by coiling the conductor around a material with a high permeability such as iron. Inductance is a measure of the amount of EMF generated per unit change in current. At high frequencies the capacitance begins to affect the inductor's behavior.Inductor 67 Inductor Inductor A selection of low-value inductors Type Passive Working principle Electromagnetic induction First production Michael Faraday (1831) Electronic symbol An inductor (also choke. However real inductors have resistance (due to the resistance of the wire and losses in core material). A change in this current creates a corresponding change in magnetic flux which. Ideal and real inductors An "ideal inductor" has inductance. This can increase the inductance by 2000 times. in turn. The number of loops. Inductors are one of the basic components used in electronics where current and voltage change with time. but no resistance or capacitance. which by Lenz's law opposes the change in current that created it. For example. For example. an inductor with an inductance of 1 henry produces an EMF of 1 volt when the current through the inductor changes at the rate of 1 ampere per second. and the material it is wrapped around all affect the inductance. by Faraday's law generates an electromotive force (EMF) that opposes this change in current. For comparison. At frequencies above this the capacitive reactance becomes the dominant part of the impedance. Electric current through the conductor creates a magnetic flux proportional to the current. and by any losses in the magnetic core due . due to the ability of inductors to delay and reshape alternating currents. according to Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction. Due to the time-varying magnetic field inside the coil. Overview Inductance (L) results from the magnetic field forming around a current-carrying conductor which tends to resist changes in the current. and a resistor does not store energy but rather dissipates energy as heat. and parasitic capacitance (due to the electric field between the turns of wire which are at slightly different potentials). the size of each loop. a capacitor stores energy in an electric field. real inductors behave as resonant circuits. at some frequency. Any conductor has inductance although the conductor is typically wound in loops to reinforce the magnetic field.

for instance. Real-world inductor applications may consider the parasitic parameters as important as the inductance. The An inductor with two 47mH efficiency of a transformer may decrease as the frequency increases due to eddy windings. Circuits and materials close to the inductor will have near-field coupling to the inductor's magnetic field. aircraft use 400 hertz alternating current rather than the usual 50 or 60 hertz. This energy transfer ratio determines the input-voltage to output-voltage ratio. Applications range from the use of large inductors in power supplies.Inductor to hysteresis. they are more commonly referred to as reactors. where they are used to depress voltages from lightning strikes and to limit switching currents and fault current. resistance and resistive losses in inductors grow due to skin effect in the inductor's winding wires. In this field. This XL is used in complement with an active semiconductor device to maintain very accurate voltage control. Two (or more) inductors that have coupled magnetic flux form a transformer. which is a fundamental component of every electric utility power grid. The size of the core can be decreased at higher frequencies and. radiating a part of energy processed into surrounding space and circuits. and de-energized for the remainder of the cycle. and accepting electromagnetic emissions from other circuits. iron core inductors also show gradual departure from ideal behavior due to nonlinearity caused by magnetic saturation. . At high currents. The inductor is energized for a specific fraction of the regulator's switching frequency. At higher frequencies. which may cause additional energy loss. Smaller inductor/capacitor combinations provide tuned circuits used in radio reception and broadcasting. currents in the core material and skin effect on the windings. taking part in electromagnetic interference. as may be found in a power supply. for this reason. Core losses also contribute to inductor losses at higher frequencies. Inductors are also employed in electrical transmission systems. Inductors in conjunction with capacitors and other components form tuned circuits which can emphasize or filter out specific signal frequencies. Larger value inductors may be simulated by use of gyrator circuits. which in conjunction with filter capacitors remove residual hums known as the mains hum or other fluctuations from the direct current output. allowing a great saving in weight from the use of smaller transformers.[1] An inductor is used as the energy storage device in some switched-mode power supplies. 68 Applications Inductors are used extensively in analog circuits and signal processing. to the small inductance of the ferrite bead or torus installed around a cable to prevent radio frequency interference from being transmitted down the wire. Practical inductors work as antennas.

• Proximity effect: Another similar effect that also increases the resistance of the wire at high frequencies is proximity effect. Some such planar inductors use a planar core. as well as those that actually have air inside the windings. wrapped around a core either of air or of ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic material. which are mostly air core types. The term refers to coils wound on plastic. or other nonmagnetic forms. inductors have higher resistance and other losses. which enables changing of the inductance. broadening the bandwidth. However. in resonant circuits this can reduce the Q factor of the circuit.Inductor 69 Inductor construction An inductor is usually constructed as a coil of conducting material. but are often used at high frequencies because they are free from energy losses called core losses that occur in ferromagnetic cores. Aluminium interconnect is typically used. Radio frequency alternating current does not penetrate far into the body of a conductor but travels along its surface. and it is far more common to use a circuit called a "gyrator" that uses a capacitor and active components to behave similarly to an inductor. thereby increasing the inductance. the small dimensions limit the inductance. Inductors come in many shapes. Low frequency inductors are constructed like transformers. Most are constructed as enamel coated wire (magnet wire) wrapped around a ferrite bobbin with wire exposed on the outside. which causes the current in the conductor to be . In RF inductors. most of the cross sectional area of the wire is not used to conduct the current. laid out in a spiral coil pattern. ceramic. Core materials with a higher permeability than air increase the magnetic field and confine it closely to the inductor. which is in a narrow annulus on the surface. The individual magnetic field of adjacent turns induces eddy currents in the wire of the coil. specialized construction techniques are used to minimize these losses. while some enclose the wire completely in ferrite and are referred to as "shielded". Air core coils have lower inductance than ferromagnetic core coils. Radio frequency inductor At high frequencies. Small inductors can be etched directly onto a printed circuit board by laying out the trace in a spiral pattern. typically copper wire. since they do not cause the large energy losses at high frequencies that ordinary iron alloys do. In addition to causing power loss. Inductors used to block very high frequencies are sometimes made by stringing a ferrite cylinder or bead on a wire. Types of inductor Air core inductor The term air core coil describes an inductor that does not use a magnetic core made of a ferromagnetic material. which occurs in parallel wires that lie close to each other. The losses are due to these effects: • Skin effect: The resistance of a wire to high frequency current is higher than its resistance to direct current because of skin effect. Small value inductors can also be built on integrated circuits using the same processes that are used to make transistors. Therefore. particularly radio frequencies (RF). Inductors. 'Soft' ferrites are widely used for cores above audio frequencies. in a solid wire. which increase with frequency. with cores of electrical steel laminated to prevent eddy currents. A side effect that can occur in air core coils in which the winding is not rigidly supported on a form is 'microphony': mechanical vibration of the windings can cause variations in the inductance. This effect increases the resistance of the wire in the coil. which may already have a relatively high resistance due to its length and small diameter. Major scale in centimetres. Some inductors have an adjustable core.

A magnetic core can increase the inductance of a coil by a factor of several thousand. causing the coil to become self-resonant. RF coils are constructed to avoid having many turns lying close together. increasing separation. The windings of RF coils are often limited to a single layer. The energy loss is proportional to the area of the hysteresis loop in the BH graph of the core material. this reduces the effective cross-sectional area of the wire conducting current. • Litz wire: To reduce skin effect losses. The amount of energy lost increases with the area inside the loop of current.[3] . some coils are wound with a special type of radio frequency wire called litz wire. • Parasitic capacitance: The capacitance between individual wire turns of the coil. To reduce parasitic capacitance and proximity effect. by increasing the magnetic field due to its higher magnetic permeability. and inductance these calculators can predict the losses of the inductors core and AC/DC based on the operating condition of the circuit being used. so the electric field between neighboring turns stores charge on the wire. the strands are insulated from each other. so successive turns of the spiral lie on opposite sides of the form. so skin effect distributes the current equally between the strands. to prevent skin effect from forcing the current to the surface. To reduce resistance due to skin effect. and the surface is silver-plated. which causes a time-varying magnetic field in its core. and are braided together. Using inputs such as input voltage. multilayer RF coils are wound in patterns in which successive turns are not parallel but crisscrossed at an angle. The braid pattern ensures that each wire strand spends the same amount of its length on the outside of the braid. ambient temperature. litz wire consists of several smaller wire strands that carry the current. due to two processes: • Eddy currents: From Faraday's law of induction. the energy loss per cycle of alternating current is constant. these are called spiderweb coils. and the turns are spaced apart. So the coil acts as if it has a capacitor in parallel with it. the changing magnetic field can induce circulating loops of electric current in the conductive metal core. 70 Ferromagnetic core inductor Ferromagnetic-core or iron-core inductors use a magnetic core made of a ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic material such as iron or ferrite to increase the inductance. output voltage. These are often wound on a flat insulating support with radial spokes or slots. • Honeycomb coils: To reduce proximity effect and parasitic capacitance. • Spiderweb coils: Another construction technique with similar advantages is flat spiral coils. with the wire weaving in and out through the slots. For both of these processes. At a high enough frequency this capacitance can resonate with the inductance of the coil forming a tuned circuit. called parasitic capacitance. Instead of a single solid conductor. output current. in high-power inductors such as those used in transmitters the windings are sometimes made of a metal strip or tubing which has a larger surface area. Online core loss calculators[2] are available to calculate the energy loss. • Hysteresis: Changing or reversing the magnetic field in the core also causes losses due to the motion of the tiny magnetic domains it is composed of. these are often called honeycomb or basket-weave coils. frequency. Unlike ordinary stranded wire. Each turn of the coil is at a slightly different potential. causes energy losses in the core material that are dissipated as heat. Materials with low coercivity have narrow hysteresis loops and so low hysteresis losses. The form has an odd number of slots. does not cause energy losses but can change the behavior of the coil. Like skin effect. The energy in these currents is dissipated as heat in the resistance of the core material. so core losses increase linearly with frequency. However the magnetic properties of the core material cause several side effects which alter the behavior of the inductor and require special construction: • Core losses: A time-varying current in a ferromagnetic inductor.Inductor concentrated in a thin strip on the side near the adjacent wire. resulting in a larger cross-sectional conduction area than an equivalent single wire. increasing its resistance. parallel to one another.

This is called nonlinearity and results in distortion of the signal. inductors are made with cores of ferrite. the inductance will not remain constant but will change with the current through the device. reducing the area of the loop and thus the energy loss greatly. They decrease the inductance because the magnetic field must bypass them. The formulation of ferrite is xxFe2O4 where xx represents various metals. . Another method to control the inductance without any moving parts requires an additional DC or LF current biased winding which controls the permeability of an easily saturable core material. A higher magnetic field and inductance can be achieved by forming the core in a closed magnetic circuit. in linear circuits the current through iron core inductors must be limited below the saturation level. audio signals can suffer intermodulation distortion in saturated inductors. so any remaining currents must be within the cross sectional area of the individual laminations. since manufacturing processes have certain tolerances (inaccuracy). The core is made of stacks of thin steel sheets or laminations oriented parallel to the field.[5] 71 Variable inductor A variable inductor can be constructed by making one of the terminals of the device a sliding spring contact that can move along the surface of the coil. to reduce hysteresis losses. Toroidal core coils are manufactured of various materials. Kool Mu MPP. because much of the magnetic field path is in air rather than the higher permeability core material. Ferrite-core inductor For higher frequencies. The shape often used is a toroidal or doughnut-shaped ferrite core.Inductor • Nonlinearity: If the current through a ferromagnetic core coil is high enough that the magnetic core saturates. Another similar material is powdered iron cemented with a binder. For example. so eddy currents cannot flow within it. Many inductors used in radio applications (usually less than 100 MHz) use adjustable cores in order to tune such inductors to their desired value. which can be slid in or out of the coil. An alternative construction method is to use a moveable magnetic core. Ferrite is a ceramic ferrimagnetic material that is nonconductive. The laminations are made of low-coercivity silicon steel. Moving the core farther into the coil increases the permeability. This reduces the field. Toroidal core inductor In an inductor wound on a straight rod-shaped core. increasing the inductance. toroidal cores allow a minimum of the magnetic flux to escape outside the core (called leakage flux). Sometimes such cores for frequencies above 100 MHz are made from highly conductive non-magnetic material such as aluminum. For inductor cores soft ferrites are used. primarily ferrite. which have low coercivity and thus low hysteresis losses. The insulation prevents eddy currents between the sheets. so they radiate less electromagnetic interference than other shapes. the magnetic field lines emerging from one end of the core must pass through the air to reenter the core at the other end. using construction similar to transformers. The magnetic field lines form closed loops within the core without leaving the core material. Because of their symmetry. with an insulating coating on the surface. To prevent this. increasing or decreasing the number of turns of the coil included in the circuit. powdered iron and laminated cores. Using a powdered iron core with a distributed air gap allows higher levels of magnetic flux which in turn allows a higher level of direct current through the inductor before it saturates. See Magnetic amplifier.[4] Laminated core inductor Low-frequency inductors are often made with laminated cores to prevent eddy currents.

only superconducting inductors have truly zero electrical resistance. the phase of the current lags that of the voltage by π/2. The amplitude of the voltage is proportional to the product of the amplitude (IP) of the current and the frequency (f) of the current. The relationship between the time-varying voltage v(t) across an inductor with inductance L and the time-varying current i(t) passing through it is described by the differential equation: When there is a sinusoidal alternating current (AC) through an inductor. a sinusoidal voltage is induced. If the inductor does have initial current. If an inductor is connected to a direct current source with value I via a resistance R. it can be represented by: • adding a voltage source in series with the inductor. having the value: (Note that the source should have a polarity that is aligned with the initial current) • or by adding a current source in parallel with the inductor. In this situation. having the value: where L is the inductance. An ideal inductor would offer no resistance to a constant direct current. and is the initial current in the inductor. the differential relationship above shows that the current through the inductor will discharge with an exponential decay: Laplace circuit analysis (s-domain) When using the Laplace transform in circuit analysis. and then the current source is short-circuited. and s is the complex frequency. however. the impedance of an ideal inductor with no initial current is represented in the s domain by: where L is the inductance. .Inductor 72 In electric circuits The effect of an inductor in a circuit is to oppose changes in current through it by developing a voltage across it proportional to the rate of change of the current.

To find their total inductance: These simple relationships hold true only when there is no mutual coupling of magnetic fields between individual inductors.Inductor 73 Inductor networks Inductors in a parallel configuration each have the same potential difference (voltage). Q factor An ideal inductor will be lossless irrespective of the amount of current through the winding. The Q factor of an inductor can be found through the following formula. thus causing a loss of inductive quality. To find their total equivalent inductance (Leq): The current through inductors in series stays the same. The sum of the potential differences (voltage) is equal to the total voltage. the closer it approaches the behavior of an ideal. However. lossless. This is given by: where L is inductance and I is the current through the inductor. inductor. Since the winding resistance appears as a resistance in series with the inductor. it is often called the series resistance. The higher the Q factor of the inductor. but the voltage across each inductor can be different. Stored energy The energy (measured in joules. where R is its internal (Series Model) electrical resistance and is capacitive or inductive reactance at resonance: . typically inductors have winding resistance from the metal wire forming the coils. This relationship is only valid for linear (non-saturated) regions of the magnetic flux linkage and current relationship. and is a measure of its efficiency. and therefore the magnetic field. in SI) stored by an inductor is equal to the amount of work required to establish the current through the inductor. The inductor's series resistance converts electric current through the coils into heat. The quality factor (or Q) of an inductor is the ratio of its inductive reactance to its resistance at a given frequency.

Bear in mind that for inductors with cores. This phenomenon can be avoided by using a (physically larger) air core inductor. Cores however also introduce losses that increase with frequency. core losses still exist. it can store a large amount of electrical energy within the surrounding magnetic field (see superconducting magnetic energy storage). An almost ideal inductor (Q approaching infinity) can be created by immersing a coil made from a superconducting alloy in liquid helium or liquid nitrogen. At VHF or higher frequencies an air core is likely to be used. Because a superconducting inductor is virtually lossless. causing its winding resistance to disappear. the inductance is greatly increased for the same amount of copper. Construction Cylindrical air-core coil [6] Formula • • • • • • Straight wire conductor [7] • • • • • • • +0-3% • • • • • • • • • • • • Dimensions L = inductance in henries (H) μ0 = permeability of free space = 4 × 10−7 H/m [6] K = Nagaoka coefficient N = number of turns A = area of cross-section of the coil in square metres (m2) l = length of coil in metres (m) L = inductance l = cylinder length c = cylinder radius μ0 = vacuum permeability = nH/cm μ = conductor permeability p = resistivity ω = phase rate L = inductance (µH) l = length of conductor (mm) d = diameter of conductor (mm) f = frequency L = inductance (µH) l = length of conductor (mm) d = diameter of conductor (mm) f = frequency L = inductance (µH) r = outer radius of coil (in) l = length of coil (in) N = number of turns exact if ω = 0 or ω=∞ Notes • • • Cu or Al l > 100 d d2 f > 1 mm2 MHz Cu or Al l > 100 d d2 f < 1 mm2 MHz +0-3% • • • Short air-core cylindrical [8] coil .Inductor 74 By using a ferromagnetic core. This supercools the wire. A well designed air core inductor may have a Q of several hundred. Inductance formulae The table below lists some common simplified formulas for calculating the approximate inductance of several inductor constructions. multiplying up the Q. Inductors wound around a ferromagnetic core may saturate at high currents. A grade of core material is chosen for best results for the frequency band. causing a dramatic decrease in inductance (and Q).

Inductor 75 • • • • • L = inductance (µH) r = mean radius of coil (in) l = physical length of coil winding (in) N = number of turns d = depth of coil (outer radius minus inner radius) (in) L = inductance (µH) r = mean radius of coil (cm) N = number of turns d = depth of coil (outer radius minus inner radius) (cm) L = inductance (µH) r = mean radius of coil (in) N = number of turns d = depth of coil (outer radius minus inner radius) (in) accurate to within 5 percent for d > [10] 0.2 r. L = inductance (µH) μ0 = permeability of free space = 4 × 10−7 H/m μr = relative permeability of core material d = diameter of coil winding (in) N = number of turns D = 2 * radius of revolution (in) L = inductance (µH) μ0 = permeability of free space = 4 × 10−7 H/m μr = relative permeability of core material d = diameter of coil winding (in) N = number of turns D = 2 * radius of revolution (in) approximation when d < 0.1 D L = inductance (µH) μ0 = permeability of free space = 4 × 10−7 H/m μr = relative permeability of core material d1 = inside diameter of toroid (in) d2 = outside diameter of toroid (in) N = number of turns h = height of toroid (in) Multilayer air-core coil Flat spiral air-core coil [9] • • • • • • • • • Toroidal core (circular [11] cross-section) • • • • • • • • • • • • • Toroidal core (rectangular [12] cross-section) • • • • • • • .

datasheetarchive. 1908.htm) . [10] Terman 1943. Imperial University. [4] "Inductors 101" (http:/ / www. html).edu.66pacific. [3] View: Everyone Only Notes.phys. newark. Terman 1943. g3ynh. info/ zdocs/ refs/ Nagaoka1909. Retrieved 2010-09-24. 1938). [2] Vishay. Hantaro (1909-05-06). pdf). Radio Engineers' Handbook. element14. 58 [11] Terman 1943. Retrieved 2010-09-24. Wonderquest. . 27.Inductors . com/ expounding-aircraft-electrical-systems. element-14. and 6.mpdigest. [9] For the second formula. E. A.4. R.A chapter from an online textbook • Spiral inductor models (http://www. "IHLP inductor loss calculator tool" (http:/ / www.howstuffworks.2.com/html_books/4em/ch07/ch07. No.html) • Understanding coils and transforms (http://www. p. (October. Online calculator calculates the inductance of conventional and toroidal coils using formulas 3.com/issue/Articles/2005/aug2005/agilent/Default.mikroe. Retrieved 2010-09-24. [6] Nagaoka. info/ zdocs/ refs/ Rosa1908/ index.html) . 58 References • Terman. vishay.IHLP inductor loss calculator tool landing page" (http:/ / www. Journal of the College of Science. Retrieved 2010-09-24. Vol.com/inductor1. wonderquest. Retrieved 2010-09-24. com/ community/ docs/ DOC-17923).htm) The initial concept. Vishay. American Radio Relay League (1989).unsw. [5] "Inductor and Magnetic Product Terminology" (http:/ / www. pdf). p. 58 which cites to Wheeler 1938. p301-344 (http:/ / www. html) [8] ARRL Handbook. . .com. "Simple Inductance Formulae for Radio Coils". vishay. [7] The Self and Mutual Inductances of Linear Conductors. 5. htm). 16: 1398 External links General • How stuff works (http://electronics. Proc.com.aspx). com/ inductors/ calculator-home-list/ ). 4. • Online coil inductance calculator (http://www. Datasheetarchive. The Inductance Coefficients of Solenoids (http:/ / www. p. 18. 57 [12] Terman 1943. com/ pdfs/ techarticles/ vishay/ Inductors101. com/ datasheet-pdf/ 072/ DSA00379445. • AC circuits (http://www. .Inductor 76 Notes [1] "Aircraft electrical systems" (http:/ / www.lightandmatter. . I. McGraw-Hill • Wheeler. Frederick (1943). Tokyo. H.com/calculators/coil_calc. By Edward B. Rosa. p. Bulletin of the Bureau of Standards. Japan. Retrieved 2011-11-10. above.com/en/books/keu/03. . 66th Ed. p. made very simple • Capacitance and Inductance (http://www. g3ynh. Article on inductor characteristics and modeling.au/~jw/AC. "Products .asp).

Complex impedance Impedance is represented as a complex quantity and the term complex impedance may be used interchangeably.. where the magnitude represents the ratio of the voltage difference amplitude to the current amplitude. and is used instead of in this context to avoid confusion with the symbol for electric current. The term impedance was coined by Oliver Heaviside in July 1886. complex number representation is often more powerful for circuit analysis purposes.[3] Impedance is defined as the frequency domain ratio of the voltage to the current. The impedance caused by these two effects is collectively referred to as reactance and forms the imaginary part of complex impedance whereas resistance forms the real part. there is no distinction between impedance and resistance. and the electrostatic storage of charge induced by voltages between conductors (capacitance).[4] In other words. It is necessary to introduce the concept of impedance in AC circuits because there are other mechanisms impeding the flow of current besides the normal resistance of DC circuits. In general. it is the voltage–current ratio for a single complex exponential at a particular frequency ω. with the same units as resistance. it is the complex ratio of the voltage to the current in an alternating current (AC) circuit. . unlike resistance which has only magnitude. However. admittance is the current-to-voltage ratio. Impedance extends the concept of resistance to AC circuits. • The phase of the complex impedance is the phase shift by which the current is ahead of the voltage. the latter can be thought of as impedance with zero phase angle.Electrical impedance 77 Electrical impedance Electrical impedance. In Cartesian form. There are an A graphical representation of the complex impedance plane additional two impeding mechanisms to be taken into account in AC circuits: the induction of voltages in conductors self-induced by the magnetic fields of currents (inductance). the polar form conveniently captures both magnitude and phase characteristics. or simply impedance. and it conventionally carries units of siemens. is the measure of the opposition that a circuit presents to the passage of a current when a voltage is applied.e.[1][2] Arthur Kennelly was the first to represent impedance with complex numbers in 1893. The reciprocal of impedance is admittance (i. In quantitative terms. • The magnitude of the complex impedance is the ratio of the voltage amplitude to the current amplitude. When a circuit is driven with direct current (DC). The symbol for impedance is usually and it may be represented by writing its magnitude and phase in the form . where the real part of impedance is the resistance and the imaginary part is the reactance . impedance will be a complex number. for which the SI unit is the ohm (Ω). while the argument gives the phase difference between voltage and current. In particular. the polar form of the complex impedance relates the amplitude and phase of the voltage and current. For a sinusoidal current or voltage input. is the imaginary unit. formerly called mhos). and possesses both magnitude and phase.

and Norton's theorem can also be extended to AC circuits by replacing resistance with impedance. A circuit calculation. current division. An AC supply applying a voltage load . the current signal is shifted later with respect to the voltage signal). drop in voltage amplitude across an impedance The phase factor tells us that the current lags the voltage by a phase of (i.e. 78 Ohm's law The meaning of electrical impedance can be understood by substituting it into Ohm's law. may require conversion between forms several times during the calculation. other results from DC circuit analysis such as voltage division. giving the for a given current .[5][6] The magnitude of the impedance acts just like resistance. across a . .Electrical impedance Where it is required to add or subtract impedances the cartesian form is more convenient. but when quantities are multiplied or divided the calculation becomes simpler if the polar form is used. Just as impedance extends Ohm's law to cover AC circuits. driving a current . Thevenin's theorem. such as finding the total impedance of two impedances in parallel. Conversion between the forms follows the normal conversion rules of complex numbers. in the time domain.

sinusoidal voltage and current waves are commonly represented as complex-valued functions of time denoted as and . we may analyse the behaviour of the sinusoid on the left-hand side by analysing the behaviour of the two complex terms on the right-hand side. Substituting these into Ohm's law we have Generalized impedances in a circuit can be drawn with the same symbol as a resistor (US ANSI or DIN Euro) or with a labeled box. Given the symmetry. the results will be identical for the other. By the principle of superposition. Noting that this must hold for all . Validity of complex representation This representation using complex exponentials may be justified by noting that (by Euler's formula): i.Electrical impedance 79 Complex voltage and current In order to simplify calculations. we only need to perform the analysis for one right-hand term. we may return to real-valued sinusoids by further noting that . a real-valued sinusoidal function (which may represent our voltage or current waveform) may be broken into two complex-valued functions. At the end of any calculation.e. we may equate the magnitudes and phases to obtain The magnitude equation is the familiar Ohm's law applied to the voltage and current amplitudes. while the second equation defines the phase relationship.[7][8] Impedance is defined as the ratio of these quantities.

The impedance of a circuit element can be defined as the ratio of the phasor voltage across the element to the phasor current through the element. Device examples The impedance of an ideal resistor is purely real and is referred to as a resistive impedance: In this case. in a capacitor the current is leading. the phases have opposite signs: in an inductor. 90 degrees out of phase with the voltage.Electrical impedance 80 In other words. the current is lagging. the voltage and current waveforms are proportional and in phase. Phasors are used by electrical engineers to simplify computations involving sinusoids. while the voltage across an inductor leads the current through it by . The identical voltage and the impedance of capacitors decreases as frequency increases. . The phase angles in the equations for the impedance of inductors and capacitors indicate that the voltage across a capacitor lags the current through it by a phase of . In both cases. Ideal inductors and capacitors have a purely imaginary reactive impedance: the impedance of inductors increases as frequency increases. Phasors A phasor is a constant complex number. recognising that the factors of cancel. usually expressed in exponential form. we simply take the real part of the result. where they can often reduce a differential equation problem to an algebraic one. This is identical to the definition from Ohm's law given above. for an applied sinusoidal voltage. representing the complex amplitude (magnitude and phase) of a sinusoidal function of time. the equal to one. Note the following identities for the imaginary unit and its reciprocal: current amplitudes indicate that the magnitude of the impedance is Thus the inductor and capacitor impedance equations can be rewritten in polar form: The magnitude gives the change in voltage amplitude for a given current amplitude through the impedance. as determined by the relative amplitudes and phases of the voltage and current. while the exponential factors give the phase relationship. but in quadrature. resulting current is also sinusoidal. However.

by applying Euler's formula. This result is commonly expressed as . Although the idea can be extended to define the relationship between the voltage and current of any arbitrary signal. since any arbitrary signal can be approximated as a sum of sinusoids through Fourier analysis. as . these derivations will assume sinusoidal signals. the capacitor. and Capacitor For a capacitor. and the inductor.Electrical impedance 81 Deriving the device-specific impedances What follows below is a derivation of impedance for each of the three basic circuit elements: the resistor. there is the relation: This is simply a statement of Ohm's law. as . there is the relation: Considering the voltage signal to be it follows that And thus This says that the ratio of AC voltage amplitude to AC amplitude across a capacitor is This result is commonly expressed in polar form. Considering the voltage signal to be it follows that This says that the ratio of AC voltage amplitude to alternating current (AC) amplitude across a resistor is that the AC voltage leads the current across a resistor by 0 degrees. and that the AC voltage lags the AC across a capacitor by 90 degrees (or the AC leads the AC voltage across a capacitor by 90 degrees). Resistor For a resistor. or.

a complex number. . more simply. in general. as .Electrical impedance Inductor For the inductor. This result is commonly expressed in polar form. Complex frequency is given the symbol s and is. The concept of impedance can be extended to a circuit energised with any arbitrary signal by using complex frequency instead of jω. using Euler's formula. For a steady-state sinusoidal AC signal s = jω. considering the current signal to be it follows that And thus This says that the ratio of AC voltage amplitude to AC amplitude across an inductor is leads the AC across an inductor by 90 degrees. Signals are expressed in terms of complex frequency by taking the Laplace transform of the time domain expression of the signal. The impedance of the basic circuit elements in this more general notation is as follows: Element Impedance expression Resistor Inductor Capacitor For a DC circuit this simplifies to s = 0. we have the relation: 82 This time. as Generalised s-plane impedance Impedance defined in terms of jω can strictly only be applied to circuits which are energised with a steady-state AC signal. and that the AC voltage or.

as no charge flows in the dielectric. a device with a purely resistive impedance exhibits no phase shift between the voltage and current. When the potential associated with the charge exactly balances the applied voltage. Inductive reactance Inductive reactance is proportional to the signal frequency and the inductance . . A DC voltage applied across a capacitor causes charge to accumulate on one side. Reactance Reactance is the imaginary part of the impedance. For an inductor consisting of a coil with loops this gives. a capacitor will only accumulate a limited amount of charge before the potential difference changes sign and the charge dissipates. A pure reactance will not dissipate any power. An inductor consists of a coiled conductor.Electrical impedance 83 Resistance vs reactance Resistance and reactance together determine the magnitude and phase of the impedance through the following relations: In many applications the relative phase of the voltage and current is not critical so only the magnitude of the impedance is significant. At low frequencies a capacitor is open circuit. A purely reactive component is distinguished by the fact that the sinusoidal voltage across the component is in quadrature with the sinusoidal current through the component. This implies that the component alternately absorbs energy from the circuit and then returns energy to the circuit. a component with a finite reactance induces a phase shift between the voltage across it and the current through it. the electric field due to the accumulated charge is the source of the opposition to the current. also known as a dielectric. Driven by an AC supply. Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction gives the back emf (voltage opposing current) due to a rate-of-change of magnetic flux density through a current loop. The higher the frequency. Resistance Resistance is the real part of impedance. the current goes to zero. Capacitive reactance A capacitor has a purely reactive impedance which is inversely proportional to the signal frequency. A capacitor consists of two conductors separated by an insulator. the less charge will accumulate and the smaller the opposition to the current.

Series combination For components connected in series.[9] . 84 Combining impedances The total impedance of many simple networks of components can be calculated using the rules for combining impedances in series and parallel. the total impedance is simply the sum of the component impedances. and sees an inductor as a short-circuit (it is typically made from a material with a low resistivity). except that the numbers in general will be complex numbers. In the general case however. Hence the inverse total impedance is the sum of the inverses of the component impedances: or. Or explicitly in real and imaginary terms: Parallel combination For components connected in parallel. equivalent impedance transforms in addition to series and parallel will be required. when n = 2: The equivalent impedance can be calculated in terms of the equivalent resistance and reactance . An alternating current has a time-averaged rate-of-change that is proportional to frequency. A constant direct current has a zero rate-of-change. the ratio of currents through any two elements is the inverse ratio of their impedances. the current through each circuit element is the same.Electrical impedance The back-emf is the source of the opposition to current flow. this causes the increase in inductive reactance with frequency. The rules are identical to those used for combining resistances. the voltage across each circuit element is the same.

ISBN 0-521-37095-7. html#c3). Fundamentals of Electric Circuits (3. ISBN 0821834657 Kennelly. Hyperphysics [10] Lewis Jr. and measuring the voltage across the resistor and across the device. this description is an approximation. 1893) (http:/ / ieeexplore. Matthew (2006). Performing this measurement by sweeping the frequencies of the applied signal provides the impedance phase and magnitude. the circuit element cannot be described using the frequency domain. phy-astr. However. That is. pp. many systems (e. [7] Complex impedance (http:/ / hyperphysics. phy-astr. gsu. edu/ hbase/ electric/ impcom. p.[10] Variable impedance In general. org/ EJ/ abstract/ 0957-0233/ 19/ 10/ 105102/ ). the voltage–current relationship is non-LTI and cannot be described by impedance. [9] Parallel Impedance Expressions (http:/ / hyperphysics. html)..g. 31–32. revised ed. Arthur. they can be roughly described as having a time-varying impedance. "1". hence. Paul..[10] Impulse impedance spectroscopy The use of an impulse response may be used in combination with the fast Fourier transform (FFT) to rapidly measure the electrical impedance of various electrical devices. The Electrician. Paul. doi:10. 212. over large signal swings or observation windows. jsp?arnumber=4768008) Alexander. Winfield (1989). Charles. 32–33. The technique compares well to other methodologies such as network and impedance analyzers while providing additional versatility in the electrical impedance measurement. 387–389. Measurement Science and Technology 19 (10): 105102. Hill.). McGraw-Hill. org/ xpls/ abs_all. 23 July 1886. phy-astr. George K. . varicaps that are used in radio tuners) may exhibit non-linear or time-varying voltage–current ratios that appear to be linear time-invariant (LTI) for small signals over small observation windows. Winfield (1989). iop. 18. easy to implement and completed with ordinary laboratory instrumentation for minimal cost. "Cost-effective broad-band electrical impedance spectroscopy measurement circuit and signal analysis for piezo-materials and ultrasound transducers" (http:/ / www. Impedance (AIEE. p. pp. gsu. ISBN 9780073301150 [5] AC Ohm's law (http:/ / hyperphysics. Sadiku. and William Olbricht (August 2008). The Art of Electronics. PMC 2600501. The impedance of the device can be calculated by applying a sinusoidal voltage to the device in series with a resistor.1088/0957-0233/19/10/105102. George. Cambridge University Press. The technique is theoretically simple. Cambridge University Press. Hill. PMID 19081773. p 64. reprinted as Electrical Papers. gsu. The Art of Electronics. ISBN 0-521-37095-7. ieee. edu/ hbase/ electric/ imped. If the complex exponential voltage–current ratio changes over time or amplitude. Hyperphysics [8] Horowitz. Bibcode 2008MeScT. html#c1). . 1888 Oliver Heaviside. neither impedance nor admittance can be time varying as they are defined for complex exponentials for –∞ < t < +∞..19j5102L.Electrical impedance 85 Measurement The impedance of a device can be calculated by complex division of the voltage and current. Hyperphysics [6] Horowitz. Lewis Sr. pp. AMS Bookstore. "1". edu/ hbase/ electric/ imped. References [1] [2] [3] [4] Science. Retrieved 2008-09-15.

Electrical impedance

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External links

• Explaining Impedance (http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/electric/imped.html) • Antenna Impedance (http://www.antenna-theory.com/basics/impedance.php) • ECE 209: Review of Circuits as LTI Systems (http://www.tedpavlic.com/teaching/osu/ece209/support/ circuits_sys_review.pdf) – Brief explanation of Laplace-domain circuit analysis; includes a definition of impedance.

Voltage source

In electric circuit theory, an ideal voltage source is a circuit element where the voltage across it is independent of the current through it. A voltage source is the dual of a current source. In analysis, a voltage source supplies a constant DC or AC potential between its terminals for any current flow through it. Real-world sources of electrical energy, such as batteries, generators, or power systems, can be modeled for analysis purposes as a combination of an ideal voltage source and additional combinations of impedance elements.

**Ideal voltage sources
**

An ideal voltage source is a mathematical abstraction that simplifies the analysis of electric circuits. If the voltage across an ideal voltage source can be specified independently of any other variable in a circuit, it is called an independent voltage source. Conversely, if the voltage across an ideal voltage source is determined by some other voltage or current in a circuit, it is called a dependent or controlled voltage source. A mathematical model of an amplifier will include dependent voltage sources whose magnitude is governed by some fixed relation to an input signal, for example.[1] In the analysis of faults on electrical power systems, the whole network of interconnected sources and transmission lines can be usefully replaced by an ideal (AC) voltage source and a single equivalent impedance.

A schematic diagram of an ideal voltage source, V, driving a resistor, R, and creating a current I

Voltage Source

Current Source

Controlled Voltage Source Controlled Current Source

Battery of cells

Single cell

Symbols used for voltage sources The internal resistance of an ideal voltage source is zero; it is able to supply or absorb any amount of current. The current through an ideal voltage source is completely determined by the external circuit. When connected to an open circuit, there is zero current and thus zero power. When connected to a load resistance, the current through the source approaches infinity as the load resistance approaches zero (a short circuit). Thus, an ideal voltage source can supply

Voltage source unlimited power. No real voltage source is ideal; all have a non-zero effective internal resistance, and none can supply unlimited current. However, the internal resistance of a real voltage source is effectively modeled in linear circuit analysis by combining a non-zero resistance in series with an ideal voltage source (a Thévenin equivalent circuit).

87

**Comparison between voltage and current sources
**

Most sources of electrical energy (the mains, a battery) are modeled as voltage sources. An ideal voltage source provides no energy when it is loaded by an open circuit (i.e. an infinite impedance), but approaches infinite energy and current when the load resistance approaches zero (a short circuit). Such a theoretical device would have a zero ohm output impedance in series with the source. A real-world voltage source has a very low, but non-zero output impedance: often much less than 1 ohm. Conversely, a current source provides a constant current, as long as the load connected to the source terminals has sufficiently low impedance. An ideal current source would provide no energy to a short circuit and approach infinite energy and voltage as the load resistance approaches infinity (an open circuit). An ideal current source has an infinite output impedance in parallel with the source. A real-world current source has a very high, but finite output impedance. In the case of transistor current sources, impedance of a few megohms (at low frequencies) is typical. Since no ideal sources of either variety exist (all real-world examples have finite and non-zero source impedance), any current source can be considered as a voltage source with the same source impedance and vice versa. Voltage sources and current sources are sometimes said to be duals of each other and any non ideal source can be converted from one to the other by applying Norton's or Thevenin's theorems.

**References and notes
**

[1] K. C. A. Smith, R. E. Alley , Electrical circuits: an introduction, Cambridge University Press, 1992 ISBN 0521377692, pp. 11-13

Current source

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Current source

A current source is an electrical or electronic device that delivers or absorbs electric current. A current source is the dual of a voltage source. The term constant-current sink is sometimes used for sources fed from a negative voltage supply. Figure 1 shows a schematic for an ideal current source driving a resistor load.

Figure 1: An ideal current source, I, driving a resistor, R, and creating a voltage V

Background

Voltage source

Current Source

Controlled Voltage Source Controlled Current Source

Battery of cells

Single cell

Figure 2: Source symbols In circuit theory, an ideal current source is a circuit element where the current through it is independent of the voltage across it. It is a mathematical model, which real devices can only approach in performance. If the current through an ideal current source can be specified independently of any other variable in a circuit, it is called an independent current source. Conversely, if the current through an ideal current source is determined by some other voltage or current in a circuit, it is called a dependent or controlled current source. Symbols for these sources are shown in Figure 2. An independent current source with zero current is identical to an ideal open circuit. For this reason, the internal resistance of an ideal current source is infinite. The voltage across an ideal current source is completely determined by the circuit it is connected to. When connected to a short circuit, there is zero voltage and thus zero power delivered. When connected to a load resistance, the voltage across the source approaches infinity as the load resistance approaches infinity (an open circuit). Thus, an ideal current source, if such a thing existed in reality, could supply unlimited power and so would represent an unlimited source of energy. No real current source is ideal (no unlimited energy sources exist) and all have a finite internal resistance (none can supply unlimited voltage). However, the internal resistance of a physical current source is effectively modeled in circuit analysis by combining a non-zero resistance in parallel with an ideal current source (the Norton equivalent

Current source circuit). The connection of an ideal open circuit to an ideal non-zero current source does not represent any physically realizable system.

89

Implementations

Passive current source

The simplest non-ideal current source consists of a voltage source in series with a resistor. The current available from such a source is given by the ratio of the voltage across the voltage source to the resistance of the resistor. This value of current will only be delivered to a load with zero voltage drop across its terminals (a short circuit, an uncharged capacitor, a charged inductor, a virtual ground circuit, etc.) The current delivered to a load with nonzero voltage (drop) across its terminals (a linear or nonlinear resistor with a finite resistance, a charged capacitor, an uncharged inductor, a voltage source, etc.) will always be different. It is given by the ratio of the voltage drop across the resistor (the difference between the exciting voltage and the voltage across the load) to its resistance. For a nearly ideal current source, the value of the resistor should be very large but this implies that, for a specified current, the voltage source must be very large (in the limit as the resistance and the voltage go to infinity, the current source will become ideal and the current will not depend at all on the voltage across the load). Thus, efficiency is low (due to power loss in the resistor) and it is usually impractical to construct a 'good' current source this way. Nonetheless, it is often the case that such a circuit will provide adequate performance when the specified current and load resistance are small. For example, a 5 V voltage source in series with a 4.7 kilohm resistor will provide an approximately constant current of 1 mA (±5%) to a load resistance in the range of 50 to 450 ohm. A Van de Graaff generator is an example of such a high voltage current source. It behaves as an almost constant current source because of its very high output voltage coupled with its very high output resistance and so it supplies the same few microamperes at any output voltage up to hundreds of thousands of volts (or even tens of megavolts) for large laboratory versions.

**Active current sources without negative feedback...
**

In these circuits, the output current is not monitored and controlled by means of negative feedback. Current-stable nonlinear implementation They are implemented by active electronic components (transistors) having current-stable nonlinear output characteristic when driven by steady input quantity (current or voltage). These circuits behave as dynamic resistors changing its present resistance to compensate current variations. For example, if the load increases its resistance, the transistor decreases its present output resistance (and v.v.) to keep up a constant total resistance in the circuit. Active current sources have many important applications in electronic circuits. They are often used in place of ohmic resistors in analog integrated circuits (e.g., a differential amplifier) to generate a current that depends slightly on the voltage across the load. The common emitter configuration driven by a constant input current or voltage and common source (common cathode) driven by a constant voltage naturally behave as current sources (or sinks) because the output impedance of these devices is naturally high. The output part of the simple current mirror is an example of such a current source widely used in integrated circuits. The common base, common gate and common grid configurations can serve as constant current sources as well. A JFET can be made to act as a current source by tying its gate to its source. The current then flowing is the IDSS of the FET. These can be purchased with this connection already made and in this case the devices are called current regulator diodes or constant current diodes or current limiting diodes (CLD). An enhancement mode N channel MOSFET can be used in the circuits listed below.

Current source Following voltage implementation An example: Bootstrapped current source (Widlar bilateral current source [1]). Voltage compensation implementation The simple resistor current source will become "ideal" if the voltage across the load is somehow held zero. This idea seems paradoxical since real loads always "create" voltage drops across themselves but it is yet implemented by applying a parallel negative feedback. In these circuits, an op-amp compensates the voltage drop across the load by adding the same voltage to the exciting input voltage. As a result, the op-amp inverting input is held at virtual ground and the combination of the input voltage source, the resistor and the supplied op-amp constitutes an Figure 3: In an op-amp voltage-controlled current source the op-amp compensates the "ideal" current source with value IOUT voltage drop across the load by adding the same voltage to the exciting input voltage. = VIN /R. The op-amp voltage-to-current converter in Figure 3, a transimpedance amplifier and an op-amp inverting amplifier are typical implementations of this idea. The floating load is a serious disadvantage of this circuit solution. Current compensation implementation A typical example are Howland current source[2] and its derivative Deboo integrator.[3] In the last example (see Fig. 1 there), the Howland current source consists of an input voltage source VIN, a positive resistor R, a load (the capacitor C acting as impedance Z) and a negative impedance converter INIC (R1 = R2 = R3 = R and the op-amp). The input voltage source and the resistor R constitute an imperfect current source passing current IR through the load (see Fig. 3 in the source). The INIC acts as a second current source passing "helping" current I-R through the load. As a result, the total current flowing through the load is constant and the circuit impedance seen by the input source is increased. The grounded load is an advantage of this circuit solution.

90

**Current sources with negative feedback
**

They are implemented as a voltage follower with series negative feedback driven by a constant input voltage source (i.e., a negative feedback voltage stabilizer). The voltage follower is loaded by a constant (current sensing) resistor acting as a simple current-to-voltage converter connected in the feedback loop. The external load of this current source is connected somewhere in the path of the current supplying the current sensing resistor but out of the feedback loop. The voltage follower adjusts its output current IOUT flowing through the load so that to make the voltage drop VR = IOUT.R across the current sensing resistor R equal to the constant input voltage VIN. Thus the voltage stabilizer keeps up a constant voltage drop across a constant resistor; so, a constant current IOUT = VR/R = VIN/R flows through the resistor and respectively through the load.

Current sources implemented as circuits with series negative feedback have the disadvantage that the voltage drop across the current sensing resistor decreases the maximal voltage across the load (the compliance voltage). where VBE is the base-emitter drop of Q1. As a result. it follows that VR2 is constant and hence IE is also constant. Simple transistor current sources Zener diode current source In this BJT implementation (figure 4) of the general idea above. it can be thought as a reversed (by means of negative feedback) current-to-voltage converter. The emitter current of Q1 which is also the current through R2 is given by Since VZ is constant and VBE is also (approximately) constant for a given temperature. a Zener voltage stabilizer (R1 and DZ1) drives an emitter follower (Q1) loaded by a constant emitter resistor (R2) sensing the load current. the load current will be independent of the supply voltage. A Zener diode. this arrangement will act as a voltage-to-current converter (voltage-controlled current source VCCS).65 V for a silicon device. The constant Zener voltage is applied across the base of Q1 and emitter resistor R2. the load current is constant (neglecting the output resistance of the transistor due to the Early effect) and the circuit operates as a constant current source. Resistor R1 supplies the Zener current and the base current (IB) of NPN transistor (Q1). R1 and the transistor's gain. the output current is almost constant even if the load resistance and/or voltage vary. Due to transistor action. The transistor Q1 adjusts the output (collector) current so as to keep the voltage drop across the constant emitter resistor R2 almost equal to the relatively constant voltage drop across the Zener diode DZ1. the voltage across the Zener diode (VZ) will be constant. The resistance R determines the transfer ratio (transconductance). Thus. as long as the Zener current (IZ) is above a certain level (called holding current). is the current through the load). As long as the temperature remains constant (or doesn't vary much).VBE.[4] . R2 allows the load current to be set at any desirable value and is calculated by or . emitter current IE is very nearly equal to the collector current IC of the transistor (which in turn. since VBE is typically 0.Current source If the input voltage varies. when reverse biased (as shown in the circuit) has a constant voltage drop across it irrespective of the current flowing through it. 91 Figure 4: Typical BJT constant current source with negative feedback Voltage across R2 (VR2) is given by VZ . Thus. The external (floating) load of this current source is connected to the collector so that almost the same current flows through it and the emitter resistor (they can be thought of as connected in series). The operation of the circuit is considered in details below.

R2 is calculated as and R1 as . a light-emitting diode LED1 as shown in Figure 5. Figure 5: Typical constant current source (CCS) using LED instead of Zener diode . Resistance R1 at resistor R1 is calculated as 92 where K = 1. e. provided hFE is sufficiently large).Current source (IR2 is also the emitter current and is assumed to be the same as the collector or required load current. The LED voltage drop (VD) is now used to derive the constant voltage and also has the additional advantage of tracking (compensating) VBE changes due to temperature.2 to 2 (so that R1 is low enough to ensure adequate IB).g. and hFE(min) is the lowest acceptable current gain for the particular transistor type being used. where ID is the LED current. LED current source The Zener diode can be replaced by any other diode.

it is exactly the Zener voltage divided by the sense resistor. As a result. The load can be connected either in the emitter (Figure 7) or in the collector (Figure 4) but in both the cases it is floating as in all the circuits above. For breakdown diodes of less than 5. Op-amp current sources The simple transistor current source from Figure 4 can be improved by inserting the base-emitter junction of the transistor in the feedback loop of an op-amp (Figure 7).Current source Transistor current source with diode compensation Temperature changes will change the output current delivered by the circuit of Figure 4 because VBE is sensitive to temperature. The article on current mirror discusses another example of these so-called gain-boosted current mirrors.6 V or more.6 V. Current mirror with emitter degeneration Series negative feedback is also used in the two-transistor current mirror with emitter degeneration. The transistor is not needed if the required current doesn't exceed the sourcing ability of the op-amp.[6]) This method is most effective for Zener diodes rated at 5.65 V for silicon devices. Temperature dependence can be compensated using the circuit of Figure 6 that includes a standard diode D (of the same semiconductor material as the transistor) in series with the Zener diode as shown in the image on the left. . Negative feedback is a basic feature in some current mirrors using multiple transistors. It keeps up this constant voltage across the constant sense resistor. Resistance R2 is now calculated as 93 Since VD = VBE = 0. The diode drop (VD) tracks the VBE changes due to temperature and thus significantly counteracts temperature dependence of the CCS. The circuit is actually a buffered non-inverting amplifier driven by a constant input voltage.) R1 is calculated as (the compensating diode's forward voltage drop VD appears in the equation and is typically 0. the current flowing through the load is constant as well. such as the Widlar current source and the Wilson current source. the compensating diode is usually not required because the breakdown mechanism is not as temperature dependent as it is in breakdown diodes above this voltage. Figure 6: Typical constant current source (CCS) with diode compensation Figure 7: Typical op-amp current source.65 V. Now the op-amp increases its output voltage so that to compensate VBE.[5] (In practice VD is never exactly equal to VBE and hence it only suppresses the change in VBE rather than nulling it out.

. an infinite impedance). but non-zero output impedance: often much less than 1 ohm. In the case of transistor current sources. Also. a constant current (1 A) flows through Figure 8: Constant current source using the LM317 voltage regulator the resistor and the load. a battery. Such sources provide constant voltage. As the bare emitter follower and the precise op-amp follower above. An ideal current source cannot be connected to an ideal open circuit because this would create the paradox of running a constant. Current and voltage source comparison Most sources of electrical energy (mains electricity. non-zero current (from the current source) through an element with a defined zero current (the open circuit). A real-world voltage source has a very low. a current source should not be connected to another current source if their currents differ but this arrangement is frequently used (e. any current source can be considered as a voltage source with the same source impedance and vice versa. An ideal current source has an infinite output impedance in parallel with the source. etc. in amplifying stages with dynamic load.Current source 94 Voltage regulator current sources The general negative feedback arrangement can be implemented by an IC voltage regulator (LM317 voltage regulator on Figure 8). Such a theoretical device would have a zero ohm output impedance in series with the source. An ideal current source would provide no energy to a short circuit and approach infinite energy and voltage as the load resistance approaches infinity (an open circuit).25 V) across a constant resistor (1. The LED is on when the voltage across the load exceeds 1.. . impedances of a few megohms (at DC) are typical. which means that as long as the amount of current drawn from the source is within the source's capabilities. its output voltage stays constant. Also.e. current and voltage sources can be connected to each other without any problems and this technique is widely used in circuitry (e.) Similarly. since this would result a similar paradox of finite non zero voltage across an element with defined zero voltage (the short circuit). an ideal voltage source cannot be connected to an ideal short circuit (R=0). The grounded load is an important advantage of this solution...) are best modeled as voltage sources. differential amplifier stages with common emitter current source. Contrary. Conversely. An ideal voltage source provides no energy when it is loaded by an open circuit (i. a current source provides a constant current. so. These concepts are dealt with by Norton's and Thévenin's theorems.. but finite output impedance. in common base and differential amplifying stages). . CMOS circuits. it keeps up a constant voltage drop (1. A real-world current source has a very high. etc. as long as the load connected to the source terminals has sufficiently low impedance.8 V (the indicator circuit introduces some error). but approaches infinite power and current when the load resistance approaches zero (a short circuit). in cascode circuits.g.g.g.25 Ω).) Because no ideal sources of either variety exist (all real-world examples have finite and non-zero source impedance). a voltage source should not be connected to another voltage source if their voltages differ but again this arrangement is frequently used (e.

Publ.com/ism. See above note on logarithmic current dependence. Elsevier-Newnes 2005. See above note on logarithmic current dependence. maxim-ic.4qdtec. 608-pages.com/content/neets/14179/css/ 14179_214.html) • Differential amplifiers and current sources (http://www.st-andrews.uk/~www_pa/Scots_Guide/audio/ part1/page3. Further reading • "Current Sources & Voltage References" Linden T.westhost. pdf (http:/ / www.html) • Article about current sources on ESP (http://sound.tpub. mvp/ id/ 1155) The value for VBE varies logarithmically with current level: for more detail see diode modelling.htm) .htm) • 4QD-TEC: Electronics Circuits Reference Archive (http://www.ac. ISBN 0-7506-7752-X External links • Current Regulators. pdf) Consider the "Deboo" Single-Supply Integrator (http:/ / www. Electrical Engineering Training Series (http://www.com/csm.Current source 95 References and notes [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] http:/ / www. national. Harrison. com/ an/ AN/ AN-29. com/ app-notes/ index. com/ an/ AN/ AN-1515. national.

thus violating KCL. pp. Kirchhoff's junction rule (or nodal rule). The current flowing into a capacitor plate is equal to the rate of accumulation of charge and hence is also equal to the rate of change of electric . Recalling that current is a signed (positive or negative) quantity reflecting direction towards or away from a node. Kirchhoff's point rule. but does not exit.[1] Widely used in electrical engineering. and that is usually all that is important in circuit analysis. but Kirchhoff preceded Maxwell and instead generalized work by Georg Ohm.96 Basic circuit laws Kirchhoff's circuit laws Kirchhoff's circuit laws are two equalities that deal with the conservation of charge and energy in electrical circuits. but there is a problem when considering just one plate. and Kirchhoff's first rule. or: The algebraic sum of currents in a network of conductors meeting at a point is zero. The principle of conservation of electric charge implies that: At any node (junction) in an electrical circuit. Both circuit rules can be directly derived from Maxwell's equations. Another common example is the current in an antenna where current enters the antenna from the transmitter feeder but no current exits from the other end. and were first described in 1845 by Gustav Kirchhoff. this principle can be stated as: The current entering any junction is equal to the current leaving that junction. Certainly. the currents through a closed surface around the entire capacitor will meet KCL since the current entering one plate is balanced by the current exiting the other plate. Changing charge density KCL is only valid if the charge density remains constant at the point to which it is applied.(Johnson and Graham. they are also called Kirchhoff's rules or simply Kirchhoff's laws (see also Kirchhoff's laws for other meanings of that term). Kirchhoff's current law (KCL) This law is also called Kirchhoff's first law. i1 + i4 = i2 + i3 n is the total number of branches with currents flowing towards or away from the node.36-37) Maxwell introduced the concept of displacement currents to describe these situations. Consider the current entering a single plate of a capacitor. the sum of currents flowing into that node is equal to the sum of currents flowing out of that node. If one imagines a closed surface around that single plate. This formula is valid for complex currents: The law is based on the conservation of charge whereby the charge (measured in coulombs) is the product of the current (in amperes) and the time (in seconds). current enters through the surface.

or: The algebraic sum of the products of the resistances of the conductors and the currents in them in a closed loop is equal to the total emf available in that loop. This rate of change of flux. the sum of the emfs in any closed loop is equivalent to the sum of the potential drops in that loop. true for time-invariant ρ. a charge which has completed a closed loop doesn't gain or lose energy as it has gone back to initial potential level. is what Maxwell called displacement current . and Kirchhoff's second rule. it says that the current flowing out of a closed surface is equal to the rate of loss of charge within the enclosed volume (Divergence theorem)).v4 = 0 Here. . Given a voltage potential. Uses A matrix version of Kirchhoff's current law is the basis of most circuit simulation software. The voltages may also be complex: This law is based on the conservation of "energy given/taken by potential field" (not including energy taken by dissipation). Displacement currents are not real currents in that they do not consist of moving charges. Kirchhoff's loop (or mesh) rule. Kirchhoff's current law is equivalent to the statement that the divergence of the current is zero. Kirchhoff's current law once again holds. . n is the total number of voltages measured. This can also be expressed in terms of vector field quantities by taking the divergence of Ampère's law with Maxwell's correction and combining with Gauss's law. Kirchhoff's voltage law (KVL) This law is also called Kirchhoff's second law. In the case of the capacitor plate. yielding: This is simply the charge conservation equation (in integral form. or always true if the displacement current is included with J. Coulombs. The principle of conservation of energy implies that The directed sum of the electrical potential differences (voltage) around any closed circuit is zero.Kirchhoff's circuit laws flux due to that charge (electric flux is measured in the same units. Similarly to KCL. the real current entering the plate is exactly cancelled by a displacement current leaving the plate and heading for the opposite plate. such as SPICE. it can be stated as: The sum of all the voltages around the loop is equal to zero. 97 When the displacement currents are included. or: More simply. v1 + v2 + v3 . they should be viewed more as a correction factor to make KCL true. as electric charge in the SI system of units).

. ISBN 0-471-37195-5. or electromotive force (emf). classical physics. etc.. it would be possible to build a perpetual motion machine that passed a current in a circle around the circuit. This is because energy is being transferred from the magnetic field to the current (or vice versa). Light. • Howard W. • Kalil T. Limitations This is a simplification of Faraday's law of induction for the special case where there is no fluctuating magnetic field linking the closed loop. • Serway. an effective potential drop. instead of positive terminal. Raymond A. Kirchhoff's voltage law has nothing to do with gain or loss of energy by electronic components (resistors. A charge will just terminate at the negative terminal. John W. ISBN 0549831312. H. and Elementary Modern Physics (5th ed. the gain or loss in "energy given by the potential field" must be zero when a charge completes a closed loop. In order to "fix" Kirchhoff's voltage law for circuits containing inductors. Johnson. p. ISBN 0-7167-0810-8. This means all the energy given by the potential difference has been fully consumed by resistance which in turn loses the energy as heat dissipation. In order to return to the more special form. Fundamentals of Electric Circuit Analysis. exactly equal to the amount by which the line integral of the electric field is not zero by Faraday's law of induction.52 • Paul. W. To summarize. Swain Oldham. this integral can be "cut in pieces" in order to get the voltage at specific components. Physics for Scientists and Engineers (6th ed. The doctrine of description: Gustav Kirchhoff. The validity of this law in this case can be understood if one realizes that a charge in fact doesn't go back to its starting point. 98 Electric field and electric potential Kirchhoff's voltage law could be viewed as a consequence of the principle of conservation of energy.Kirchhoff's circuit laws This law holds true even when resistance (which causes dissipation of energy) is present in a circuit. • Tipler. Jewett. It is a law referring to the potential field generated by voltage sources. capacitors. Brooks/Cole.). High-speed signal propagation: advanced black magic.). it practically suffices for explaining circuits containing only resistors and capacitors. ProQuest. Kirchhoff's voltage law can be expressed equivalently as which states that the line integral of the electric field around closed loop C is zero. Physics for Scientists and Engineers: Electricity. (2001). In this potential field. In the presence of a changing magnetic field the electric field is not conservative and it cannot therefore define a pure scalar potential—the line integral of the electric field around the circuit is not zero.). 2003 ISBN 013084408X. Magnetism. regardless of what electronic components are present. Otherwise. 2008. and the "purpose of all science" in 19th-century Germany. Paul (2004). is associated with each inductance of the circuit. Therefore. References [1] Oldham. ISBN 0-534-40842-7. Prentice Hall Professional. Clayton R. John Wiley & Sons. due to dissipation of energy. Martin Graham. Freeman. Considering that electric potential is defined as a line integral over an electric field. (2004).

but it can be used in all cases even when there are no dependent sources. The circuit consists of an ideal current source in parallel with an ideal impedance (or resistor for non-reactive circuits). with a short circuit as the load (meaning 0 resistance between A and B). This voltage divided by the 1 A current is the Norton impedance RNo.org/lectures/basic-circuit-analysis-method-kvl-and-kcl-mmethod) on the KVL and KCL methods Norton's theorem Norton's theorem for linear electrical networks. no load resistor — meaning infinite load resistance). there are two methods of determining the Norton impedance RNo. For single-frequency AC systems the theorem can also be applied to general impedances. However. I. Find the Norton current INo. When there are no dependent sources (all current and voltage sources are independent). IAB. current sources. This is INo.html • MIT video lecture (http://academicearth.e. • Calculate the output voltage. and resistors with two terminals is electrically equivalent to an ideal current source. Find the Norton resistance RNo. This method is not shown below in the diagrams..sk. Norton's theorem is an extension of Thévenin's theorem and was introduced in 1926 separately by two people: Siemens & Halske researcher Hans Ferdinand Mayer (1895–1980) and Bell Labs engineer Edward Lawry Norton (1898–1983). This is equivalent to calculating the Thevenin resistance. when in open circuit condition (i. • Connect a constant current source at the output terminals of the circuit with a value of 1 Ampere and calculate the voltage at its terminals. in parallel with a single resistor. To find the equivalent. or • Replace independent voltage sources with short circuits and independent current sources with open circuits. This method must be used if the circuit contains dependent sources. . at a given frequency.sasked. The total resistance across the output port is the Norton impedance RNo.gov.ca/docs/physics/u3c13phy. The Norton equivalent circuit is a current source with current INo in parallel with a resistance RNo. when there are dependent sources. 1. The Norton equivalent is used to represent any network of linear sources and impedances. not just resistors. states that any collection of voltage sources. known in Europe as the Mayer–Norton theorem. the more general method must be used.Kirchhoff's circuit laws 99 External links • http://www. 2. Calculate the output current. RNo equals this VAB divided by INo. R. VAB.

using the current divider rule: And the equivalent resistance looking back into the circuit is: So the equivalent circuit is a 3.Norton's theorem 100 Example of a Norton equivalent circuit Step 0: The original circuit Step 1: Calculating the equivalent output current Step 2: Calculating the equivalent resistance In the example. Conversion to a Thévenin equivalent A Norton equivalent circuit is related to the Thévenin equivalent by the following equations: . the total current Itotal is given by: Step 3: The equivalent circuit The current through the load is then.75 mA current source in parallel with a 2 kΩ resistor.

Thévenin's theorem for linear electrical networks states that any combination of voltage sources. when in open circuit condition (no load resistor—meaning infinite resistance). Calculating the Thévenin equivalent To calculate the equivalent circuit. which is a simplification technique used in circuit analysis. The theorem was first discovered by German scientist Hermann von Helmholtz in 1853. This is RTh. Calculate the output current.fpms. Calculate the output voltage. .allaboutcircuits. by declaring one terminal to be Vout and the other terminal to be at the ground point. The Thévenin-equivalent voltage is the voltage at the output terminals of the original circuit. and current sources with open circuits. 1975 External links • Origins of the equivalent circuit concept (http://tcts. comprising exactly one voltage source and one resistor. it is often possible to replace an uninteresting subset of queues by a single (FCFS or PS) queue with an appropriately chosen service rate. The Thévenin equivalent can be used as a good model for a power supply or battery (with the resistor representing the internal impedance and the source representing the electromotive force). The circuit consists of an ideal voltage source in series with an ideal resistor.[1] but was then rediscovered in 1883 by French telegraph engineer Léon Charles Thévenin (1857–1926). These two equations are usually obtained by using the following steps. Any black box containing only voltage sources. For single frequency AC systems the theorem can also be applied to general impedances. IBM Journal of Research and Development.[1] References [1] KM Chandy. The equivalent circuit is a voltage source with voltage VTh in series with a resistance RTh.pdf) • Norton's theorem at allaboutcircuits.Norton's theorem 101 Queueing theory The term "Norton equivalent" is also used in queueing theory for a similar concept. and other resistors can be converted to a Thévenin equivalent circuit. L Woo. This is VTh. 2b. IAB. current sources. 2. RTh equals VTh divided by this IAB. and resistors with two terminals is electrically equivalent to a single voltage source V and a single series resistor R. Step 2 could also be thought of as: 2a. Calculate the resistance between terminals A and B. so two equations are required. but any conditions placed on the terminals of the circuit should also work: 1. the voltage divider principle is often useful.ac. Replace voltage sources with short circuits. "Parametric analysis of queuing networks". U Herzog. current sources.html) Thévenin's theorem In circuit theory. In a reversible queueing system.com (http://www.be/cours/1005-01/equiv. not just resistors. when the output terminals are short circuited (load resistance is 0).com/vol_1/chpt_10/9. the resistance and voltage are needed.[2][3] This theorem states that a circuit of voltage sources and resistors can be converted into a Thévenin equivalent. When calculating a Thévenin-equivalent voltage. VAB.

another method must be used such as connecting a test source across A and B and calculating the voltage across or current through the test source. which means there is no current through R1 and therefore no voltage drop along this part) Calculating equivalent resistance: Conversion to a Norton equivalent . For an ideal voltage source. therefore no current flows through this part.and current-sources with their internal resistances. This method is valid only for circuits with independent sources. If there are dependent sources in the circuit. this means replace the current source with an open circuit. For an ideal current source. calculating the equivalent voltage: (notice that R1 is not taken into consideration. Resistance can then be calculated across the terminals using the formulae for series and parallel circuits. It is important to first replace all voltage. 102 Example Step 1: Calculating the equivalent output voltage Step 0: The original circuit Step 2: Calculating the equivalent resistance Step 3: The equivalent circuit In the example.Thévenin's theorem The Thévenin-equivalent resistance is the resistance measured across points A and B "looking back" into the circuit. this means replace the voltage source with a short circuit. as above calculations are done in an open circuit condition between A and B.

4. Thévenin (1883) "Sur un nouveau théorème d’électricité dynamique" [On a new theorem of dynamic electricity]. • The power dissipation of the Thévenin equivalent is not necessarily identical to the power dissipation of the real system. 97. Reprinted as: L.Thévenin's theorem 103 A Norton equivalent circuit is related to the Thévenin equivalent by the following: Practical limitations • Many. Johnson (April 2003) "Equivalent circuit concept: the voltage-source equivalent. pages 222–224. pdf . no.allaboutcircuits.pdf) — At end.fpms. [3] Don H. vol. pages 636-640. Comptes Rendus hebdomadaires des séances de l’Académie des Sciences. image. the power dissipated by an external resistor between the two output terminals is the same regardless of how the internal circuit is represented. no. edu/ ~dhj/ paper1. Annales Télégraphiques (Troisieme série). vol. vol. 91. pages 211–233.ac. thus the Thévenin equivalent is valid only within this linear range and may not be valid outside the range. bnf. 10. However. Available on-line at: http:/ / www. fr/ ark:/ 12148/ bpt6k151746. if not most circuits are only linear over a certain range of values.tedpavlic. ece.com/vol_1/chpt_10/8.html) • ECE 209: Review of Circuits as LTI Systems (http://www. Thévenin (1883) "Extension de la loi d’Ohm aux circuits électromoteurs complexes" [Extension of Ohm’s law to complex electromotive circuits].pdf) • Thevenin's theorem at allaboutcircuits. • The Thévenin equivalent has an equivalent I-V characteristic only from the point of view of the load. rice. 6. Helmholtz (1853) "Über einige Gesetze der Vertheilung elektrischer Ströme in körperlichen Leitern mit Anwendung auf die thierisch-elektrischen Versuche" [Some laws concerning the distribution of electrical currents in conductors with applications to experiments on animal electricity]." Proceedings of the IEEE. pages 159–161. 89. External links • Origins of the equivalent circuit concept (http://tcts.com/teaching/osu/ece209/support/ circuits_sys_review. Annalen der Physik und Chemie. available online http:/ / gallica.com (http://www. f225. . vol. shows application of Thévenin's theorem that turns complicated circuit into a simple first-order low-pass filter voltage divider with obvious time constant and gain. langFR [2] L.be/cours/1005-01/equiv. Notes [1] H.

104

AC analysis

Phasor

In physics and engineering, a phase vector, or phasor, is a representation of a sine wave whose amplitude (A) and angular frequency (ω) are time-invariant. It is a subset of a more general concept called analytic representation. Phasors decompose the behavior of a sinusoid into three independent factors that relay amplitude, frequency and phase information. This can be particularly useful because the frequency factor (which includes the time-dependence of the sine wave) is often common to all the components of a linear combination of sine waves. In these situations, phasors allow this common feature to be factored out, leaving just the time-independent amplitude and phase information (the latter simply defining the phase at t=0 as θ), which can be combined algebraically rather than trigonometrically. Similarly, linear differential equations can be reduced to An example of series RLC circuit and respective phasor diagram for a specific ω algebraic ones. The term phasor therefore often refers to just those two factors. In older texts, a phasor is also referred to as a sinor.

Definition

Euler's formula indicates that sine waves can be represented mathematically as the sum of two complex-valued functions: [1] or as the real part of one of the functions:

As indicated above, phasor can refer to either An even more compact shorthand is angle notation:

or just the complex constant,

. In the latter case, it

is understood to be a shorthand notation, encoding the amplitude and phase of an underlying sinusoid.

Phasor

105

The sine wave can be understood as the projection onto the real axis of a rotating vector on the complex plane. The modulus of this vector is the amplitude of the oscillations, while its argument is the total phase . The phase constant represents the angle that the complex vector forms with the real axis at t = 0.

Phasor arithmetic

Multiplication by a constant (scalar)

Multiplication of the phasor by a complex constant, , produces another phasor. That means its only effect is to change the amplitude and phase of the underlying sinusoid:

A phasor can be seen as a rotating vector. The (non-animated) graphical representation (on paper) is at t = 0.

In electronics,

would represent an impedance, which is independent of time. In particular it is not the

shorthand notation for another phasor. Multiplying a phasor current by an impedance produces a phasor voltage. But the product of two phasors (or squaring a phasor) would represent the product of two sine waves, which is a non-linear operation that produces new frequency components. Phasor notation can only represent systems with one frequency, such as a linear system stimulated by a sinusoid.

**Differentiation and integration
**

The time derivative or integral of a phasor produces another phasor.[2] For example:

Therefore, in phasor representation, the time derivative of a sinusoid becomes just multiplication by the constant, Similarly, integrating a phasor corresponds to multiplication by time-dependent factor, The

, is unaffected. When we solve a linear differential equation with phasor arithmetic,

Phasor we are merely factoring

106 out of all terms of the equation, and reinserting it into the answer. For example, consider

the following differential equation for the voltage across the capacitor in an RC circuit:

When the voltage source in this circuit is sinusoidal:

we may substitute:

where phasor

and phasor

is the unknown quantity to be determined.

In the phasor shorthand notation, the differential equation reduces to[3]:

Solving for the phasor capacitor voltage gives:

As we have seen, the factor multiplying and In polar coordinate form, it is:

represents differences of the amplitude and phase of

relative to

Therefore:

Phasor

107

Addition

The sum of multiple phasors produces another phasor. That is because the sum of sine waves with the same frequency is also a sine wave with that frequency:

The sum of phasors as addition of rotating vectors

where:

or, via the law of cosines on the complex plane (or the trigonometric identity for angle differences):

where

. A key point is that A3 and θ3 do not depend on ω or t, which is what makes phasor notation

possible. The time and frequency dependence can be suppressed and re-inserted into the outcome as long as the only operations used in between are ones that produce another phasor. In angle notation, the operation shown above is written: Another way to view addition is that two vectors with coordinates [A1 cos(ωt+θ1), A1 sin(ωt+θ1)] and [A2 cos(ωt+θ2), A2 sin(ωt+θ2)] are added vectorially to produce a resultant vector with coordinates [A3 cos(ωt+θ3), A3 sin(ωt+θ3)]. (see animation)

Phasor

108

In physics, this sort of addition occurs when sine waves interfere with each other, constructively or destructively. The static vector concept provides useful insight into questions like this: "What phase difference would be required between three identical waves for perfect cancellation?" In this case, simply imagine taking three vectors of equal length and placing them head to tail such that the last head matches up with the first tail. Clearly, the shape which satisfies these conditions is an equilateral triangle, so the angle between each phasor to the next is 120° (2π/3 radians), or one third of a wavelength λ/3. So the phase difference between each wave must also be 120°, as is the case in three-phase power In other words, what this shows is:

Phasor diagram of three waves in perfect destructive interference

In the example of three waves, the phase difference between the first and the last wave was 240 degrees, while for two waves destructive interference happens at 180 degrees. In the limit of many waves, the phasors must form a circle for destructive interference, so that the first phasor is nearly parallel with the last. This means that for many sources, destructive interference happens when the first and last wave differ by 360 degrees, a full wavelength . This is why in single slit diffraction, the minima occurs when light from the far edge travels a full wavelength further than the light from the near edge.

Phasor diagrams

Electrical engineers, electronics engineers, electronic engineering technicians and aircraft engineers all use phasor diagrams to visualize complex constants and variables (phasors). Like vectors, arrows drawn on graph paper or computer displays represent phasors. Cartesian and polar representations each have advantages.

Circuit laws

With phasors, the techniques for solving DC circuits can be applied to solve AC circuits. A list of the basic laws is given below. • Ohm's law for resistors: a resistor has no time delays and therefore doesn't change the phase of a signal therefore V=IR remains valid. • Ohm's law for resistors, inductors, and capacitors: V = IZ where Z is the complex impedance. • In an AC circuit we have real power (P) which is a representation of the average power into the circuit and reactive power (Q) which indicates power flowing back and forward. We can also define the complex power S = P + jQ and the apparent power which is the magnitude of S. The power law for an AC circuit expressed in phasors is then S = VI* (where I* is the complex conjugate of I). • Kirchhoff's circuit laws work with phasors in complex form Given this we can apply the techniques of analysis of resistive circuits with phasors to analyze single frequency AC circuits containing resistors, capacitors, and inductors. Multiple frequency linear AC circuits and AC circuits with different waveforms can be analyzed to find voltages and currents by transforming all waveforms to sine wave components with magnitude and phase then analyzing each frequency separately, as allowed by the superposition theorem.

the phase angle is often given in degrees. Footnotes • • • i is the Imaginary unit ( ). In electrical engineering texts.1 and Eq. 120 and 240 degrees. The frequency of the wave.Phasor 109 Power engineering In analysis of three phase AC power systems. Small changes in the phasors are sensitive indicators of power flow and system stability. The technique of synchrophasors uses digital instruments to measure the phasors representing transmission system voltages at widespread points in a transmission network. the imaginary unit is often symbolized by j. [3] Proof: (Eq. graphically represented as unit magnitudes at angles of 0. [2] This results from: which means that the complex exponential is the eigenfunction of the derivative operation. In the context of power systems analysis.2 by and adding both equations gives: . specifically: it follows that: (Eq. usually a set of phasors is defined as the three complex cube roots of unity. and short-circuit currents. balanced circuits can be simplified and unbalanced circuits can be treated as an algebraic combination of symmetrical circuits. power flow.1) Since this must hold for all . in Hz.2) It is also readily seen that: Substituting these into Eq. This approach greatly simplifies the work required in electrical calculations of voltage drop. and the magnitude in rms value rather than the peak amplitude of the sinusoid.2. multiplying Eq. By treating polyphase AC circuit quantities as phasors. is given by .

V the potential difference. like mechanical power. or linear) loads. where P is the electric power.Phasor 110 References • Douglas C.jhu.blogspot. Mathematics of electric power Circuits Electric power. Joule's law can be combined with Ohm's law (V = I·R) to produce alternative expressions for the dissipated power: where R is the electrical resistance. Prentice Hall. The term wattage is used colloquially to mean "electric power in watts.com/vol_2/chpt_2/5. electrical power is calculated using Joule's law: Electric power is transmitted on overhead lines like these. The SI unit of power is the watt.allaboutcircuits." Direct current In direct current resistive circuits. In the case of resistive (Ohmic.edu/~signals/phasorapplet2/phasorappletindex. ISBN 0-13-666322-2. External links • Phasor Phactory (http://www. and also on underground high voltage cables. Giancoli (1989).htm) • Visual Representation of Phasors (http://resonanceswavesandfields. and I the electric current. .com/2007/08/phasors. Physics for Scientists and Engineers. is represented by the letter P in electrical equations.html) Electric power Electric power is the rate at which electric energy is transferred by an electric circuit.html) • Polar and Rectangular Notation (http://www.

The relationship between real power.). Wayne (1978). reactive power and apparent power can be expressed by representing the quantities as vectors. the integral of the cross-product of the electrical and magnetic field vectors over a specified area. power factor is generalized to include the effects of distortion. the simple equation P = IV must be replaced by a more complex calculation.).Electric power Alternating current In alternating current circuits. The portion of power flow that. energy storage elements such as inductance and capacitance may result in periodic reversals of the direction of energy flow. Summers. ISBN 0-070-13932-6. that returns to the source in each cycle. References • Reports on August 2003 Blackout. The apparent power vector is the hypotenuse of a right triangle formed by connecting the real and reactive power vectors. • Fink. Real power is represented as a horizontal vector and reactive power is represented as a vertical vector. . This representation is often called the power triangle. In space Electrical power flows wherever electric and magnetic fields exist together and fluctuate in the same place. New York: McGraw Hill. North American Electric Reliability Council website [1] • Croft. when the current and voltage are both sinusoids with a known phase angle θ between them: The ratio of real power to apparent power is called power factor and is a number always between 0 and 1. averaged over a complete cycle of the AC waveform. is known as reactive power.. In the general case. Where the currents and voltages have non-sinusoidal forms. Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineers [3] (Eleventh Edition ed. results in net transfer of energy in one direction is known as real power (also referred to as active power). however. Beaty. Wilford I. Donald G. Using the Pythagorean Theorem. The simplest example of this is in electrical circuits. H. New York: McGraw Hill. (1987). That portion of power flow due to stored energy. as the preceding section showed. thus: The result is a scalar since it is the surface integral of the Poynting vector. Terrell. the relationship among real. ISBN 0-070-20974-X. American Electricans' Handbook [2] (Eleventh Edition ed. reactive and apparent power is: 111 Power triangle: The components of AC power Real and reactive powers can also be calculated directly from the apparent power.

meaning that any voltage or current in the circuit can be described by a second-order differential equation in circuit analysis. php?isbn=0071377352 http:/ / books. The three circuit elements can be combined in a number of different topologies. Department of Energy: Electric Power [4] References [1] [2] [3] [4] http:/ / www. html http:/ / books. The RLC filter is described as a second-order circuit. gov/ energysources/ electricpower. band-stop filter. The presence of the resistance also reduces the peak resonant frequency somewhat. The tuning application. however. connected in series or in parallel. other arrangements. even if a resistor is not specifically included as a component. com/ getbook. There are. and a capacitor. where they are used to select a narrow range of frequencies from the ambient radio waves. com/ getbook. mcgraw-hill. The RLC part of the name is due to those letters being the usual electrical symbols for resistance. inductance and capacitance respectively. an inductor. The circuit A series RLC circuit: a resistor. energy. such as in radio receivers or television sets. In this role the circuit is often referred to as a tuned circuit.Electric power 112 External links • U. . nerc.S. and a capacitor forms a harmonic oscillator for current and will resonate in a similar way as an LC circuit will. inductor. Inductors are typically constructed from coils of wire. com/ ~filez/ blackout. some with practical importance in real circuits. is an example of band-pass filtering. This effect of the resistor is called damping. the resistance of which is not usually desirable. The main difference that the presence of the resistor makes is that any oscillation induced in the circuit will die away over time if it is not kept going by a source. mcgraw-hill. An RLC circuit can be used as a band-pass filter. htm RLC circuit An RLC circuit (or LCR circuit) is an electrical circuit consisting of a resistor. All three elements in series or all three elements in parallel are the simplest in concept and the most straightforward to analyse. They are used in many different types of oscillator circuit. Some resistance is unavoidable in real circuits. Another important application is for tuning. A pure LC circuit is an ideal which really only exists in theory. but it often has a significant effect on the circuit. php?isbn=0070220050 http:/ / www. There are many applications for this circuit. for instance. low-pass filter or high-pass filter. One issue often encountered is the need to take into account inductor resistance.

that is. The mechanical property answering to the resistor in the circuit is friction in the spring/weight system. the resonance frequency. it can be defined as the frequency at which the impedance is purely real (that is. A circuit with a value of resistor that . purely resistive). Frequencies are measured in units of hertz. The reason for this terminology is that the driven resonance frequency in a series or parallel resonant circuit has the value[2] This is exactly the same as the resonance frequency of an LC circuit. A highly damped circuit will fail to resonate at all when driven. that is. They are related to each other by a simple proportion. angular frequency. For this reason they are often described as antiresonators. This is measured in radians per second. The peak resonance frequency. is used which is more mathematically convenient. hence undamped resonance frequency. and the effect is often called ringing. This effect is the peak natural resonance frequency of the circuit and in general is not exactly the same as the driven resonance frequency. on the other hand. although the two will usually be quite close to each other. it is still usual.RLC circuit 113 Basic concepts Linear analog electronic filters [1] Resonance An important property of this circuit is its ability to resonate at a specific frequency. a weight on a spring is described by exactly the same second order differential equation as an RLC circuit and for all the properties of the one system there will be found an analogous property of the other. however. however. Likewise. The resonance frequency is defined as the frequency at which the impedance of the circuit is at a minimum. . A mechanical analogy is a weight suspended on a spring which will oscillate up and down when released. This is similar to the way that a tuning fork will carry on ringing after it has been struck. diminishing it with time if there is no driving AC power source in the circuit. It is still possible for the circuit to carry on oscillating (for a time) after the driving source has been removed or it is subjected to a step in voltage (including a step down to zero). to name the frequency at which this occurs as the resonance frequency. The driven frequency may be called the undamped resonance frequency or undamped natural frequency and the peak frequency may be called the damped resonance frequency or the damped natural frequency. In this article. depends on the value of the resistor and is described as the damped resonance frequency. the resistance in an RLC circuit will "damp" the oscillation. it is the same as a circuit in which there is no damping. This occurs because the impedance of the inductor and capacitor at resonance are equal but of opposite sign and cancel out. . Equivalently. Resonance occurs because energy is stored in two different ways: in an electric field as the capacitor is charged and in a magnetic field as current flows through the inductor. but resonance frequency unqualified usually means the driven resonance frequency. Various terms are used by different authors to distinguish the two. Circuits where L and C are in parallel rather than series actually have a maximum impedance rather than a minimum impedance. Friction will slowly bring any oscillation to a halt if there is no external force driving it. This is no passing metaphor. Energy can be transferred from one to the other within the circuit and this can be oscillatory. one with no resistor present. Natural frequency The resonance frequency is defined in terms of the impedance presented to a driving source.

. which expresses the bandwidth as a fraction of the resonance frequency and is given by The fractional bandwidth is also often stated as a percentage. Both band-pass and band-stop filters can be constructed and some filter circuits are shown later in the article. without a driving source). The bandwidth is measured between the 3dB-points. A key parameter in filter design is bandwidth. Other units may require a conversion factor. and one below the resonance frequency where is the bandwidth. requires low damping. There are two of these half-power frequencies. Circuits which will resonate in this way are described as underdamped and those that will not are overdamped. The when the units are radians per second and nepers per second respectively. Either side of critically damped are described as underdamped (ringing happens) and overdamped (ringing is suppressed). A narrow band filter. It determines whether or not the circuit will resonate naturally (that is. Damping attenuation (symbol α) is measured in nepers per second. A more general measure of bandwidth is the fractional bandwidth.RLC circuit causes it to be just on the edge of ringing is called critically damped. 114 Damping Damping is caused by the resistance in the circuit. damped resonance frequency and driven resonance frequency can all be different. Bandwidth The resonance effect can be used for filtering. The damping of filter circuits is adjusted to result in the required bandwidth. that is. such as a notch filter. is the lower half-power frequency and bandwidth is related to attenuation by. the frequencies at which the power passed through the circuit has fallen to half the value passed at resonance. Circuits with topologies more complex than straightforward series or parallel (some examples described later in the article) have a driven resonance frequency that deviates from and for those the undamped resonance frequency. one above. It is the minimum damping that can be applied without causing oscillation. is the upper half-power frequency. the rapid change in impedance near resonance can be used to pass or block signals close to the resonance frequency. which is related to α by The special case of ζ = 1 is called critical damping and represents the case of a circuit that is just on the border of oscillation. However. the unitless damping factor (symbol ζ. zeta) is often a more useful measure. A wide band filter requires high damping.

Scaled parameters The parameters ζ. This means that circuits which have similar parameters share similar characteristics regardless of whether or not they are operating in the same frequency band. The governing differential equation can be found by substituting into Kirchhoff's voltage law (KVL) the constitutive equation for each of the three elements. The general form of the differential equations given in the series circuit section are applicable to all second order circuits and can be used to describe the voltage or current in any element of each circuit.the capacitance of the capacitor In this circuit. and Q are all scaled to ω0.the voltage of the power source I . Other configurations are not described in such detail. as Q factor depends inversely on bandwidth. It is defined as the peak energy stored in the circuit divided by the average energy dissipated in it per cycle at resonance. Series RLC circuit Figure 1. where are the voltages across R.the current in the circuit R . the three components are all in series with the voltage source.the resistance of the resistor L . . Fb. but the key differences from the series case are given. Substituting in the constitutive equations. RLC series circuit V .RLC circuit 115 Q factor The Q factor is a widespread measure used to characterise resonators.the inductance of the inductor C . Low Q circuits are therefore damped and lossy and high Q circuits are underdamped. From KVL. it happens that Q is the inverse of fractional bandwidth Q factor is directly proportional to selectivity. The article next gives the analysis for the series RLC circuit in detail. In fact. low Q circuits are wide band and high Q circuits are narrow band. Q is related to bandwidth. L and C respectively and is the time varying voltage from the source.

Neper occurs in the name because the units can also be considered to be nepers per second. The value of the damping factor determines the type of transient that the circuit will exhibit. is the angular resonance frequency.[3] For the case of the series RLC circuit these two parameters are given by:[4] and A useful parameter is the damping factor. differentiating and dividing by L leads to the second order differential equation: This can usefully be expressed in a more generally applicable form: and are both in units of angular frequency.[6] . the damping factor is given by. is called the neper frequency. which is defined as the ratio of these two. or attenuation. In the case of the series RLC circuit. and is a measure of how fast the transient response of the circuit will die away after the stimulus has been removed.[5] Some authors do not use and call the damping factor. neper being a unit of attenuation.RLC circuit 116 For the case where the source is an unchanging voltage.

[13] .[12] The underdamped response is a decaying oscillation at frequency .[7] The roots of the equation in s are. The plots are normalised for L=1.[9] The overdamped response is a decay of the transient current without oscillation. C=1 and The coefficients A1 and A2 are determined by the boundary conditions of the specific problem being analysed. These are underdamped ( ). may often be referred to as the undamped resonance frequency to distinguish it. The differential equation has the characteristic equation.[7] The general solution of the differential equation is an exponential in either root or a linear superposition of both. The critical damping plot is the bold red curve. B1 and B2 (or B3 and the phase shift in the second form) are arbitrary constants determined by boundary conditions. It is the frequency the circuit will naturally oscillate at if not driven by an external source.[11] By applying standard trigonometric identities the two trigonometric functions may be expressed as a single sinusoid with phase shift. which is the frequency at which the circuit will resonate when driven by an external oscillation. The oscillation decays at a rate determined by the attenuation . That is. overdamped ( ) and critically damped ( ).[11] This is called the damped resonance frequency or the damped natural frequency. The resonance frequency.RLC circuit 117 Transient response The differential equation for the circuit solves in three different ways depending on the value of . The exponential in describes the envelope of the oscillation. . Plot showing underdamped and overdamped responses of a series RLC circuit.[10] Underdamped Response The underdamped response ( ) is. The frequency is given by.[8] Overdamped Response The overdamped response ( ) is. they are set by the values of the currents and voltages in the circuit at the onset of the transient and the presumed value they will settle to after infinite time.

This consideration is important in control systems where it is required to reach the desired state as quickly as possible without overshooting. we have that Laplace admittance Solving for the Laplace admittance Y(s): Simplifying using parameters α and ωo defined in the previous section.[15] Laplace domain The series RLC can be analyzed for both transient and steady AC state behavior using the Laplace transform. D1 and D2 are arbitrary constants determined by boundary conditions. Solving for I(s): And rearranging. we have Poles and zeros The zeros of Y(s) are those values of s such that and The poles of Y(s) are those values of s such that .[16] If the voltage source above produces a waveform with Laplace-transformed V(s) (where s is the complex frequency ). By the quadratic formula. KVL can be applied in the Laplace domain: where I(s) is the Laplace-transformed current through all components. and of the characteristic polynomial of the differential equation in .RLC circuit Critically Damped Response The critically damped response ( ) is. we find : The poles of Y(s) are identical to the roots the section above.[14] 118 The critically damped response represents the circuit response that decays in the fastest possible time without going into oscillation.

the ) overdamped case ( ) 119 and the current as a function of ω can be found from There is a peak value of . The value of ω at this peak is not quite at the natural resonance frequency ω0. Parallel RLC circuit Figure 5. and cosh and sinh are the usual hyperbolic functions. the solution obtained by inverse transform of I(s) is: in the underdamped case ( in the critically damped case ( in ) where Sinusoidal steady state Sinusoidal steady state is represented by letting Taking the magnitude of the above equation with this substitution: .RLC circuit General solution For an arbitrary E(t). The natural resonance frequency is: Steady state variation of amplitude with frequency and damping of a driven simple [17][18] harmonic oscillator. RLC parallel circuit . (see diagram) although it approaches it when the damping is light.

the capacitance of the capacitor The properties of the parallel RLC circuit can be obtained from the duality relationship of electrical circuits and considering that the parallel RLC is the dual impedance of a series RLC.the voltage of the power source I . high Q circuit in the other topology when constructed from components with identical values. the attenuation α is given by[19] and the damping factor is consequently This is the inverse of the expression for ζ in the series circuit. and V = 1. Likewise. The Q and fractional bandwidth of the parallel circuit are given by and Frequency domain The complex admittance of this circuit is given by adding up the admittances of the components: The change from a series arrangement to a parallel arrangement results in the circuit having a peak in impedance at resonance rather than a minimum. Sinusoidal steady-state analysisnormalised to R = 1 ohm. the other scaled parameters. The graph opposite shows that there is Figure 6. From this consideration is immediately obtained the result that the differential equations describing this circuit will be identical to the general form of those describing a series RLC. On the other hand. low Q circuit in one topology will become a narrow band. This means that a wide band. if driven by a constant current.the inductance of the inductor C . fractional bandwidth and Q are also the inverse of each other.RLC circuit 120 V . C = 1 farad. L = 1 henry. For the parallel circuit.the current in the circuit R . .the resistance of the resistor L . there would be a maximum in the voltage which would follow the same curve as the current in the series circuit. so the circuit is an antiresonator.0 volt a minimum in the frequency response of the current at the resonance frequency when the circuit is driven by a constant voltage.

this can be well approximated by. Furthermore.[22] at which the impedance magnitude is maximum is where approximated by. In this case it is the undamped resonant frequency[21] The frequency given by. Parallel LC circuits are frequently used for bandpass filtering and the Q is largely governed by this resistance. a resistor in parallel with the capacitor in a series LC circuit can be used to represent a capacitor with a lossy dielectric. For values of Q greater than unity. 7.[22] is the quality factor of the coil. RLC parallel circuit with resistance in series with the inductor is not the same frequency. The frequency that appears in the generalised form of the characteristic equation (which is the same for this circuit as previously) Fig.[22] .[23] .[22] . In the same vein. 8. RLC series circuit with resistance in parallel with the capacitor . This configuration is shown in figure 8. the exact maximum impedance magnitude is given by.RLC circuit 121 Other configurations A series resistor with the inductor in a parallel LC circuit as shown in figure 7 is a topology commonly encountered where there is a need to take into account the resistance of the coil winding. The resonant frequency in this case is given by. This can be well Fig.[20] This is the resonant frequency of the circuit defined as the frequency at which the admittance has zero imaginary part. The resonant frequency of this circuit is.

each consisting of a Leyden jar connected to an adjustable one-turn coil with a spark gap. sparks were excited in the other tuned circuit only when the inductors were adjusted to resonance. created a tuned circuit with its resonant frequency in the audio range. which produced a musical tone from the spark when it was discharged. showing that the response is maximum at the resonant frequency. showing the length of spark obtainable from his spark-gap LC resonator detectors as a function of frequency. but the term "resonance" eventually stuck.RLC circuit 122 History The first evidence that a capacitor could produce electrical oscillations was discovered in 1826 by French scientist Felix Savary. providing visible evidence of the oscillations. When a high voltage from an induction coil was applied to one tuned circuit.[24] One of the first demonstrations of resonance between tuned circuits was Lodge's "syntonic jars" experiment around 1889[26][24] He placed two resonant circuits next to each other. Lodge and some English scientists preferred the term "syntony" for this effect.[24] The first example of an electrical resonance curve was published in 1887 by German physicist Heinrich Hertz in his pioneering paper on the discovery of radio waves. sometimes the needle was left magnetized in one direction and sometimes in the opposite direction.[26][27][24] In 1868 Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell calculated the effect of applying an alternating current to a circuit with inductance and capacitance. For the IF stage in the radio where the tuning is preset in the factory the more usual solution is an adjustable core in the inductor to adjust L. by discharging a large battery of Leyden jars through a long wire. which reversed the magnetization of the needle back and forth until it was too small to have an effect. or screwed further out of the inductor winding as required. creating sparks and thus oscillating currents.[24][25] He found that when a Leyden jar was discharged through a wire wound around an iron needle. apparently independently.[26][27] British scientist William Thomson (Lord Kelvin) in 1853 showed mathematically that the discharge of a Leyden jar through an inductance should be oscillatory. The first patent for a radio system that allowed tuning was filed by Lodge in 1897. although the first practical systems were invented in 1900 by Anglo Italian radio pioneer Guglielmo Marconi. Adjustable tuning is commonly achieved with a parallel plate variable capacitor which allows the value of C to be changed and tune to stations on different frequencies.[24] Marconi's tuning patents were subsequently overturned in favor of those of Nikola Tesla by the US Supreme Court in December 1943. American physicist Joseph Henry repeated Savary's experiment in 1842 and came to the same conclusion.[26][27][24] British radio researcher Oliver Lodge. and derived its resonant frequency. leaving the needle magnetized in a random direction. He correctly deduced that this was caused by a damped oscillating discharge current in the wire. In this design the core (made of a high permeability material that has the effect of increasing inductance) is threaded so that it can be screwed further in. . shortly after Tesla's death.[26] In 1857 German physicist Berend Wilhelm Feddersen photographed the spark produced by a resonant Leyden jar circuit in a rotating mirror.[24] The first practical use for RLC circuits was in the 1890s in spark-gap radio transmitters to allow the receiver to be tuned to the transmitter. Applications Variable tuned circuits A very frequent use of these circuits is in the tuning circuits of analogue radios.

RLC circuit as a parallel band-pass filter in shunt across the line Fig. The value of the damping factor is chosen based on the desired bandwidth of the filter. RLC circuit as a high-pass filter Fig. that is. The corner frequency. the resistor R becomes the load that the filter is working into. Alternatively. For a wider bandwidth. 9. 10. the frequency of the 3dB point. The circuit configuration is shown in figure 9. RLC circuit as a series band-pass filter in series with the line Fig. is given by . Low-pass filter An RLC circuit can be used as a low-pass filter. The three components give the designer three degrees of freedom. RLC circuit as a series band-stop filter in shunt across the line Fig. Two of these are required to set the bandwidth and resonant frequency. 13. 12. 14. RLC circuit as a parallel band-stop filter in series with the line In the filtering application. The designer is still left with one which can be used to scale R. R may be predetermined by the external circuitry which will use the last degree of freedom. L and C to convenient practical values. a larger value of the damping factor is required (and vice versa). RLC circuit as a low-pass filter Fig.RLC circuit 123 Filters Fig. 11.

The second case requires a low impedance source so that the voltage is dropped across the antiresonator when it becomes high impedance at resonance. the RLC circuit becomes a good approximation to an ideal LC circuit.[29] Band-pass filter A band-pass filter can be formed with an RLC circuit by either placing a series LC circuit in series with the load resistor or else by placing a parallel LC circuit in parallel with the load resistor. The centre frequency is given by and the bandwidth for the series circuit is[30] The shunt version of the circuit is intended to be driven by a high impedance source. a constant current source. As a result . the damping factor) as small as possible. In practice. The damping factor is given by[28] 124 High-pass filter A high-pass filter is shown in figure 10. it is generally desirable to make the attenuation (or equivalently. The corner frequency is the same as the low-pass filter The filter has a stop-band of this width. that is.[31] Oscillators For applications in oscillator circuits. or equivalently . Under those conditions the bandwidth is[30] Band-stop filter Figure 13 shows a band-stop filter formed by a series LC circuit in shunt across the load. issues such as dielectric losses of coils and capacitors can become important. The first case requires a high impedance source so that the current is diverted into the resonator when it becomes low impedance at resonance. However. In either case. for very low attenuation circuits (high Q-factor) circuits. or alternatively increasing R to as much as possible for a parallel circuit. Figure 14 is a band-stop filter formed by a parallel LC circuit in series with the load. . In an oscillator circuit . These arrangements are shown in figures 11 and 12 respectively.RLC circuit This is also the bandwidth of the filter. this objective requires making the circuit's resistance R as small as physically possible for a series circuit.

some circuit inductance and a switch . If R can be made sufficiently small. Pulse discharge circuit An overdamped series RLC circuit can be used as a pulse discharge circuit. A similar effect is observed with currents in the parallel circuit. Even though the circuit appears as high impedance to the external source. in fact. a load in the form of a resistance. then this current will be large.Capacitance: Inductance (total of circuit and load): Initial terminal voltage of capacitor: . If the inductance capacitance: is known. the Q of the circuit. then the remaining parameters are given by the following - Resistance (total of circuit and load): Initial terminal voltage of capacitor: Rearranging for the case where R is known . these voltages can be several times the input voltage. there is a large current circulating in the internal loop of the parallel inductor and capacitor. The initial conditions are that the capacitor is at voltage and there is no current flowing in the inductor.all in series. Often it is useful to know the values of components that could be used to produce a waveform this is described by the form: Such a circuit could consist of an energy storage capacitor. the current is limited only by the resistance of the circuit If R is small. It will drop a voltage across the inductor of An equal magnitude voltage will also be seen across the capacitor but in antiphase to the inductor. consisting only of the inductor winding resistance say.RLC circuit 125 Voltage multiplier In a series RLC circuit at resonance. The voltage ratio is.

New York: Henry Hold and Co. Jeffrey H. Arthur Lalanne (1917). [21] Agarwal and Lang. ISBN 0471205052.16. Joseph. pp. E.303.220. Felix (1827). [30] Kaiser. • Kenneth L. [9] Irwin. Susan A..21-7.7.805.217-220. Wiley. [24] Blanchard. [5] Irwin.). [12] Humar. p. . 2nd Ed. and Kaminsky. Morgan Kaufmann. .641. Julian (October 1941). [13] Agarwal and Lang.27.) 20 (4): 415-.5. 617. pp. Kaiser. [18] Ajoy Ghatak (2005). . Tata McGraw-Hill. 2nd ed. The worldwide history of telecommunications (http:/ / books. Electromagnetic compatibility handbook.7. [26] Kimball. Chapman & Hall/CRC. A College Text-book of Physics. [11] Nilsson and Riedel. • J. J. pdf). 2008 ISBN 0131989251. (http:/ / books. [20] Kaiser. p. Retrieved 2011-03-29. ISBN 9780070585836. Foundations of analog and digital electronic circuits. 2005 ISBN 1558607358. 199–200. google.26-5. 6.. com/ books?id=CwmgAAAAMAAJ& pg=PA516#v=onepage& q& f=false). p.RLC circuit 126 References [1] http:/ / en. pp. (2010). . p.692.13 from Lokenath Debnath. Bell System Technical Journal (USA: American Telephone & Telegraph Co. pp. pp. "Finding the exact maximum impedance resonant frequency of a practical parallel resonant circuit without calculus" (http:/ / www. [16] This section is based on Example 4.2. USA: Wiley-IEEE.). (2003). [4] Agarwal and Lang. • J. [31] Kaiser. p. Annales de Chimie et de Physique (Paris: Masson) 34: 5–37. [27] Huurdeman. com/ bstj/ vol20-1941/ articles/ bstj20-4-415. org/ issues/ winter2010/ files/ TIIJ fall-spring 2010-PDW2. p. p.223-224. [29] Kaiser. Bibliography • Anant Agarwal. 3E (http:/ / books.26. pp. tiij. David Irwin. [7] Agarwal and Lang. pp. [28] Kaiser.7. University of Minnesota. pp.14-7. L. p. pp.) [17] Katsuhiko Ogata (2005). p. [3] Nilsson and Riedel. com/ books?id=SnjGRDVIUL4C& pg=PA200). V. Taylor & Francis. [22] Cartwright.5. CRC Press. K. pdf). alcatel-lucent. Lang. E. p. 198-202 (some notations have been changed to fit the rest of this article. 2002 ISBN 9058092453. . [19] Nilsson and Riedel. .27. ISBN 1584885750. 2006 ISBN 7302130213. pp.34. p. pp. [8] Nilsson and Riedel.287-288. "Memoirs sur l'Aimentation". Humar. 516–517.295. [25] Savary.646. [6] Agarwal and Lang. org/ wiki/ Template:Linear [2] Kaiser.30-7.656. Riedel.286. • James William Nilsson. com/ books?id=jStDc2LmU5IC& pg=PT97& dq=damping-decreases+ resonance+ amplitude#v=onepage& q=damping-decreases resonance amplitude& f=false) (3rd ed. google. The Technology Interface International Journal 11 (1): 26–34. System Dynamics (4th ed.25-5. [23] Kaiser. wikipedia. [15] Irwin. Basic engineering circuit analysis. Integral transforms and their applications. [14] Nilsson and Riedel.7. google. 2007.648. Dambaru Bhatta. p. [10] Agarwal and Lang. Prentice Hall.7.21. p.308. "The History of Electrical Resonance" (http:/ / www.532. Electric circuits.72. pp. Dynamics of structures.10. p. Anton A. Optics.71-7. 2004 ISBN 0849320879. p.

See subtractive synthesis. The tone knob found on many electric guitars is a low-pass filter used to reduce the amount of treble in the sound. to block high pitches that they can't efficiently broadcast. the low notes are easily heard. a similar circuit using a resistor and capacitor in parallel works in a similar manner. An optical filter could correctly be called low-pass. Radio transmitters use low-pass filters to block harmonic emissions which might cause interference with other communications. to avoid confusion. Electronic low-pass filters are used to drive subwoofers and other types of loudspeakers. Examples of low-pass filters Acoustic A stiff physical barrier tends to reflect higher sound frequencies. For current signals. and so acts as a low-pass filter for transmitting sound. Electronic In an electronic low-pass RC filter for voltage signals. The moving average operation used in fields such as finance is a particular kind of low-pass filter. The actual amount of attenuation for each frequency varies from filter to filter. When music is playing in another room. including electronic circuits (such as a hiss filter used in audio). and leaving the longer-term trend. Low-pass filters also play a significant role in the sculpting of sound for electronic music as created by analogue synthesisers. high frequencies contained in the input signal are attenuated but the filter has little attenuation below its cutoff frequency which is determined by its RC time constant. or treble cut filter when used in audio applications. and so on. An integrator is another example of a single time constant low-pass filter. while the high notes are attenuated. See current divider discussed in more detail below. digital filters for smoothing sets of data. acoustic barriers. Low-pass filters provide a smoother form of a signal.[1] Telephone lines fitted with DSL splitters use low-pass and high-pass filters to separate DSL and POTS signals sharing the same pair of wires. blurring of images.Low-pass filter 127 Low-pass filter A low-pass filter is an electronic filter that passes low-frequency signals but attenuates (reduces the amplitude of) signals with frequencies higher than the cutoff frequency. It is sometimes called a high-cut filter. but conventionally is described as "longpass" (low frequency is long wavelength). anti-aliasing filters for conditioning signals prior to analog-to-digital conversion. and can be analyzed with the same signal processing techniques as are used for other low-pass filters. A band-pass filter is a combination of a low-pass and a high-pass. . A low-pass filter is the opposite of a high-pass filter. Low-pass filters exist in many different forms. removing the short-term fluctuations.

For example. However. Greater accuracy in approximation requires a longer delay."[2] The Whittaker–Shannon interpolation formula describes how to use a perfect low-pass filter to reconstruct a continuous signal from a sampled digital signal. allowing the computation to "see" a little bit into the future. a sinc function.Low-pass filter 128 Ideal and real filters An ideal low-pass filter completely eliminates all frequencies above the cutoff frequency while passing those below unchanged: its frequency response is a rectangular function. An ideal low-pass filter can be realized mathematically (theoretically) by multiplying a signal by the rectangular function in the frequency domain or. applying that filter requires delaying the signal for a moderate period of time. and so generally needs to be approximated for real ongoing signals. This delay is manifested as phase shift." in signal reconstruction. convolution with its impulse response. in order to perform the convolution. It is effectively realizable for pre-recorded digital signals by assuming extensions of zero into the past and future. and is a brick-wall filter. in the time domain. Real filters for real-time applications approximate the ideal filter by truncating and windowing the infinite impulse response to make a finite impulse response. because the sinc function's support region extends to all past and future times. the impulse response of an . the ideal filter is impossible to realize without also having ideal low-pass filter. "simple truncation [of sinc] causes severe ringing artifacts. and the design and choice of real filters involves understanding and minimizing these artifacts. and to reduce these artifacts one uses window functions "which drop off more smoothly at the edges. The sinc function. or knowledge of the infinite future and past. signals of infinite extent in time. or more typically by making the signal repetitive and using Fourier analysis. Real digital-to-analog converters use real filter approximations. An ideal low-pass filter results in ringing artifacts via the Gibbs phenomenon. equivalently. The transition region present in practical filters does not exist in an ideal filter. The filter would therefore need to have infinite delay. These can be reduced or worsened by choice of windowing function.

which smoothly transitions between the two straight line regions. of 4). On any Butterworth filter. Power will reduce the signal amplitude by gain is shown in decibels (i. zeroes in the transfer function can change the high-frequency asymptote. • Third. – all have different-looking "knee curves". The gain-magnitude frequency response of a first-order (one-pole) low-pass filter. See Pole–zero plot and RC circuit. except that it falls off more quickly. or 6 dB. causing their frequency response at the cutoff frequency to be above the horizontal line. See RLC circuit. Many second-order filters are designed to have "peaking" or resonance. more precisely. The frequency response of a filter is generally represented using a Bode plot. the power rolloff approaches 20 dB per decade in the limit of high frequency. In all cases. The Bode plot for this type of filter resembles that of a first-order filter. Electronic circuits can be devised for any desired frequency range. So the order of the filter determines the amount of additional attenuation for frequencies higher than the cutoff frequency. Bessel filter. The various types of filters – Butterworth filter. The frequency response at the cutoff frequency in a first-order filter is 3 dB below the horizontal line. if one extends the horizontal line to the right and the diagonal line to the upper-left (the asymptotes of the function). etc. but approach the same final rate of 12 dB per octave. and the filter is characterized by its cutoff frequency and rate of frequency rolloff. for example. In general. this one-pole–one-zero filter is still a first-order low-pass. Chebyshev filter. the final rate of power rolloff for an orderall-pole filter is dB per octave (i. If the transfer function of a first-order low-pass filter has a zero as well as a pole. Angular frequency is shown on a logarithmic scale in units of radians per second. the cutoff frequency – depend on the characteristics of the filter. • A second-order filter attenuates higher frequencies more steeply. Other all-pole second-order filters may roll off at different rates initially depending on their Q factor. The magnitude Bode plot for a first-order filter looks like a horizontal line below the cutoff frequency. There is also a "knee curve" at the boundary between the two. at the cutoff frequency. For example. every time the frequency doubles (goes up one octave). .. they will intersect at exactly the "cutoff frequency".. such an effect is caused for example by a little bit of the input leaking around the one-pole filter. at some maximum attenuation of high frequencies.e.and higher-order filters are defined similarly. See electronic filter for other types. the filter attenuates the input power by half or 3 dB. right up through microwave frequencies (above 1 GHz) and higher.Low-pass filter 129 Continuous-time low-pass filters There are many different types of filter circuits. dB per decade). The meanings of 'low' and 'high' – that is. • A first-order filter. the Bode plot will flatten out again. a 3 dB decline reflects an additional half-power half (so power reduces by a factor attenuation). The term "low-pass filter" merely refers to the shape of the filter's response. a second-order Butterworth filter will reduce the signal amplitude to one fourth its original level every time the frequency doubles (so power decreases by 12 dB per octave. as with the first-order filters. and a diagonal line above the cutoff frequency. a high-pass filter could be built that cuts off at a lower frequency than any low-pass filter – it is their responses that set them apart.e. or 40 dB per decade). with different responses to changing frequency.

effectively short circuiting to ground (analogous to replacing the capacitor with just a wire). The break frequency. first order low-pass RC filter or equivalently (in radians per second): One way to understand this circuit is to focus on the time the capacitor takes to charge. one can similarly consider the Z-transform of the impulse response). . The output goes up and down only a small fraction of the amount the input goes up and down. Another way to understand this circuit is with the idea of reactance at a particular frequency: • Since DC cannot flow through the capacitor. The capacitor is not an "on/off" object (like the block or pass fluidic explanation above). • At high frequencies. The capacitor exhibits reactance. there is plenty of time for the capacitor to charge up to practically the same voltage as the input voltage. DC input must "flow out" the path marked (analogous to removing the capacitor). is determined by the time constant: Passive. and K is the filter passband gain. The combination of resistance and capacitance gives you the time constant of the filter (represented by the Greek letter tau). also called the turnover frequency or cutoff frequency (in hertz). there's only time for it to charge up half the amount. At higher frequencies the reactance drops. • Since AC flows very well through the capacitor — almost as well as it flows through solid wire — AC input "flows out" through the capacitor. It takes time to charge or discharge the capacitor through that resistor: • At low frequencies. Electronic low-pass filters Passive electronic realization One simple electrical circuit that will serve as a low-pass filter consists of a resistor in series with a load. and blocks low-frequency signals. The capacitor will variably act between these two extremes.Low-pass filter 130 Laplace notation Continuous-time filters can also be described in terms of the Laplace transform of their impulse response in a way that allows all of the characteristics of the filter to be easily analyzed by considering the pattern of poles and zeros of the Laplace transform in the complex plane (in discrete time. causing them to go through the load instead. τ is the filter time constant. the capacitor only has time to charge up a small amount before the input switches direction. and a capacitor in parallel with the load. At double the frequency. a first-order low-pass filter can be described in Laplace notation as where s is the Laplace transform variable. and the capacitor effectively functions as a short circuit. It is the Bode plot and frequency response that show this variability. For example.

which can be substituted into equation V so that: This equation can be discretized.Low-pass filter 131 Active electronic realization Another type of electrical circuit is an active low-pass filter. An active low-pass filter Discrete-time realization The effect of a low-pass filter can be simulated on a computer by analyzing its behavior in the time domain. and let be represented by the sequence which correspond to the same points in time. In the operational amplifier circuit shown in the figure. assume that samples of the input and output are taken at evenly-spaced points in time separated by time. Substituting equation Q into equation I gives . For simplicity. and the stopband drops off at −6 dB per octave as it is a first-order filter. according to Kirchoff's Laws and the definition of capacitance: A simple low-pass RC filter (V) (Q) (I) where is the charge stored in the capacitor at time . and then discretizing the model. Making these substitutions: . Let the samples of be represented by the sequence . the cutoff frequency (in hertz) is defined as: or equivalently (in radians per second): The gain in the passband is −R2/R1. From the circuit diagram to the right.

the smoothing factor terms of the sampling period . // time interval dt.n] y var real α = dt / (RC + dt) y[0] := x[0] for i from 1 to n y[i] = α * x[i] + (1-α) * y[i-1] return y The loop that calculates each of the n outputs can be refactored into the equivalent: for i from 1 to n y[i] = y[i-1] + α * (x[i] . and the output samples respond more slowly to a change in the input samples – the system will have more inertia. and time constant RC function lowpass(real[0. real RC) var real[0. given input samples.Low-pass filter 132 And rearranging terms gives the recurrence relation That is. . this discrete-time implementation of a simple RC low-pass filter is the exponentially-weighted moving average By definition.n] x. then the time constant is equal to the sampling period. This filter is an infinite-impulse-response (IIR) single-pole lowpass filter.y[i-1]) That is.. real dt. . and Algorithmic implementation The filter recurrence relation provides a way to determine the output samples in terms of the input samples and the preceding output.. This exponential smoothing property matches the exponential decay seen in the continuous-time system. The following pseudocode algorithm will simulate the effect of a low-pass filter on a series of digital samples: // Return RC low-pass filter output samples. as the time constant increases. the discrete-time smoothing parameter decreases. the change from one filter output to the next is proportional to the difference between the previous output and the next input. The expression for : yields the equivalent time constant in and smoothing factor If . If . As expected. then is significantly larger than the sampling interval.

High-pass filter A high-pass filter (HPF) is an electronic filter that passes high-frequency signals but attenuates (reduces the amplitude of) signals with frequencies lower than the cutoff frequency.uk/~www_pa/Scots_Guide/experiment/lowpass/ lpf. pdf) External links • Low-pass filter (http://www. such as blocking DC from circuitry sensitive to non-zero average voltages or RF devices. Adel.allaboutcircuits. That is. Figure 1: A passive.Low-pass filter 133 References [1] Sedra.html) • ECE 209: Review of Circuits as LTI Systems (http://www. The actual amount of attenuation for each frequency varies from filter to filter.[1] High-pass filters have many uses. Microelectronic Circuits. (1991). ac. R is in ohms.com/vol_2/chpt_8/2.com/teaching/osu/ece209/lab3_opamp_FO/ lab3_opamp_FO_phase_shift. and C is in farads. • ECE 209: Sources of Phase Shift (http://www. at which the output power is half the input power. First-order continuous-time implementation The simple first-order electronic high-pass filter shown in Figure 1 is implemented by placing an input voltage across the series combination of a capacitor and a resistor and using the voltage across the resistor as an output. Kenneth C.html) • Low Pass Filter java simulator (http://www..com/teaching/osu/ece209/support/ circuits_sys_review. p. It is sometimes called a low-cut filter or bass-cut filter. Smith. A high-pass filter is usually modeled as a linear time-invariant system.pdf) – Short primer on the mathematical analysis of (electrical) LTI systems. at/ research/ vis/ vismed/ Windows/ MasteringWindows. They can also be used in conjunction with a low-pass filter to make a bandpass filter. analog.tedpavlic. cg. ISBN 0-03-051648-X. Saunders College Publishing. it is inversely proportional to the cutoff frequency fc. . τ is in seconds. first-order high-pass filter.tedpavlic. [2] Mastering Windows: Improving Reconstruction (http:/ / www. The product of the resistance and capacitance (R×C) is the time constant (τ). 3 ed.pdf) – Gives an intuitive explanation of the source of phase shift in a low-pass filter.st-andrews. 60. realized by an RC circuit where fc is in hertz. Also verifies simple passive LPF transfer function by means of trigonometric identity.ac. tuwien.

this discrete-time implementation of a simple continuous-time RC high-pass filter is By definition. it may have non-unity passband gain. high-frequency signals are inverted and amplified by R2/R1. That is. the filter has a passband gain of -R2/R1 and has a corner frequency of Because this filter is active. For simplicity. Making these substitutions: And rearranging terms gives the recurrence relation That is. the sampling period . The expression for parameter and : yields the equivalent time constant in terms of . That is. From the circuit in Figure 1 above. according to Kirchoff's Laws and the definition of capacitance: where is the charge stored in the capacitor at time . Discrete-time filter design is beyond the scope of this article. In this case. however. the continuous-time behavior can be discretized. Let the samples of be represented by the sequence . Figure 2: An active high-pass filter Discrete-time realization Discrete-time high-pass filters can also be designed. and let be represented by the sequence which correspond to the same points in time. Substituting Equation (Q) into Equation (I) and then Equation (I) into Equation (V) gives: This equation can be discretized. assume that samples of the input and output are taken at evenly-spaced points in time separated by time. a simple example comes from the conversion of the continuous-time high-pass filter above to a discrete-time realization.High-pass filter 134 Figure 2 shows an active electronic implementation of a first-order high-pass filter using an operational amplifier.

Because it requires large (i. In particular. or damage. Because it is excited by small changes and tends to hold its prior output values for a long time. • A large α implies that the output will decay very slowly but will also be strongly influenced by even small changes in input.e. it can pass relatively low frequencies.. If . However.x[i-1]).x[i-1]) return y The loop which calculates each of the outputs can be refactored into the equivalent: for i from 1 to n y[i] := α * (y[i-1] + x[i] . then the time constant equal to the sampling period. the speaker. real RC) var real[0. a constant input (i. it can only pass relatively high frequencies.. Applications Audio High-pass filters have many applications. real dt. Hence. Hence. then is significantly 135 smaller than the sampling interval. When such a filter is built into a loudspeaker cabinet it is normally a passive filter that also includes a low-pass filter for the woofer and so often employs both a capacitor and inductor (although very simple high-pass filters for tweeters can consist of a series capacitor and nothing else). An alternative.n] y var real α := RC / (RC + dt) y[0] := x[0] for i from 1 to n y[i] := α * y[i-1] + α * (x[i] ... a large α corresponds to a large and therefore a low corner frequency of the filter. (x[i] x[i-1]) is large) to cause the output to change much. By the relationship between parameter α and time constant above.x[i-1]) However. this case corresponds to a high-pass filter with a very narrow stop band. this case corresponds to a high-pass filter with a very wide stop band. an input with (x[i] x[i-1])=0) will always decay to zero.e. given input samples. // time interval dt. • A small α implies that the output will decay quickly and will require large changes in the input (i. and may have significant internal resistance) is to employ bi-amplification with active RC filters or active digital filters with separate power amplifiers for each loudspeaker. The following pseudocode algorithm will simulate the effect of a high-pass filter on a series of digital samples: // Return RC high-pass filter output samples..n] x.e. are expensive. They are used as part of an audio crossover to direct high frequencies to a tweeter while attenuating bass signals which could interfere with. . as would be expected with a high-pass filter with a large . the earlier form shows how the parameter α changes the impact of the prior output y[i-1] and current change in input (x[i] . a small α corresponds to a small and therefore a high corner frequency of the filter. By the relationship between parameter α and time constant above. fast) changes and tends to quickly forget its prior output values.High-pass filter If . Such low-current . and Algorithmic implementation The filter recurrence relation provides a way to determine the output samples in terms of the input samples and the preceding output. which provides good quality sound without inductors (which are prone to parasitic coupling. as would be expected with a high-pass filter with a small . and time constant RC function highpass(real[0.

[7] The unsharp masking. fixed-frequency high-pass filters at 80 or 100 Hz that can be engaged.[3] Another example is the QSC Audio PLX amplifier series which includes an internal 5 Hz high-pass filter which is applied to the inputs whenever the optional 50 and 30 Hz high-pass filters are turned off. rob the amplifier of headroom. or 20 to 20. bass guitar and piano.9) . noises (e. putting a gaussian blur. operation used in image editing software is a high-boost filter. Main writes that Smaart software.g. for preventing the amplification of DC currents which may harm the amplifier. Right side is with a high-pass filter applied (in this case.[2] However. noise reduction.[1] High-pass filters are also used for AC coupling at the inputs of many audio amplifiers. with a radius of 4. filtering as they are not subject to modulation by low-frequency stage wash—low frequency sounds coming from the subwoofers or the public address system and wrapping around to the stage. a Mackie 1402 mixing console as measured by sources which will have useful low frequency sounds.[4] Mixing consoles often include high-pass filtering at each channel strip. For example.000 Hz on the Yamaha M7CL digital mixing console. such as from 20 to 400 Hz on the Midas Heritage 3000. if the imaging software does not have one. etc. Example of high-pass filter applied to the right half of a photograph. or motor noises from record players and tape decks) may be removed because they are undesired or may overload the RIAA equalization circuit of the preamp. and could be used to amplify the DC signal of a common 9-volt battery at the input to supply 18 volts DC in an emergency for mixing console power. or sharpening. footsteps.[6] A high-pass filter.High-pass filter and low-voltage line level crossovers are called active crossovers.[1] Rumble filters are high-pass filters applied to the removal of unwanted sounds near to the lower end of the audible range or below.. inverting. and generate waste heat at the loudspeakers voice coil. other models have 'sweepable HPF'—a high-pass filter of fixed slope that can be set within a specified frequency range.. This high-pass filter has a slope DI unit inputs (as opposed to microphone inputs) do not need high-pass of 18 dB per octave. can be done by duplicating the layer. using designs done in either the spatial domain or the frequency domain. One amplifier. and then blending with the original layer using an opacity (say 50%) with the original layer. Main indicates that high-pass filters are commonly used for directional microphones which have a proximity effect—a low-frequency boost for very close sources. Some models have fixed-slope. except for those such as kick drum. but Main notes that he has seen microphones that benefit from a 500 Hz HPF setting on the console. enhancements. Left side is unmodified. did not have high-pass filtering at all. that model's basic design has been superseded by newer designs such as the Crown Macro-Tech series developed in the late 1980s which included 10 Hz high-pass filtering on the inputs and switchable 35 Hz high-pass filtering on the outputs.[5] 136 Image High-pass and low-pass filters are also used in digital image processing to perform image modifications. This low frequency boost commonly causes problems up to 200 or 300 Hz. the professional audio model DC300 made by Crown International beginning in the 1960s. Veteran systems engineer and live sound mixer Bruce Main recommends that high-pass filters be engaged for most mixer input A 75 Hz "low cut" filter from an input channel of sources. a generalization of high-pass.

or about 0. [7] "Gimp tutorial with high-pass filter operation" (http:/ / www. John (1998). • ECE 209: Sources of Phase Shift (http://www. 2010. Band-pass filter A band-pass filter is a device that passes frequencies within a certain range and rejects (attenuates) frequencies outside that range. 2010). com/ index. it is to peak) on a diagram showing magnitude transfer function versus frequency for a frequently confused with passband. 2010). Massachusetts: ProSoundWeb. Mather (2004). com/ books?id=01u_Vm5i5isC& pg=PA479). p.707 relative type of filter or filtering process. These filters can also be created by combining a low-pass filter with a high-pass filter. √2/2. [2] Andrews. [5] Main. 2010. Macro-Tech Series.com/ch7/1. Crown Audio. 2010. pdf). Live Sound International (Framingham. gimp. ISBN 9780470849194. posting as ssltech (January 11. google. which band-pass filter refers to the actual portion of affected spectrum. 479.[1] Bandpass is an adjective that describes a Bandwidth measured at half-power points (gain -3 dB. Retrieved 9 March 2010. qscaudio. Hence.com/teaching/osu/ece209/lab3_opamp_FO/ lab3_opamp_FO_phase_shift. "Cut 'Em Off At The Pass: Effective Uses Of High-Pass Filtering"." A bandpass signal is a signal containing a band of frequencies away from zero frequency. . "Re: Running the board for a show this big?" (http:/ / recforums. EH Publishing). [3] "Operation Manual: MA-5002VZ" (http:/ / www. 181.pdf) – Gives an intuitive explanation of the source of phase shift in a high-pass filter. The Art of Sound Reproduction (http:/ / books. Recording. google. Engineering & Production. Focal Press. . org/ tutorials/ Sketch_Effect/ ). ProSoundWeb. . crownaudio. Computer processing of remotely sensed images: an introduction (http:/ / books. 2007.[2] . An example of an analogue electronic band-pass filter is an RLC circuit (a resistor–inductor–capacitor circuit).). QSC Audio. External links • Common Impulse Responses (http://www. com/ books?id=Idj8Eg-KtMAC& pg=PA181& dq=image+ high-pass+ low-pass+ frequency-domain& hl=en& ei=S3XxTNm2BtK1ngemtKn1Cg& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=6& ved=0CE8Q6AEwBQ#v=onepage& q=image high-pass low-pass frequency-domain& f=false) (3rd ed. php/ m/ 462291/ 0/ ). Retrieved March 9.tedpavlic. . com/ pdf/ amps/ 128313. John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 0240515129. .com/teaching/osu/ece209/support/ circuits_sys_review. 1999. Bruce (February 16. such as a signal that comes out of a bandpass filter.pdf) – Short primer on the mathematical analysis of (electrical) LTI systems. Retrieved March 9. Also verifies simple passive LPF transfer function by means of trigonometric identity.tedpavlic. one might say "A dual bandpass filter has two passbands. 268. pp.htm) • ECE 209: Review of Circuits as LTI Systems (http://www. Optical band-pass filters are of common usage. prosoundweb. pdf). [6] Paul M.High-pass filter 137 References [1] Watkinson.dspguide. [4] "User Manual: PLX Series Amplifiers" (http:/ / media. com/ pdfs/ plxuser. . Retrieved March 9. Keith.

in truth. the transition out of the passband would be instantaneous in frequency. Kanasewich (1981). 3 to 10 days. Additionally. R. The filter does not attenuate all frequencies outside the desired frequency range completely.. V. in particular. as part of a band-pass filter". pp. no bandpass filter is ideal. A high-Q filter will have a narrow passband and a low-Q filter will have a wide passband.Band-pass filter 138 An ideal bandpass filter would have a completely flat passband (e. visual cortical simple cells were first shown by David Hubel and Torsten Wiesel to have response properties that resemble Gabor filters. this is achieved at the expense of pass-band or stop-band ripple. and it is usually expressed in dB of attenuation per octave or decade of frequency.[3] Q-factor A band-pass filter can be characterised by its Q-factor.g. University of Alberta. . for example. Often. ISBN 0888640749. References in popular culture In his first novel. The schematic showing "Kilroy". e. which are band-pass. thus allowing the filter to perform as close as possible to its intended design. so that only cyclones remain as fluctuations in the data fields. 260. com/ books?id=k8SSLy-FYagC& pg=PA260& dq=band-pass-filter& lr=& as_brr=3& ei=7Y2uR4nCEoOssgPO7bD8BQ& sig=a3fmpt4zGisnq4vIt6Bi2urgb-U#PPA260.M1). Generally. Time Sequence Analysis in Geophysics (http:/ / books. a shape factor of 2:1 at 30/3 dB means the bandwidth measured between frequencies at 30 dB attenuation is twice that measured between frequencies at 3 dB attenuation. but not rejected. google. The shape factor is the ratio of bandwidths measured using two different attenuation values to determine the cutoff frequency. His drawing actually resembles the schematic of a band-stop filter. The bandwidth of the filter is simply the difference between the upper and lower cutoff frequencies. which Pynchon said represents part of a band-pass filter. Outside of electronics and signal processing. This is known as the filter roll-off. Thomas Pynchon quips that the popular graffiti character. . there is a A medium-complexity example of a band-Pass filter region just outside the intended passband where frequencies are attenuated. The Q-factor is the inverse of the fractional bandwidth.[4][5] References [1] E. In practice. Kilroy "had sprung into life. one example of the use of band-pass filters is in the atmospheric sciences.. It is common to band-pass filter recent meteorological data with a period range of. In neuroscience. the design of a filter seeks to make the roll-off as narrow as possible. with no gain/attenuation throughout) and would completely attenuate all frequencies outside the passband. These are respectively referred to as narrow-band and wide-band filters.g.

**Band-pass filter
**

[2] Belle A. Shenoi (2006). Introduction to digital signal processing and filter design (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=37g8oUqaS_AC& pg=PA120& dq="bandpass+ signal"& hl=en& ei=Qy3KTNvKN4nQsAOo46yHDg& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=8& ved=0CE8Q6AEwBw#v=onepage& q="bandpass signal"& f=false). John Wiley and Sons. p. 120. ISBN 9780471464822. . [3] Norman Stuart Sutherland (1979). Tutorial Essays in Psychology (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=yFbf_mulFuUC& pg=PA68& dq=bandpass-filter+ Wiesel+ Hubel& lr=& as_brr=3& ei=EJCuR8b1Ipm-swP7uKnyBQ& sig=0nmhJ6afsDuet2Eis-HA6wrPwdU#PPA68,M1). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. pp. 68. ISBN 047026652X. . [4] Thomas Pynchon (1999). V. (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=jqS2pmUIfOAC& pg=PA470& dq=band-pass-filter+ kilroy& lr=& as_brr=3& ei=_IuuR_3ODaautgO77vj6BQ& sig=q2eTF8Sc0jNw4do4h6zaMyPuf0E). HarperCollins. pp. 470. ISBN 0060930217. . [5] Samuel Thomas (2007). Pynchon and the Political (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=kw3eahkYar8C& pg=PA44& dq=band-pass-filter+ kilroy+ pynchon& lr=& as_brr=3& ei=TkdkScraLY_QkwT1-vH2Bw). Routledge. p. 44. ISBN 9780415956468. .

139

140

Basic devices

p-n junction

A p–n junction is formed at the boundary between a p-type and n-type semiconductor created in a single crystal of semiconductor by doping, for example by ion implantation, diffusion of dopants, or by epitaxy (growing a layer of crystal doped with one type of A silicon p–n junction with no applied voltage. dopant on top of a layer of crystal doped with another type of dopant). If two separate pieces of material were used, this would introduce a grain boundary between the semiconductors that severely inhibits its utility by scattering the electrons and holes.. P–n junctions are elementary "building blocks" of most semiconductor electronic devices such as diodes, transistors, solar cells, LEDs, and integrated circuits; they are the active sites where the electronic action of the device takes place. For example, a common type of transistor, the bipolar junction transistor, consists of two p–n junctions in series, in the form n–p–n or p–n–p. The discovery of the p–n junction is usually attributed to American physicist Russell Ohl of Bell Laboratories.[1] A Schottky junction is a special case of a p–n junction, where metal serves the role of the n-type semiconductor.

**Properties of a p–n junction
**

The p–n junction possesses some interesting properties that have useful applications in modern electronics. A p-doped semiconductor is relatively conductive. The same is true of an n-doped semiconductor, but the junction between them can become depleted of charge carriers, and hence non-conductive, depending on the relative voltages of the two semiconductor regions. By manipulating this non-conductive layer, p–n junctions are commonly used as diodes: circuit elements that allow a flow of electricity in one direction but not in the other (opposite) direction. This property is explained in terms of forward bias and reverse bias, where the term bias refers to an application of electric voltage to the p–n junction.

**Equilibrium (zero bias)
**

In a p–n junction, without an external applied voltage, an equilibrium condition is reached in which a potential difference is formed across the junction. This potential difference is called built-in potential . After joining p-type and n-type semiconductors, electrons near the p–n interface tend to diffuse into the p region. As electrons diffuse, they leave positively charged ions (donors) in the n region. Likewise, holes near the p–n interface begin to diffuse into the n-type region, leaving fixed ions (acceptors) with negative charge. The regions nearby the p–n interfaces lose their neutrality and become charged, forming the space charge region or depletion layer (see figure A).

p-n junction

141

Figure A. A p–n junction in thermal equilibrium with zero-bias voltage applied. Electrons and holes concentration are reported with blue and red lines, respectively. Gray regions are charge-neutral. Light-red zone is positively charged. Light-blue zone is negatively charged. The electric field is shown on the bottom, the electrostatic force on electrons and holes and the direction in which the diffusion tends to move electrons and holes.

The electric field created by the space charge region opposes the diffusion process for both electrons and holes. There are two concurrent phenomena: the diffusion process that tends to generate more space charge, and the electric field generated by the space charge that tends to counteract the diffusion. The carrier concentration profile at equilibrium is shown in figure A with blue and red lines. Also shown are the two counterbalancing phenomena that establish equilibrium.

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Figure B. A p–n junction in thermal equilibrium with zero-bias voltage applied. Under the junction, plots for the charge density, the electric field, and the voltage are reported.

The space charge region is a zone with a net charge provided by the fixed ions (donors or acceptors) that have been left uncovered by majority carrier diffusion. When equilibrium is reached, the charge density is approximated by the displayed step function. In fact, the region is completely depleted of majority carriers (leaving a charge density equal to the net doping level), and the edge between the space charge region and the neutral region is quite sharp (see figure B, Q(x) graph). The space charge region has the same magnitude of charge on both sides of the p–n interfaces, thus it extends farther on the less doped side (the n side in figures A and B).

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Forward bias

In forward bias, the p-type is connected with the positive terminal and the n-type is connected with the negative terminal.

PN junction operation in forward-bias mode, showing reducing depletion width. Both p and n junctions are doped at a 1e15/cm3 doping level, leading to built-in potential of ~0.59V. Reducing depletion width can be inferred from the shrinking charge profile, as fewer dopants are exposed with increasing forward bias.

With a battery connected this way, the holes in the P-type region and the electrons in the N-type region are pushed toward the junction. This reduces the width of the depletion zone. The positive charge applied to the P-type material repels the holes, while the negative charge applied to the N-type material repels the electrons. As electrons and holes are pushed toward the junction, the distance between them decreases. This lowers the barrier in potential. With increasing forward-bias voltage, the depletion zone eventually becomes thin enough that the zone's electric field cannot counteract charge carrier motion across the p–n junction, as a consequence reducing electrical resistance. The electrons that cross the p–n junction into the P-type material (or holes that cross into the N-type material) will diffuse in the near-neutral region. Therefore, the amount of minority diffusion in the near-neutral zones determines the amount of current that may flow through the diode. Only majority carriers (electrons in N-type material or holes in P-type) can flow through a semiconductor for a macroscopic length. With this in mind, consider the flow of electrons across the junction. The forward bias causes a force on the electrons pushing them from the N side toward the P side. With forward bias, the depletion region is narrow enough that electrons can cross the junction and inject into the P-type material. However, they do not continue to flow through the P-type material indefinitely, because it is energetically favorable for them to recombine with holes. The average length an electron travels through the P-type material before recombining is called the diffusion length, and it is typically on the order of microns.[2] Although the electrons penetrate only a short distance into the P-type material, the electric current continues uninterrupted, because holes (the majority carriers) begin to flow in the opposite direction. The total current (the sum of the electron and hole currents) is constant in space, because any variation would cause charge buildup over time (this is Kirchhoff's current law). The flow of holes from the P-type region into the N-type region is exactly analogous to the flow of electrons from N to P (electrons and holes swap roles and the signs of all currents and voltages are reversed). Therefore, the macroscopic picture of the current flow through the diode involves electrons flowing through the N-type region toward the junction, holes flowing through the P-type region in the opposite direction toward the

This effect is used to one's advantage in Zener diode regulator circuits. Once the electric field intensity increases beyond a critical level. This varies the capacitance of the diode. is the electric potential. as required. causing the width of the depletion zone to increase. If a diode is reverse-biased. The Shockley diode equation models the forward-bias operational characteristics of a p–n junction outside the avalanche (reverse-biased conducting) region. the electrons will also be pulled away from the junction. as long as the amount of current flowing does not reach levels that cause the semiconductor material to overheat and cause thermal damage.6 V higher than the voltage at the anode. but they also have opposite charges. Likewise. A standard value for breakdown voltage is for instance 5. the p–n junction depletion zone breaks down and current begins to flow. Therefore. is the charge density. and does so increasingly with increasing reverse-bias voltage. The width of the depletion zone of any diode changes with voltage applied. Therefore. The strength of the depletion zone electric field increases as the reverse-bias voltage increases. Both of these breakdown processes are non-destructive and are reversible.p-n junction junction. so the overall current is in the same direction on both sides of the diode. Electrostatics For a p–n junction Poisson's equation becomes where charge. usually by either the Zener or the avalanche breakdown processes. Zener diodes have a certain – low – breakdown voltage. and the two species of carriers constantly recombining in the vicinity of the junction. This increases the voltage barrier causing a high resistance to the flow of charge carriers. because the N-type region is connected to the positive terminal. refer to the Varicap article. is permittivity and is the magnitude of the electron Since the total charge on either side of the depletion region must cancel out it is . Because the p-type material is now connected to the negative terminal of the power supply. For more information. no current will flow until the diode breaks down. Another application where reverse biased diodes are used is in Varicap diodes. thus allowing minimal electric current to cross the p–n junction. the voltage at the cathode is higher than that at the anode. Connecting the P-type region to the negative terminal of the battery and the N-type region to the positive terminal corresponds to reverse bias. The electrons and holes travel in opposite directions. The connections are illustrated in the following diagram: A silicon p–n junction in reverse bias.6 V. 144 Reverse bias Reverse-bias usually refers to how a diode is used in a circuit. the 'holes' in the P-type material are pulled away from the junction. This in effect regulates the voltage over the diode. This means that the voltage at the cathode can never be more than 5. the depletion region widens. because the diode will break down – and therefore conduct – if the voltage gets any higher. The increase in resistance of the p–n junction results in the junction behaving as an insulator.

ISBN 0-471-92805-4. contact between the metal wires and the semiconductor material also creates metal–semiconductor junctions called Schottky diodes. E.. negative charges (electrons) can easily flow through the junction from n to p but not from p to n. pp. In a simplified ideal situation a semiconductor diode would never function. and the reverse is true for holes. com/ books?id=SZ6wm5ZSUmsC& pg=PA92). J. Norton & Company.no/~torheim/pnsjikt. R. Hall (2001).pdf). surface impurities within the part of the semiconductor that touches the metal terminals will greatly reduce the width of those depletion layers to such an extent that the metal-semiconductor junctions do not act as diodes. These non-rectifying junctions behave as ohmic contacts regardless of applied voltage polarity. the junction barrier (and therefore resistance) becomes greater and charge flow is minimal. Crystal fire: the invention of the transistor and the birth of the information age (http:/ / books. 88–97. References [1] an account of Ohl's discovery is in Riordan. since it would be composed of several diodes connected back-to-front in series.p-n junction 145 From the above equations and by deploying basic calculus it can be shown that the total width of the depletion region is Furthermore. the product is independent of the Fermi energy) it follows that where is the temperature of the semiconductor and is Boltzmann constant. but not in the opposite direction. A p–n junction diode allows electric charges to flow in one direction. H. Wiley 2003 Further reading • Olav Torheim. electric charge flows freely due to reduced resistance of the p–n junction.ift. When the p–n junction is forward-biased. by implementing the Einstein relation and assuming the semiconductor is nondegenerate (i. John Wiley & Sons. Michael. • 'Solid state devices' by Millman and Halkias . Lillian Hoddeson (1988). 2007. But. USA: W. When the p–n junction is reverse-biased. in practice. . ISBN 0393318516. [3] Summary The forward-bias and the reverse-bias properties of the p–n junction imply that it can be used as a diode.e.uib. Non-rectifying junctions In the above diagrams. google. [3] Handbook Of Photovoltaic Science And Engineering by Antonio Luque & Steven Hegedus. [2] Hook. W. however. Solid State Physics. Elementary Physics of P-N Junctions (http://web.

org (http://nanohub. in which only one carrier type is involved in charge flow due to drift. the base-emitter junction is forward biased and the base–collector junction is reverse biased. This mode of operation is contrasted with unipolar transistors. In typical operation. Charge flow in a BJT is due to bidirectional diffusion of charge carriers across a junction between two regions of different charge concentrations. Bipolar transistors are so named because their operation involves both electrons and holes.edu/cleanroom/pn_junction. Vasileska (2009) (https://nanohub.ee. as well. A bipolar (junction) transistor (BJT) is a three-terminal electronic device constructed of doped semiconductor material and may be used in amplifying or switching applications.p-n junction 146 Junctions • • • • • Back junction is a solar cell featuring the formation of a p-n junction at its rear surface Single-junction Heterojunction Multijunction P-i-n and n-i-p External links • PN Junction Properties Calculator (http://www. NPN BJT with forward-biased E–B junction and reverse-biased B–C junction .and NPN-type BJTs. Users can calculate current-voltage (I-V) & capacitance-voltage (C-V) outputs. and so BJTs are classified as minority-carrier devices.org/resources/6963) Bipolar junction transistor PNP NPN Schematic symbols for PNP. allowing thermally excited electrons to inject into the base region. when a positive voltage is applied to the base–emitter junction. the equilibrium between thermally generated carriers and the repelling electric field of the depletion region becomes unbalanced. such as field-effect transistors.org) allows simulation and study of a P-N junction diode with different doping and materials. • Theory of P-N Diodes – Dr. for example. By design.byu. Introduction An NPN transistor can be considered as two diodes with a shared anode. In an NPN transistor. most of the BJT collector current is due to the flow of charges injected from a high-concentration emitter into the base where they are minority carriers that diffuse toward the collector.phtml) • PN Junction Lab (http://nanohub.org/tools/pntoy) free to use on nanoHUB.

and handles the dynamics of turn-off. account for the distribution of this charge explicitly to explain transistor behaviour more exactly. To minimize the percentage of carriers that recombine before reaching the collector–base junction. the current-control view is sometimes used because it is approximately linear. or recovery time. current. That is.[1][2][3] Due to low level injection (in which there are much fewer excess carriers than normal majority carriers) the ambipolar diffusion rate (in which the excess majority and minority carriers flow at the same rate) is in effect determined by the excess minority carriers. In analog circuit design. in which the exponential I–V curve is key to the operation. so model complexity is usually not of much concern to the designer. but when it is linearized such that the transistor can be modelled as a transconductance. For translinear circuits. and so little electron injection occurs from the collector to the base. such as the Gummel–Poon model. so the voltage-control view is often preferred. the thickness of the base must be much less than the diffusion length of the electrons. and that collector current is beta times the base current. the transistor's base region must be thin enough that carriers can diffuse across it in much less time than the semiconductor's minority carrier lifetime. but electrons that diffuse through the base towards the collector are swept into the collector by the electric field in the depletion region of the collector–base junction. the collector current is approximately times the base current. where minority carriers in the base region are created by the absorption of photons. or by the base–emitter voltage (voltage control). In general. However. However. The electrons in the base are called minority carriers because the base is doped p-type which would make holes the majority carrier in the base. as in the Ebers–Moll model. the transistors are usually modelled as voltage controlled with transconductance proportional to collector current. The collector–base junction is reverse-biased.Bipolar junction transistor These electrons wander (or "diffuse") through the base from the region of high concentration near the emitter towards the region of low concentration near the collector. to accurately and reliably design production BJT circuits. Detailed models of transistor action. 147 Voltage.[1] The physical explanation for collector current is the amount of minority carriers in the base region.[4] The charge-control view easily handles phototransistors. design for circuits such as differential amplifiers again becomes a mostly linear problem. The thin shared base and asymmetric collector–emitter doping is what differentiates a bipolar transistor from two separate and oppositely biased diodes connected in series. because base charge is not a signal that is visible at the terminals.and voltage-control views are generally used in circuit design and analysis. which is just the usual exponential current–voltage curve of a p-n junction (diode). In particular. and charge control The collector–emitter current can be viewed as being controlled by the base–emitter current (current control). the current. which depends on charge in the base region recombining. the voltage-control (for example.[1] The voltage-control model requires an exponential function to be taken into account. Some basic circuits can be designed by assuming that the emitter–base voltage is approximately constant. transistor level circuit design is performed using SPICE or a comparable analog circuit simulator. These views are related by the current–voltage relation of the base–emitter junction. . Ebers–Moll) model is required.

Because the transistor's internal structure is usually optimized for forward-mode operation. and n type. often the α of the reverse mode is lower than 0. between 0. The emitter is heavily doped. For high current gain. allowing a large reverse bias voltage to be applied before the collector–base junction breaks down. Another important parameter is the common-base current gain. This ratio usually has a value close to unity. while the collector is lightly doped. n type and p type in a PNP. The common-base current gain is approximately the gain of current from emitter to collector in the forward-active region. giving the transistor a large β. The common-emitter current gain is represented by βF or hFE.5. the base region and the collector region. . turn-off. most of the carriers injected into the emitter–base junction must come from the emitter. base (B) and collector (C). interchanging the collector and the emitter makes the values of α and β in reverse operation much smaller than those in forward operation. The heavy doping of the emitter region and light doping of the base region causes many more electrons to be injected from the emitter into the base than holes to be injected from the base into the emitter. p type. exhibit long base-storage times that limit maximum frequency of operation in switching applications. Each semiconductor region is connected to a terminal. p type and n type in a NPN transistor. unlike other transistors. The bipolar junction transistor. The lack of symmetry is primarily due to the doping ratios of the emitter and the collector. thus making the resulting value of α very close to unity. the emitter region. making it almost impossible for the electrons injected into the base region to escape being collected. is usually not a symmetrical device. The base is physically located between the emitter and the collector Simplified cross section of a planar NPN bipolar and is made from lightly doped. Most transistors.998.Bipolar junction transistor 148 Turn-on. high resistivity material. αF. it is approximately the ratio of the DC collector current to the DC base current in forward-active region. This means that interchanging the collector and the emitter makes the transistor leave the forward active mode and start to operate in reverse mode. appropriately labeled: emitter (E). A cross section view of a BJT indicates that the collector–base junction has a much larger area than the emitter–base junction. respectively. and so. and especially power transistors. It is typically greater than 100 for small-signal transistors but can be smaller in transistors designed for high-power applications. Transistor 'alpha' and 'beta' The proportion of electrons able to cross the base and reach the collector is a measure of the BJT efficiency. The reason the emitter is heavily doped is to increase the emitter injection efficiency: the ratio of carriers injected by the emitter to those injected by the base.98 and 0. and storage delay The Bipolar transistor exhibits a few delay characteristics when turning on and off. Alpha and beta are more precisely related by the following identities (NPN transistor): Structure A BJT consists of three differently doped semiconductor regions. One method for reducing this storage time is by using a Baker clamp. These regions are. The collector–base junction is reverse biased in normal operation. The collector junction transistor surrounds the emitter region.

the PNP transistor is the BJT transistor that is "pointing in". the transistor becomes active. The symbol is "not pointing in. when the base is high relative to the emitter) as well as positive potential difference measured from the base to the collector. the NPN transistor is the BJT transistor that is "not pointing in".[5] PNP The other type of BJT is the PNP. That is. That is.[6] . A small current entering the base is amplified to produce a large collector and emitter current.. Die of a KSY34 high-frequency NPN transistor. based on the arrows in the symbol and the letters in the name. current flows between the collector and emitter of the transistor. A small current leaving the base is amplified in the collector output. based on the arrows in the symbol and the letters in the name. BJTs can be thought of as voltage-controlled current sources.Bipolar junction transistor 149 The low-performance "lateral" bipolar transistors sometimes used in CMOS processes are sometimes designed symmetrically. In this "on" state. below). due to the low impedance at the base. when there is a positive potential difference measured from the emitter of an NPN transistor to its base (i. most bipolar transistors used today are NPN because electron mobility is higher than hole mobility. That is. Early transistors were made from germanium but most modern BJTs are made from silicon. consisting of a layer of N-doped semiconductor between two layers of P-doped material. That is. The arrows in the NPN and PNP transistor symbols are on the emitter legs and point in the direction of the conventional current flow when the device is in forward active mode." A mnemonic device for the NPN transistor symbol is not pointing in. Most of the current is carried by electrons moving from emitter to collector as minority carriers in the P-type base region.e. consisting of a layer of P-doped semiconductor (the "base") between two N-doped layers." A device for remembering the PNP transistor symbol is pointing in (proudly). or current amplifiers. The symbol of a PNP BJT. but are more simply characterized as current-controlled current sources. base and emitter connected via bonded wires NPN NPN is one of the two types of bipolar transistors. The symbol "points in proudly. with no difference between forward and backward operation. especially for very high speed applications (see HBT. To allow for greater current and faster operation. The symbol of an NPN BJT. that is. A significant minority are also now made from gallium arsenide. This effect can be used to amplify the input voltage or current. a PNP transistor is "on" when its base is pulled low relative to the emitter. Small changes in the voltage applied across the base–emitter terminals causes the current that flows between the emitter and the collector to change significantly.

. In the more traditional BJT. and for holes to be injected backward from base to emitter. increasing the frequency response of the transistor by shortening the transit time across the base. This barrier arrangement helps reduce minority carrier injection from the base when the emitter-base junction is under forward bias. to be made large. Barriers indicated for electrons to move from emitter to base. though a wide variety of semiconductors may be used for the HBT structure. higher doping in the base can improve figures of merit like the Early voltage by lessening base narrowing. It is common in modern ultrafast circuits. In addition. mostly RF systems. Also. resulting in lower resistance to access the base electrode. while the barrier for electrons to inject into the base Δφn is made low. denoted in figure as Δφp. Bands in graded heterojunction NPN bipolar transistor. The improved injection of carriers into the base allows the base to have a higher doping level. Two commonly used HBTs are silicon–germanium and aluminum gallium arsenide. for example. The figure shows that this difference in bandgap allows the barrier for holes to inject backward into the base. Light colors indicate depleted regions Regions of operation Applied voltages B-E Junction Bias (NPN) Forward Forward Reverse Reverse B-E Junction Bias (PNP) Reverse Reverse Forward Forward B-C Junction Bias (NPN) Reverse Forward Reverse Forward B-C Junction Bias (PNP) Forward Reverse Forward Reverse Mode (NPN) E<B<C E<B>C E>B<C E>B>C Applied voltages Forward active Saturation Cut-off Reverse-active Mode (PNP) E<B<C E<B>C E>B<C E>B>C Reverse-active Cut-off Saturation Forward active Bipolar transistors have five distinct regions of operation. defined by BJT junction biases. by progressively increasing the amount of germanium in a SiGe transistor. making its resistance relatively high. The grading of composition in the base. and thus reduces base current and increases emitter injection efficiency. Usually the emitter is composed of a larger bandgap material than the base. which means the base must be lightly doped to obtain high injection efficiency. providing a "built-in" field that assists electron transport across the base. also referred to as homojunction BJT. HBT structures are usually grown by epitaxy techniques like MOCVD and MBE.[7][8] Heterojunction transistors have different semiconductors for the elements of the transistor. causes a gradient in bandgap in the neutral base. denoted in the figure by ΔφG. That drift component of transport aids the normal diffusive transport.Bipolar junction transistor 150 Heterojunction bipolar transistor The heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) is an improvement of the BJT that can handle signals of very high frequencies up to several hundred GHz. grading of bandgap in base assists electron transport in base region. the efficiency of carrier injection from the emitter to the base is primarily determined by the doping ratio between the emitter and base.

but collector is higher than base. If this is the case. Because most BJTs are designed to maximize current gain in forward-active mode. • Reverse-active (or inverse-active or inverted): By reversing the biasing conditions of the forward-active region. or a closed switch. This mode corresponds to a logical "on". • Avalanche breakdown region Although these regions are well defined for sufficiently large applied voltage. • Saturation: base higher than emitter. collector lower than base: reverse conventional current goes through transistor. collector higher than base (in this mode the collector current is proportional to base current by ). • Cutoff: In cutoff. There is very little current. 151 . or an open switch. • Saturation: With both junctions forward-biased. • Reverse-active: base lower than emitter. but collector is not higher than base. with negatively charged carriers flowing from emitter to collector). It means the transistor is not letting conventional current to go through collector to emitter. In terms of junction biasing: ('reverse biased base–collector junction' means Vbc < 0 for NPN. In this mode. a BJT is in saturation mode and facilitates high current conduction from the emitter to the collector (or the other direction in the case of NPN. active): The base–emitter junction is forward biased and the base–collector junction is reverse biased. opposite for PNP) • Forward-active (or simply. Most bipolar transistors are designed to afford the greatest common-emitter current gain. so this end of the forward active region can be regarded as the cutoff region. The reverse bias breakdown voltage to the base may be an order of magnitude lower in this region. For example. the emitter and collector regions switch roles. for small base current variations. in the typical grounded-emitter configuration of an NPN BJT used as a pulldown switch in digital logic. βF. the "off" state never involves a reverse-biased junction because the base voltage never goes below ground. in forward-active mode. usually being considered only for failsafe conditions and some types of bipolar logic. a bipolar transistor goes into reverse-active mode. the βF in inverted mode is several (2–3 for the ordinary germanium transistor) times smaller. polarities are reversed for PNP transistors): • Forward active: base higher than emitter. which corresponds to a logical "off". they overlap somewhat for small (less than a few hundred millivolts) biases.Bipolar junction transistor The modes of operation can be described in terms of the applied voltages (this description applies to NPN transistors. the collector–emitter current is approximately proportional to the base current. • Cut-Off: base lower than emitter. biasing conditions opposite of saturation (both junctions reverse biased) are present. but many times larger. nevertheless the forward bias is close enough to zero that essentially no current flows. This transistor mode is seldom used.

making a current through the base according to schematic. The remainder of the electrons recombine with holes. IB. IE = IB + IC). In the diagram. . the Structure and use of PNP transistor. In active mode. . Active-mode PNP transistors in circuits The diagram to the right is a schematic representation of a PNP transistor connected to two voltage sources. making a current through the base connection to form the base current. At room temperature. they vary in the same way. the emitter current. In active mode.. connection to form the base current. Because the base current is approximately proportional to the collector and emitter currents.Bipolar junction transistor 152 Active-mode NPN transistors in circuits The diagram to the left is a schematic representation of an NPN transistor connected to two voltage sources. The remainder of the holes recombine with electrons. majority carriers in the base. To make the transistor conduct appreciable current (on the order of 1 mA) from C to E. the electric field existing between base and collector (caused by VCE) will cause the majority of these electrons to cross the upper P-N junction into the collector to form the collector current IC. the emitter current. which is the sum of the other terminal currents (i. an increase in It should also be noted that the emitter current is related to by approximately 60 mV increases the emitter current by a factor of 10. when there is no particular frequency range of interest. To make the transistor conduct appreciable current (on the order of 1 mA) from E to C. This applied voltage causes the upper P-N junction to 'turn-on' allowing a flow of holes from the emitter into the base. This gain is usually 100 or more. This applied voltage causes the lower P-N junction to 'turn-on' allowing a flow of electrons from the emitter into the base. the arrows representing current point in the direction of conventional current – the flow of electrons is in the opposite direction of the arrows because electrons carry negative electric charge. the electric field existing between the emitter and the collector (caused by current ) causes the majority of these holes to cross the lower P-N junction into the collector to form the collector . (i.e. In active mode. must be above a minimum value sometimes referred to as the cut-in voltage. which is the sum of the other terminal currents. is the total transistor current. and the value of this gain for AC signals is referred to as .. VBE must be above a minimum value sometimes referred to as the cut-in voltage. IE. . As shown in the diagram. The cut-in voltage is usually about 650 mV for silicon BJTs at room temperature but can be different depending on the type of transistor and its biasing. the symbol is used. The cut-in voltage is usually about 650 mV for silicon BJTs at room temperature but can be different depending on the type of transistor and its biasing. is the total transistor current. IE = IB + IC). Arrow majority carriers in the base. the Structure and use of NPN transistor. the ratio of the collector current to the base current is called the DC current gain. As shown in the diagram.e. but robust circuit designs do not depend on the exact value (for example see op-amp). exponentially. The value of this gain for DC signals is referred to as . However.

speedier than MAT. Invented on June 23. History The bipolar point-contact transistor was invented in December 1947 [9] at the Bell Telephone Laboratories by John Bardeen and Walter Brattain under the direction of William Shockley. the use of the BJT has declined in favor of CMOS technology in the design of digital integrated circuits. The incidental low performance BJTs inherent in CMOS ICs. Developed at Philco. limited commercial use due to high cost and noise. the arrows representing current point in the direction of conventional current – the flow of holes is in the same direction of the arrows because holes carry positive electric charge. the ratio of the collector current to the base current is called the DC current gain. • Tetrode transistor – high speed variant of grown-junction transistor[16] or alloy junction transistor[17] with two connections to base. The junction version known as the bipolar junction transistor. • Alloy-junction transistor – emitter and collector alloy beads fused to base. • Junction transistors • Grown-junction transistor – first bipolar junction transistor made.2 V. 1948. however.[19] . they vary in the same way. an increase in . making it more suitable for some applications.[12] Invented by William Shockley at Bell Labs. Developed at Philips. This gain is usually 100 or more. The value of this gain for DC signals is referred to as . • Tetrode point-contact transistor – Point-contact transistor having two emitters. • Surface-barrier transistor – high speed metal barrier junction transistor.[13] Patent filed on June 26. At room temperature. a diffused-base transistor. Because the base current is approximately proportional to the collector and emitter currents. In active mode. Nowadays. 153 It should also be noted that the emitter current is related to by approximately 60 mV increases the emitter current by a factor of 10. However. Early manufacturing techniques Various methods of manufacturing bipolar transistors were developed. are often utilized as bandgap voltage reference. Germanium transistors The germanium transistor was more common in the 1950s and 1960s. exponentially. and the value of this gain for AC signals is referred to as the symbol is used. • Micro-alloy transistor (MAT) – high speed type of alloy junction transistor. 1948. typically around 0. • Post-alloy diffused transistor (PADT) – high speed type of alloy junction transistor.[11] Bipolar transistors • Point-contact transistor – first transistor ever constructed (December 1947). It became obsolete in the middle 1950s. when there is no particular frequency range of interest. invented by Shockley in 1948 [10]. silicon bandgap temperature sensor and to handle electrostatic discharge.[15] • Micro-alloy diffused transistor (MADT) – high speed type of alloy junction transistor. and while it exhibits a lower "cut off" voltage. a diffused-base transistor.Bipolar junction transistor In the diagram. Developed at Philco[18] in 1953. a bipolar transistor. Developed at General Electric and RCA[14] in 1951. enjoyed three decades as the device of choice in the design of discrete and integrated circuits. Developed at Philco. it also has a greater tendency to exhibit thermal runaway. but robust circuit designs do not depend on the exact value. speedier than MAT.

IB. αR: forward and reverse common-base current gains where • • • • • • • is the thermal voltage ≈ room temperature). • Spacistor – circa 1957. Sedra and Kenneth C. see the end of the article semiconductor diodes.998) (approximately 26 mV at 300 K is the reverse saturation current of the base–emitter diode (on the order of 10−15 to 10−12 amperes) is the base–emitter voltage is the diffusion constant for electrons in the p-type base • W is the base width .. IED: collector and emitter diode currentsαF. Allows very precise control of doping levels and gradients. Invented by Herbert Kroemer[20][21] at the Central Bureau of Telecommunications Technology of the German Postal Service. electrons are injected from the forward biased n-type emitter region into the p-type base where they diffuse to the reverse biased n-type collector and are swept away by the electric field in the reverse biased collector-base junction. in 1953. • Planar transistor – the bipolar junction transistor that made mass produced monolithic integrated circuits possible. ISBN 0-03-007328-6.98 to 0. IE: base. second ed. Moll introduced their mathematical model of transistor currents: Ebers–Moll model The DC emitter and collector currents in active mode are well modeled by an approximation to the Ebers–Moll model: The base internal current is mainly by diffusion (see Fick's law) and Ebers–Moll Model for an NPN transistor. • Diffused-base transistor – first implementation of diffusion transistor. 154 Theory and modeling In the discussion below. • Mesa transistor – Developed at Texas Instruments in 1957. In the NPN transistor in what is called active mode the base-emitter voltage and collector-base voltage are positive. collector and emitter currentsICD. Microelectronic Circuits. • Diffusion transistor – modern type bipolar junction transistor.Bipolar junction transistor • Drift-field transistor – high speed bipolar junction transistor. For a figure describing forward and reverse bias. Large-signal models In 1954 Jewell James Ebers and John L. IC. Jean Hoerni[23] at Fairchild in 1959. 903. p. Prototypes[22] developed at Bell Labs in 1954. Developed by Dr. is the emitter current is the collector current is the common base forward short circuit current gain (0. focus is on the NPN bipolar transistor. See epitaxy. forward biasing the emitter-base junction and reverse-biasing the collector-base junction. In active mode of operation. Smith (1987).Adel S. • Epitaxial transistor [24] – a bipolar junction transistor made using vapor phase deposition.

Approximated Ebers–Moll Model for an NPN transistor in the forward active mode.[26] Ebers–Moll Model for a PNP transistor. A The reverse and forward is sometimes included in the model. is the base–emitter voltage is the base–collector voltage . providing the amplification of the base current. The collector diode is reverse-biased so ICD is virtually zero. Most of the emitter diode current (αF is nearly 1) is drawn from the collector. where • • • • • • • • • is the collector current is the base current is the emitter current is the forward common emitter current gain (20 to 500) is the reverse common emitter current gain (0 to 20) is the reverse saturation current (on the order of 10−15 to 10−12 amperes) is the thermal voltage (approximately 26 mV at 300 K ≈ room temperature). The unapproximated Ebers–Moll equations used to describe the three currents in any operating region are given below. These equations are based on the transport model for a bipolar junction transistor.Bipolar junction transistor 155 parameters are as described previously.

It is important to characterize the minority diffusion currents induced by injection of carriers. With regard to pn-junction diode. where: • • • • • is the collector–emitter voltage is the Early voltage (15 V to 150 V) is forward common-emitter current gain when is the output impedance is the collector current =0V Current–voltage characteristics The following assumptions are involved when deriving ideal current-voltage characteristics of the BJT[27] • • • • • Low level injection Uniform doping in each region with abrupt junctions One-dimensional current Negligible recombination-generation in space charge regions Negligible electric fields outside of space charge regions. and consequently. • The charge gradient is increased across the base. A solution of this equation is below. 156 the collector–base depletion region varies in size. and two boundary conditions are used to solve and find and . Narrowing of the base width has two consequences: • There is a lesser chance for recombination within the "smaller" base region. In the forward-active region. the current of minority carriers injected across the emitter junction increases. An increase in the collector–base voltage. for example. increasing the collector–base depletion region width. Bottom: narrower NPN base width for large collector-base reverse bias. causes a greater reverse bias across the collector–base junction.Bipolar junction transistor Base-width modulation As the applied collector–base voltage ( ) varies. and decreasing the width of the base. Early. Both factors increase the collector or "output" current of the transistor in response to an increase in the collector–base voltage. the Early effect modifies the collector current ( ) and the forward common emitter current gain ( ) as given by: Top: NPN base width for low collector-base reverse bias. This variation in base width often is called the "Early effect" after its discoverer James M. . Hashed regions are depleted regions. a key relation is the diffusion equation.

With this result. . the values of and are and . and the origins to the base. . Expressions of and can be evaluated. There is therefore a linear Substitute into the above linear relation. . . Because insignificant recombination occurs. respectively. an expression of the collector current is derived. .Bipolar junction transistor 157 The following equations apply to the emitter and collector region. collector. the second derivative of relationship between excess hole density and The following are boundary conditions of . is zero. and are zero due to the following conditions of the emitter and collector regions Because . . Use the expressions of . and apply A boundary condition of the emitter is below: The values of the constants as and . Similarly. and emitter. . and to develop an expression of the emitter current. respectively. derive value of .

but using input current and output voltage as independent variables. • hrx = hre – Represents the dependence of the transistor's IB–VBE curve on the value of VCE. which are assumed current-independent in the Ebers–Moll model. Punchthrough When the base–collector voltage reaches a certain (device specific) value. Gummel–Poon charge-control model The Gummel–Poon model[28] is a detailed charge-controlled model of BJT dynamics. It is usually very small and is often neglected (assumed to be zero).Bipolar junction transistor 158 An expression of the base current is found with the previous results. closely related to the hybrid-pi model and the y-parameter two-port. As shown. . which has been adopted and elaborated by others to explain transistor dynamics in greater detail than the terminal-based models typically do [29]. When in this state the transistor effectively has no base. Replace x with e. This two-port network is particularly suited to BJTs as it lends itself easily to the analysis of circuit behaviour.[30] Small-signal models hybrid-pi model h-parameter model Another model commonly used to analyze BJT circuits is the "h-parameter" model. and the h-parameters are given by: • hix = hie – The input impedance of the transistor (corresponding to the base resistance rpi). the base–collector depletion region boundary meets the base–emitter depletion region boundary. rather than input and output voltages. and may be used to develop further accurate models. the term "x" in the model represents a different BJT lead depending on the topology used. b or c for CE. For common-emitter mode the various symbols take on the specific values as: • x = 'e' because it is a common-emitter topology • • • • • • • Terminal 1 = Base Terminal 2 = Collector Terminal 3 = Emitter ii = Base current (ib) io = Collector current (ic) Vin = Base-to-emitter voltage (VBE) Vo = Collector-to-emitter voltage (VCE) Generalized h-parameter model of an NPN BJT. This model also includes the dependence of transistor -values upon the direct current levels in the transistor. The device thus loses all gain when in this state. CB and CC topologies respectively.

For this the hoe and hre parameters are neglected (that is. the hottest part of the die conducts the most current. For high-frequency analyses the inter-electrode capacitances that are important at high frequencies must be added. meaning that it conducts more current at higher temperatures. until the device fails internally. they are set to infinity and zero. small-signal analysis. Radiation causes a buildup of 'defects' in the base region that act as recombination centers. a set of parameters named for their origin in a hybrid equivalent circuit model. 'F' is from forward current amplification also called the current gain. but the transistor provides more circuit flexibility. Logarithmic converters Because base–emitter voltage varies as the log of the base–emitter and collector–emitter currents. A diode can also perform these nonlinear functions.Bipolar junction transistor • hfx = hfe – The current-gain of the transistor. respectively). in which excessive current and normal imperfections in the silicon die cause portions of the silicon inside the device to become disproportionately hotter than the others. For the CE topology. Power BJTs are subject to a failure mode called secondary breakdown. Temperature sensors Because of the known temperature and current dependence of the forward-biased base–emitter junction voltage. Vulnerabilities Exposure of the transistor to ionizing radiation causes radiation damage. It should also be noted that the h-parameter model as shown is suited to low-frequency. For DC conditions they are specified in upper-case. Thus. such as radio-frequency circuits for wireless systems. due to the very wide selection of BJT types available. 'E' refers to the transistor operating in a common emitter (CE) configuration. The parameter hoe usually corresponds to the output admittance of the bipolar transistor and has to be inverted to convert it to an impedance. 159 Applications The BJT remains a device that excels in some applications. an approximate h-parameter model is commonly used which further simplifies the circuit analysis. The BJT is also the choice for demanding analog circuits. occurs almost instantly and may catastrophically . This parameter is often specified as hFE or the DC current-gain (βDC) in datasheets. which then causes it to become progressively hotter again. and because of its high transconductance and output resistance compared to MOSFETs. The doped silicon has a negative temperature coefficient. • hox = 1/hoe – The output impedance of transistor. Bipolar transistors can be combined with MOSFETs in an integrated circuit by using a BiCMOS process of wafer fabrication to create circuits that take advantage of the application strengths of both types of transistor. As shown. especially for very-high-frequency applications. Etymology of hFE The 'h' refers to its being an h-parameter. causing its conductivity to increase. the BJT can be used to measure temperature by subtracting two voltages at two different bias currents in a known ratio [31]. such as discrete circuit design. the h-parameters have lower-case subscripts and hence signify AC conditions or analyses. Capital letters used in the subscript indicate that hFE refers to a direct current circuit. once triggered. a BJT can also be used to compute logarithms and anti-logarithms. The thermal runaway process associated with secondary breakdown. The resulting reduction in minority carrier lifetime causes gradual loss of gain of the transistor.

it is evident that the collector current is controlled by means of the positive charge (hole concentration) in the base region. htm) [23] TRANSISTOR MUSEUM Historic Transistor Photo Gallery FAIRCHILD 2N1613 (http:/ / semiconductormuseum. New York: Wiley. Robin H.. Microelectronic Circuits. com/ books?id=lmcHKS1lkrQC& pg=PA64& dq="pointing+ in"+ PNP). com/ books?id=bkOMDgwFA28C& pg=PA113& dq=bjt+ charge+ current+ voltage+ control+ inauthor:horowitz+ inauthor:hill)]] (2nd ed. ieee. org/ semiconductor/ timeline/ 1947-invention. com/ PhotoGallery/ PhotoGallery_M1752. uk/ media/ B/ C/ queen_mary_ip_research_institute_p5_043_762kb.V.2". Sedra and K. 160 References [1] Paul Horowitz and Winfield Hill (1989). google. New York: Oxford. . Motorola. org/ iel5/ 16/ 31551/ 01472171. computerhistory. Semiconductor Device Modeling with Spice (http:/ / books. ISBN 9780824796938. .. htm) [24] http:/ / www. A History of the World Semiconductor Industry. htm) [13] Morris. google. com/ books?id=lmcHKS1lkrQC& pg=PA64& dq="not+ pointing"+ PNP).. org/ iel5/ 16/ 20748/ 00960370. IEE History of Technology Series 12. p. London: Peter Peregrinus Ltd. com/ PhotoGallery/ PhotoGallery_2N1613. ISBN 0863412041. Eqs.. htm) [19] TRANSISTOR MUSEUM Historic Transistor Photo Gallery Surface Barrier Transistor (http:/ / semiconductormuseum. electronics. components/ tree/ browse_frm/ month/ 2003-04/ c97c04dc783ab61e?rnum=21& _done=/ group/ sci. ISBN 0470848383. McGraw–Hill Professional.M1). Yuan (1998). When a transistor is used at higher frequencies. com/ books?id=5IBYU9xrGaIC& pg=PA96& dq=gummel-poon+ charge+ model#PPA98. If the emitter-base junction is reverse biased into avalanche or Zener mode and current flows for a short period of time. London: Institution of Electrical Engineers (Peter Peregrinus Ltd. . Springer. VOL. com/ PhotoGallery/ PhotoGallery_3N22. ISBN 0071349553. Semiconductor Device Physics and Simulation (http:/ / books. pdf) PDF [21] Influence of Mobility and Lifetime Variations on Drift-Field Effects in Silicon-Junction Devices (http:/ / ieeexplore. ieee. computerhistory. components/ browse_frm/ month/ 2003-04?) [16] TRANSISTOR MUSEUM Historic Transistor Photo Gallery WESTERN ELECTRIC 3N22 (http:/ / semiconductormuseum. . htm) [20] Herb’s Bipolar Transistors IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES. p. pp. the fundamental limitation is the time it takes the carriers to diffuse across the base region. 903. Peter Robin (1990). com/ PhotoGallery/ PhotoGallery_A01.).103–4. ISBN 0-03-007328-6. [7] D. ISBN 9780824796938. pdf?arnumber=1472171) PDF [18] TRANSISTOR MUSEUM Historic Transistor Photo Gallery PHILCO A01 (http:/ / semiconductormuseum. [9] http:/ / www. Transistor Manual (6th ed. ISBN 9780521370950. html [10] http:/ / www.). com/ books?id=y343FTN1TU0C& pg=PA166& dq=charge-controlled+ bjt+ physics). org/ semiconductor/ timeline/ 1948-conception. ISBN 0-19-514251-9. Williams (Editors) (1991). pp. . p. pdf) (PDF) [12] TRANSISTOR MUSEUM Historic Transistor Photo Gallery BELL LABS TYPE M1752 (http:/ / semiconductormuseum." (same in 4th and 5th editions) [4] Paolo Antognetti and Giuseppe Massobrio (1993). [26] A. pdf?isnumber=& arnumber=1474625) PDF [22] TRANSISTOR MUSEUM Historic Transistor Photo Gallery BELL LABS PROTOTYPE DIFFUSED BASE TRIODE (http:/ / semiconductormuseum. vu/ group/ sci. . [5] Alphonse J. 1963. the current gain of the BJT will be permanently degraded. Sistino (1996). html [11] Third case study – the solid state advent (http:/ / hm-treasury. p. . 64. 11.S. com/ books?id=C98iH7UDtzwC& pg=PA210& dq="SIGe+ heterojunction"#PPA201. Sistino (1996).. google. Sedra and Kenneth C. [8] Peter Ashburn (2003). [6] Alphonse J.. ISBN 0306457245. (http:/ / groups. Cambridge University Press. Smith (1987). com/ PhotoGallery/ PhotoGallery_SurfaceBarrier.C. 17. Essentials of electronic circuitry (http:/ / books. 102. "If the principle of space charge neutrality is used in the analysis of the transistor. [14] TRANSISTOR MUSEUM Historic Transistor Photo Gallery RCA TA153 (http:/ / semiconductormuseum. google. 305. 12. NO.110. [2] Juin Jei Liou and Jiann S.). 48. . html [25] Adel S. google. google. htm) [17] The Tetrode Power Transistor (http:/ / ieeexplore.). Essentials of electronic circuitry (http:/ / books. Chapter 10. "4. htm) [15] High Speed Switching Transistor Handbook (2nd ed. CRC Press. Morgan. org/ isbn/ 0470848383).M1). CRC Press. Physics and Technology of Heterojunction Devices (http:/ / books. gov. [3] General Electric (1962). org/ semiconductor/ timeline/ 1960-Epitaxial. Smith (2004). org/ iel5/ 16/ 31630/ 01474625. google. . 29. ieee. p. 4. Microelectronic Circuits (5th ed. electronics.Bipolar junction transistor damage the transistor package. computerhistory. SiGe Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors (http:/ / worldcat. NOVEMBER 2001 (http:/ / ieeexplore. [[The Art of Electronics (http:/ / books. com/ PhotoGallery/ PhotoGallery_Prototype_DiffusedBase. com/ PhotoGallery/ PhotoGallery_TA153.). ISBN 0 86341 227 0. second ed.

htm#5_6_2 [30] A.tedpavlic.com/teaching/osu/ece327/lab7_proj/ lab7_proj_procedure.com/k/max-iskram/ electronic-circuits-design-for/1f4zs8p9zgq0e/12) • Lessons In Electric Circuits – Bipolar Junction Transistors (http://www." Bell Syst. J. New York: Wiley.S.pdf) • TRANSISTOR MUSEUM Historic Transistor Timeline (http://semiconductormuseum. html) (Note: this site shows current as a flow of electrons. [31] http:/ / www.).html) by William Beaty • ENGI 242/ELEC 222: BJT Small Signal Models (http://ux. .The Transistor as a Switch (http://knol.uk/~www_pa/Scots_Guide/info/comp/active/BiPolar/bpcur.google.com/ HistoricTransistorTimeline_Index.edu/fac/engtech/andy/engi242/ bjt_models. ISBN 0-19-514251-9.html) at play-hookey. Gummel and R. Kamins TI & Chan M (2003).C. so the arrows may appear the other way around) • EncycloBEAMia – Bipolar Junction Transistor (http://encyclobeamia. 827–852. . colorado.). html) • Characteristic curves (http://www.pdf) – Summarizes simple Ebers–Moll model of a bipolar transistor and gives several common BJT circuits. • BJT Operation description (http://nanohub.solarbotics. com/ appnotes.illinois.org/resources/5083) for undergraduate and first year graduate students to describe the basic principles of operation of Bipolar Junction Transistor.com • How Do Transistors Work? (http://amasci. Microelectronic Circuits (5th ed.tedpavlic. 509. edu/ ~bart/ book/ book/ chapter5/ ch5_6. Tech. Poon. C.edu/ece110/simulation/bjt/) • Bipolar Transistors .com/semiconductors/transistor.pdf) – Section 4 ("Power Amplifier") discusses design of a BJT-Sziklai-pair-based class-AB current driver in detail. "An integral charge control model of bipolar transistors.com/teaching/osu/ece327/lab1_bjt/ lab1_bjt_transistor_basics. • ECE 327: Procedures for Output Filtering Lab (http://www.ece. pp. 49.st-and. 280 ff.play-hookey. May–June 1970 [29] http:/ / ece-www.. Device electronics for integrated circuits (http:/ / worldcat.faqs.net/articles/bip_junct_trans.brookdalecc. K. p. html) • The transistor (http://www.org/docs/electric/Semi/SEMI_4. New York: Oxford.ac. rather than the convention of showing it as a flow of holes. vol. Sedra and K.Bipolar junction transistor [27] R S Muller. ISBN 0-471-59398-2.htm) • ECE 327: Transistor Basics (http://www. maxim-ic. [28] H. Smith (2004). org/ isbn/ 0-471-59398-2) (Third Edition ed. p. cfm/ appnote_number/ 689 161 External links • Simulation of a BJT in the Common Emitter Circuit (http://courses.com/amateur/transis.

and the danger of AM radio interference would increase. the amp's frequency response should extend considerably beyond this (one or more octaves either side) and might have −3 dB points < 10 Hz and > 65 kHz. The definition of "satisfactory performance" may be different for different applications. listed below. a light signal in photons to a DC signal in amperes) is a transducer. If two equivalent amplifiers are being compared. Professional touring amplifiers often have input and/or output filtering to sharply limit frequency response beyond 20 Hz-20 kHz. IF. the term usually describes an electronic amplifier. In ultra high fidelity amplifier design. the frequency range of the signals (Audio. is a device for increasing the power of a signal by use of an external energy source. FET amplifiers. the amplifier with higher gain settings would be more sensitive as it would take less input signal to produce a given amount of power. (When measured in decibels it is logarithmically related to the power ratio: G(dB)=10 log(Pout /(Pin)). Amplifiers may be classified according to the input (source) they are designed to amplify (such as a guitar amplifier. a transformer. too much of the amplifier's potential output power would otherwise be wasted on infrasonic and ultrasonic frequencies.[1] Bandwidth The bandwidth of an amplifier is the range of frequencies for which the amplifier gives "satisfactory performance". Figures of merit The quality of an amplifier can be characterized by a number of specifications. Bandwidths (otherwise called "frequency responses") for other response tolerances are sometimes quoted (−1 dB. . a common and well-accepted metric is the half power points (i. or the type of device used in the amplification (valve or tube amplifiers. amplifiers drive the loudspeakers used in PA systems to make the human voice louder or play recorded music. while the voltage gain of audio amplifiers and instrumentation amplifiers will be more often specified (since the amplifier's input impedance will often be much higher than the source impedance. and the load impedance higher than the amplifier's output impedance).Amplifier 162 Amplifier Generally.e. frequency curve. −6 dB etc. to perform with an electric guitar). and VHF amplifiers. etc. or a sensor.). A related device that emphasizes conversion of signals of one type to another (for example. In popular use. and is usually measured in decibels. the device they are intended to drive (such as a headphone amplifier). This is therefore also known as the −3 dB bandwidth.) or "plus or minus 1dB" (roughly the sound level difference people usually can detect). an amplifier or simply amp. Modern switching amplifiers need steep low pass filtering at the output to get rid of high frequency switching noise and harmonics. none of these amplify power. whether they invert the signal (inverting amplifiers and non-inverting amplifiers). The gain of a good quality full-range audio amplifier will be essentially flat between 20 Hz to about 20 kHz (the range of normal human hearing). In audio applications. in which the input "signal" is usually a voltage or a current. Gain The gain of an amplifier is the ratio of output to input power or amplitude. However. frequency where the power goes down by half its peak value) on the output vs. for example). • Example: an audio amplifier with a gain given as 20 dB will have a voltage gain of ten (but a power gain of 100 would only occur in the unlikely event the input and output impedances were identical). Therefore bandwidth can be defined as the difference between the lower and upper half power points. RF. However. RF amplifiers are often specified in terms of the maximum power gain obtainable.

in the range of 10–20% with a max efficiency of 25% for direct coupling of the output. Linearization is an emergent field. Inductive coupling of the output can raise their efficiency to a maximum of 50%. The reason for this is that the loss of efficiency produces heat as a by-product of the energy lost during the conversion of power. Modern Class AB amplifiers commonly have peak efficiencies between 30–55% in audio systems and 50-70% in radio frequency systems with a theoretical maximum of 78. For these amplifiers. More efficient amplifiers run cooler. such as feedforward. In practical design. can lift efficiency from the typical 15% up to 30-35% in a narrow bandwidth. Manufacturers specify much higher drain efficiencies. such as cellular base stations and broadcast transmitters. When the signal drive to the amplifier is increased. In RF linear Power Amplifiers. In most amplifiers a reduction in gain takes place before hard clipping occurs. this is called clipping. Doherty designs. Drain efficiency is the ratio of output RF power to input DC power when primary input DC power has been fed to the drain of an FET. but real amplifiers are only linear within limits. the output also increases until a point is reached where some part of the amplifier becomes saturated and cannot produce any more output. In more efficient amplifiers there is less loss of energy so in turn less heat. and results in distortion. Ill effects of nonlinearity can be reduced with negative feedback. and designers are able to obtain higher efficiencies by providing current to the drain of the transistor through an inductor or a transformer winding. Envelope Tracking designs are able to achieve efficiencies of up to 60%. which use a second output stage as a "peak" amplifier.Amplifier 163 Efficiency Efficiency is a measure of how much of the power source is usefully applied to the amplifier's output. Class B amplifiers have a very high efficiency but are impractical for audio work because of high levels of distortion (See: Crossover distortion). special design techniques can be used to improve efficiency. by modulating the supply voltage to the amplifier in line with the envelope of the signal. . Class A amplifiers are very inefficient. the result of a tradeoff is the class AB design.5%. predistortion. and often do not need any cooling fans even in multi-kilowatt designs. and there are many techniques. Linearity An ideal amplifier would be a totally linear device. While the voltage level is above the DC rail current is supplied by the inductor. which (if the amplifier is an audio amplifier) sounds much less unpleasant to the ear. In this case the RF zero level is near the DC rail and will swing both above and below the rail during operation. Based on this definition. the drain efficiency cannot exceed 25% for a class A amplifier that is supplied drain bias current through resistors (because RF signal has its zero level at about 50% of the input DC). Sometimes this nonlinearity is deliberately designed in to reduce the audible unpleasantness of hard clipping under overload. in order to avoid the undesired effects of the non-linearities. RCA manufactured an AM broadcast transmitter employing a single class-C low mu triode with an RF efficiency in the 90% range. the 1 dB compression point is defined as the input power (or output power) where the gain is 1 dB less than the small signal gain. postdistortion. the result is a compression effect. Amplifiers of Class C-F are usually known to be very high efficiency amplifiers. Commercially available Class D switching amplifiers have reported efficiencies as high as 90%.

Settling time and ringing The time taken for the output to settle to within a certain percentage of the final value (for instance 0. Stability is a major concern in RF and microwave amplifiers. where tr is rise time in seconds and BW is bandwidth in Hz. Overshoot In response to a step input. The metric for noise performance of a circuit is noise figure or noise factor. Rise time The rise time. the dynamic range DR is DR = (S + N ) /N. Ringing refers to an output variation that cycles above and below an amplifier's final value and leads to a delay in reaching a stable output. It is especially an issue when applied over multiple amplifying stages.[2] In many switched mode amplifiers. steady-state value. tr. The ratio of these two is quoted as the amplifier dynamic range. Ringing is the result of overshoot caused by an underdamped circuit. More precisely. The degree of an amplifier's stability can be quantified by a so-called stability factor. Stability Stability is an issue in all amplifiers with feedback. if S = maximal allowed signal power and N = noise power. Output dynamic range Output dynamic range is the range. usually quoted in volts per second (or microsecond). Noise is an undesirable but inevitable product of the electronic devices and components. of an amplifier is the time taken for the output to change from 10% to 90% of its final level when driven by a step input. while the largest is limited most often by distortion. Noise figure is a comparison between the output signal to noise ratio and the thermal noise of the input signal.35. The lowest useful level is limited by output noise. which specify a condition that must be met for the absolute stability of an amplifier in terms of its two-port parameters. much noise results from intentional economies of manufacture and design time. such as the Stern stability factor and the Linvil stability factor. between the smallest and largest useful output levels. whether that feedback is added intentionally or results unintentionally. dynamic range is limited by the minimum output step size. Slew rate Slew rate is the maximum rate of change of the output. and is usually specified for oscilloscope vertical amplifiers and high accuracy measurement systems. also. the overshoot is the amount the output exceeds its final. the rise time is approximated by: tr * BW = 0.Amplifier 164 Noise This is a measure of how much noise is introduced in the amplification process. which sometimes limits the full power bandwidth to frequencies well below the amplifier's small-signal frequency response. usually given in dB. Many amplifiers are ultimately slew rate limited (typically by the impedance of a drive current having to overcome capacitive effects at some point in the circuit). For a Gaussian response system (or a simple RC roll off). There are several different stability factors. .1%) is called the settling time.

and added to a high voltage dc supply line. The bandwidth of magnetic amplifiers extends to the hundreds of kilohertz. Before the invention of electronic amplifiers. The other end connected to a speaker cone. The carbon microphone was extremely important in early telecommunications. which used a wetted rotating chalk cylinder in contact with a stationary contact. and thus the friction between them. Critical components include active devices. a slight increase in the tension of the belt caused the drum to move the belt. high-fidelity ("hi-fi") stereo equipment. This class of device was used for smooth control of large motors. mechanically coupled carbon microphones were also used as amplifiers in telephone repeaters for long distance service. Johnsen-Rahbek effect amplifier The earliest form of audio power amplifier was Edison's "electromotograph" loud-speaking telephone. Other amplifier types Carbon microphone One of the first devices used to amplify signals was the carbon microphone (effectively a sound-controlled variable resistor). Early autopilot units designed by Elmer Ambrose Sperry incorporated a mechanical amplifier using belts wrapped around rotating drums. analog telephones in fact work without the use of any other amplifier. Thus the input signal varied the electric field between belt and drum. It is a non-electronic electrical amplifier with no moving parts. The friction between cylinder and contact varied with the current. opposing set of such drives made up a single amplifier. microcomputers and other electronic digital equipment. The input signal was transformed up to high voltage. The electrostatic drum amplifier used a band wrapped partway around a rotating drum. This voltage was connected between drum and belt. Changes in generator field current result in larger changes in the output current of the generator.[3] See Alexanderson alternator. commonly used in radio and television transmitters and receivers. a small sound signal could produce a much larger electric signal.Amplifier 165 Electronic amplifiers There are many types of electronic amplifiers. Field modulation of a very high speed AC generator was also used for some early AM radio transmissions. but the theory behind the Johnsen-Rahbek effect was not understood until the semiconductor era. primarily for elevators and naval guns. Mechanical amplifiers Mechanical amplifiers were used in the pre-electronic era in specialized applications. providing gain. By channeling a large electric current through the compressed carbon granules in the microphone. A paired. . Magnetic amplifier A magnetic amplifier is a transformer-like device that makes use of the saturation of magnetic materials to produce amplification. such as vacuum tubes or transistors. Edison discovered this effect in 1874. Rotating electrical machinery amplifier A Ward Leonard control is a rotating machine like an electrical generator that provides amplification of electrical signals by the conversion of mechanical energy to electrical energy. This amplified small gyro errors into signals large enough to move aircraft control surfaces. A similar mechanism was used in the Vannevar Bush differential analyzer. and fixed at its anchored end to a spring. providing gain. and guitar and other instrument amplifiers. and thus the amount of lateral movement of the belt and thus speaker cone.

van Staveren A. • Another type of amplifier is the fluidic amplifier. a single-ended output. domino computer. A Historical Review of Continuous Wave Radio Frequency Power Generators (http:/ / www. ISBN 1-4020-7590-1. Structured electronic design: negative feedback amplifiers (http:/ / worldcat. instructional purposes. org/ isbn/ 1-4020-7590-1). com/ gaincon2. such as the automotive servo used in braking. htm) External links • Efficiency of Microwave Devices (http://www. or for entertainment). usually. htm [2] Verhoeven CJM.com/encyclopedia/efficiency. antiquewireless. see e. References [1] http:/ / www. one of the most successful op-amps. Op-amps are among the most widely used electronic devices today.[1] An op-amp produces an output voltage that is typically hundreds of thousands times larger than the voltage difference between its input terminals. non-linear and A Signetics μa741 operational amplifier. They had their origins in analog computers where they were used in many linear.Amplifier Other variations on the theme also existed at one time. • Also purely mechanical manifestations of such digital amplifiers can be built (for theoretical. . 10. Boston/Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic. Their popularity in circuit design largely stems from the fact that characteristics of the final op-amp circuits with negative feedback (such as their gain) are set by external components with little dependence on temperature changes and manufacturing variations in the op-amp itself. bcae1. frequency-dependent circuits. they are either open or closed). based on the fluidic triode.Below 535. [3] OTB .[2] Operational amplifiers are important building blocks for a wide range of electronic circuits. • Relays can be included under the above definition of amplifiers. being used in a vast array of consumer.cfm) Operational amplifier An operational amplifier ("op-amp") is a DC-coupled high-gain electronic voltage amplifier with a differential input and. 166 Optical amplifiers Optical amplifiers amplify light through the process of stimulated emission. although their transfer function is not linear (that is. pp. Miscellaneous types • There are also mechanical amplifiers. org/ otb/ blw535202. Many standard IC op-amps cost only a few cents in moderate production volume. Monna GLE.g. industrial. however some integrated or hybrid operational amplifiers with special performance specifications may cost over . See Laser and Maser. and scientific devices. Kouwenhoven MHL and Yildiz E (2003).microwaves101.

Circuit diagram symbol for an op-amp Operation The amplifier's differential inputs consist of a V+ input and a V− input. Without negative feedback. The output voltage of the op-amp is given by the equation. Other types of differential amplifier include the fully differential amplifier (similar to the op-amp. the instrumentation amplifier (usually built from three op-amps).Operational amplifier $100 US in small quantities. the output will be maximum negative. 167 Circuit notation The circuit symbol for an op-amp is shown to the right. this is an open loop circuit acting as a comparator. and so it is impractical to use an operational amplifier as a stand-alone differential amplifier. the output will be maximum positive. but with two outputs). The magnitude of AOL is not well controlled by the manufacturing process. Often these pins are left out of the diagram for clarity. Since there is no feedback from the output to either input. and ideally the op-amp amplifies only the difference in voltage between the two. and the input voltage Vin applied to the non-inverting input is positive. The circuit's gain is just the AOL< of the op-amp. V− is the voltage at the inverting terminal and AOL is the open-loop gain of the amplifier (the term "open-loop" refers to the absence of a feedback loop from the output to the input). but with tolerance to common-mode voltages that would destroy an ordinary op-amp). . and negative feedback amplifier (usually built from one or more op-amps and a resistive feedback network). or used as elements of more complex integrated circuits. Op-amps may be packaged as components. Despite different labeling. The magnitude of AOL is typically very large—10. which is called the differential input voltage.000 or more for An op-amp without negative feedback (a integrated circuit op-amps—and therefore even a quite small difference comparator) between V+ and V− drives the amplifier output nearly to the supply voltage. if Vin is negative. and perhaps with positive feedback for regeneration. the isolation amplifier (similar to the instrumentation amplifier. an op-amp acts as a comparator. where V+ is the voltage at the non-inverting terminal. If the inverting input is held at ground (0 V) directly or by a resistor. where: • V+: non-inverting input • V−: inverting input • Vout: output • VS+: positive power supply • VS−: negative power supply The power supply pins (VS+ and VS−) can be labeled in different ways (See IC power supply pins). This is called saturation of the amplifier. The op-amp is one type of differential amplifier. and the power configuration is described or assumed from the circuit. the function remains the same – to provide additional power for amplification of the signal.

negative feedback is used. if Vin = 1 V and Rf = Rg. Its overall gain Vout / Vin is called the closed-loop gain ACL.[3] The second assumption is that the input impedance at both + and . or the transfer function required (in analog computers). Vin will appear at the + and . we can assume the overwhelming majority of the same current i travels through Rf. The closed loop feedback greatly reduces the gain of the amplifier. Vout will be 2 V.Rg reduces the gain. when the circuit to the right is operated as a non-inverting linear amplifier. the difference in voltage between the non-inverting (+) pin and the inverting (-) pin is so small as to be considered negligible. As a simple example. the amount required to keep V– at 1 V. If the feedback network is made of components with relatively constant. By combining terms. Another way of looking at it is to make two relatively valid assumptions: One.Operational amplifier 168 If predictable operation is desired. Thus. the circuit's overall gain and other parameters become determined more by the feedback network than by the op-amp itself. stable values. Typically the op-amp's very large gain is controlled by negative feedback. by applying a portion of the output voltage to the inverting input. and since the impedance into the . An op-amp with negative feedback (a non-inverting amplifier) For example. Equilibrium will be established when Vout is just sufficient to reach around and "pull" the inverting input to the same voltage as Vin. the unpredictability and inconstancy of the op-amp's parameters do not seriously affect the circuit's performance.Rg this is a closed loop circuit. High input impedance at the input terminals and low output impedance at the output terminal(s) are important typical characteristics. in a non-inverting amplifier (see the figure on the right) adding a negative feedback via the voltage divider Rf.pin is near infinity. we can easily determine the gain of this particular type of circuit. If negative feedback is used. Because of the feedback provided by Rf. creating an output voltage equal to Vin + i*Rf. in this case ACL is less than the AOL of the op-amp. that when an op-amp is being operated in linear mode. which largely determines the magnitude of its output ("closed-loop") voltage gain in amplifier applications.pins and create a current i through Rg equal to Vin/Rg. i = Vin / Rg Vout = Vin + i*Rf Vout = Vin + (Vin / Rg) * Rf Vout = Vin + (Vin * Rf) / Rg G = Vout/Vin = (Vin + (Vin * Rf) / Rg) / Vin G = (Vin/Vin) + (Vin * Rf) / Rg) / Vin G = 1 + (Vin * Rf) / (Rg * Vin) G = 1 + Rf/Rg . Since Kirchoff's current law states that the same current must leave a node as enter it. Because the feedback is negative.pins is extremely high (at least several megaohms with modern op-amps). The voltage gain of the entire circuit is determined by 1 + Rf/Rg.

none of these ideals can be perfectly realized. when the input terminals are shorted so that ground or ). and various shortcomings and compromises have to be accepted. . there is assumed to be no leakage or bias current into the device). where there is a signal path of some sort feeding back from the output to the inverting input). • Infinite bandwidth (i.e.. • • • • Zero output impedance (i. The inputs draw no current.Operational amplifier 169 Op-amp characteristics Ideal op-amps An ideal op-amp is usually considered to have the following properties.e.e. These rules are commonly used as a good first approximation for analyzing or designing op-amp circuits. • Zero input offset voltage (i.e.[4]:177 The first rule only applies in the usual case where the op-amp is used in a closed-loop design (negative feedback.. Zero noise. • Infinite slew rate (i. • Infinite input impedance (so. effects into the overall performance of the final circuit. a real op-amp may be modeled to take account of some of the non-infinite or non-zero parameters using equivalent resistors and capacitors in the op-amp model. . that must be evaluated.e.. but real. a limit may be taken as open loop gain AOL goes to infinity). Depending on the parameters of interest. The designer can then include the effects of these undesirable.. The power supply sources are called rails. Some parameters may turn out to have negligible effect on the final design while others represent actual limitations of the final performance. so that output voltage does not vary with output current).. and zero current flows from to ). These ideals can be summarized by the two "golden rules": I. The output attempts to do whatever is necessary to make the voltage difference between the inputs zero. Infinite Common-mode rejection ratio (CMRR). the frequency magnitude response is considered to be flat everywhere with zero phase shift). II.[4]:177 In practice. Infinite Power supply rejection ratio for both power supply rails. • Zero input current (i. the rate of change of the output voltage is unbounded) and power bandwidth (full output voltage and current available at all frequencies). • Infinite voltage range available at the output ( ) (in practice the voltages available from the output are limited by the supply voltages and ). the output is a virtual An equivalent circuit of an operational amplifier that models some resistive non-ideal parameters. . in the diagram. . and they are considered to hold for all input voltages: • Infinite open-loop gain (when doing theoretical analysis.

. When large resistors or sources with high output impedances are used in the circuit. It can often be nulled externally. idle) current in the output stage and will dissipate more power. DC imperfections Real operational amplifiers suffer from several non-ideal effects: Finite gain Open-loop gain is infinite in the ideal operational amplifier but finite in real operational amplifiers. the operational amplifier will cease to behave ideally.000 to over 1 million. however. tens of picoamperes for JFET input stages. So long as the loop gain (i. Input current Due to biasing requirements or leakage. Low-impedance outputs typically require high quiescent (i.. Because the operational amplifier operates on the difference between its inputs. the output impedance of the amplifier is effectively lowered. which is described below). as long as these operational amplifiers are used in a typical high-gain negative feedback application. In configurations with a voltage-sensing negative feedback. these small currents can produce large unmodeled voltage drops. However. This offset voltage can create offsets or drifting in the operational amplifier. for these loads. so low-power designs may purposely sacrifice low output impedance. and the low feedback gain causes low loop gain. Negative feedback can not. the feedback gain will be very low. MOSFET-input operational amplifiers often have protection circuits that effectively short circuit any input differences greater than a small threshold. It is more common for the input currents (or the impedances looking out of each input) to be slightly mismatched.e. Finite input impedances The differential input impedance of the operational amplifier is defined as the impedance between its two inputs. thus. reduce the limitations that Rload in conjunction with Rout place on the maximum and minimum possible output voltages. it will be independent of open-loop gain).Operational amplifier 170 Real op-amps Real op-amps differ from the ideal model in various respects. If the input currents are matched. however. the common-mode input impedance is the impedance from each input to ground. op-amps usually exhibit a very low output impedance indeed. Typical devices exhibit open-loop DC gain ranging from 100. and so a small offset voltage (different from the input offset voltage below) can be produced. so the input impedance can appear to be very low in some tests. the product of open-loop and feedback gains) is very large.e. The input bias and leakage currents described below are a more important design parameter for typical operational amplifier applications. and the impedance looking out of both inputs are matched. many operational amplifiers include offset null or balance pins and some procedure for using them to remove this offset.e. and only a few pA for MOSFET input stages) flows into the inputs. in these cases. In cases where closed-loop gain must be very high. a small amount of current (typically ~10 nanoamperes for bipolar op-amps. it can only reduce output errors within that range. then the voltages produced at each input will be equal. Input offset voltage .. in linear applications. these protection circuits will be inactive. the circuit gain will be determined entirely by the amount of negative feedback (i. the output impedance of the amplifier limits the maximum power that can be provided. Non-zero output impedance Low output impedance is important for low-impedance loads. Hence. Some operational amplifiers attempt to nullify this offset automatically. these matched voltages will have no effect (unless the operational amplifier has poor CMRR. the voltage drop across the output impedance of the amplifier will be significant.

Operational amplifier This voltage. Copious use of bypass capacitors can improve the PSRR of many devices. For example.[5][6] is related to the mismatches in input bias current. the gain of a typical op-amp is inversely proportional to frequency and is characterized by its gain–bandwidth product (GBWP). even when the input terminals are wired together. Every real operational amplifier has a specified power supply rejection ratio (PSRR) that reflects how well the op-amp can reject changes in its supply voltage. That is. the input offset voltage is amplified along with the signal and this may pose a problem if high precision DC amplification is required or if the input signal is very small. Some manufacturers show the output voltage vs. negative feedback configuration. which gives an idea of the output voltage when it is sinking current from another source into the output pin. This dynamic response coupled with the very high DC gain of the op-amp gives it the characteristics of a first-order low-pass filter with very high DC gain 171 . noise becomes a very important consideration. due to the amplifier's high voltage gain. it exists in actual op-amps because of imperfections in the differential amplifier that constitutes the input stage of the vast majority of these devices. Output sink current The output sink current is maximum current allowed to sink into the output stage. To a first approximation. However. completely rejecting all voltages that are common to both. The standard measure of this defect is called the common-mode rejection ratio (denoted CMRR). for high-speed operation. In the perfect amplifier. Minimization of common mode gain is usually important in non-inverting amplifiers (described below) that operate at high amplification.[7] Common-mode gain A perfect operational amplifier amplifies only the voltage difference between its two inputs. more sophisticated considerations must be used in an op-amp circuit design. the op-amp has the frequency response of an integrator with gain. Power-supply rejection The output of a perfect operational amplifier will be completely independent from ripples that arrive on its power supply inputs. leading to the amplification of these identical voltages to some degree. Drift Real op-amp parameters are subject to slow change over time and with changes in temperature. input conditions. However. Temperature effects All parameters change with temperature. it virtually assures that the amplifier output will go into saturation if it is operated without negative feedback. Noise Amplifiers generate random voltage at the output even when there is no signal applied. in a closed loop. which is what is required across the op-amp's input terminals to drive the output voltage to zero. etc. Finite bandwidth All amplifiers have finite bandwidth. Second. and a gain of 1 at 1 MHz. AC imperfections The op-amp gain calculated at DC does not apply at higher frequencies. including the operational amplifier. the output sink current plot. For applications with high gain or high bandwidth. This can be due to thermal noise and flicker noise of the devices. there would be no input offset voltage. Temperature drift of the input offset voltage is especially important. Input offset voltage creates two problems: First. an op-amp with a GBWP of 1 MHz would have a gain of 5 at 200 kHz. the differential input stage of an operational amplifier is never perfect. Thus.

Input capacitance Most important for high frequency operation because it further reduces the open-loop bandwidth of the amplifier. the compensation can be implemented within the operational amplifier with the addition of a dominant pole that sufficiently attenuates the high-frequency gain of the operational amplifier. Measured as the slew rate. including: • Stability. or a signal so close to ground that the amplifier's gain is not sufficient to raise it above the lower threshold. or • In the case of an op-amp using a single supply voltage. Slewing is usually caused by internal capacitances in the amplifier. above. either a voltage gain that produces an output that is more positive than that maximum. producing higher distortion. it is usually specified in volts per microsecond. The circuit designer can implement this compensation externally with a separate circuit component. consequently. In general. Typical low-cost. Alternatively. For example. noise. Common-mode gain See DC imperfections. and Other Effects. 172 . Distortion. It is commonly called distortion when the input signal is a waveform. When slewing occurs. op-amp frequency compensation is often not needed because the requisite open-loop gain is sufficiently low. For very high-frequency circuits. Associated with the bandwidth limitation is a phase difference between the input signal and the amplifier output that can lead to oscillation in some feedback circuits.[8] Saturation occurs when the output of the amplifier reaches this value and is usually due to: • In the case of an op-amp using a bipolar power supply. the feedback circuit can be stabilized by means of frequency compensation. Reduced bandwidth also results in lower amounts of feedback at higher frequencies. applications with high closed-loop gain can make use of op-amps with higher bandwidths. further increases in the input signal have no effect on the rate of change of the output. a current-feedback operational amplifier is often used.Operational amplifier and low cutoff frequency given by the GBWP divided by the DC gain. a sinusoidal output signal meant to interfere destructively with an input signal of the same frequency will interfere constructively if delayed by 180 degrees. Non-linear input-output relationship The output voltage may not be accurately proportional to the difference between the input voltages. This effect will be very small in a practical circuit if substantial negative feedback is used. When the desired closed-loop gain is high. a voltage gain that produces an output that is more positive or more negative than that maximum or minimum. Non-linear imperfections Saturation output voltage is limited to a minimum and maximum value close to the power supply voltages. and output impedance and also reduced output phase linearity as the frequency increases. Specialty and high-speed op-amps exist that can achieve a GBWP of hundreds of megahertz. The location of this pole may be fixed internally by the manufacturer or configured by the circuit designer using methods specific to the op-amp. which increases the gain or phase margin of the open-loop circuit. general-purpose op-amps exhibit a GBWP of a few megahertz.[9] Slewing the amplifier's output voltage reaches its maximum rate of change. The finite bandwidth of an op-amp can be the source of several problems. In these cases. especially those used to implement its frequency compensation. • Noise. dominant-pole frequency compensation reduces the bandwidth of the op-amp even further.

A typical example is the ubiquitous 741 op-amp designed by Dave Fullagar in Fairchild Semiconductor after the remarkable Widlar LM301. Modern integrated FET or MOSFET op-amps approximate more closely the ideal op-amp than bipolar ICs when it comes to input impedance and input bias and offset currents. output stage (cyan). 173 Internal circuitry of 741 type op-amp Though designs vary between products and manufacturers. which consists of three stages: 1. at room temperature. and often have lower noise. Modern designs are electronically more rugged than earlier implementations and some can sustain direct short circuits on their outputs without damage. then its temperature will increase above some safe limit. FET and MOSFET op-amps now offer better performance. A component level diagram of the common 741 op-amp. Bipolars are generally better when it comes to input voltage offset. dissipating heat. If the op-amp dissipates too much power. IC op-amps as implemented in practice are moderately complex integrated circuits. Generally. a single-pole frequency roll-off. Limited dissipated power The output current flows through the op-amp's internal output impedance. differential amplifier (blue). Thus the basic architecture of the 741 is identical to that of the 301. current limiting and short circuit protection circuitry. voltage level shifter (green). all op-amps have basically the same internal structure. In practice. The op-amp may enter thermal shutdown. Dotted lines outline: current mirrors (red). usually a differential output. usually single-ended output. Voltage amplifier – provides high voltage gain.Operational amplifier Power considerations Limited output current The output current must be finite. 3. 2. high input impedance. low output impedance. most op-amps are designed to limit the output current so as not to exceed a specified level – around 25 mA for a type 741 IC op-amp – thus protecting the op-amp and associated circuitry from damage. Output amplifier – provides high current driving capability. Differential amplifier – provides low noise amplification. class A gain stage (magenta). with a fairly large signal. and limited bandwidth.[10] . or it may be destroyed.

Now it makes the transistors Q1-Q4 adjust their VBE voltages so that to pass the desired quiescent current. The current determined by this resistor acts also as a reference for the other bias currents used in the chip. the total quiescent current is mirrored by Q8-Q9 current mirror and the negative feedback is taken from the Q9 collector. The voltage-sensing negative feedback only helps this process by stabilizing Q9 collector (Q3/Q4 base) voltage. a negative but parallel feedback is used. For this purpose. The first stage consists of the NPN-based input emitter followers Q1 and Q2 that provide high input impedance. it forces them to adjust their VBE voltages so that to pass the current through their collector-emitter junctions. It is interesting fact that "to the extent that all PNP βs match. Q11. The Q8/Q9 current mirror tries to make Q9 collector current the same as the Q3 and Q4 collector currents and succeeds with the help of the negative feedback. The next is the PNP-based common base pair Q3 and Q4 that eliminates the undesired Miller effect. The Q9 collector voltage changes until the ratio between the Q3/Q4 base and collector currents becomes equal to β. the quiescent current is β-independent. The PNP transistors also help to increase the reverse Vbe rating (the base-emitter junctions of the NPN transistors Q1 and Q2 break down at around 7 V but the PNP transistors Q3 and Q4 have breakdown voltages around 50 V).[12] The feedback loop also isolates the rest of the circuit from common-mode signals by making the base voltage of Q3/Q4 follow tightly below the higher of the two input voltages. The quiescent current is set by the 39 kΩ resistor that is common for the two current mirrors Q12-Q13 and Q10-Q11. Otherwise.Operational amplifier 174 Input stage The input stage is a composed differential amplifier with a complex biasing circuit and a current mirror active load. The effect is the same as at the classical emitter-coupled pair . The Widlar current mirror built by Q10. Thus the quiescent current is set by Q10-Q11 current mirror without using a current-sensing negative feedback. additional DC elements should be connected between the bases and the ground (or the positive power supply). and the 5 kΩ resistor produces a very small fraction of at the Q10 collector. they should come from the ground and enter the bases. shifts the voltage level downwards and provides a sufficient voltage gain to drive the next class A amplifier. But to ensure maximum high input impedances. To make it not depend on β as above. the Q3/Q4 emitters are already used as inputs.the quiescent current is β-independent. Their collectors are separated and cannot be used as inputs for the quiescent current source since they behave as current sources.[11] Biasing circuit The classical emitter-coupled differential stage is biased from the side of the emitters by connecting a constant current source to them. So. Differential amplifier It is implemented by two cascaded stages satisfying the conflicting requirements. the quiescent current can be set only from the side of the bases by connecting a constant current source to them. the sources have to be galvanic (DC) to ensure paths for the biasing currents and low resistive enough (tens or hundreds kilohms) to not create significant voltage drops across them. As a result. it is expected they will be closed externally by the input sources. Here. .[10] The biasing base currents are usually provided only by the negative power supply. this clever circuit generates just the right β-dependent base current to produce a β-independent collector current". Thus Q3 and Q4's combined base currents (which are of the same order as the overall chip's input currents) are a small fraction of the already small Q10 current. The series negative feedback (the emitter degeneration) makes the transistors act as voltage stabilizers. So. the biasing loops are not internally closed between the base and ground. This small constant current through Q10's collector supplies the base currents for Q3 and Q4 as well as the Q9 collector current.

For differential input signals. The following negative feedback (bootstrapping) increases virtually the effective op-amp common-mode input impedance. each of them consisting of two connected in series base-emitter junctions (Q1-Q3 and Q2-Q4). the effective voltage change is twice the individual change. they vigorously change their instant resistances in opposite directions but the total resistance stays constant (like a potentiometer with quickly moving slider). it only vigorously steers between Q3/Q4 bases and makes the common quiescent current distribute between Q3/Q4 collectors in the same proportion. the input of the current mirror (Q5 collector) is connected to the left output (Q3 collector) and the output of the current mirror (Q6 collector) is connected to the right output of the differential amplifier (Q4 collector). the difference is twice the individual signal currents (ΔI . As the two resistance changes are equal and opposite. In the middle point between Q4 and Q6. This is achieved by copying the input signal from the left to the right side where the magnitudes of the two input signals add (Widlar used the same trick in μA702 and μA709).[13] The current mirror inverts Q3 collector current and tries to pass it through Q4. the negative feedback makes Q3/Q4 base voltage follow (with 2VBE below) the input voltage variations. So. Since the collectors of Q4 and Q6 appear as high differential resistances to the signal current (Q4 and Q6 behave as current sources). the current stays constant as well but the voltage at the middle point changes vigorously. Thus. In this case (differential input signal).[14] More intuitively. to the common point of Q3/Q4 bases. Now the output part (Q10) of Q10-Q11 current mirror keeps up the common current through Q9/Q8 constant in spite of varying voltage. The base current at the inputs is not zero and the effective differential input impedance of a 741 is about 2 MΩ. As a result. 175 . For this purpose. the output voltage in the middle point between Q4 and Q6. The "offset null" pins may be used to place external resistors in parallel with the two 1 kΩ resistors (typically in the form of the two ends of a potentiometer) to adjust the balancing of the Q5/Q6 current mirror and thus indirectly control the output of the op-amp when zero signal is applied between the inputs. Q7 increases the accuracy of the current mirror by decreasing the amount of signal current required from Q3 to drive the bases of Q5 and Q6. Q3/Q4 collector currents and accordingly. the transistor Q6 can be considered as a duplicate of Q3 and the combination of Q4 and Q6 can be thought as of a varying voltage divider composed of two voltage-controlled resistors. Operation Differential mode The input voltage sources are connected through two "diode" strings. the open circuit voltage gain of this stage is very high.(-ΔI) = 2ΔI) and the differential to single ended conversion is completed without gain losses. they are equal and opposite.Operational amplifier Current mirror active load The differential amplifier formed by Q1–Q4 drives an active load implemented as an improved current mirror (Q5–Q7) whose role is to convert the differential current input signal to a single ended voltage signal without the intrinsic 50% losses and to increase extremely the gain. the signal currents (current changes) of Q3 and Q4 are subtracted. remain unchanged. Common mode If the input voltages change in the same direction. The open circuit signal voltage appearing at this point is given by the product of the subtracted signal currents and the total circuit impedance (the paralleled collector resistances of Q4 and Q6). if the input voltages change slightly in opposite directions. Q3/Q4 bases stay at relatively constant voltage and the common base current does not change as well.

or between parts with the same type number. This pole can be as low as 10 Hz in a 741 amplifier and it introduces a −3 dB loss into the open loop response at this frequency. The 25 Ω resistor in the output stage acts as a current sense to provide the output current-limiting function which limits the current in the emitter follower Q14 to about 25 mA for the 741. by connecting a voltage divider with ratio β = 7. This technique is called Miller compensation and functions in a similar manner to an op-amp integrator circuit. are common so crossover distortion and quiescent current may be subject to significant variation. The circuit can be presented as a negative feedback voltage amplifier with constant input voltage of 0. Hence. that is largely independent of the output voltage. If the base current to the transistor is assumed to be zero. Variations in the bias with temperature. The 30 pF capacitor provides frequency selective negative feedback around the class A gain stage as a means of frequency compensation to stabilise the amplifier in feedback configurations. Current limiting for the negative output is done by sensing the voltage across Q19's emitter resistor and using this to reduce the drive into Q15's base. via the collector of Q13. This is achieved by introducing a negative feedback between Q16 collector and its base. owing in part to of the output transistors Q14 and Q20.625 (a gain of 1/β = 1. This internal compensation is provided to achieve unconditional stability of the amplifier in negative feedback configurations where the feedback network is non-reactive and the closed loop gain is unity or higher.6). this function is usually achieved with a string of two silicon diodes).5 kΩ) = 0.625 V and a feedback ratio of β = 0. i. The stage consists of the two NPN transistors Q15/Q19 connected in a Darlington configuration and uses the output side of a current mirror as its collector (dynamic) load to achieve high gain. This stage is effectively driven by the collectors of Q13 and Q19. The top-right current mirror Q12/Q13 supplies this stage by a constant current load. It is also known as 'dominant pole compensation' because it introduces a dominant pole (one which masks the effects of other poles) into the open loop frequency response. In the circuit as shown. Later .625 V (a typical value for a BJT in the active region).625 composed by the two input voltage resistors. The transistor Q22 prevents this stage from saturating by diverting the excessive Q15 base current (it acts as a Baker clamp).e.5 The circuit presented as a negative feedback amplifier with constant kΩ / (4.Operational amplifier 176 Class A gain stage The section outlined in magenta is the class A gain stage.5 kΩ + 7. transistor Zener or VBE multiplier. Output bias circuitry The green outlined section (based on Q16) is a voltage level shifter named rubber diode. the use of the operational amplifier is simplified because no external compensation is required for unity gain stability. Q16 provides a constant voltage drop across its collector-emitter junction regardless of the current through it (it acts as a voltage stabilizer). Q20) amplifier with the bias set by the multiplier voltage source Q16 and its base resistors. amplifiers without this internal compensation such as the 748 may require external compensation or closed-loop gains significantly higher than unity. The output range of the amplifier is about one volt less than the supply voltage. The same circuit but with β = 1 is used in the input current-setting part of the classical BJT current mirror. Output stage The output stage (outlined in cyan) is a Class AB push-pull emitter follower (Q14. This serves to bias the two output transistors slightly into conduction reducing crossover distortion (in some discrete component amplifiers. the negative feedback forces the transistor to increase its collector-emitter voltage up to 1 V until its base-emitter voltage reaches 0.

Operational amplifier versions of this amplifier schematic may show a slightly different method of output current limiting. The output resistance is not zero, as it would be in an ideal op-amp, but with negative feedback it approaches zero at low frequencies.

177

Some considerations

Note: while the 741 was historically used in audio and other sensitive equipment, such use is now rare because of the improved noise performance of more modern op-amps. Apart from generating noticeable hiss, 741s and other older op-amps may have poor common-mode rejection ratios and so will often introduce cable-borne mains hum and other common-mode interference, such as switch 'clicks', into sensitive equipment. The "741" has come to often mean a generic op-amp IC (such as μA741, LM301, 558, LM324, TBA221 - or a more modern replacement such as the TL071). The description of the 741 output stage is qualitatively similar for many other designs (that may have quite different input stages), except: • Some devices (μA748, LM301, LM308) are not internally compensated (require an external capacitor from output to some point within the operational amplifier, if used in low closed-loop gain applications). • Some modern devices have rail-to-rail output capability (output can be taken to positive or negative power supply rail within a few millivolts).

Classification

Op-amps may be classified by their construction: • discrete (built from individual transistors or tubes/valves) • IC (fabricated in an Integrated circuit) - most common • hybrid IC op-amps may be classified in many ways, including: • Military, Industrial, or Commercial grade (for example: the LM301 is the commercial grade version of the LM101, the LM201 is the industrial version). This may define operating temperature ranges and other environmental or quality factors. • Classification by package type may also affect environmental hardiness, as well as manufacturing options; DIP, and other through-hole packages are tending to be replaced by surface-mount devices. • Classification by internal compensation: op-amps may suffer from high frequency instability in some negative feedback circuits unless a small compensation capacitor modifies the phase and frequency responses. Op-amps with a built-in capacitor are termed "compensated", or perhaps compensated for closed-loop gains down to (say) 5. All others are considered uncompensated. • Single, dual and quad versions of many commercial op-amp IC are available, meaning 1, 2 or 4 operational amplifiers are included in the same package. • Rail-to-rail input (and/or output) op-amps can work with input (and/or output) signals very close to the power supply rails. • CMOS op-amps (such as the CA3140E) provide extremely high input resistances, higher than JFET-input op-amps, which are normally higher than bipolar-input op-amps. • other varieties of op-amp include programmable op-amps (simply meaning the quiescent current, gain, bandwidth and so on can be adjusted slightly by an external resistor). • manufacturers often tabulate their op-amps according to purpose, such as low-noise pre-amplifiers, wide bandwidth amplifiers, and so on.

Operational amplifier

178

Applications

Use in electronics system design

The use of op-amps as circuit blocks is much easier and clearer than specifying all their individual circuit elements (transistors, resistors, etc.), whether the amplifiers used are integrated or discrete. In the first approximation op-amps can be used as if they were ideal differential gain blocks; at a later stage limits can be placed on the acceptable range of parameters for each op-amp.

DIP pinout for 741-type operational amplifier

Circuit design follows the same lines for all electronic circuits. A specification is drawn up governing what the circuit is required to do, with allowable limits. For example, the gain may be required to be 100 times, with a tolerance of 5% but drift of less than 1% in a specified temperature range; the input impedance not less than one megohm; etc. A basic circuit is designed, often with the help of circuit modeling (on a computer). Specific commercially available op-amps and other components are then chosen that meet the design criteria within the specified tolerances at acceptable cost. If not all criteria can be met, the specification may need to be modified. A prototype is then built and tested; changes to meet or improve the specification, alter functionality, or reduce the cost, may be made.

**Applications without using any feedback
**

That is, the op-amp is being used as a voltage comparator. Note that a device designed primarily as a comparator may be better if, for instance, speed is important or a wide range of input voltages may be found, since such devices can quickly recover from full on or full off ("saturated") states. A voltage level detector can be obtained if a reference voltage Vref is applied to one of the op-amp's inputs. This means that the op-amp is set up as a comparator to detect a positive voltage. If the voltage to be sensed, Ei, is applied to op amp's (+) input, the result is a noninverting positive-level detector: when Ei is above Vref, VO equals +Vsat; when Ei is below Vref, VO equals -Vsat. If Ei is applied to the inverting input, the circuit is an inverting positive-level detector: When Ei is above Vref, VO equals -Vsat. A zero voltage level detector (Ei = 0) can convert, for example, the output of a sine-wave from a function generator into a variable-frequency square wave. If Ei is a sine wave, triangular wave, or wave of any other shape that is symmetrical around zero, the zero-crossing detector's output will be square. Zero-crossing detection may also be useful in triggering TRIACs at the best time to reduce mains interference and current spikes.

**Positive feedback applications
**

Another typical configuration of op-amps is with positive feedback, which takes a fraction of the output signal back to the non-inverting input. An important application of it is the comparator with hysteresis, the Schmitt trigger. Some circuits may use Positive feedback and Negative feedback around the same amplifier, for example Triangle wave oscillators and active filters. Because of the wide slew-range and lack of positive feedback, the response of all the open-loop level detectors described above will be relatively slow. External overall positive feedback may be applied but (unlike internal positive feedback that may be applied within the latter stages of a purpose-designed comparator) this markedly affects the accuracy of the zero-crossing detection point. Using a general-purpose op-amp, for example, the frequency of Ei for the sine to square wave converter should probably be below 100 Hz.

Operational amplifier

179

**Negative feedback applications
**

Non-inverting amplifier In a non-inverting amplifier, the output voltage changes in the same direction as the input voltage. The gain equation for the op-amp is:

However, in this circuit voltage divider, and as

–

is a function of network.

because of the and form a

**negative feedback through the
**

–

An op-amp connected in the non-inverting amplifier configuration

is a high-impedance input, it does not load

it appreciably. Consequently: where

Substituting this into the gain equation, we obtain:

Solving for

:

If

is very large, this simplifies to .

Note that the non-inverting input of the operational amplifier will need a path for DC to ground; if the signal source might not give this, or if that source requires a given load impedance, the circuit will require another resistor - from input to ground. In either case, the ideal value for the feedback resistors (to give minimum offset voltage) will be such that the two resistances in parallel roughly equal the resistance to ground at the non-inverting input pin. Inverting amplifier In an inverting amplifier, the output voltage changes in an opposite direction to the input voltage. As with the non-inverting amplifier, we start with the gain equation of the op-amp:

This time,

–

is a function of both and

and

**due to the voltage
**

An op-amp connected in the inverting amplifier configuration

divider formed by

. Again, the op-amp input does not

apply an appreciable load, so:

Substituting this into the gain equation and solving for

:

Operational amplifier If is very large, this simplifies to . A resistor is often inserted between the non-inverting input and ground (so both inputs "see" similar resistances), reducing the input offset voltage due to different voltage drops due to bias current, and may reduce distortion in some op-amps. A DC-blocking capacitor may be inserted in series with the input resistor when a frequency response down to DC is not needed and any DC voltage on the input is unwanted. That is, the capacitive component of the input impedance inserts a DC zero and a low-frequency pole that gives the circuit a bandpass or high-pass characteristic. The potentials at the operational amplifier inputs remain virtually constant (near ground) in the inverting configuration. The constant operating potential typically results in distortion levels that are lower than those attainable with the non-inverting topology.

180

Other applications

• audio- and video-frequency pre-amplifiers and buffers • differential amplifiers • • • • • • • • • • differentiators and integrators filters precision rectifiers precision peak detectors voltage and current regulators analog calculators analog-to-digital converters digital-to-analog converters voltage clamps oscillators and waveform generators

Most single, dual and quad op-amps available have a standardized pin-out which permits one type to be substituted for another without wiring changes. A specific op-amp may be chosen for its open loop gain, bandwidth, noise performance, input impedance, power consumption, or a compromise between any of these factors.

Historical timeline

1941: A vacuum tube op-amp. An op-amp, defined as a general-purpose, DC-coupled, high gain, inverting feedback amplifier, is first found in U.S. Patent 2,401,779 [15] "Summing Amplifier" filed by Karl D. Swartzel Jr. of Bell Labs in 1941. This design used three vacuum tubes to achieve a gain of 90 dB and operated on voltage rails of ±350 V. It had a single inverting input rather than differential inverting and non-inverting inputs, as are common in today's op-amps. Throughout World War II, Swartzel's design proved its value by being liberally used in the M9 artillery director designed at Bell Labs. This artillery director worked with the SCR584 radar system to achieve extraordinary hit rates (near 90%) that would not have been possible otherwise.[16]

Operational amplifier

181

1947: An op-amp with an explicit non-inverting input. In 1947, the operational amplifier was first formally defined and named in a paper by Professor John R. Ragazzini of Columbia University. In this same paper a footnote mentioned an op-amp design by a student that would turn out to be quite significant. This op-amp, designed by Loebe Julie, was superior in a variety of ways. It had two major innovations. Its input stage used a long-tailed triode pair with loads matched to reduce drift in the output and, far more importantly, it was the first op-amp design to have two inputs (one inverting, the other non-inverting). The differential input made a whole range of new functionality possible, but it would not be used for a long time due to the rise of the chopper-stabilized amplifier.[16] 1949: A chopper-stabilized op-amp. In 1949, Edwin A. Goldberg designed a chopper-stabilized op-amp.[17] This set-up uses a normal op-amp with an additional AC amplifier that goes alongside the op-amp. The chopper gets an AC signal from DC by switching between the DC voltage and ground at a fast rate (60 Hz or 400 Hz). This signal is then amplified, rectified, filtered and fed into the op-amp's GAP/R's K2-W: a vacuum-tube non-inverting input. This vastly improved the gain of the op-amp while significantly op-amp (1953) reducing the output drift and DC offset. Unfortunately, any design that used a chopper couldn't use their non-inverting input for any other purpose. Nevertheless, the much improved characteristics of the chopper-stabilized op-amp made it the dominant way to use op-amps. Techniques that used the non-inverting input regularly would not be very popular until the 1960s when op-amp ICs started to show up in the field. In 1953, vacuum tube op-amps became commercially available with the release of the model K2-W from George A. Philbrick Researches, Incorporated. The designation on the devices shown, GAP/R, is an acronym for the complete company name. Two nine-pin 12AX7 vacuum tubes were mounted in an octal package and had a model K2-P chopper add-on available that would effectively "use up" the non-inverting input. This op-amp was based on a descendant of Loebe Julie's 1947 design and, along with its successors, would start the widespread use of op-amps in industry. 1961: A discrete IC op-amp. With the birth of the transistor in 1947, and the silicon transistor in 1954, the concept of ICs became a reality. The introduction of the planar process in 1959 made transistors and ICs stable enough to be commercially useful. By 1961, solid-state, discrete op-amps were being produced. These op-amps were effectively small circuit boards with packages such as edge connectors. They usually had hand-selected resistors in order to improve things such as voltage offset and drift. The P45 (1961) had a gain of 94 dB and ran on ±15 V rails. It was intended to deal with signals in the range of ±10 V.

GAP/R's model P45: a solid-state, discrete op-amp (1961).

1961: A varactor bridge op-amp. There have been many different directions taken in op-amp design. Varactor bridge op-amps started to be produced in the early 1960s.[18][19] They were designed to have extremely small input current and are still amongst the best op-amps available in terms of common-mode rejection with the ability to correctly deal with hundreds of volts at their inputs.

low gain and a small dynamic range held off the dominance of monolithic op-amps until 1965 when the μA709[20] (also designed by Bob Widlar) was released. These packages were crucially important as they made the operational amplifier into a single black box which could be easily treated as a component in a larger circuit. In ADI's HOS-050: a high speed hybrid IC op-amp (1979) addition to packaging multiple op-amps in a single package. however. The popularity of monolithic op-amps was further improved upon the release of the LM101 in 1967.8 V) are common. These would be largely replaced by op-amps made with MOSFETs in the 1980s. low-input current designs started to be made by using FETs. By 1962. was released. The LM324 (released in 1972) was one such op-amp that came in a quad package (four separate op-amps in one package) and became an industry standard. and has become ubiquitous in electronics—many manufacturers produce a version of this classic chip. 1963: A monolithic IC op-amp. To maximize the signal range modern op-amps commonly have rail-to-rail output (the output signal can range from the lowest supply voltage to the highest) and sometimes rail-to-rail inputs. These op-amps were generally improved versions of existing monolithic op-amps. several companies were producing modular potted packages that could be plugged into printed circuit boards. 1972: Single sided supply op-amps being produced. Supplies of ±5 V and increasingly 3. The result is that it can operate in many applications with the negative supply pin on the op-amp being connected to the signal ground. and the subsequent release of the μA741 in 1968. Monolithic ICs consist of a single chip as opposed to a chip and discrete parts (a discrete IC) or multiple chips bonded and connected on a circuit board (a hybrid IC). 1970: First high-speed. In 1963. the 1970s also saw the birth of op-amps in hybrid packages. During the 1970s single sided supply op-amps also became available. The μA741 was extremely similar to the LM101 except that Fairchild's facilities allowed them to include a 30 pF compensation capacitor inside the chip instead of requiring external compensation. thus eliminating the need for a separate negative power supply. Recently supply voltages in analog circuits have decreased (as they have in digital logic) and low-voltage op-amps have been introduced reflecting this. the more complex hybrid ICs were quickly relegated to systems that are required to have extremely long service lives or other specialty systems. The μA741 is still in production. the μA702 designed by Bob Widlar at Fairchild Semiconductor. This simple difference has made the 741 the canonical op-amp and many modern amps base their pinout on the 741s. which solved a variety of issues. As the properties of monolithic op-amps improved. The same part is manufactured by several companies. Issues such as an uneven supply voltage.3 V (sometimes as low as 1. A single sided supply op-amp is one where the input and output voltages can be as low as the negative power supply voltage instead of needing to be at least two volts above it. Almost all modern op-amps are monolithic ICs. Recent trends. recognizable by part numbers containing 741. GAP/R's model PP65: a solid-state op-amp in a potted module (1962) 1968: Release of the μA741. the first monolithic IC op-amp. In the 1970s high speed.Operational amplifier 182 1962: An op-amp in a potted module. low-input current FET design. An op-amp in a modern mini DIP . this first IC did not meet with much success.

2002). google. (book website) (http://www.401. [17] http:/ / www. Sergio Franco. Stanford University. However. pdf). 476. philbrickarchive. ISBN 978-0130829870. 2002. [15] http:/ / www. ISBN 978-0132808682. Winfield (1989). emitter-coupled and other exotic circuits. the two curves move slightly toward each other in the vertical direction but the operating (cross) point moves vigorously in the horizontal direction. 523-527 [4] Horowitz. wisc. Q1 and Q3) become backward biased and the total common base current flows through the other (Q2 and Q4) base-emitter junctions. The output of newer so-called "rail to rail" op-amps can reach to within millivolts of the supply rails when providing low output currents. org/ [19] June 1961 advertisement for Philbrick P2. Malvino. Paul. the base-emitter junctions of the transistors driven by the lower input voltage (e. the input part of the simple current mirror. See Output stage. UK: Cambridge University Press. 672 pages. IC Op-Amps Through the Ages (http:/ / www. 6th Ed. Robert F Coughlin.P.F. philbrickarchive. com/ books?id=dunqt1rt4sAC). 2nd Ed. Ram Gayakwad. • Op-Amps and Linear Integrated Circuits. 529 pages. 2000. ISBN 978-0072320848. When the input voltages vary slightly in opposite directions. 1979. Stout Handbook of Operational Amplifier Circuit Design (McGraw-Hill. stanford. ISBN 0521370957. this circuit solution is widely used in cascode circuits. Wilson current mirror. ISBN 978-0130149916. The ratio between the two movements represents the high amplification. Thomas H. 1032/ Handouts/ ho18opamp. [6] This definition hews to the convention of measuring op-amp parameters with respect to the zero voltage point in the circuit. edu/ cgi-bin/ get/ ece/ 342/ schowalter/ notes/ chapter10/ theua741operationalamplifier. google. http:/ / www. [8] That the output cannot reach the power supply voltages is usually the result of limitations of the amplifier's output stage transistors. ppt) [12] This arrangement can be generalized by an equivalent circuit consisting of a constant current source loaded by a voltage source. . pdf) [3] Jacob Millman.Operational amplifier 183 Notes [1] Maxim Application Note 1108: Understanding Single-Ended. 777. pdf [20] A. Modern precision op-amps can have internal circuits that automatically cancel this offset using choppers or other circuits that measure the offset voltage periodically and subtract it from the input voltage. As the two heterogeneous sources provide ideal load conditions for each other.mhhe. pp. Thomas L Floyd. "Chapter 8: Op Amp History" (http:/ / books. Op Amp Applications Handbook. David Buchla. [14] This circuit (and geometrical) phenomenon can be illustrated graphically by superimposing the Q4 and Q6 output characteristics (almost parallel horizontal lines) on the same coordinate system. References Further reading • Basic Operational Amplifiers and Linear Integrated Circuits. the voltage source fixes the voltage across the current source while the current source sets the current through the voltage source. cfm/ an_pk/ 1108) – Retrieved November 10. p. [13] If the input differential voltage changes significantly (with more than about a hundred millivolts). analog.. Cambridge. [[The Art of Electronics (http:/ / books. ISBN 9780750678445. . which is usually half the total voltage between the amplifier's positive and negative power rails. Microelectronics: Digital and Analog Circuits and Systems. [9] The output of older op-amps can reach to within one or two volts of the supply rails. the high breakdown voltage of the PNP transistors Q3/Q4 prevents Q1/Q2 base-emitter junctions from damaging when the input difference voltage increases up to 50 V because of the unlimited current that may flow directly through the "diode bridge" between the two input sources. . ISBN 007061797X ) pp. pdf [18] http:/ / www. analog. Hill. 1998. 1979.g. Electronic Principles (2nd Ed. engr. 593 pages. 1976. Newnes. McGraw-Hill. 1–11. (2004). 543 pages. com/ books?id=bkOMDgwFA28C& pg=PA177& lpg=PA177#v=onepage& q& f=false)]]. edu/ class/ archive/ ee/ ee214/ ee214. 4th Ed. (November 18. 1999. google. org/ p2%20and%206033%20ad%20rsi%20vol32%20no6%20june1961. • Design with Operational Amplifiers and Analog Integrated Circuits. [5] D. Walter G. ISBN 0-07-042327-x. ISBN 0-07-039867-4) p. 3rd Ed.com/engcs/electrical/franco3/) • Operational Amplifiers and Linear Integrated Circuits. Handout #18: EE214 Fall 2002 [11] The uA741 Operational Amplifier (http:/ / ecow. [7] Many older designs of operational amplifiers have offset null inputs to allow the offset to be manually adjusted away. . com/ library/ analogDialogue/ archives/ 39-05/ Web_ChH_final. Retrieved 2008-11-15. com/ appnotes. Pseudo-Differential and Fully-Differential ADC Inputs (http:/ / www. com/ patents?vid=2. 2007 [2] Analog devices MT-044 Tutorial (http:/ / www.779 [16] Jung. maxim-ic. [10] Lee. com/ static/ imported-files/ tutorials/ MT-044.

Lots of detail.analog.Operational amplifier • Op Amps For Everyone.pdf) using spot noise • Operational Amplifier Basics (http://www.com/480_opam. • Introduction to op-amp circuit stages. second order filters.aspx) • www.info/opamp. ti.edu/ee/7321/MOS_op-amp_design.com/library/analogDialogue/archives/39-05/Web_ChH_final.bowdenshobbycircuits.Operational Amplifier Pioneer . Can also be bought • Operational Amplifier Noise Prediction (All Op Amps) (http://www.com/data/an/an519. pdf) from vacuum tubes to about 2002.intersil. offset and bias current. and PSRR.html) Downloadable book.analog.org) – A free repository of materials from George A Philbrick / Researches . 1st Ed.htm) • MOS op amp design: A tutorial overview (http://lyle. with schematics.smu. single op-amp bandpass filters. pdf) 184 External links • Simple Op Amp Measurements (http://www. Ron Mancini. gain.pdf) • Op Amp Applications (http://www.PhilbrickArchive.com/library/analogDialogue/archives/45-04/ op_amp_measurements. IC part is somewhat ADI-centric. and a simple intercom (http://www.com/article/ analog-and-mixed-signal/what-s-all-this-julie-stuff-anyhow-6071.html) How to measure offset voltage.com/library/analogDialogue/archives/39-05/ op_amp_applications_handbook. Texas Instruments SLOD006B. CMRR.PhilbrickArchive. 464 pages.htm) • History of the Op-amp (http://www. com/ lit/ an/ slod006b/ slod006b.org (http://www. • Loebe Julie historical OpAmp interview by Bob Pease (http://electronicdesign. (Free PDF Download) (http:/ / focus.analog.williamson-labs. 2002.

hence. such as x∧(y∨z). . The laws of Boolean algebra can be defined axiomatically as certain equations called axioms together with their logical consequences called theorems. It resembles the algebra of real numbers. thereby forming a 232-element Boolean algebra under those operations. can be combined with Boolean operations in the same way as individual bits. Boolean logic as the subject matter of this article is independent of the choice of Boolean algebra (the same equations hold of every nontrivial Boolean algebra). disjunction x∨y. false and true. are also in common use. although F and T. originally by I. developed by George Boole in the 1840s. For the purpose of understanding Boolean algebra any Boolean domain of two values will do. while apparently just as numeric as the integers themselves.I. Zhegalkin in 1927 and rediscovered independently in the west by Marshall Stone in 1936. etc. These are usually taken to be 0 and 1. The article on Boolean algebra (structure) treats Boolean algebras themselves. Values Boolean algebra is the algebra of two values. On the other hand the algebra of the integers modulo 2. For example the bit vectors of a given length. These turn out to coincide with the set of all operations on the set {0. and negation ¬x. was shown to constitute exactly Boolean algebra. So in fact there is some ambiguity in the true nature of Boolean algebra: it can be viewed as either logical or numeric in character. More generally Boolean algebra is the algebra of values from any Boolean algebra as a model of the laws of Boolean algebra. or semantically as those equations that are true for every possible assignment of 0 or 1 to their variables. Regardless of classification. there is no need here to consider any Boolean algebra other than the two-element one. and negation −x replaced by the respective logical operations of conjunction x∧y.1} that take only finitely many arguments. The axiomatic approach is sound and complete in the sense that it proves respectively neither more nor fewer laws than the semantic approach. The two-element Boolean algebra is the prototypical Boolean algebra in the same sense as the ring of integers is the prototypical commutative ring. The Boolean operations are these and all other operations that can be built from these. addition x + y. Any such combination applies the same Boolean operation to all bits simultaneously. there are 22n such operations when there are n arguments. in contrast to the natural numbers or the reals which are considered numerical values. as with say 32-bit computer words.185 Digital circuits Boolean algebra Boolean algebra (or Boolean logic) is a logical calculus of truth values. the values are customarily thought of as essentially logical in character and are therefore referred to as truth values. but with the numeric operations of multiplication xy. This passage from the Boolean algebra of 0 and 1 to these more general Boolean algebras is the Boolean counterpart of the passage from the algebra of the ring of integers to the algebra of commutative rings in general.

namely conjunction: x∧y or Kxy (AND). because of this we say that disjunction is the dual of conjunction. The set {0. For example implication x→y. Logical negation however does not work like numerical negation at all. This is just the definition of conjunction with true and false interchanged everywhere. Whereas elementary algebra is based on numeric operations multiplication xy. the AND is represented as a multiplication.Boolean algebra 186 Operations Basic operations After values. Figure 2 shows the symbols used in digital electronics for conjunction and disjunction. Yet it shares in common with numerical negation the property that applying it twice returns the original value: ¬¬x = x.1} has two permutations. Using negation we can formalize the notion that conjunction is dual to disjunction via De Morgan's laws. in the third column of the figures. works almost like addition. disjunction: x∨y or Axy (OR). and complement or negation: ¬x or Nx (NOT). An operation with this property is called an involution. are represented as circles on the port to be inverted. and 1 and 1 = 1. The idea is that an . Boolean algebra is customarily based on logical counterparts to those operations. addition x + y. and SWAP. and otherwise is false. or the output signals on the way out. the input ports are on the left and the signals flow through to the output port on the right. become xy and x + y. or equivalently ¬(x∧¬y) (its De Morgan equivalent in Figure 3). It can be expressed as x→y = ¬x∨y (the OR-gate of Figure 2 with the x input inverted). and the NOT is represented with an overbar: x ∧ y and x ∨ y. the next ingredient of any algebraic system is its operations. the OR is represented as an addition. The first column of Figure 1 below tabulates the values of x∧y for the four possible valuations for x and y. ¬(x∧y) = ¬x ∨ ¬y and ¬(x∨y) = ¬x ∧ ¬y. Derived operations Other Boolean operations are derivable from these by composition. therefore. Inverters negating the input signals on the way in. and true otherwise. just as −(−x) = x. namely the identity. with one exception: the disjunction of 1 and 1 is neither 2 nor 0 but 1. In electronics. Conjunction is the closest of these three to its numerical counterpart: consider 0 and 1 = 0. (IMP). in the second column of the figures. As a logical operation the conjunction of two propositions is true when both propositions are true. such a tabulation is traditionally called a truth table. to distinguish it from related but non-Boolean logical concepts such as entailment and relevant implication. These can also be construed as definitions of conjunction in terms of disjunction and vice versa: x∧y = ¬(¬x ∨ ¬y) and x∨y = ¬(¬x ∧ ¬y). and negation −x. In logic this operation is called material implication. both involutary. and otherwise is true. no movement. is a Various representations of Boolean operations binary operation which is false when x is true and y is false. it is multiplication. Thus the disjunction of two propositions is false when both propositions are false. Cxy. corresponding to numerical negation mod 2 (since +1 = −1 mod 2). corresponding to logical negation. Disjunction. Instead it corresponds to incrementation: ¬x = x+1 mod 2.

The De Morgan dual of XOR is just XOR with an inverter on the output (there is no separate symbol). taking the form of an OR-gate with one inverter on disjunction. Exclusive-or is the operation of addition mod 2. x|y. or Dxy. The latter reflects the fact that the negation (which is also the dual) of XOR. Unlike conjunction and disjunction. changing an odd number of inverters on an XOR gate produces the dual gate. The choice of one of these 16 assignments then determines the operation. and true otherwise. being a hybrid of the disjunction symbol and the equality symbol. or Jxy. Another example is Sheffer stroke. The two arguments have 2 × 2 = 4 possible combinations of values between them. This universal character of NAND and NOR makes them a popular choice for gate arrays. which is false when both arguments are true. from which all other Boolean operations of nonzero arity can then be obtained. With negation in hand one can then in turn define conjunction in terms of NAND via x∧y = ¬(x|y). . x or y. ¬(x⊕y). Although disjunction is not the exact counterpart of numerical addition. Its digital electronics symbol is shown in Figure 2. NAND is definable by composition of negation with conjunction as x |y = ¬(x∧y). The above-mentioned duality of conjunction and disjunction is exposed further by De Morgan's laws. The exclusive-or of any value with itself vanishes. or Exy. via the definition ¬x = x|x. x⊕x = 0. one of which we will encounter later in the section on soundness and completeness. being true just when x and y are equal. here two variables and hence 22 = 4 valuations. The convention followed here is to represent the true or 1 outputs as dark regions and false as light.Boolean algebra implication x→y is by default true (the weaker truth value in the sense that false implies true but not vice versa) unless its premise or antecedent x holds. and there are 24 = 16 ways of assigning an output value to each of these four input values. The interior (respectively exterior) of each circle represents the value true (respectively false) for the corresponding input. x⊕y. but the reverse convention is also sometimes used. ¬(x∨y). that inverter is canceled by the second inverter that would have gone there. In the case of implication. NOR.or Xxy as the evident dual of NAND serves this purpose equally well. since the arguments have an even number of whatever value x has. ¬(x∧y) = ¬x∨¬y and ¬(x∨y) = ¬x∧¬y. with the Boolean operations reformulated as the Zhegalkin polynomials. an even number leaves the gate's functionality unchanged. is logical equivalence. Figure 3 illustrates De Morgan's laws by giving for each gate its De Morgan dual. NAND is a binary operation that can be used to obtain negation. De Morgan's laws may be verified case by case for each of the 2n possible valuations of the n variables occurring in the law. Exclusive-or together with conjunction constitute yet another complete basis for Boolean algebra. equivalently when an odd number of the propositions is true. converted back to the original operation with inverters on both inputs and the outputs. putting inverters on all three ports cancels the dual's output inverter. Any given binary operation is determined by its output values for each possible combination of input values. integrated circuits with multiple general-purpose gates. suggesting great expressiveness. the NAND gate in digital electronics. Boolean algebra nonetheless does have an exact counterpart. EQV. in which case the truth of the implication is that of its conclusion or consequent y. 187 All Boolean operations There are infinitely many expressions that can be built from two variables using the above operations. As shown in the fourth column of the figures. so all together there are only 16 distinct binary operations. as with implication. the exclusive-or of two propositions is true just when exactly one of the propositions is true. either both true or both false. whence the name "parity". Figure 4 illustrates the corresponding Venn diagrams for each of the four operations presented in Figures 1-3. It does not have its own schematic symbol as it is easily represented as an AND gate with an inverted output. Yet a straightforward counting argument shows that only 16 distinct binary operations on two values are possible. XOR and EQV are the only binary Boolean operations that are commutative and whose truth tables have equally many 0s and 1s. De Morgan's laws play a role in putting Boolean terms in certain normal forms. More generally. As with all the other laws in this section. called exclusive-or (XOR) or parity.

equivalently when the two terms denote the same operation. Such multi-output operations can be understood simply as m n-ary operations.567 operations. as both conjunction and disjunction satisfy idempotence. (22n)m = 2m2n operations. For the AND and OR gates the location of each inverter matters. there are 232 = 4. An operation has two possibilities for each of these. 188 Laws Axioms With values and operations in hand. being just addition mod 2. this time of binary operations that are not associative. which in the case of numeric multiplication is expressed as x(yz) = (xy)z. multiplication is idempotent. Boolean algebra has commutativity in that x ∨ y = y ∨ x for disjunction and x ∧ y = y ∧ x for conjunction. x + y = y + x and xy = yx. Again numeric subtraction and logical implication serve as examples. whence there exist 22n n-ary Boolean operations. one containing two 1s and the other two 0s. For example the ternary counterpart of disjunction can be obtained as (x∨y)∨z. ¬x. clearly numeric addition and multiplication are not idempotent. and ¬y. is not commutative. all are representable schematically as an AND-gate. Two operations with a "checkerboard" truth table. Another equally fundamental law is associativity. and x|y. the next aspect of Boolean algebra is that of laws or properties. has 2n possible valuations of those inputs. A logic gate or computer module mapping 32 bits to 32 bits could implement any of 5. their truth tables contain a single 0. These laws are easily verified by considering the two valuations 0 and 1 for x. whose truth tables amount to two juxtaposed rectangles. The number of Boolean operations of this generalized kind with say 5 inputs and 5 outputs is 1. namely x. Numeric algebra has laws such as commutativity of addition and multiplication.47 × 1041. reflected logically in the idempotence of conjunction but not of exclusive-or. The final four come from the same treatment applied to conjunction. y→x. or. having a single 1 in their truth tables. the principal laws take the form of equations between terms built up from variables using the operations of the algebra. But since 2 + 2 = 2 × 2 = 4 in arithmetic. In general an n-ary operation. Not all binary operations are commutative. giving for the latter two the Boolean laws x ∨ (y ∨ z) = (x ∨ y) ∨ z and x ∧ (y ∧ z) = (x ∧ y) ∧ z. Operations of other arities are possible. Boolean algebra does not completely mirror numeric algebra however. expressed respectively as x ∧ x = x and x ∨ x = x. y. namely XOR and EQV. . As with many kinds of algebra. Similarly. the concept generalizes to operations that take n bits in and return m bits instead of one bit.46 × 1048.247. 0 and 1. Although Boolean algebra confines attention to operations that return a single bit. though not addition since 1 + 1 = 0 mod 2. For example. in the case of n inputs. for the XOR gate it does not. or an XOR-gate.373. an OR-gate. like subtraction and division. x→y. with one port optionally inverted. The operation count must then be raised to the m-th power. Such an equation is deemed a law or identity just when both sides have the same value for all values of the variables. Boolean implication.294. On the other hand exclusive-or. is both commutative and associative. All four of numeric addition and multiplication and logical disjunction and conjunction are associative. Four operations are obtained from disjunction with some subset of its inputs negated. 10 of the 16 operations depend on both variables.296 operations with 5 inputs. Four operations dependent on one variable. justifying abbreviating both sides to xyz and thinking of multiplication as a single ternary operation. more than is obtained by squaring a googol 28 times. only whether there is an even or odd number of inverters. namely x∨y. Digital circuit designers draw such operations as suitably shaped boxes with n wires entering on the left and m wires exiting on the right.Boolean algebra The 16 binary Boolean operations can be organized as follows (see also: table): Two constant operations. With arithmetic mod 2 on the other hand. one having n inputs.967.

Because there are 2n valuations to check the method starts to become impractical as 40 variables is approached. This is the method we depended on in the previous section to justify each law as we introduced it. It then follows that x ∧ 0 = x ∧ (x ∧ ¬x) = (x ∧ x) ∧ ¬x = x ∧ ¬x = 0. These laws (both are needed) together with the associativity. that is. and idempotence of conjunction and disjunction constitute the defining laws or axioms of lattice theory.) Another law common to numbers and truth values is distributivity of multiplication over addition. (Actually idempotence can be derived from the other axioms. distributivity. distributivity has three variables and so requires checking 23 = 8 cases. Including either distributivity law then axiomatizes the theory of complemented distributive lattices. Beyond that the approach becomes of value mainly as the in-principle semantic definition of what constitutes an identically true or valid equation. That theory does not need the idempotence axioms because they follow from the six absorption. Like associativity. when paired with distributivity of conjunction over disjunction. . Adding either to the axioms for lattices axiomatizes the theory of distributive lattices. Dualizing this reasoning. As it is out of the question to proceed in the ad hoc way of the preceding section for ever. These two Boolean laws are called the laws of absorption. commutativity. Boolean algebra. x ∨ (y ∧ z) = (x ∨ y) ∧ (x ∨ z). Alternatively we can justify these laws more directly simply by checking them for each of the two valuations of x. we obtain x ∨ 1 = 1 and x ∧ 1 = x. namely x ∧ ¬x = 0 and x ∨ ¬x = 1. constituting the semantic approach to establishing laws. both x ∧ (x ∨ y) and x ∨ (x ∧ y) are equal to x. Either distributivity law for Boolean algebra entails the other. making it ideal work for a computer. showing that 0 works with conjunction in logic just as it does with multiplication of numbers. consider 1 + 2 × 3 = 7 whereas (1 + 2) × (1 + 3) = 12. In Boolean algebra however. For convenience we collect these nine laws in one place as follows. From a practical standpoint the method lends itself to computer implementation for 20-30 variables because the enumeration of valuations is straightforward to program and boring to carry out. Numerically we have x(y + z) = xy + xz.Boolean algebra A more subtle difference between number and logic is with x(x + y) and x + xy. One way of establishing an equation as being a law is to verify its truth for all valuations of its variables. These are the only laws thus far that have required constants. and associativity laws. whose Boolean algebra counterpart is x ∧ (y ∨ z) = (x ∧ y) ∨ (x ∧ z). Two Boolean laws having no numeric counterpart are the laws characterizing logical negation. the question arises as to how best to present the remaining laws. as can be verified for each of the four possible valuations for x and y. It follows that Boolean algebra as commonly defined in terms of these axioms coincides with the intuitive semantic notion of the valid identities of two-valued logic. On the other hand Boolean algebra also has distributivity of disjunction over conjunction. The six laws of lattice theory along with these first two laws for negation axiomatize the theory of complemented lattices. nor do they even exhaust the highlights. associativity commutativity absorption distributivity complements 189 The next two sections show that this theory is sufficient to axiomatize all the valid laws or identities of two-valued logic. Derivations While the Boolean laws enumerated in the previous section are certainly highlights of Boolean algebra. they by no means exhaust the laws. sometimes called the method of truth tables. for which there is no numeric counterpart. Also x ∨ 0 = x ∨ (x ∧ ¬x) = x by absorption. neither of which equal x numerically. of which there are infinitely many.

Transitivity: A chain s = t = u of two laws yields the law s = u. but every occurrence must be replaced by one or the other side. namely a unique term associated with the n-ary Boolean operation realized by that term with the variables in that order.) Substitution: Given two laws and a variable. making no mention of specific logical. For definiteness however it is worthwhile formulating a well-defined set of rules showing exactly what is needed. We can then restate this coinciding of the semantic and syntactic approaches as the soundness and completeness of the syntactic approach with respect to (or as calibrated by) the semantic approach. with commutativity in place of associativity in the middle equation. the two sides of a law may be interchanged. is equal to its n-ary normal form.) Here is an example showing the derivation of (w∨x)∨(y∨z) = (w∨y)∨(x∨z) from just the commutativity and associativity of disjunction. when analyzed more carefully according to the above rules it can be seen to require something more. semantically true laws. they are both provably equal to the normal form term denoting that operation. 190 Soundness and completeness It can be shown that the two approaches. Intuitively one attaches no importance to which side of an equation a term comes from. Reflexivity: t = t. as sound for logic as they are for numerical domains or any other kind. These are the domain-independent rules of equational logic. ordered alphabetically say. We say that the syntactic approach is sound when it yields a subset of the semantically obtained laws. Secondly it depends on the easily verified fact that the rules preserve identities. (This law of "cutting out the middleman" is applied four times in the above example to eliminate the intermediate terms. The rules of derivation for forming new laws from old can be assumed to be those permissible in high school algebra. Soundness follows firstly from the fact that the initial laws or axioms we started from were all identities. to constructing all the laws of Boolean algebra lead to the same set of laws.Boolean algebra In contrast the syntactic approach is to derive new laws by symbolic manipulation from already established laws such as those listed in the previous section. Completeness can be proved by first deriving a few additional useful laws and then showing how to use the axioms and rules to prove that a term with n variables.) Symmetry: From s = t infer t = s. (This is not to imply that derivations of a law shorter than the length of a semantic verification of that law need exist. All five equations in the chain are accounted for along similar lines. we use substitution to replace both occurrences of x by w∨x to arrive at the first equation. and hence by transitivity provably equal to each . or other operations. That is. any equation whose two sides are the same term t is a law. although some thousand-variable laws impossible to verify by enumeration of valuations can have quite short derivations. numeric. we classify it as a rule because like the other three rules it is domain-independent. (w∨x)∨(y∨z) = ((w∨x)∨y)∨z = (w∨(x∨y))∨z = (w∨(y∨x))∨z = ((w∨y)∨x)∨z = (w∨y)∨(x∨z) The first two and last two steps appealed to associativity while the middle step used commutativity. It then follows that if two terms denote the same operation (the same thing as being semantically equal). semantic and syntactic. We can justify it in terms of the reflexivity and substitution rules. each occurrence of that variable in the first law may be replaced by one or the other side of the second law. Beginning with the laws x∨(y∨z) = (x∨y)∨z and w∨x = w∨x. (Distinct occurrences can be replaced by distinct sides. (While arguably an axiom rather than a rule since it has no premises. that is. and complete when it yields a superset thereof.) While the first equation in the above example might seem simply a straightforward application of the associativity law. That is.

Repeated conjunctions can then be deleted using idempotence of disjunction. Complete DNF amounts to a canonical way of representing the truth table for the original term as another term. 000. For example ¬(x ∨ (¬y∧z)) becomes ¬x ∧ ¬(¬y∧z) and then ¬x ∧ (¬¬y∨¬z). 010. In outline the general technique for converting any term to its normal form.) In the above example the first conjunction lacks z while the second lacks y. or in decimal 3. The criterion we use here is to read the positive and negative literals of a conjunction as respectively 1 and 0 bits. Then for each variable y. or normalizing it. a term built from literals with conjunctions and disjunctions. not needed in our example. Hence all terms denoting that operation are provably equal to the same normal form term and hence by transitivity to each other. likewise for longer disjunctions. 010. in the end yielding a complete DNF term. all conjunctions present in the term evaluate to 0 and hence so does the whole term. delete the redundant copies using idempotence of conjunction. A disjunctive normal form (DNF) term is a disjunction of conjunctions of literals. 2. but complete disjunctive normal form will do. independently of whether or not the variable is negated. There is more than one suitable choice of normal form. (This is one place where an auxiliary law helps. This brings any repeated copies of literals next to each other. Next use commutativity to put the literals in each conjunction in alphabetical order. This makes the above example (¬x∧y) ∨ (¬x∧¬z). 2. 3 yields (¬x∧¬y∧¬z) ∨ (¬x∧y∧¬z) ∨ (¬x∧y∧¬z) ∨ (¬x∧y∧z). with y conjoined to one copy of x and ¬y conjoined to the other.) A DNF term is complete when every disjunct (conjunction) contains exactly one occurrence of each variable. 2. is to use De Morgan's laws to push the negations down to the variables.Boolean algebra other. Lastly order the disjuncts according to a suitable uniformly applied criterion. Applying ¬¬x = x then yields ¬x ∧ (y∨¬z). Note that these bits are exactly those valuations for x. and similarly for conjunction. 2. the value of the conjunction at that valuation is 1. in this case x = x∧1 = x∧(y∨¬y) = (x∧y) ∨ (x∧¬y). Ordering them numerically as 0. and to read the bits in a conjunction as a binary number. and hence so is the whole term. In our example the bits are 011. which simplifies our example to (¬x∧¬y∧¬z) ∨ (¬x∧y∧¬z) ∨ (¬x∧y∧z). expanding appropriately yields the complete DNF term (¬x∧y∧z) ∨ (¬x∧y∧¬z) ∨ (¬x∧¬z∧y) ∨ (¬x∧¬z∧¬y). 191 . 0. (Associativity allows a term such as x∨(y∨z) to be viewed as the ternary disjunction x∨y∨z. At valuations corresponding to omitted conjunctions. replace each conjunction x not containing y with the disjunction of two copies of x. In this way we have proved that the term we started with is equal to the normal form term for the operation it denotes. The example becomes (¬x∧y∧z) ∨ (¬x∧y∧¬z) ∨ (¬x∧y∧¬z) ∨ (¬x∧¬y∧¬z). and z that satisfy our original term ¬(x∨(¬y∧z)). Each conjunction codes the valuation setting the positively occurring variables to 1 and the negated ones to 0. This yields monotone normal form. y. Next use distributivity of conjunction over disjunction to push all conjunctions down below all disjunctions. A literal is either a variable or a negated variable. yielding a DNF term. Such a conjunction uniquely represents the operation it denotes by virtue of serving as a coding of those valuations at which the operation returns 1.

• Peirce. • Boole. Electrical Eng.Boolean algebra 192 References • Bocheński. a software which calculates all possible values of a logical formula • How Stuff Works . "The Synthesis of Two-Terminal Switching Circuits".G. ISSN 0002-9947. 40. 1) 40 (1): 37–111. ISSN 0016-2736. Boolean Algebras (3/e ed. doi:10. Vol. net/ projects/ logicaleval/ [3] http:/ / computer. Am. pp. Teubner. Ernst (1890–1910). Translated from the French and German editions by Otto Bird. Kloesel). "The Calculus of Logic. Alfred (1935). • Tarski. Dordrecht. Christian J. Undergraduate Texts in Mathematics. Introduction to Boolean algebras. Marshall (1936). • Sikorski. булевы алгебры (Boolean algebras. Ivan Ivanovich (1927). 1848. • Shannon. Mat.).2307/1989664. ISBN 978-0-444-70261-6. maths. html [2] http:/ / sourceforge. Donald (2011). ISBN 978-0-387-04469-9. tcd. Sabine (1989). htm . • Logical Formula Evaluator [2] (for Windows). xv+883pp. • Givant. ISSN 0016-2736. ISBN 978-0-253-37204-8. • Stone. [1]" Cambridge and Dublin Mathematical Journal III: 183-98. Handbook of Boolean Algebras. Transactions of the American Mathematical Society (Transactions of the American Mathematical Society. The Art of Computer Programming (First ed. Inst. Charles Sanders (1989). Reidel. Philip (1971). George (2003) [1854]. Springer. • Shannon. Fundamenta Mathematicae 24: 177–198. (1969). Sb 43: 9–28. Józef Maria (1959). Nauka (German translation Akademie-Verlag). Donald Monk with Robert Bonnet). Alfred (1929). Trans. howstuffworks. in Russian. NY: Prometheus Books. ie/ pub/ HistMath/ People/ Boole/ CalcLogic/ CalcLogic. Würzburg: Physica Verlag. External links • George Boole. ISBN 978-0-387-40293-2. Vorlesungen über die Algebra der Logik (exakte Logik). Bloomington. German translation Boolesche Algebren 1974). • Koppelberg. A Précis of Mathematical Logic. Vol. ISBN 978-1-59102-089-9. IN: Indiana University Press. Leipzig: B. Bell System Technical Journal 28: 59–98. 38: 713. "Zur Grundlegung der Booleschen Algebra. No. 1 (ed. ISBN 0-201-03804-8. Amherst. South Holland: D. An Investigation of the Laws of Thought. Peirce: A Chronological Edition: 1879–1884 (ed. J. "On the Technique of Calculating Propositions in Symbolic Logic". W. Amsterdam: North Holland. Paul (2009). Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley. Reading. • Tarski. • Schröder. Introduction to Boolean Algebras. JSTOR 1989664. Fundamenta Mathematicae 16: 195–197. Writings of Charles S. com/ boolean. • Vladimirov. Volume 4A: Combinatorial Algorithms. I". I–III. Steven.A. • Dwinger. D. • Zhegalkin. "Sur les classes closes par rapport à certaines opérations élémentaires". • Knuth. "General Theory of Boolean Algebras". Berlin: Springer-Verlag. Claude (1949).). "The Symbolic Analysis of Relay and Switching Circuits". Roman (1969). Part 1. "The Theory of Representations for Boolean Algebras".Boolean Logic [3] Ħ References [1] http:/ / www. Claude (1938). Halmos.

When gates are cascaded. Further. Additional delay can be caused when a large . The field-programmable nature of programmable logic devices such as FPGAs has removed the 'hard' property of hardware. The output of one gate can only drive a finite number of inputs to other gates. relays. For small-scale logic. molecules. Increasingly. fluidic logic. Electronic logic gates differ significantly from their relay-and-switch equivalents. and so is an incomplete form of logic. the term may refer to an ideal logic gate. but not inverters. allowing the construction of a physical model of all of Boolean logic. designers now use prefabricated logic gates from families of devices such as the TTL 7400 series by Texas Instruments and the CMOS 4000 series by RCA. consume much less power. This allows AND and OR gates to be built. it is now possible to change the logic design of a hardware system by reprogramming some of its components. the resistors used in RTL were replaced by diodes. and their more recent descendants. one that has for instance zero rise time and unlimited fan-out.[1] (see Ideal and real op-amps for comparison) Logic gates are primarily implemented using diodes or transistors acting as electronic switches. valves (vacuum tubes). thus allowing the features or function of a hardware implementation of a logic system to be changed. and therefore. These gates were used in early integrated circuits. The simplest family of logic gates using bipolar transistors is called resistor-transistor logic (RTL). called the 'propagation delay'.Logic gate 193 Logic gate A logic gate is an idealized or physical device implementing a Boolean function. or it may refer to a non-ideal physical device. but can also be constructed using electromagnetic relays (relay logic). using only half the space. from a change in input of a gate to the corresponding change in its output. With amplification. which allow designers to pack a large number of mixed logic gates into a single integrated circuit. is that they can be cascaded. logic gates can be cascaded in the same way that Boolean functions can be composed. To build a functionally complete logic system. such as the 7400 and 4000 families. It is not possible for current to flow between the output and the input of a semiconductor logic gate. that is. thereby resulting in complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) logic. on the other hand. The switch circuit creates a continuous metallic path for current to flow (in either direction) between its input and its output. a number called the 'fanout limit'. provided the limitations of each integrated circuit are considered. the total propagation delay is approximately the sum of the individual delays. optics. or even mechanical elements. these fixed-function logic gates are being replaced by programmable logic devices. Systems with varying degrees of complexity can be built without great concern of the designer for the internal workings of the gates. acts as a high-gain voltage amplifier. and are much smaller (all by a factor of a million or more in most cases). there is always a delay. which sinks a tiny current at its input and produces a low-impedance voltage at its output. without some kind of amplification it is not possible to have such basic logic operations cascaded as required for more complex logic functions. They are much faster. the bipolar transistors have been replaced by complementary field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) to reduce size and power consumption still further. Depending on the context. or transistors can be used. Also. Another important advantage of standardized integrated circuit logic families. an effect which can become a problem in high-speed circuits. leading to diode-transistor logic (DTL). Unlike diode logic gates. pneumatic logic. The semiconductor logic gate. all of the algorithms and mathematics that can be described with Boolean logic. and so on. it performs a logical operation on one or more logic inputs and produces a single logic output. This means that the output of one gate can be wired to the inputs of one or several other gates. there is a fundamental structural difference. In virtually every type of contemporary chip implementation of digital systems. Background The simplest form of electronic logic is diode logic. Transistor-transistor logic (TTL) then supplanted DTL with the observation that one transistor could do the job of two diodes even more quickly. Also. For higher speed. RTL gates can be cascaded indefinitely to produce more complex logic functions.

These 16 functions are enumerated below. due to the distributed capacitance of all the inputs and wiring and the finite amount of current that each output can provide. For an input of 2 boolean variables. OR. AND. Similarly all gates can be created from a network of NOR gates.. XOR. Historically.e. together with their outputs for each combination of input variables.Logic gate number of inputs are connected to an output. NOT. NAND gates were easier to construct from MOS technology and thus NAND gates served as the first pillar of Boolean logic in electronic computation. 194 Logic gates All other types of Boolean logic gates (i. XNOR) can be created from a suitable network of NAND gates. there are 16 possible boolean algebraic functions. Venn Diagrams for Logic Gates .

Logic gate 195 INPUT A B 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 Meaning OUTPUT FALSE A AND B A A A B A XOR B A OR B A NOR B B B 0 0 0 0 Whatever A and B. Contradiction. TRUE 1 1 1 1 Whatever A and B. such as EN 60617-12:1999 in Europe and BS EN 60617-12:1999 in the United Kingdom. the output is true. NOT B A B 1 0 1 0 True if B is false. reflecting its origin. but rather as combinations of a gate with an inverter at one input. False if A but not B. but do not prohibit them. True if A but not B. Tautology. A XNOR B 1 0 0 1 True if A is equal to B. NOT A A B A NAND B 1 1 1 0 A and B are not both true. 0 1 0 0 A is not implied by B. according to IEC A synchronous 4-bit up/down decade counter symbol (74LS192) in accordance with ANSI/IEEE Std. is used for simple drawings. The goal of IEEE Std 91-1984 was to provide a uniform method of describing the complex logic functions of digital circuits with schematic symbols. 0 0 1 1 True whenever A is true. both defined in ANSI/IEEE Std 91-1984 and its supplement ANSI/IEEE Std 91a-1991. IEC 617-12 and its successor IEC 60617-12 do not explicitly show the "distinctive shape" symbols. has rectangular outlines for all types of gate. It is sometimes unofficially described as "military". False if not A but B. otherwise true. and derives from MIL-STD-806 of the 1950s and 1960s. however. shown in ANSI/IEEE 91 (and 91a) with this note: "The distinctive-shape symbol is. 0 0 1 0 A doesn't imply B. 0 1 0 1 True whenever B is true. 91-1984 and IEC Publication 60617-12. or B is true. 0 0 0 1 Output is true if and only if (iff) both A and B are true. The four functions denoted by arrows are the logical implication functions. These functions are not usually implemented as elementary circuits. Symbols There are two sets of symbols for elementary logic gates in common use. 0 1 1 1 True if A is true. These functions were more complex than simple AND and OR gates. True if not A but B. [2] These are. The "distinctive shape" set. The IEC's system has been adopted by other standards. The "rectangular shape" set. 1 0 1 1 A is implied by B. 1 0 0 0 True if neither A nor B. the output is false. or both. They could be medium scale circuits such as a 4-bit counter to a large scale circuit such as a microprocessor. otherwise true. based on IEC 60617-12 and other early industry standards. 1 1 0 1 A implies B. 0 1 1 0 True if A is not equal to B. . 1 1 0 0 True if A is false. and allows representation of a much wider range of devices than is possible with the traditional symbols. based on traditional schematics.

schematics were the predominant method to design both circuit boards and custom ICs known as gate arrays. See IEEE Std 91/91A and IEC 60617-12. Both the bubble and the wedge can be used on distinctive-shape and rectangular-shape symbols on circuit diagrams." This compromise was reached between the respective IEEE and IEC working groups to permit the IEEE and IEC standards to be in mutual compliance with one another. The wedge is used in circuit diagrams to directly indicate an active-low (high voltage level = 0) input or output without requiring a uniform convention throughout the circuit diagram. Today custom ICs and the field-programmable gate array are typically designed with Hardware Description Languages (HDL) such as Verilog or VHDL. respectively). This is called Direct Polarity Indication. Part 12. and is used in logic diagrams to indicate a logic negation between the external logic state and the internal logic state (1 to 0 or vice versa). On pure logic diagrams.Logic gate Publication 617. NAND INPUT A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 OUTPUT A NAND B 1 1 1 0 . not preferred. The circle on the symbol is called a bubble. In the 1980s. Type Distinctive shape Rectangular shape Boolean algebra between A & B Truth table 196 AND INPUT OUTPUT A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 A AND B 0 0 0 1 OR INPUT OUTPUT A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 A OR B 0 1 1 1 NOT INPUT OUTPUT A 0 1 NOT A 1 0 In electronics a NOT gate is more commonly called an inverter. On a circuit diagram it must be accompanied by a statement asserting that the positive logic convention or negative logic convention is being used (high voltage level = 1 or high voltage level = 0. only the bubble is meaningful. but is not considered to be in contradiction to that standard. depending on the logic convention used.

regardless of the value. these gates are built from combinations of simpler logic gates. In practice. . If there are more than two inputs. the gate generates a true at its output if the number of trues at its input is odd ([3]). The two input Exclusive-OR is true only when the two input values are different.Logic gate 197 NOR INPUT OUTPUT A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 A NOR B 1 0 0 0 XOR INPUT OUTPUT A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 A XOR B 0 1 1 0 XNOR or INPUT A 0 0 1 1 B 0 1 0 1 OUTPUT A XNOR B 1 0 0 1 Two more gates are the exclusive-OR or XOR function and its inverse. false if they are equal. exclusive-NOR or XNOR.

it is then called a sequential logic system since its output can be influenced by its previous state(s). The two additional pins supply power (+5 V) and connect the ground. Likewise. is known as a register. based on factors of speed. a NAND gate is equivalent to an OR gate with negated inputs. but his work on it was unpublished until 1933. De Morgan's theorem is most commonly used to transform all logic gates to NAND gates or NOR gates. and reliability of storage. bubbles "cancel"). the logical NOR is sometimes called Peirce's arrow. When negation or polarity indicators on both ends of a connection match. Similarly. Any connection that has a negation at one end and no negation at the other can be made easier to interpret by instead using the De Morgan equivalent symbol at either of the two ends. and a NOR gate is equivalent to an AND gate with negated inputs. an AND function is identical to an OR function with negated inputs and outputs.[5] Consequently. and many different types of designs are used based on the application. these gates are sometimes called universal logic gates. making it easier to follow logic states from one symbol to the next. there is no logic negation in that path (effectively. an OR function is identical to an AND function with negated inputs and outputs. More complicated designs that use clock signals and that change only on a rising or falling edge of the clock are called edge-triggered "flip-flops". containing four NANDs. The 7400 chip. complexity. This leads to an alternative set of symbols for basic gates that use the opposite core symbol (AND or OR) but with the inputs and outputs negated or inverted. A storage element can be constructed by connecting several gates in a "latch" circuit. to store a multiple-bit value. so the NAND logical operation is sometimes called Sheffer stroke. When using any of these gate setups the overall system has memory. but also take into account the bubbles at both inputs and outputs in order to determine the "true" logic function indicated. This is done mainly since it is easy to buy logic gates in bulk and because many electronics labs stock only NAND and NOR gates. Data storage Logic gates can also be used to store data. These logic circuits are known as computer memory. .[4] The first published proof was by Henry M. Any connection that has logic negations at both ends can be replaced by a negationless connection and a suitable change of gate or vice-versa. Use of these alternative symbols can make logic circuit diagrams much clearer and help to show accidental connection of an active high output to an active low input or vice-versa. All logic relations can be realized by using NAND gates (this can also be done using NOR gates). They vary in performance.Logic gate 198 Universal logic gates Charles Sanders Peirce (winter of 1880–81) showed that NOR gates alone (or alternatively NAND gates alone) can be used to reproduce the functions of all the other logic gates. The combination of multiple flip-flops in parallel. This is commonly seen in real logic diagrams thus the reader must not get into the habit of associating the shapes exclusively as OR or AND shapes. Sheffer in 1913.[6] De Morgan equivalent symbols By use of De Morgan's theorem.

the gates are made from field-effect transistors (FETs). size) such as: RDL (resistor-diode logic). If B is off. cost. Miscellaneous Logic circuits include such devices as multiplexers. logic gates are a type of logic gates that have three states of the output: high (H). 'Tri-state'. If B is on. RTL (resistor-transistor logic). the switch is closed. In electronics. for the first modern electronic AND gate in 1924. TTL (transistor-transistor logic) and CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor). Charles Sanders Peirce described how logical operations could be carried out by electrical switching circuits. the switch is open. which remains strictly binary. standard CMOS logic vs.e.101 of Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (1921). Nikola Tesla filed for patents of devices containing electro-mechanical logic gate circuits (see List of Tesla patents). Toffoli gates are used. High impedance would mean that the output is effectively disconnected from the circuit. Eventually.[8] Starting in 1898. A group of three-states driving a line with a suitable control circuit is basically equivalent to a multiplexer. which is shown above. In practice. in 1907. Walther Bothe. and computer memory. Compound logic gates AND-OR-Invert (AOI) and OR-AND-Invert (OAI) are often employed in circuit design because their construction using MOSFET's is simpler and more efficient than the sum of the individual gates. e. Lee De Forest's modification. arithmetic logic units (ALUs). all the way up through complete microprocessors. which may be physically distributed over separate devices or plug-in cards. Implementations Since the 1990s. These devices are used on buses also known as the Data Buses of the CPU to allow multiple chips to send data. got part of the 1954 Nobel Prize in physics. History and development In a 1886 letter. a high output would mean the output is sourcing current from the positive power terminal (positive voltage). Claude E. . of the Fleming valve can be used as AND logic gate. There are also sub-variants. is a trademark of the National Semiconductor Corporation. Often millions of logic gates are packaged in a single integrated circuit. a widely-used synonym of 'three-state'. as proposition 5. the logic. The high-impedance state plays no role in A tristate buffer can be thought of as a switch.[7] In reversible logic. Ludwig Wittgenstein introduced a version of the 16-row truth table. Shannon introduced the use of Boolean algebra in the analysis and design of switching circuits in 1937. Active research is taking place in molecular logic gates. particularly MOSFETs (metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistors). NMOS and PMOS transistors are used). inventor of the coincidence circuit. A low output would mean the output is sinking current to the negative power terminal (zero voltage). but with some optimizations for avoiding loss of speed due to slower PMOS transistors.Logic gate 199 Three-state logic gates Three-state.g. most logic gates are made of CMOS transistors (i. registers. advanced types using still CMOS technology. speed. There are several logic families with different characteristics (power consumption. low (L) and high-impedance (Z). which may contain more than 100 million gates. or 3-state. vacuum tubes replaced relays for logic operations. DTL (diode-transistor logic).

0/ Disseminate?view=body& id=pdf_1& handle=euclid. edu/ ~cs61c/ resources/ dg-BOOL-handout. Boston. Richard F. 131. 84. Include entire scenes that you have created. using electro-mechanical relays. Technology and Applications (1988). Newnes. see 917. p. External links • Digital Logic Simulator v0. See Roberts. com/ books?id=1-fBmsEBNUoC& pg=PA532). Arthur W. Many early electromechanical digital computers. pp. 4. were built from relay logic gates. Marquand". Propositional logic: deduction and algorithms (http:/ / books. ISBN 9780750685559. unm. v. Reprinted 1989 in Writings of Charles S. 5. . . Geoff.. p. 4. The new elements of mathematics". paragraphs 12–20. ISBN 0-07-032482-4. pdf Peirce. org/ DPubS/ Repository/ 1. [7] Tinder. Writings of Charles S. com/ lit/ ml/ sdyz001a/ sdyz001a. Don D. google. D. Cambridge University Press. [9] Mechanical Logic gates (focused on molecular scale) (http:/ / www. though few of them are used in practical applications. S. pp.be/logic-lab/index. Engineering mathematics (http:/ / books. p.. zyvex. (2000). [5] Hans Kleine Büning. NY. The Existential Graphs of Charles S. Peirce. Google Preview (http:/ / books. Stephen D. logiccircuit. C. google.M1). Peirce to A. Microelectronic Circuit Design. com/ books?id=6x0pjjMKRh0C& pg=PT347& lpg=PT347& dq=AOI+ gate& ct=result#PPT346. com/ nanotech/ mechano. html) [10] DNA Logic gates (https:/ / digamma.php?id=52) • Java applet of NOT gate (http://www. Peirce. Programmable Logic Devices.org/) • Logic Gate Simulator in Adobe Flex (http://logic. such as the Harvard Mark I.phy. Photonic logic gates use non-linear optical effects 200 References [1] [2] [3] [4] Jaeger. [6] John Bird (2007). dated 1886. ISBN 9780521630177.4 . Samarth. ti. including on a molecular scale.. "A Boolean Algebra with One Constant". • Bostock.[9] Logic gates have been made out of DNA (see DNA nanotechnology)[10] and used to create a computer called MAYA (see MAYA II). 532.neuroproductions. Peirce v. PDF Eprint (http:/ / projecteuclid. See Burks. Engineering digital design: Revised Second Edition (http:/ / books. google. 317–319.com/ downloads/fun/Digital_Logic_Simulator) • Using Logic Gates (http://knol. (http://bradwarestudios. "Letter. 1993. edu/ wiki/ bin/ view/ McogPublicWeb/ MolecularLogicGates) Further reading • Awschalom. (http://www. 218-21. such as the Sorteberg relay or mechanical logic gates. Germany..ly) • Redstone circuits (http://www. (manuscript winter of 1880–81). 5 (1978). McGraw-Hill. "Review: Charles S. et al. as a single chip. ISBN 0126912955. com/ books?id=E7ZUnx3FqrcC& q=378+ Winter). berkeley. • Brown. 913–18. 541–3. Kluwer Academic Publishers. n. McGraw-Hill 1997. Theodor Lettmann (1999). pdf http:/ / www-inst. com/ books?id=3oJE9yczr3EC& pg=PA2). and N. google. MA. Google Preview (http:/ / books. bams/ 1183541145). (2009). pp. Berlin. Loss. Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society v. [8] Peirce.com/k/max-iskram/digital-electronic-design-for-beginners/ 1f4zs8p9zgq0e/23) • Online logic gate simulator (http://www.hk/wiki/englishhtm/NotGate.Logic gate Non-electronic implementations are varied.Brad-Ware Studios' free program that supports real-time edit and simulation.htm) • LogicCircuit – is free educational software for designing and simulating digital logic circuits. C. New York. google. pp. Field-Programmable Gate Arrays (1992). D. Retrieved 2008-07-04. Logic gates can be made using pneumatic devices. . Logic gates can be made from quantum mechanical effects (though quantum computing usually diverges from boolean design). Semiconductor Spintronics and Quantum Computation (2002).minecraftwiki.google. eecs. 2. com/ books?id=DnvLHp919_wC& q=Marquand). S.net/wiki/Redstone_circuits) on the minecraft wiki (a specific type of simulated logic circuitry). . as well as abstracting. 226-233 http:/ / focus. Peirce. cs. published 1933 in Collected Papers v. Springer-Verlag. pp.

• Note: The values inside are the minterms to map (i. . The following is an unsimplified Boolean Algebra function with Boolean variables . D = 0. also permitting the rapid identification and elimination of potential race conditions. B = 0. Colorado. and their inverses. Once the table is generated and the output possibilities are transcribed. C = 0.1.tfcbooks. PUNDLIK AND Karnaugh map The input variables can be combined in 16 different ways. the data is arranged into the largest possible groups containing 2n cells (n=0. htm).3. . so K-map construction. . B = 0. Similarly we mark the bottom right corner as 1 because A = 1. is a method to simplify Boolean algebra expressions.. C = 1. Maurice Karnaugh's 1953 refinement of Edward Veitch's 1952 Veitch diagram. D = 0 gives ƒ = 1. The binary digits in the map represent the function's output for any given combination of inputs. In a Karnaugh map the boolean variables are transferred (generally from a truth table) and ordered according to the principles of Gray code in which only one variable changes in between adjacent squares.Logic gate • Wireless Remote Control and the Electronic Computer Logic Gate (http://www. Note that the values are ordered in a Gray code.. So 0 is written in the upper leftmost corner of the map because ƒ = 0 when A = 0.)[1] and the minterm is generated through the axiom laws of boolean algebra. so the Karnaugh map has 16 positions.2.e.com/articles/control. 21st Century Books. They can be represented in two different notations: • rows which have output 1 in the truth table). An example Karnaugh map Example Karnaugh maps are used to facilitate the simplification of Boolean algebra functions. and therefore is arranged in a 4 × 4 grid. 201 Karnaugh map The Karnaugh map (K-map for short). . The Karnaugh map reduces the need for extensive calculations by taking advantage of humans' pattern-recognition capability.

Because negated before it is included (thus. 4. maintain the same state. 12. although not part of the minimal set—this covers Minterms 8. 8…). does not change: it is always 0. the red and green groups overlap. but and changes. the minimal function can be derived by noting which variables stay the same. is 0. the Blue grouping gives the term The solutions of each grouping are combined into: Inverse The inverse of a function is solved in the same way by grouping the 0s instead. 1. In this example. so term. After the Karnaugh map has been constructed the next task is to find the minimal terms to use in the final expression. The brown region is an overlapping of the red (square) and green regions. is a valid 202 which covers the four corners—this covers minterms Solution Once the Karnaugh Map has been constructed and the groups derived. and 14. The three terms to cover the inverse are all shown with grey boxes with different colored borders: • brown— • gold— • blue— This yields the inverse: Through the use of De Morgan's laws. and the overlap area is indicated in brown. Note that groups may overlap.Karnaugh map that precisely one variable changes between any pair of adjacent cells. and should therefore be excluded.e. Thus the second term is In the same way. The optimal groupings in this map are marked by the green. Thus the first term in the Boolean sum-of-products expression is For the Green grouping we see that . The groups must be rectangular and must have an area that is a power of two (i. therefore it should be included in the term for the red encircling. changes. ). 10. Perhaps the hardest-to-visualize wrap-around term is 0. For the Red grouping: • The variable maintains the same state (1) in the whole encircling. The red group is a 2 × 2 square. red and blue lines. The grid is toroidally connected. These terms are found by encircling groups of 1s in the map. which means that the rectangular groups can wrap around edges. so it is excluded as well. 2. the solution can be found by eliminating extra variables within groups using the axioms of boolean algebra. 10. It can be implied that rather than eliminating the variables that change within a grouping. it has to be K-map showing minterms and boxes covering the desired minterms. 8. is 0 and has to be negated before it can be included. the product of sums can be determined: . The rectangles should be as large as possible without containing any 0s. 2. the green group is a 4 × 1 rectangle. • Variable • • does not maintain the same state (it shifts from 1 to 0).

and B changes from 1 to 0 (moving from the blue state to the green state). a potential race condition exists when C is 1 and D is 0. bridging between the green and blue output states or blue and red output states: this is shown as the yellow region. but disjointed. since the inverse case no longer has to cover minterm 15. . but because this transition is not covered by a specific term in the equation. The minterm 15 is dropped and replaced as a don't care. and removed the race hazard (the yellow as shown in a following section). • In the example to the right. They are usually indicated on the map with a dash or X. A is 1. an additional term of would eliminate the potential race hazard. removes the green term completely. This yields the new minimum equation: Note that the first term is just not . This allows the red term to expand all the way down and. In this case. because a race condition may exist when moving between any pair of adjacent. In this case the glitch wraps around from the top of the map to the bottom. In this case. Above k-map with the term added to avoid race hazards Whether these glitches will actually occur depends on the physical nature of the implementation. a potential for a glitch (a momentary transition of the output to 0) exists. • There is a second potential glitch in the same example that is more difficult to spot: when D is 0 and A and B are both 1. Race hazards are very easy to spot using a Karnaugh map. thus. simplified another (the red). The example to the right is the same above example but with minterm 15 dropped and replaced as a don't care.Karnaugh map 203 Don't cares Karnaugh maps also allow easy minimizations of functions whose truth tables include "don't care" conditions (that is. the output is defined to remain unchanged at 1. regions circled on the map. Race hazards Elimination Karnaugh maps are useful for detecting and eliminating race hazards. For this case. the don't care has dropped a term (the green). and whether we need to worry about it depends on the application. with C changing from 1 to 0 (moving from the blue state to the red state). this removes the green term completely but restricts the blue inverse term Also. sets of inputs for which the designer doesn't care what the output is) because "don't care" conditions can be included in a circled group in an effort to make it larger. minterm 7 can be covered with rather than with similar gains.

K = A′B′ + AB (2. K = 0 (1).2). an additional term of must be added to the inverse to eliminate another potential race hazard. K = A′ + B′ .3). but such redundant. or consensus terms. K = A′B (4). K = A (3.Karnaugh map The term is redundant in terms of the static logic of the system. Listed with each is the minterms as a function of () and the race hazard free (see previous section) minimum equation. (0). . K = AB′ (3). K = B′ (1.4). K = B (1. but with a new factor of 204 2-variable map examples The following are all the possible 2-variable. Applying De Morgan's laws creates another product of sums expression for F.2. are often needed to assure race-free dynamic performance. K = AB′ + A′B (2. 2 × 2 Karnaugh maps.4).3). K = A′B′ (2).4). Similarly. K = A′ (1.3). K = AB (1.

• Wickes. William E.swarthmore. ISBN 0-8053-2703-7. "A Chart Method for Simplifying Truth Functions". Dr. Heidelberg. ISBN 3-540-40343-4. New York: Springer-Verlag. Shimon Peter (2004) [2004]. Further reading • Karnaugh. Berlin. Contemporary Logic Design. • Katz.fr/ Quine-McCluskey_(frederic_carpon_implementation). • Using Karnaugh maps in practical applications (http://www. "Karnaugh Maps". Logic Design with Integrated Circuits. doi:10.sfr. html). Edward W. 36–49.perso.php). 57–76. Retrieved 2009-05-30. by Frédéric Carpon. • Vingron. • Detect Overlapping Rectangles (http://herbert. (1968). pp.4 and 5 variables (http://fullchipdesign." External links • Quine-McCluskey algorithm implementation with a search of all solutions (http://frederic. Transactions of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers part I 72 (9): 593–599.carpon. Maurice (November 1953). uk/ Projects/ Labview/ minimisation/ karrules.htm) • Karnaugh Map Example (http://www. The Veitch diagram labels the squares with the minterms. .com/karnaugh_application1. Library of Congress Catalog Number: 68-21185. Switching Theory: Insight Through Predicate Logic. by Herbert Glarner. ac.3. (1952). • K-Map Tutorial for 2.edu/users/06/adem/engin/e15/ lab1/). NY): pp.gandraxa.2. "The Map Method for Synthesis of Combinational Logic Circuits".Karnaugh map 205 (1. Circuit design project to control traffic lights.sccs.generalnumbers. "A refinement of the Venn diagram in that circles are replaced by squares and arranged in a form of matrix. pp.com/herbert/dor. surrey. Randy (1998) [1994].1016/0026-2692(95)90052-7. New York: John Wiley & Sons.com/kmap2v. 127–133. 70–85. pp. The Benjamin/Cummings. ee. • Veitch.html) . Karnaugh assigned 1s and 0s to the squares and their labels and deduced the numbering scheme in common use.4).asp). K = A + B′ References [1] "Karnaugh Maps .Rules of Simplification" (http:/ / www. ACM Annual Conference/Annual Meeting: Proceedings of the 1952 ACM Annual Meeting (Pittsburg) (ACM.

• Logic Minimizer (http://www. Java applet for solving 5-variable Karnaugh maps available only in French. Commercial iOS application for logic simplification. Free version has functional limitations. freeware application for the Palm OS. JavaScript application.calpoly. Commercial Windows application for Karnaugh map simplification.edu/~antoniou/bfs/).net/projects/gkmap).8.net/). • Gorgeous Karnaugh (http://purefractalsolutions.php?a=xgk/gkfree).logicminimizer. • Karnaugh Minimizer (http://karnaugh.montclair.kmapadvanced.sourceforge. • Karnaugh Map Advanced (http://www. Qt Open Source application . free software application at SourceForge. Commercial Windows application.ee.net.html).net.1.13).etsmtl.simpogical.shuriksoft. PoS and SoP representation of functions and more.google.com/show. free (but incorrect. Quine-McCluskey and Espresso minimization.csam.Karnaugh map 206 Software • Bmin (http://code.5. • Karnaugh Map Explorer 2. Free version has functional limitations. • Simpogical (http://www. • Karnaugh Map Minimizer (http://k-map. published 2009. • GKMap (http://sourceforge. but can me made to run on Unix. • Kmap minimizer (http://2b2.ca/cours/gpa141/exercices.8.Karnaugh maps and 3D Boolean n-cube visualization. Commercial iPhone application for Karnaugh Map minimization.com). Commercial Windows application (but incorrect.gpa.10. try with this equation : 0.php?gid=14) Online Flash application. try with this equation : 0.com). . html).edu/media/uploads/resources/KarnaughExplorer_1. • GPA141 (http://www.0 (http://www. • Boolean Function Simplification Software (http://pages. Free version has functional limitations.5.com/p/bmin/).com).13) software application at SourceForge.10.1. Free version has functional limitations.com).eu/fun/game.

1 UML state chart example (a toaster oven) shows the next state (e. Concepts and vocabulary A state describes a behavioral node of the system in which it is waiting for a trigger to execute a transition. the "next" stimulus means going to the next track. State/Event table Several state transition table types are used. is a mathematical model used to design computer programs and digital logic circuits. this is called a transition. or simply a state machine. An FSM definition including the full actions information is possible using state tables (see also VFSM). It is conceived as an abstract machine that can be in one of a finite number of states. . Representations For an introduction. The machine is in only one state at a time.Finite-state machine 207 Finite-state machine A finite-state machine (FSM) or finite-state automaton (plural: automata). Finite-state machines can model a large number of problems. The complete actions information is not directly described in the table and can only be added using footnotes. In biology and artificial intelligence research. state machines or hierarchies of state machines are sometimes used to describe neurological systems. and the triggering condition for each transition. A particular FSM is defined by a list of the possible transition states from each current state. In some Finite-state machine representations. among which are electronic design automation.g. In the example of a car radio system. see State diagram. it is also possible to associate actions to a state: • Entry action: which is performed when entering the state. A transition is a set of actions to be executed when a condition is fulfilled or when an event is received. Y) Fig. But when the system is in the CD state. It can change from one state to another when initiated by a triggering event or condition. • Exit action: which is performed when exiting the state. the "next" stimulus means going to the next station.g. the state it is in at any given time is called the current state. The same stimulus triggers different actions depending on the current state. and in linguistics they can be used to describe the grammars of natural languages.g. parsing and other engineering applications. communication protocol design. B) and input (e. C). when listening to the radio (in the radio state). The most common representation is shown below: the combination of current state (e. Typically a state is introduced when the system does not react the same way to the same trigger.

2 SDL state machine example Fig. 3 Example of a simple finite state machine .Finite-state machine 208 Fig.

computer science... and the study of computation and languages.. compilers. finite state machines are widely used in modeling of application behavior. In computer science. and an execution semantic in order to make the finite state machine executable.. as in Moore machines. while extending the notion of actions. as in Mealy machines. ... linguistics. . Usage In addition to their use in modeling reactive systems presented here. UML state machines overcome the limitations of traditional finite state machines while retaining their main benefits.. including electrical engineering. .. an action language.. as well as entry and exit actions. UML state machines The Unified Modeling Language has a notation for describing state machines. . State C . biology. UML state machines introduce the new concepts of hierarchically nested states and orthogonal regions. network protocols. software engineering.. .Finite-state machine 209 State transition table Current state → Input ↓ Input X Input Y Input Z State A State B State C . and logic. UML state machines have the characteristics of both Mealy machines and Moore machines.. . mathematics... .. SDL state machines The Specification and Description Language is a standard from ITU which includes graphical symbols to describe actions in the transition: • • • • • • send an event receive an event start a timer cancel a timer start another concurrent state machine decision SDL embeds basic data types called Abstract Data Types.. finite state automata are significant in many different areas. Finite state machines are a class of automata studied in automata theory and the theory of computation. philosophy. Other state diagrams There are a large number of variants to represent an FSM such as the one in figure 3. They support actions that depend on both the state of the system and the triggering event. design of hardware digital systems.. which are associated with states rather than transitions.

state. As a rule the input are symbols (characters). a language is regular if there is some FSM that accepts it. S1 is therefore an accepting odd or even number of 0's. Accept (or final) states Accept states (also referred to as accepting or final states) are those at which the machine reports that the input string.. This machine will finish in an accept state. 1010.Finite-state machine 210 Classification There are two different groups of state machines: Acceptors/Recognizers and Transducers. is a member of the language it accepts.. 00. By definition. otherwise it is rejected. 1. which would contain every word accepted by the machine but none of the rejected ones. we say then that the language is accepted by the machine. the languages accepted by FSMs are the regular languages—that is. 11. 11. etc. saying either yes or no to answer whether the input is accepted by the machine or not. 010. The example in figure 4 shows a finite state machine which accepts the word "nice". actions are not used. 5: Representation of a finite-state machine. as processed so far. At the time when all input is processed. Fig.. 34). Fig. Acceptors and recognizers Acceptors and recognizers (also sequence detectors) produce a binary output. It is usually represented by a double circle.. In this FSM the only accepting state is number 7. Examples of strings accepted by this DFA are epsilon (the empty string). where is an accepting state. the input is accepted. 10110. . An example of an accepting state appears in the diagram to the right: a deterministic finite automaton (DFA) that detects whether the binary input string contains an even number of 0's. All states of the FSM are said to be either accepting or not accepting.. this example S1 (which is also the start state) indicates the state at which an shows one that determines whether a binary number has an even number of 0's has been input. if the binary string contains an even number of 0's (including any binary string containing no 0's). Start state The start state is usually shown drawn with an arrow "pointing at it from any where" (Sipser (2006) p. 4 Acceptor FSM: parsing the word "nice" The machine can also be described as defining a language. if the current state is an accepting state.

7 Transducer FSM: Mealy model example implementing the same behaviour as in the Moore example (the behaviour depends on the implemented FSM execution model and will work. There are two input actions (I:): "start motor to close the door if command_close arrives" and "start motor in the other direction to open the door if command_open arrives". an input can lead to one. like Harel's original state machines.g. output depends only on the state. i. The example in figure 7 shows a Mealy FSM Fig. These charts. i. every state has exactly one transition for each possible input.. Consider an elevator door.. In non-deterministic automata. more than one or no transition for a given state. This concept is useful in cases where a number of FSM are required to work together. and where it is convenient to consider a purely combinatorial part as a form of FSM to suit the design tools. to other state machines) the situation: "door is open" or "door is closed". For example. but not in theory. In practice[of what?] mixed models are often used..Finite-state machine 211 Transducers Transducers generate output based on a given input and/or a state using actions.[2] They combine hierarchical state machines. the entry action in state "Closing" starts a motor in the other direction closing the door. as there exists an algorithm (the powerset construction) which can transform any NFA into a more complex DFA with identical functionality. In deterministic automata. and truth tables into one language. output depends on input and state. This distinction is relevant in practice. can be found in the external technical note "Moore or Mealy model?" [1] Determinism A further distinction is between deterministic (DFA) and non-deterministic (NFA. The FSM with only one state is called a combinatorial FSM and uses only input actions. GNFA) automata.e. They are used for control applications and in the field of computational linguistics. The state machine recognizes two commands: "command_open" and "command_close" which trigger state changes.. The entry action (E:) in state "Opening" starts a motor opening the door. including an executable example. States "Opened" and "Closed" stop the motor when fully opened or closed. flow graphs.e. The "opening" and "closing" intermediate states are not shown. resulting in a different formalism and set of semantics. Mealy machine The FSM uses only input actions. for virtual FSM but not for event driven FSM). The use of a Mealy FSM leads often to a reduction of the number of states.[4] support hierarchically nested states. e. .g. Alternative semantics There are other sets of semantics available to represent state machines. there are tools for modeling and designing logic for embedded controllers. They signal to the outside world (e.[3] Figure 8 illustrates this mix of state machines and flow graphs with a set of states to represent the state of a stopwatch and a flow graph to control the ticks of the watch. More details about the differences and usage of Moore and Mealy models. Here two types are distinguished: Moore machine The FSM uses only entry actions. The advantage of the Moore model is a simplification of the behaviour.

The converse transformation is less straightforward because a Mealy machine state may have different output labels on its incoming transitions (edges). an element of is the state-transition function: . reject the input). For both deterministic and non-deterministic FSMs. is an initial state. and can be modelled as a Moore machine. where: • • • • is the input alphabet (a finite. is the output function.Finite-state machine orthogonal regions. 8 FSM Logic (Mealy) can announce an error (i. but less useful when transforming the machine. then and and Fig.[6] • A finite state transducer is a sextuple • • • • • • . then it can be readily converted to an output-equivalent Mealy machine by setting the output function of every Mealy transition (i. non-empty set of symbols). i. is a set of initial states. non-empty set of states. one for every incident output symbol. non-empty set of states.[7] . an element of . a (possibly empty) subset of . The FSM logic is shown in Figure 8. A finite-state machine with no output function at all is known as a semiautomaton or transition system. • is the set of final states. Mathematical model In accordance with the general classification. is the state-transition function: .e. state actions. is the output alphabet (a finite. labeling every edge) with the output symbol given of the destination Moore state. non-empty set of symbols). it is conventional to allow to be a partial function. A finite-state machine is a restricted Turing machine where the head can only perform "read" operations. where: is the input alphabet (a finite non empty set of symbols). i. If an FSM is in a state . (in a nondeterministic finite automaton it would be .[5] 212 FSM logic The next state and output of an FSM is a function of the input and of the current state. the next symbol is is not defined.e. If we disregard the first output symbol of a Moore machine. and can be modelled as a Mealy machine.. and transition actions. This is useful in definitions of general state machines. . and always moves from left to right. Some algorithms in their default form may require total functions. is the initial state. If the output function is a function of a state and input alphabet ( ) that definition corresponds to the Mealy model. is a finite. Every such state needs to be split in multiple Moore machine states. the following formal definitions are found: • A deterministic finite state machine or acceptor deterministic finite state machine is a quintuple . If the output function depends only on a state ( ) that definition corresponds to the Moore model. does not have to be defined for every combination of . In a nondeterministic finite automaton.e. would return a set of states).e. is a finite.

A. 9 The circuit diagram for a 4-bit TTL counter. psu. edu. or the Moore reduction procedure. csa. acyclic FSAs can be minimized in linear time Revuz (1992) [10]. Additionally. (http:/ / drona. (http:/ / www. Cambridge University Press. A Denotational Semantics for Stateflow. Automata theory with modern applications (http:/ / books. D. edu/ viewdoc/ download?doi=10.Finite-state machine 213 Optimization Optimizing an FSM means finding the machine with the minimum number of states that performs the same function. National Institute of Standards and Technology). [8] Hopcroft.S. This causes slower operating frequencies in FSM. pdf) [6] Black. International Conference on Embedded Software (pp. Implementation Hardware applications In a digital circuit. (2008). ISBN 9780521848879. logic gates and flip flops or relays. Fig. A Visual Formalism for Complex Systems. Symbolic analysis for improving simulation coverage of Simulink/Stateflow models. R. unr.. NJ: ACM. a hardware implementation requires a register to store state variables. pdf) [5] Alur. This kind of FSM is sometimes called Medvedev FSM. More specifically. Atlanta. and a second block of combinational logic that determines the output of an FSM. GA: ACM. com/ technology/ TN10-Moore-Or-Mealy-Model/ [2] Tiwari. (2005). 8817& rep=rep1& type=pdf) [4] Harel. A. Formal Semantics and Analysis Methods for Simulink Stateflow Models. (http:/ / www. ernet. google. 164–172). html). A Mealy or Moore machine can be convertible to a FSM which output is directly from a flip-flop. K. S. a programmable logic controller. Software applications The following concepts are commonly used to build software applications with finite state machines: • Automata-based programming • Event driven FSM • Virtual FSM (VFSM) References [1] http:/ / www. nist. & Shashidhar. "Finite State Machine" (http:/ / www.[11] A counter is the simplest form of this kind of FSM. csl. (1987). pdf) [3] Hamon. [7] James Andrew Anderson. Science of Computer Programming . in/ ~kanade/ publications/ symbolic_analysis_for_improving_simulation_coverage_of_simulink_stateflow_models. Jersey City. com/ users/ tiwari/ papers/ stateflow. G. Thomas J. stanford. iisc. a type of state machine Mealy and Moore machines produce logic with asynchronous output. Dictionary of Algorithms and Data Structures (U. Paul E (12 May 2008). 231–274. com/ books?id=ikS8BLdLDxIC& pg=PA105). 1. Head (2006).. (2002). .[8][9] Other techniques include using an implication table. An n log n algorithm for minimizing states in a finite automaton (ftp:/ / reports. Ramesh. sri.. which makes the FSM run at higher frequencies. ist. 89. . 1. a block of combinational logic which determines the state transition. (http:/ / citeseerx. pp. edu/ pub/ cstr/ reports/ cs/ tr/ 71/ 190/ CS-TR-71-190. gov/ dads/ HTML/ finiteStateMachine. 89–98). fceia. pdf) . 105–108. John E (1971). The fastest known algorithm doing this is the Hopcroft minimization algorithm. C. an FSM may be built using a programmable logic device. stateworks. Kanade. Internation Conference on Embedded Software (pp. ar/ asist/ harel01. because there is a propagation delay between the flip-flop and output. One of the classic hardware implementations is the Richards controller.

McGraw-Hill. McGraw-Hill.100-200711-I/en) • Samek.state-machine. England: Cambridge University Press. Redwood City. 1989.. Recommendation Z. Reis. An Introduction to Mathematical Machine Theory. primitive and partial recursive theory. M. 1999).itu. FSMs. 214 Further reading General • Wagner. Martin. • Booth. • ITU-T. Discrete Mathematics: Applied Algebra for Computer and Information Science (1st ed. • Brookshear. Markov processes. Synthesis of Finite State Machines: Functional Optimization.). ISBN 0-521-20402-X.). Kluwer Academic Publishers. On the performance of automata minimization algorithms. ISBN 0139133682. Computability. • Boolos.int/rec/ T-REC-Z. 2006. • Ginsburg.com/cogs/). ISBN 0-8493-8086-3.. 1980. Taylor L. Theories of Abstract Automata (1st ed.. written for both theoretical computer scientists as well as electrical engineers. Complexity. N. San Diego: Academic Press. 2008. (1969). Marco. Z. Cambridge. 2nd Edition (http://www. Inc. Michael A. Auerbach Publications.J. wide-ranging book meant for specialists... Synthesis of Finite State Machines: Logic Optimization. and power of bare-bones programming languages to implement algorithms. Leonard S. Michael A. pt/ dcc/ Pubs/ TReports/ TR07/ dcc-2007-03. ISBN 0-7923-9842-4 • Tiziano Villa.troyworks. "Modeling Software with Finite State Machines: A Practical Approach". htm).100 Specification and Description Language (SDL) (http://www. 1962.. and Complexity. C. Turing machines. ISBN 0-7923-8609-4. php). Inc. Inc. 1999). ISBN 0-7923-9892-0 • Carroll. Introduction to the Theory of Finite-state Machines. 1999. Elaine J. Switching and Finite Automata Theory. Prentice Hall. Long. Finite state machines (automata theory) in theoretical computer science • Arbib. With detailed explanations of state minimization techniques. and undecidability. Kluwer. Lafortune. . fc.com/psicc/index.php). Computability and Logic (3rd ed.. 2002. J. Addison-Wesley. California: Benjamin/Cummings Publish Company.state-machine. 1962. Moreira. Philadelphia: W. pdf) [10] Revuz D.). B. • Samek.: Prentice-Hall. J. dcc.. all in one slim volume.. Brace & . Sequential Machines and Automata Theory (1st ed. CMP Books. ISBN 0721617689. de/ tutorial/ deutsch/ ct_226. Boston 1997. Excellent treatment of Markov processes.Finite-state machine [9] Almeida. Boston 1997.. 1978.. Automata. M. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Saunders Company. Practical Statecharts in C/C++ (http://www. Ron Sigal.). • Bobrow.com/psicc2/index. Advanced State Management (http://www. Englewood Cliffs. Approaches Church-Turing thesis from three angles: levels of finite automata as acceptors of formal languages.. Practical UML Statecharts in C/C++. S. • Davis. Harcourt. Richard Jeffrey (1989. Rogerio (2007). 2007 • Cassandras. • Gill. Library of Congress Card Catalog Number 67-25924. (http:/ / www. ISBN 0-8053-0143-7. • Timothy Kam. Nelma. Inc. • Kohavi. Englewood Cliffs. Has been in print in various editions and reprints since 1974 (1974. Newnes. D. ISBN 1-57820-110-1. Arbib (1974). A. Glenn (1989).. Excellent.. (1967). Minimization of Acyclic automata in Linear Time. Theory of Finite Automata with an Introduction to Formal Languages. Weyuker (1994). • Gardner. S. F. T. George. and Languages and Logic: Fundamentals of Theoretical Computer Science (2nd ed.. "Introduction to Discrete Event Systems".. Theory of Computation: Formal Languages. Theoretical Computer Science 92 (1992) 181-189 181 Elsevier [11] "FSM: Medvedev" (http:/ / www. Extensive. up. 1989. New York: John Wiley and Sons. ISBN 0-7506-8706-1. vhdl-online.).

). meant for computer scientists and engineers.. Cambridge. ISBN 0-521-55380-6 (hc). ISBN 0-07-042807-7. MA: Jones and Bartlett. and undecidability. • Wood. Extensive. Peter (2006). New York: Harper & Row. Chapter 13 Reinforcement Learning deals with robot-learning involving state-machine-like algorithms. Excellent treatment of Markov processes. Linz. ISBN 0-13-262478-8. MA: Jones and Bartlett.). (1967).. Sudbury. New York: Springer-Verlag. England: Cambridge University Press. Introduction to the Theory of Computation (2nd ed. (1997). 215 • • • • • • • • Christos Papadimitriou (1993). and Computation (2nd ed. ISBN 0-534-95097-3. Markov processes.).). Dexter C. A broad brush but quite thorough and sometimes difficult. Marvin (1967). ISBN 0-444-00249-9. Kozen. 1. Abstract algebra is at the core of the book. Abstract state machines in theoretical computer science • Yuri Gurevich (2000). Publishers.. NP-Completeness. ISBN 0-201-02988-X. pages 77–111. Sudbury. Barbara Moss (1976). . Ullman (2001). His state diagram convention is unconventional. Languages. Minsky. ISBN 0-06-047208-1. Inc. Upper Saddle River. Jeffrey D. Formal Languages and Automata (4th ed. • Sipser. vl. Hopcroft. John E. Library of Congress Card Catalog Number 67-25924. An excellent book centered around the issues of machine-interpretation of "languages". Sequential Machines and Automata Theory (1st ed. Theory of Computation (1st ed. Nicholas (1997).). Excellent. Papadimitriou (1998). John. • Rodger. Minsky spends pages 11–20 defining what a "state" is in context of FSMs. Hopkin. Computation: Finite and Infinite Machines (1st ed. Computational Complexity (1st ed. Harry R. wide-ranging book meant for specialists. Automata. http://research. cf Finite state machines (finite automata) in chapter 29. Derick (1987).pdf Machine learning using finite-state algorithms • Mitchell.)..). New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. and Computation (1st ed. ISBN 0-7637-3834-4. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.microsoft.). Distinctly different and less intimidating than the first edition. sometimes funny. Turing machines.). Taylor L. Automata and Computability (1st ed. no. New York: John Wiley and Sons.). Languages. Susan. (1997). Christos H. Jeffrey Ullman (1979). 1 (July 2000). FSMs.e. ISBN 0122063821. • Pippenger. Inc. Theories of Computability (1st ed. rendering it advanced and less accessible than other texts. ISBN 978-0-7637-3798-6. Introduction to Automata Theory. Addison Wesley. Hardware engineering: state minimization and synthesis of sequential circuits • Booth. ISBN 0-387-94907-0. Thomas Finley (2006).Finite-state machine Company. Boston Mass: Thomson Course Technology. Sequential Abstract State Machines Capture Sequential Algorithms. JFLAP: An Interactive Formal Languages and Automata Package (1st ed. Reading Mass: Addison-Wesley. Lewis. Introduction to Automata Theory. ISBN 0-201-53082-1. i.). written for both theoretical computer scientists as well as electrical engineers. ISBN 0201441241.com/~gurevich/Opera/ 141. Hopcroft.). New York: WCB/McGraw-Hill Corporation. Machine Learning (1st ed. Rajeev Motwani. Michael (2006). With detailed explanations of state minimization techniques. etc.). Tom M. David.. Elements of the Theory of Computation (2nd ed. Reading Mass: Addison-Wesley. ACM Transactions on Computational Logic. New York: Elsevier North-Holland. relatively readable.

• Booth. Englewood Cliffs. Excellent explanations of state minimization techniques and synthesis techniques for design of combinatory and sequential logic circuits. With detailed explanations of state minimization techniques. less demanding than his earlier book. Sequential Machines and Automata Theory (1st ed. Library of Congress Card Catalog Number 67-25924. FSMs. Introduction to the Theory of Switching Circuits (1st ed.Finite-state machine • Booth. Taylor L.doc. Turing machines. html) description of Finite State Machines .. • Kemeny. Extensive..J.).cgi?query=finite+state+ machine) description of Finite State Machines • NIST Dictionary of Algorithms and Data Structures (http://www. J. . Inc.. Gerald R. sr.). External links • Free On-Line Dictionary of Computing (http://foldoc.. Taylor L. (1971). . John G. Meant for hardware electrical engineers. Peterson (1965). • Hill..ic. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company. New York: John Wiley and Sons. E. Inc. Inc. wide-ranging book meant for specialists. p. cf.: Prentice-Hall. With detailed explanations of state minimization techniques and synthesis techniques for design of combinatory logic circuits. Chapter 6 "Finite Markov Chains". His treatment of computers is out-dated.. Hazleton Mirkil. Interesting take on definition of "algorithm". New York: John Wiley and Sons. Markov processes. (1965). Library of Congress Card Catalog Number 65-17394. Fredrick J. These probabilities can be exhibited in the form of a transition matrix" (Kemeny (1959). Excellent treatment of Markov processes. Classical text.). and undecidability. (1967). 216 Finite Markov chain processes "We may think of a Markov chain as a process that moves successively through a set of states s1. if it is in state si it moves on to the next stop to state sj with probability pij. Inc. s2. Digital Networks and Computer Systems (1st ed. 384) Finite Markov-chain processes are also known as subshifts of finite type..uk/foldoc/foldoc. More focused. Laurie Snell..). written for both theoretical computer scientists as well as electrical engineers. J. N.. Meant for hardware electrical engineers. ISBN 0-471-08840-4. Meant for electrical engineers. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company.nist. Thompson (1959). Introduction to the Theory of Switching Circuits (1st ed.. Gerald L.gov/dads/HTML/finiteStateMachine. Library of Congress Card Catalog Number 65-17394.ac.). Finite Mathematical Structures (1st ed. Library of Congress Card Catalog Number 59-12841. • McCluskey..

and the two 558 & 559s (both a 16-pin DIP combining four slightly modified 555s with DIS & THR connected internally. Depending on the manufacturer. 0 °C to +70 °C.555 timer IC 217 555 timer IC The 555 timer IC is an integrated circuit (chip) used in a variety of timer. 2 diodes and 15 resistors on a silicon chip installed in an 8-pin mini dual-in-line package (DIP-8). as an oscillator. Camenzind under contract to Signetics. Such a practice should nevertheless be avoided. Derivatives provide up to four timing circuits in one package.[4] The 7555 is designed to cause less supply glitching than the classic 555 and the manufacturer claims that it usually does not require a "control" capacitor and in many cases does not require a decoupling capacitor on the power supply.[3] but Hans Camenzind has stated that the number was arbitrary.[2] Variants available include the 556 (a 14-pin DIP combining two 555s on one chip). . Introduced in 1971 by Signetics. These were available in both high-reliability metal can (T package) and inexpensive epoxy plastic (V package) packages. such as the 7555 and CMOS TLC555. −55 °C to +125 °C. it was estimated that 1 billion units are manufactured every year. because noise produced by the timer or variation in power supply voltage might interfere with other parts of a circuit or influence its threshold voltages. As of 2003. It has been hypothesized that the 555 got its name from the three 5 kΩ resistors used within. There is no 557. low price and good stability.[1] Low-power versions of the 555 are also available. NE555T. which was later acquired by Philips. SE555V. Thus the full part numbers were NE555V. and as a flip-flop element. the standard 555 package includes 25 transistors. pulse generation and oscillator applications. and the SE555 part number designated the military temperature range. The 555 can be used to provide time delays. and TR is falling edge sensitive instead of level sensitive). the 555 is still in widespread use.[1] NE555 from Signetics in dual-in-line package Design The IC was designed in 1971 by Hans R. Internal block diagram The NE555 parts were commercial temperature range. and is now made by many companies in the original bipolar and also in low-power CMOS types. and SE555T. thanks to its ease of use.

555 timer IC 218 Usage Pins The connection of the pins for a DIP package is as follows: Pinout diagram Pin 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Name GND TRIG OUT Ground. pulse-width modulation (PWM) and so on. The use of a microprocessor based circuit can then convert the pulse period to temperature. Applications include timers. the 555 functions as a "one-shot" pulse generator. Modes The 555 has three operating modes: • Monostable mode: in this mode. pulse position modulation and so on. missing pulse detection. may discharge a capacitor between intervals. 2/3 VCC). This output is driven to +VCC or GND. pulse generation. frequency divider. • Bistable mode or Schmitt trigger: the 555 can operate as a flip-flop. capacitance measurement. Open collector output. V+. CTRL THR DIS "Control" access to the internal voltage divider (by default. • Astable: free running mode: the 555 can operate as an oscillator. The interval ends when the voltage at THR is greater than at CTRL. and interval starts. tone generation. security alarms. logic clocks. if the DIS pin is not connected and no capacitor is used. RESET A timing interval may be interrupted by driving this input to GND. VCC Positive supply voltage is usually between 3 and 15 V. Selecting a thermistor as timing resistor allows the use of the 555 in a temperature sensor: the period of the output pulse is determined by the temperature. Uses include LED and lamp flashers. bouncefree switches. Uses include bounce-free latched switches. . low level (0 V) Purpose OUT rises. when this input falls below 1/3 VCC. touch switches. linearize it and even provide calibration means.

1 uF). the frequency of the pulse stream depends on the values of R1. which consists of a capacitor (C) and a resistor (R). and the trigger (pin 2) and threshold (pin 6) pins that share a common node. The output pulse ends when the voltage on the capacitor equals 2/3 of the supply voltage. which is the time it takes to charge C to 2/3 of the supply voltage. the voltage on C and the pulse width in monostable mode Astable In astable mode. and discharged only through R2.[6] Bistable In bistable mode. R2 and C: Standard 555 astable circuit [7] The high time from each pulse is given by: . No capacitors are required in a bistable configuration. the 555 timer acts as a basic flip-flop. pin 7 (discharge) is left floating. since pin 7 has low impedance to ground during output low intervals of the cycle. the 555 timer puts out a continuous stream of rectangular pulses having a specified frequency.555 timer IC 219 Monostable In the monostable mode. Thus configured. Resistor R1 is connected between VCC and the discharge pin (pin 7) and another resistor (R2) is connected between the discharge pin (pin 7). the 555 timer acts as a "one-shot" pulse generator. therefore discharging the capacitor. The output pulse width can be lengthened or shortened to the need of the specific application by adjusting the values of R and C.01 to 0. is given by Schematic of a 555 in monostable mode where t is in seconds. Hence the capacitor is charged through R1 and R2. The trigger and reset inputs (pins 2 and 4 respectively on a 555) are held high via Pull-up resistors while the threshold input (pin 6) is simply grounded. While using the timer IC in monostable mode. the main disadvantage is that the time span between the two triggering pulses must be greater than the RC time constant. Pulling the reset input to ground acts as a 'reset' and transitions the output pin to ground (low state). pulling the trigger momentarily to ground acts as a 'set' and transitions the output pin (pin 3) to Vcc (high state). In the astable mode. Pin 5 (control) is connected to ground via a small-value capacitor (usually 0. The pulse begins when the 555 timer receives a signal at the trigger input that falls below a third of the voltage supply. R is in ohms and C is in farads. The width of the output pulse is determined by the time constant of an RC network. The relationships of the trigger signal.[5] The output pulse width of time t.

Bigger packages also exist with two or four timers on the same chip. Supply voltage (VCC) Supply current (VCC = +5 V) Supply current (VCC = +15 V) Output current (maximum) Maximum Power dissipation 4.2 V. Particularly with bipolar 555s. The 555 is also known under the following type numbers: Manufacturer Avago Technologies Custom Silicon Solutions CEMI ECG Philips Exar Fairchild Semiconductor Harris IK Semicon Intersil Intersil Lithic Systems Maxim Motorola Av-555M [8] CSS555/CSS555C ULY7855 ECG955M XR-555 NE555/KA555 HA555 ILC555 SE555/NE555 ICM7555 LC555 ICM7555 MC1455/MC1555 CMOS from 2 V CMOS CMOS from 2 V CMOS from 1. Otherwise the output low time will be greater than calculated above. IDD < 5 µA Model Remark . medical. Other 555 timers can have different specifications depending on the grade (military. To achieve a duty cycle of less than 50% a diode can be added in parallel with R2 towards the capacitor.). low values of R1 must be avoided so that the output stays saturated near zero volts during discharge. The power capability of R1 must be greater than . as assumed by the above equation. including CMOS versions. 225 mW@15V Operating temperature 0 to 70 °C Derivatives Many pin-compatible variants. etc.5 to 15 V 3 to 6 mA 10 to 15 mA 200 mA 600 mW Power consumption (minimum operating) 30 mW@5V. have been built by various companies. Specifications These specifications apply to the NE555. This bypasses R2 during the high part of the cycle so that the high interval depends only on R1 and C.555 timer IC and the low time from each pulse is given by: 220 where R1 and R2 are the values of the resistors in ohms and C is the value of the capacitor in farads.

[11][12] This would result in a trigger signal to the quad timer. By moving the joystick. Each module's discharge and threshold are wired together internally and called timing. for example.2 kilohms. It features two complete 555s in a 14 pin DIL package. voltage. the capacitor (C) of the RC network (see Monostable Mode above) was generally a 10 nF capacitor.[11][13] Software running in the host computer measured the pulse width to determine the joystick position.5 V 556 Dual timer The dual version is called 556.[11] Software running in the host computer started the process of determining the joystick position by writing to a special address (ISA bus I/O address 201h). while a narrow pulse represented the full-left joystick position.9 V CMOS CMOS from 2 V CMOS from 1.555 timer IC 221 National Semiconductor National Semiconductor NTE Sylvania Raytheon RCA STMicroelectronics Texas Instruments Texas Instruments USSR Zetex NXP Semiconductors HFO / East Germany LM1455/LM555/LM555C LMC555 NTE955M RM555/RC555 CA555/CA555C NE555N/ K3T647 SN52555/SN72555 TLC555 K1006ВИ1 ZSCT1555 ICM7555 B555 down to 0. and reset lines are shared by all four modules.33 V). A wide pulse represented the full-right joystick position.[10] The joystick potentiometer acted as a variable resistor. the resistance of the joystick increased from a small value up to about 100 kilohms. The resistor (R) of the RC network consisted of the potentiometer inside the joystick along with an external resistor of 2.[11] . Example applications Joystick interface circuit using the 558 quad timer The Apple II microcomputer used a quad timer 558 in monostable (or "one-shot") mode to interface up to four "game paddles" or two joysticks to the host computer. A similar circuit was used in the IBM PC. 558 Quad timer The quad version is called 558 and has 16 pins. The joystick operated at 5 V. To fit four 555s into a 16 pin package the control.[9] In the joystick interface circuit of the IBM PC. The width of the pulse was determined by how long it took the C to charge up to 2/3 of 5 V (or about 3. which would cause the capacitor (C) of the RC network to begin charging and cause the quad timer to output a pulse. which was in turn determined by the joystick position.

References [1] Ward. p. national. he first published the "Stepped Tone Generator" circuit which has been adopted as a popular circuit. known as the Atari Punk Console by circuit benders for its distinctive low-fi sound similar to classic Atari games. Mims III's many books was dedicated to the 555 timer. Texas Instruments. Diodes Inc. "Circuit diagram of PC joystick interface" [11] http:/ / www.pdf) • Single / Dual CMOS Timer. The 555 Timer IC – An Interview with Hans Camenzind.eleinmec.com/search.ti. Monostable and Bistable (http://www.pdf) • Dual Bipolar Timer.555 timer IC 222 Atari Punk Console One of Forrest M. Retrieved 2010-04-05 (http:/ / www. com/ Transistors/ LectureHall/ Camenzind/ Camenzind_Page2. ISBN 978-0-945053-29-3. Sams Publishing. 30 pages. 2nd Ed. 32 pages. htm) [2] van Roon. 1983.diodes. 40–41. com/ ds/ LM/ LM555. Paul (2000) "Practical Electronics for Inventors". The chip alone can drive small external loads or an amplifying transistor for larger loads. Chapter "Monostable Mode". [10] Engdahl. 2003 (http://www. epanorama. External links • Single Bipolar Timer. Forrest M Mims III. 1978. Parr. [5] van Roon.com/datasheets/ZSCT1555. 197-99 Further reading • IC Timer Cookbook. pdf) • NE555 datasheet collection (http://www. and Optoelectronic Circuits and Projects. ISBN 978-0-07-058078-7.asp?1) • 555 and 556 Timer Circuits (http://www. ISBN 978-0-672-21538-4.national. 2006 (http://focus.com/documents/data_sheet/NE558_3.pdf) • Quad Bipolar Timer.kpsec. ISBN 978-0-672-21932-0.com/ds/LM/LMC555. ISBN 978-0-85934-047-2. Bernard Babani Publishing. Fig 3 & related text. 2nd ed. Retrieved 2010-04-05. Jack (2004). net/ documents/ joystick/ pc_joystick. In it. 197. Howard M Berlin. 144 pages. • Timer. pdf) • Single CMOS Timer.A. [3] Scherz. McGraw-Hill/TAB Electronics. [4] Jung. 589. pdf [7] van Roon Chapter: "Astable operation". Walter G Jung. 2010 (http://focus. (1983) "IC Timer Cookbook. Radio Shack.freeuk. p. ASIN B000MN54A6. com/ products-for-ASIC-solutions/ standard-IC-products.nxp. [13] Eggebrecht. Master Publishing. customsiliconsolutions. 128 pages. [8] http:/ / www. pp. Forrest M Mims III. semiconductormuseum. pg 1.datasheetarchive. 11 pages. Op Amp.php?q=NE555&sType=part& ExactDS=Starts) • 555 Timer Circuits – the Astable. 384 pages.htm) .ti. aspx [9] Engdahl. 9 pages. html [12] Eggebrecht. 1979. NXP / Philips. Sams Technical Publishing. 158 pages. pp. 16 pages. Texas Instruments. 2004. Walter G. Second Edition". • IC 555 Projects. 1989. Retrieved 2010-04-05. The Semiconductor Museum.intersil. Intersil. E.com/article. National Semiconductor.com/555timer. 2006 (http://www. • Engineer's Mini-Notebook – 555 Timer IC Circuits. The 555 can be used to generate a variable Pulse-width modulation (PWM) signal using a few external components.com/data/fn/fn2867. • 555 Timer Applications Sourcebook with Experiments. Sams Publishing.com/lit/ds/symlink/na556. 12 pages.com/lit/ds/symlink/ne555.pdf) • Single CMOS Timer. 2010 (http://www. 12 pages. (Using the 555 timer as a logic clock) [6] http:/ / www. ISBN 978-0-672-21932-0. 2006 (http://www.

the output is low.[1] later described in his doctoral dissertation (1937) as a "thermionic trigger".555 timer IC • Java simulation of 555 oscillator circuit (http://www. This dual threshold action is called hysteresis and implies that the Schmitt trigger possesses memory and can act as a bistable circuit (latch). Schmitt trigger is a generic name of threshold circuits with positive feedback having a loop gain > 1.ca/~mec1995/gadgets/555/555.com/common-mistakes.htm) • NE555 Frequency and duty cycle calculator (http://www.com/circuit/e-555square. when the input is between the two. Schmitt trigger devices are typically used in open-loop controller configurations for noise immunity and closed loop negative feedback configurations to implement bistable regulators.com/id/SORIJ3MFAQDX2PW/) • 555 Timer Tutorial (http://www. etc.[2] Implementation The effect of using a Schmitt trigger (B) instead of a comparator (A).net/pp/english/pp/ne555.com) 223 Schmitt trigger In electronics.555-timer-circuits.html) • Using NE 555 as a Temperature DSP (http://www.falstad.globu. when the input is below a different (lower) chosen threshold. the output is high.daycounter.com/Calculators/NE555-Calculator. . phtml) for astable multivibrators • Time-lapse intervalometer for SLRs using a 555 (http://www. Invention The Schmitt trigger was invented by US scientist Otto H. when the input is higher than a certain chosen threshold. the output retains its value. triangle/square wave generators.html) • Common Mistakes When Using a 555 Timer (http://www. The circuit is named "trigger" because the output retains its value until the input changes sufficiently to trigger a change: in the non-inverting configuration. There is a close relation between the two kinds of circuits: a Schmitt trigger can be converted into a latch and a latch can be converted into a Schmitt trigger. Schmitt in 1934 while he was still a graduate student.sentex.instructables.html) • The 2011 555 Design Contest (http://555contest.[2] It was a direct result of Schmitt's study of the neural impulse propagation in squid nerves.

in which the output helps the input right) and a summer (the circle with "+" inside) in addition to an amplifier acting as a comparator. these circuits contain an Schmitt trigger is a system with an avalanche-like positive feedback (B < 1. switch debounce circuit. there is a positive feedback but now it is concentrated only in the memory cell. In the last case.g. In the third technique. a diode with an "N"-shaped current–voltage characteristic in the first quadrant). In these configurations. op-amp inverting Schmitt trigger. B. it subtracts a part of its output voltage from the threshold (it is equal to adding voltage to the input voltage). the output voltage increases the effective difference input voltage of the comparator by decreasing the threshold or by increasing the circuit input voltage. Again. tunnel diodes (e. The first two of them are dual versions (series and parallel) of the general positive feedback system. attenuation and summation are separated: a voltage divider acts as an attenuator and the loop acts as a simple series voltage summer. neon lamps. Thus the output "helps" the input voltage and does not affect the threshold. Two different unidirectional thresholds are assigned in this case to two separate open-loop comparators (without hysteresis) driving an RS trigger (2-input memory cell). the threshold and memory properties are incorporated in one element. an oscillating input will cause the diode to move from one rising leg of the "N" to the other and back again as the input crosses the rising and falling switching thresholds. the threshold and memory properties are separated. The trigger is toggled high when the input voltage crosses down to up the high threshold and low when the input voltage crosses up to down the low threshold. Dynamic threshold (series feedback): when the input voltage crosses the threshold in some direction the very circuit changes its own threshold to the opposite direction. For this purpose. op-amp non-inverting Schmitt trigger.[3] . etc. Examples: the classic transistor emitter-coupled Schmitt trigger. Modified input voltage (parallel feedback): when the input voltage crosses the threshold in some direction the circuit changes the very input voltage in the same direction (now it adds a part of its output voltage directly to the input voltage).A > attenuator (the B box in the figure on the 1). etc. etc. Example: 555 timer. In this arrangement. These circuits are implemented by a differential amplifier with series positive feedback where the input is connected to the inverting input and the output . Examples: the less familiar collector-base coupled Schmitt trigger..Schmitt trigger 224 Fundamental idea Circuits with hysteresis are based on the fundamental positive feedback idea: any active circuit can be made to behave as a Schmitt trigger by applying a positive feedback so that the loop gain is more than one. The positive feedback is introduced by adding a part of the output voltage to the input voltage. Thus the output affects the threshold and does not impact on the input voltage. There are three specific techniques for implementing this general idea. Some circuits and elements exhibiting negative resistance can also act in a similar way: negative impedance converters (NIC). so.to the non-inverting input. The two resistors form a weighted parallel summer incorporating both the attenuation and summation. These circuits can be implemented by a single-ended non-inverting amplifier with parallel positive feedback where the input and the output sources are connected through resistors to the input.

. the proportion between the two collector resistors is chosen Rc1 > Rc2.e. The documentation for the particular Schmitt trigger being used must be consulted to determine whether the device is non-inverting (i. The comparator output drives the Schmitt trigger implemented by two emitter-coupled transistor stages second common collector stage T2 (an emitter follower) through the voltage follower R1-R2. the output voltage of the voltage divider is applied to the non-inverting input thus determining its threshold.in the picture). This configuration can be considered as a differential amplifier with series positive feedback between its non-inverting input (T2 base) and output (T1 collector) that forces the transition process. Classic emitter-coupled circuit The original Schmitt trigger is based on the dynamic threshold idea that is implemented by a voltage divider with a switchable upper leg (the collector resistors Rc1 and Rc2) and a steady lower leg (RE). As a result. There is also a smaller negative feedback introduced by the emitter resistor RE. The emitter-coupled transistors T1 and T2 actually compose an electronic double throw switch that switches over the upper legs of the voltage divider and changes the threshold in a different (to the input voltage) direction.Schmitt trigger 225 The symbol for Schmitt triggers in circuit diagrams is a triangle with a symbol inside representing its ideal hysteresis curve. . Schmitt triggers can also be shown with inverting hysteresis curves and may be followed by bubbles. T1 acts as a comparator with a differential input (T1 base-emitter junction) consisting of an inverting (T1 base) and a non-inverting (T1 emitter) inputs. where positive output transitions are caused by positive-going inputs) or inverting (i. where positive output transitions are caused by negative-going inputs). The input voltage is applied to the inverting input. the circuit has two different thresholds in regard to ground (V. To make the positive feedback dominate over the negative one and to obtain a hysteresis. Thus less current flows through and less voltage drop is across RE when T1 is switched on than in the case when T2 is switched on.e. Transistor Schmitt triggers A symbol of Schmitt trigger shown with a non-inverting hysteresis curve embedded in a buffer..

because the voltage divider now provides lower T2 base voltage. the high threshold value is approximately . The two resistors Rc2 and RE form another voltage divider that determines the high threshold. This avalanche-like process continues until T1 becomes completely turned on (saturated) and T2 turned off. Neglecting VBE. The common emitter voltage follows this change and goes down thus making T1 conduct more. the two resistors Rc1 and RE form a voltage divider that determines the low threshold. T2 becomes completely turned-on (saturated) and the output voltage becomes low again. 226 . The voltage across RE rises. T1 begins conducting. Crossing up the high threshold. T1 begins cutting-off. Crossing down the low threshold. When the input voltage (T1 base voltage) rises slightly above the voltage across the emitter resistor RE (the high threshold). the emitter voltage continues dropping and the effective T1 base-emitter voltage continuously increases. Although T1 is more conducting. The trigger is transitioned to the high state and the output (T2 collector) voltage is close to V+. Its value is approximately . This may require additional shifting circuit following the trigger circuit. R1-R2 voltage divider conveys this change to T2 base voltage and it begins conducting. as a result. It is approximately equal to the high threshold and may not be low enough to be a logical zero for next digital circuits. T2 base voltage is determined by the mentioned divider so that T2 is conducting and the trigger output is in the low state. With the trigger now in the high state. further reducing the T1 base-emitter potential in the same avalanche-like manner. Its collector current reduces. Its collector voltage goes down and T2 begins going cut-off. and T1 ceases to conduct. The output voltage is low but well above the ground. the shared emitter voltage lowers slightly and T1 collector voltage rises significantly. imagine the input voltage is below the shared emitter voltage (high threshold for concreteness) so that T1 base-emitter junction is backward-biased and T1 does not conduct. it passes less current through RE (since Rc1 > Rc2). Now.Schmitt trigger Operation Initial state. The current begins steering from the right leg of the circuit to the left one. if the input voltage lowers enough (below the low threshold). For NPN transistors as shown.

which is similar to the traditional symbol for a digital inverter that shows a buffer followed by a bubble. it has to be high enough. when the input voltage exceedes the high threshold and T1 saturates. Thus the output modifies the input voltage by means of parallel positive feedback and does not affect the threshold (the base-emitter voltage). Collector-base coupled circuit Like every latch. In general. so. The collector-coupled trigger has extremely low (almost zero) output level at output logical zero. 227 Direct-coupled circuit. As a result. the R1–R2 voltage divider can be omitted connecting T1 collector directly to T2 base. The two resistors R and R4 form a parallel voltage summer (the circle in the block diagram above) that sums output (Q2 collector) voltage and the input voltage. and so a closer investigation of the documentation for each particular Schmitt trigger may be warranted. the transistor is surely cut-off. Comparison between emitter. The classic non-inverting Schmitt trigger can be turned into an inverting trigger by taking Vout from the emitters instead from T2 collector. and drives the single-ended transistor "comparator" Q1. Symbol depicting an inverting Schmitt trigger by showing an inverted hysteresis curve inside a buffer. the common emitter voltage and T1 collector voltage follow the input voltage. In this configuration. Only T2 collector should be used as an output since. the fundamental collector-base coupled bistable circuit possesses a hysteresis. the common emitter voltage and T1 collector voltage are not suitable for outputs.[6] In this case. It was important when germanium transistors were used for implementing the circuit and this advantage has determined its popularity. the direction of the Schmitt trigger (inverting or non-inverting) is not necessarily clear from the symbol because multiple conventions are used even within the same [4] manufacturer. a part of Q2 collector voltage is added in the same direction to the input voltage. The base resistor RB is obligatory to prevent the impact of the input voltage through T1 base-emitter junction on the emitter voltage. To simplify the circuit. . Another disadvantage is that the load changes the thresholds. its base-emitter junction is forward biased and transfers the input voltage variations directly to the emitters.65 V) in some direction. This situation is typical for over-driven transistor differential amplifiers and ECL gates. There are several sources of this [5] ambiguity. so. The emitter-coupled Schmitt trigger has not low enough level at output logical zero and needs an additional output shifting circuit. Other symbols show a hysteresis curve (which may be inverting or non-inverting) embedded in a buffer followed by a bubble. The base resistor RB can be omitted as well so that the input voltage source drives directly T1 base. The input base resistor can be omitted since the emitter resistor limits the current when the input base-emitter junction is forward-biased. the output voltage is equal to the dynamic threshold (the shared emitter voltage) and both the output levels stay away from the supply rails. it can be converted to a Schmitt trigger by connecting an additional base resistor R to some of the inputs (Q1 base in the figure).and collector-coupled circuit BJT bistable collector-base coupled circuit can be converted to a Schmitt trigger by connecting an additional base resistor to some of the bases The emitter-coupled version has the advantage that the input transistor is backward-biased when the input voltage is quite below the high threshold.Schmitt trigger Variations Non-inverting circuit. So. When the base voltage crosses the threshold (VBE0 ∞ 0.

and then below the bottom of the band. if the Schmitt trigger is currently in the high state. When the circuit input voltage is above the high threshold or below the low threshold. When the circuit input voltage is between the thresholds. Once the comparator to switch back output has switched to −VS. Since conventional op-amps have a differential input.[7] An open-loop op-amp and comparator may be considered as an analog-digital device having analog inputs and a digital output that extracts the sign of the voltage difference between its two inputs. the output will be at the positive power supply rail (+VS).Schmitt trigger 228 Op-amp implementations Schmitt triggers are commonly implemented using an operational amplifier or the more dedicated comparator. Then be obtained by applying the current conservation principle). the threshold becomes Typical hysteresis curve (Non-inverting) (which matches the curve shown on a Schmitt trigger symbol) to high. . The output of the parallel voltage Schmitt trigger implemented by a non-inverting comparator summer is single-ended (it produces voltage in respect to ground). the loop gain is also high enough and provides the avalanche-like process. This parallel positive feedback creates the needed hysteresis that is controlled by the proportion between the resistances of R1 and R2. The output voltage V+ of the resistive summer can be found by applying the superposition theorem: The comparator will switch when V+=0. The input voltage must rise above the top of the band. for the output to switch on (plus) and then back off (minus). Due to the extremely high op-amp gain. the two resistors R1 and R2 form a parallel voltage summer. So must drop below (the same re to get the output to switch. It acts like a comparator that switches at a different point depending on whether the output of the comparator is high or low. the output voltage is undefined.[8] The positive feedback is applied by adding a part of the output voltage to the input voltage in series or parallel manner. it depends on the last state (the circuit behaves as an elementary latch). the output voltage has the same sign as the circuit input voltage (the circuit is non-inverting). the inverting input is grounded to make the reference point zero volts. For instance. Non-inverting Schmitt trigger In this circuit. So this circuit creates a switching band centered around zero. so. with trigger levels (it can be shifted to the left or the right by applying a bias voltage to the inverting input). The output voltage always has the same sign as the op-amp input voltage but it not always has the same sign as the circuit input voltage (the signs of the two input voltages can differ). the circuit does not need an amplifier with a differential input. It adds a part of the output voltage to the input voltage thus "helping" it during and after switching that occurs when the resulting voltage is near the ground.

the output voltage was depending on the power supply. if the input voltage is within the hysteresis cycle (between the high and low thresholds). an open circuit). A unique property of circuits with parallel positive feedback is the impact on the input source. the circuit can be inverting as . and it behaves as a standard comparator.. However. they increase the PSRR of the comparator).Schmitt trigger If R1 is zero or R2 is infinity (i. the output levels can be modified by appropriate choice of Zener diode. the op-amp must have a differential input. and the resistor R4 minimizes the input voltage offset caused by the comparator's input leakage currents (see Limitations of real op-amps). The op-amp output passes an opposite current through the input source (it injects current into the source when the input voltage is positive and it draws current from the source when it is negative). The value of the threshold T is given by and the maximum value of the output M is the power supply rail. 229 A practical Schmitt trigger configuration with precise thresholds A practical Schmitt trigger with precise thresholds is shown in the figure on the right. the band collapses to zero width. Schmitt trigger implemented by an inverting comparator The circuit is named inverting since the output voltage always has an opposite sign to the input voltage when it is out of the hysteresis cycle (when the input voltage is above the high threshold or below the low threshold).R2 network to the input source. The transfer characteristic is shown in the picture on the right. The resistor R3 is there to limit the current through the diodes. Here there is no virtual ground. and the threshold values are the same as well.e. On the other hand. In this configuration. and the steady op-amp output voltage is applied through R1 . The transfer characteristic has exactly the same shape of the previous basic configuration. the virtual ground at the inverting input separates the input source from the op-amp output.e.. The two resistors R1 and R2 act only as a "pure" attenuator (voltage divider). The effective voltage applied to the op-amp input is floating..g. an inverting amplifier). in the previous case. Inverting Schmitt trigger In the inverting version. The input loop acts as a simple series voltage summer that adds a part of the output voltage in series to the circuit input voltage. In circuits with negative parallel feedback (e. so. the attenuation and summation are separated. and these levels are resistant to power supply fluctuations (i. This series positive feedback creates the needed hysteresis that is controlled by the proportion between the resistances of R1 and the whole resistance (R1 and R2). while now it is defined by the Zener diodes (which could also be replaced with a single double-anode Zener diode).

If the Schmitt trigger is currently in the high state. So must exceed above this voltage to get the output to switch.g. With only one input threshold. A noisy Schmitt Trigger input signal near one threshold can cause only one switch in output value. The input voltage must rise above the top of the band. after which it would have to move beyond the other threshold in order to cause another switch. with trigger levels or the right by connecting R1 to bias voltage). The net effect is that the output of the Schmitt trigger only passes from low to high after a received infrared signal excites the photodiode for longer than some known delay. in Fairchild Semiconductor's QSE15x family of infrared photosensors. and then below the bottom of the band. a noisy input signal [9] near that threshold could cause the output to switch rapidly back and forth from noise alone. That filtered output passes to the input of a Schmitt trigger. the threshold becomes circuit creates a switching band centered around zero. the delay added by the filter and Schmitt trigger ensures that the output only switches when there is certainly an input stimulating the device. The output voltage is undefined. Applications Schmitt triggers are typically used in open loop configurations for noise immunity and closed loop configurations to implement function generators. As discussed in the example above. the Fairchild Semiconductor QSE15x family of photosensors use a Schmitt trigger internally for noise immunity. For example. for switch debouncing).e. it only moves low after the infrared signal ceases to excite the photodiode for longer than a similar known delay. Schmitt triggers are common in many switching circuits for similar reasons (e. To compare the two versions.[10] an amplified infrared photodiode generates an electric signal that switches frequently between its absolute lowest value and its absolute highest value. So this (it can be shifted to the left the comparator output has switched to −VS. In contrast with the parallel version. and it behaves as a standard comparator. This signal is then low-pass filtered to form a smooth signal that rises and falls corresponding to the relative amount of time the switching signal is on and off. an short circuit). Whereas the photodiode is prone to spurious switching due to noise from the environment. this circuit does not impact on the input source since the source is separated from the voltage divider output by the high op-amp input differential impedance.Schmitt trigger well as non-inverting. and once the Schmitt trigger is high. The output voltage V+ of the voltage divider is: 230 The comparator will switch when Vin = V+. the band collapses to zero width. for the output to switch off (minus) and then back on (plus). the circuit operation will be considered at the same conditions as above.. If R1 is infinity or R2 is zero (i. Noise immunity One application of a Schmitt trigger is to increase the noise immunity in a circuit with only a single input threshold. it depends on the last state and the circuit behaves as an elementary latch. . Once to switch back to high.. the output will be at the positive power supply rail (+VS).

So symbols that combine inverting bubbles and hysteresis curves may be using the hysteresis curve to describe the entire device or only the embedded Schmitt trigger. However. pdf) shows an inverted hysteresis curve followed by a bubble. the 4000 series CMOS device type 40106 contains 6 of them). The result. a comparator-based Schmitt trigger is used in its inverting configuration. com/ ds/ MM/ MM74HC14. Since multiple Schmitt trigger circuits can be provided by a single integrated circuit (e. Consequently. fairchildsemi. An additional inverter may be added for buffering a stand-alone inverting configuration.http:/ / www. Schmitt. com/ ds/ QS/ QSE158. pdf) . Output and capacitor waveforms for comparator-based relaxation oscillator A comparator-based implementation of a relaxation oscillator Notes [1] Otto H. This is achieved by connecting a single RC integrating circuit between the output and the input of an inverting Schmitt trigger. org/ Otto_Images/ PavekOHSbio. Journal of Scientific Instruments 15 (January 1938): 24–26. the datasheet for the Fairchild Semiconductor QSE15X family (http:/ / www. and the threshold points of the Schmitt trigger. and stand-alone inverting configurations may be implemented with two inverters. and so a non-inverting Schmitt trigger is sometimes constructed by such an inverting implementation followed by an inverter. [6] 7414 datasheet (http:/ / www. but the resulting Schmitt trigger is inverting. the relaxation oscillator. A Thermionic Trigger (doi:10. pdf) [4] For example. slow negative feedback is added with an integrating RC network. Here. [2] August 2004 issue of the Pavek Museum of Broadcasting Newsletter .g. non-inverting configurations will be implemented with a single inverter.Schmitt trigger 231 Use as an oscillator A Schmitt trigger is a bistable multivibrator. otto-schmitt. nmt. and it can be used to implement another type of multivibrator. ee. inverting configurations within an integrated circuit may be naturally inverting. pdf [3] Debouncing switches with an SR latch (http:/ / www. datasheetcatalog. which is shown on the right. a spare section of the IC can be quickly pressed into service as a simple and reliable oscillator with only two external components. [5] One source of this ambiguity is that one simple transistor-based realization of a Schmitt trigger is naturally inverting.1088/0950-7671/15/1/305). pdf) uses an inverting hysteresis curve but sometimes omits the following bubble to indicate the difference between inverting and non-inverting models (although the implementations shown appear to be inaccurate). Additionally. org/ datasheets/ 400/ 334439_DS. fairchildsemi. The output will be a continuous square wave whose frequency depends on the values of R and C. edu/ ~elosery/ fall_2008/ ee231L/ lab6. the datasheet for the Fairchild Semiconductor MM74HC14 (http:/ / www. is that the output automatically oscillates from VSS to VDD as the capacitor charges from one Schmitt trigger threshold to the other.

[9] Where the noise amplitude is assumed to be small compared to the change in Schmitt trigger threshold. html) or two Zener diodes with opposite bias in series (i. There are also bi-directional shift registers which allow shifting in both directions: L→R or R→L. McGraw-Hill. Leonard (1970). ISBN 978-0070621619 External links • Calculator which determines the resistor values required for given thresholds (http://www. which has the output of any one but the last flip-flop connected to the "data" input of the next one in the chain. analog. parallel-out (SIPO) or as parallel-in. sharing the same clock.htm) Shift register In digital circuits. clipper circuits made up of two general purpose diodes with opposite bias in parallel (http:/ / www. fairchildsemi. random-science-tools. serial-out (PISO). pdf) 232 References 6 Strauss. [8] When the non-inverting (+) input is at a higher voltage than the inverting (−) input. In these cases. a double-anode Zener diode) are sometimes used internally across the two inputs of the operational amplifier. Wave Generation and Shaping (2nd ed. which is its high supply voltage. a shift register may be multidimensional. com/ pf/ QS/ QSE158. When the non-inverting (+) input is at a lower voltage than the inverting (−) input. Shift registers can have both parallel and serial inputs and outputs. More generally. Datasheet (http:/ / www. [10] Fairchild Semiconductor QSE15x photosensors: Product page (http:/ / www. resulting in a circuit that shifts by one position the one-dimensional "bit array" stored in it. com/ library/ analogdialogue/ archives/ 42-10/ off_amps. Serial-in. the comparator output switches nearly to -VS. shifting in the data present at its input and shifting out the last bit in the array. com/ ds/ QS/ QSE158. They incorporate input-protection circuitry that prevent the inverting and non-inverting inputs from operating far away from each other. The serial input and last output of a shift register can also be connected to create a circular shift register.). which is its low supply voltage. There are also types that have both serial and parallel input and types with serial and parallel output. negative feedback is used in op-amp circuits. These are often configured as serial-in.com/electronics/schmitt-trigger-calculator. Conversely. the comparator output switches nearly to +VS. comparators are designed under the assumption that the input voltages can differ significantly. Some operational amplifiers are designed to be used only in negative-feedback configurations that enforce a negligible difference between the inverting and non-inverting inputs.Schmitt trigger [7] Usually. fairchildsemi.e. For example. html). a shift register is a cascade of flip flops. such that its "data in" input and stage outputs are themselves bit arrays: this is implemented simply by running several shift registers of the same bit-length in parallel. when enabled to do so by a transition of the clock input.. serial-out (SISO) Destructive readout . the operational amplifiers will fail to function well as comparators.

the whole register can be set to zero by bringing the reset (R) pins high. At each advance. so there are four storage 'slots' available in this arrangement. To shift the data. Serial-in. or it can be shifted out and replaced. the W/S control line is brought HIGH and the registers are clocked. To write the data to the register. and is shifted right one stage each time 'Data Advance' is brought high. the Data Output. To give an idea of the shifting pattern. this is the result.0. but offset by four 'Data Advance' cycles. The data are stored after each flip-flop on the 'Q' output. The bit on the far right (i. the bit on the far left (i. with a pulse at 'Data Advance' each time — this is called clocking or strobing) to the register. Q. The arrangement now acts as a SISO shift register. . Once the data has been input. as described in the SISO section above. imagine that the register holds 0000 (so all storage slots are empty). Data is input serially.1. As you can see if we were to continue to input data. hence it is a 4-Bit Register. we would get exactly what was put in.Shift register 233 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 These are the simplest kind of shift registers. The left hand column corresponds to the left-most flip-flop's output pin. This arrangement is the hardware equivalent of a queue. and so on.e.0.0. the Write/Shift control line must be held LOW. Also. with D1 as the Data Input. Serial-out (PISO) This configuration has the data input on lines D1 through D4 in parallel format. However.each datum is lost once it has been shifted out of the right-most bit. as long as the number of clock cycles is not more than the length of the data-string.e. 'Data Out') is shifted out and lost. at any time. will be the parallel data read off in order. As 'Data In' presents 1. 4-Bit SIPO Shift Register Parallel-in.1. parallel-out (SIPO) This configuration allows conversion from serial to parallel format. 'Data In') is shifted into the first flip-flop's output. This arrangement performs destructive readout .0. The data string is presented at 'Data In'. it may be either read off at each output simultaneously.0 (in that order. So the serial output of the entire register is 10110000 .

arranged in six tracks of nine packs each. Several bidirectional shift registers could also be connected in parallel for a hardware implementation of a stack.Shift register 234 4-Bit PISO Shift Register The animation below shows the write/shift sequence. the timing has no dependency on component values. Very large serial-in serial-out shift registers (thousands of bits in size) were used in a similar manner to the earlier delay line memory in some devices built in the early 1970s. Compared to monostable multivibrators. SIPO registers are commonly attached to the output of microprocessors when more output pins are required than are available. the DataPoint 3300 terminal stored its display of 25 rows of 72 columns of upper-case characters using fifty-four 200-bit shift registers. however it requires external clock and the timing accuracy is limited by a granularity of this clock. The shift register design meant that scrolling the terminal display could be accomplished by . shift registers were used to handle data processing: two numbers to be added were stored in two shift registers and clocked out into an arithmetic and logic unit (ALU) with the result being fed back to the input of one of the shift registers (the accumulator) which was one bit longer since binary addition can only result in an answer that is the same size or one bit longer. For example. In early computers. Such memories were sometimes called circulating memory. then the data is sent back via serial to the microprocessor using several fewer lines than originally required. Shift registers can be used as simple delay circuits. but serial interfaces are simpler to construct. Uses One of the most common uses of a shift register is to convert between serial and parallel interfaces. PISO configurations are commonly used to add more binary inputs to a microprocessor than are available . or more complicated circuitry designed to output high when active) is attached to a parallel input of the shift register. a switch or button. This is useful as many circuits work on groups of bits in parallel. This allows several binary devices to be controlled using only two or three pins . then the desired state of all those devices can be sent out of the microprocessor using a single serial connection. including the internal state of the shift register. Similarly.e. effectively dividing by two or multiplying by two for each place shifted.each binary input (i. Many computer languages include instructions to 'shift right' and 'shift left' the data in a register. Example: Ronja Twister. providing storage for 1800 six-bit characters. where five 74164 shift registers create the core of the timing logic this way (schematic [1]). Shift registers can be used also as pulse extenders.the devices in question are attached to the parallel outputs of the shift register.

Such data storage can be used for storage of state. png [2] http:/ / bitsavers. The circuit can be made to change state by signals applied to one or more control inputs and will have one or two outputs. but also on its current state (and hence. External links • Shift Registers (http://www.com/vol_4/chpt_12/index. December 1976. respectively. and for synchronizing variably-timed input signals to some reference timing signal. pdf DataPoint 3300 Maintenance Manual.Shift register simply pausing the display output to skip one line of characters. the simple ones are commonly called latches. previous inputs). It was a five-stage device built of vacuum tubes and thyratrons. When used in a finite-state machine. It can also be used for counting of pulses.allaboutcircuits. next state depend not only on its current input. a code-breaking machine of the 1940s. Flip-flops and latches are used as data storage elements. twibright. the output and logical '1' and '0'. org/ pdf/ datapoint/ 3300/ 70116_3300termMaint_Dec76. a flip-flop or latch is a circuit that has two stable states and can be used to store state information.[2] 235 History One of the first known examples of a shift register was in the Colossus.[2] .com Flip-flop In electronics.html) at AllAboutCircuits. Flip-flops can be either simple (transparent or opaque) or clocked (synchronous or edge-triggered).[1] The word latch is mainly used for storage elements. It is the basic storage element in sequential logic. constructed from a pair of cross-coupled NOR gates. and many other types of systems. while clocked devices are described as flip-flops. Red and black mean as sequential logic. Flip-flops and latches are a fundamental building block of digital electronics systems used in computers. com/ schematics/ twister. and such a circuit is described An SR latch. communications. References [1] http:/ / ronja.

Flip-flops in use at Hughes at the time were all of the type that came to be known as J-K. #4: G & H.[5] Such circuits and their transistorized versions were common in computers even after the introduction of integrated circuits.[3][4] It was initially called the Eccles–Jordan trigger circuit and consisted of two active elements (vacuum tubes). the flip-flop types discussed below (RS. T. Eldred Nelson.[15] Flip-flop schematics from the Eccles and Jordan patent filed 1918.[13][14] Lindley was at the time working at Hughes Aircraft under Dr. JK) were first discussed in a 1954 UCLA course on computer design by Montgomery Phister. this terminology has been somewhat variable. a bistable multivibrator has two stable states. historically. and is known as a one-shot."[9] • 1943 – flip-flop as one-shot pulse generator: "It should be noted that an essential difference between the two-valve flip-flop and the multivibrator is that the flip-flop has one of the valves biased to cutoff. In designing a logical system. a monostable multivibrator makes a pulse while in the unstable state. so that the coupling is not maintained in the steady state. The earliest and best known of these circuits was the multivibrator. and then appeared in his book Logical Design of Digital Computers. Nelson assigned letters to flip-flop inputs as follows: #1: A & B. a JPL engineer. #2: C & D. Lindley explains that he heard the story of the JK flip-flop from Dr. and the other as a symmetric cross-coupled pair . a flip-flop is a monostable multivibrator and the ordinary multivibrator is an astable multivibrator. The other names were coined by Phister."[10] • 1949 – monostable as flip-flop: "Monostable multivibrators have also been called 'flip-flops'. so it acts as a relaxation oscillator. who had coined the term JK for a flip-flop which changed states when both inputs were on. Eldred Nelson. W. then returns to the stable state. L..Flip-flop 236 History The first electronic flip-flop was invented in 1918 by William Eccles and F. A multivibrator is a two-state circuit. but the coupling from the anode of one valve to the grid of the other is by a condenser only. Lindley. Jordan."[8] • 1942 – multivibrator as a particular flip-flop circuit: "Such circuits were known as 'trigger' or 'flip-flop' circuits and were of very great importance.[6][7] Early flip-flops were known variously as trigger circuits or multivibrators. However. Nelson used the notations "j-input" and "k-input" in a patent application filed in 1953. 7-6) is somewhat similar to the flip-flop circuit. based on whether each state is stable or not: an astable multivibrator is not stable in either state. though flip-flops made from logic gates are also common now.."[11] • 1949 – monostable as flip-flop: ". For example: • 1942 – multivibrator implies astable: "The multivibrator circuit (Fig. They differ slightly from some of the definitions given below. Dr. they come in several varieties. one drawn as a cascade of amplifiers with a positive feedback path. #5: J & K. #3: E & F. and this is the one usually known as a flip-flop. D."[12] According to P. who is responsible for coining the term while working at Hughes Aircraft.

then the Q output is forced low. and inverting logic gates have all been used in practical A traditional latch circuit based on bipolar junction transistors circuits. D ("data" or "delay"[16]). Clocked devices are specially designed for synchronous systems.[2] Simple flip-flops can be built around a pair of cross-coupled inverting elements: vacuum tubes. the most fundamental latch is the simple SR latch. pulsing. others on the falling edge. in terms of the input signal(s) and/or the current output. field effect transistors. An SR latch. constructed from a pair of cross-coupled NOR gates (an animated picture). the transparent ones are commonly called latches. It can be constructed from a pair of cross-coupled NOR logic gates. each amplifier may be considered as an active inverting feedback network for the other inverting amplifier. two stages can be connected in succession (as a cascade) to form the needed non-inverting amplifier. Some flip-flops change output on the rising edge of the clock. Thus the two stages are connected in a non-inverting loop although the circuit diagram is usually drawn as a symmetric cross-coupled pair (both the drawings are initially introduced in the Eccles–Jordan patent). T ("toggle").. while clocked devices are described as flip-flops. and JK types are the common ones. Clocking causes the flip-flop to either change or retain its output signal based upon the values of the input signals at the transition. and stays high when S returns to low. While the S and R inputs are both low. then the Q output is forced high. . similarly. where S and R stand for set and reset. and stays low when R returns to low. respectively. Red and black mean logical '1' and '0'.Flip-flop 237 Implementation Flip-flops can be either simple (transparent or asynchronous) or clocked (synchronous). with Q the complement of Q.e. Simple set-reset latches SR NOR latch When using static gates as building blocks. . feedback maintains the Q and Q outputs in a constant state. bipolar transistors. inverters. Flip-flop types Flip-flops can be divided into common types: the SR ("set-reset"). Since the elementary amplifying stages are inverting. In this configuration. if R is pulsed high while S is held low. If S (Set) is pulsed high while R (Reset) is held low. The stored bit is present on the output marked Q.[1] The word latch is mainly used for storage elements. or strobing). after the next clock pulse) output. such devices ignore their inputs except at the transition of a dedicated clock signal (known as clocking. The behavior of a particular type can be described by what is termed the characteristic equation. which derives the "next" (i. .

1) to one of the non-restricted combinations. The output would lock at either 1 or 0 depending on the propagation time relations between the gates (a race condition).e. Historically. That can be: • Q = 1 (1. one can add gates to the inputs that would convert (S. operation is identical to that of the SR latch.R) = (1. The combination is also inappropriate in circuits where both inputs may go low simultaneously (i.[17] SR NAND latch This is an alternate model of the simple SR latch built with NAND (not AND) logic gates. Although this condition is usually avoided. it can be useful in some applications.0) – referred to as an S-latch • Q = 0 (0. SR-latches have been predominant despite the notational inconvenience of active-low inputs. In certain implementations. Characteristic: Q+ = R'Q + R'S or Q+ = R'Q + S. To overcome the restricted combination. Otherwise.1) – referred to as an R-latch • Keep state (0. it could also lead to longer ringings (damped oscillations) before the output settles. as both NOR gates then output zeros. Set and reset now become active low signals. denoted S and R respectively. a transition from restricted to keep). and thereby result in undetermined values (errors) in high-frequency digital circuits. it breaks the logical equation Q = not Q. An SR latch .0) – referred to as an E-latch Alternatively. The result is the JK latch. the restricted combination can be made to toggle the output.Flip-flop 238 SR latch operation S R 0 0 0 1 1 0 Action No Change Q=0 Q=1 1 1 Restricted combination The symbol for an SR NOR latch The R = S = 1 combination is called a restricted combination or a forbidden state because.

A gated SR latch circuit diagram constructed from NOR gates. With E high (enable true).0) = hold then immediately reproduce on the (Q.Q) output.e. The enable input is sometimes a clock signal. the 11 input combination for the JK latch is not useful because there is no clock that directs toggling. Gated SR latch A synchronous SR latch (sometimes clocked SR flip-flop) can be made by adding a second level of NAND gates to the inverted SR latch (or a second level of AND gates to the direct SR latch). all signal combinations except for (0. That is. using the same clock signal.Flip-flop 239 SR latch operation S R Action 0 0 Restricted combination 0 1 Q=1 1 0 Q=0 1 1 No Change Symbol for an SR NAND latch JK latch The JK latch is much less used than the JK flip-flop. additional logic can be added to a simple transparent latch to make it non-transparent or opaque when another input (an "enable" input) is not asserted. i. the latch is transparent. Unlike the JK flip-flop. a master–slave flip-flop is implemented. The JK latch follows the following state table: JK latch truth table J K Qnext Comment 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 Q 0 1 Q No change Reset Set Toggle Hence. but more often a read or write strobe. input signal changes cause immediate changes in output. The extra gates further invert the inputs so the simple SR latch becomes a gated SR latch (and a simple SR latch would transform into a gated SR latch with inverted enable). Alternatively. With E low (enable false) the latch is closed (opaque) and remains in the state it was left the last time E was high. the signals can pass through the input gates to the encapsulated latch. the JK latch is an SR latch that is made to toggle its output when passed the restricted combination of 11. signals can propagate through all of them at once. .[18] Gated latches and conditional transparency Latches are designed to be transparent. when several transparent latches follow each other. By following a transparent-high latch with a transparent-low (or opaque-high) latch.

from the input D to the output Q. Thus a gated D-latch may be considered as a one-input synchronous SR latch. It has a data input and an enable signal (sometimes named clock. A D-type transparent latch based on an SR NAND latch A gated D latch based on an SR NOR latch Latches are available as integrated circuits. . or in synchronous two-phase systems (synchronous systems that use a two-phase clock). the signal propagates directly through the circuit.Flip-flop 240 E/C 0 1 Action No action (keep state) The same as non-clocked SR latch |+ Gated SR latch operation Symbol for a gated SR latch Gated D latch This latch exploits the fact that in the two active input combinations (01 and 10) of a gated SR latch R is the complement of S. This configuration prevents from applying the restricted combination to the inputs. usually with multiple latches per chip. 74HC75 is a quadruple transparent latch in the 7400 series. The low state of the enable signal produces the inactive "11" combination. It is also known as transparent latch. Transparent latches are typically used as I/O ports or in asynchronous systems. For example. The input NAND stage converts the two D input states (0 and 1) to these two input combinations for the next SR latch by inverting the data input signal. data latch. or control). when the enable input is on. where two latches operating on different clock phases prevent data transparency as in a master–slave flip-flop. The word transparent comes from the fact that. or simply gated latch.

[19] They require double-rail logic or an inverter. Earle latch The classic gated latch designs have some undesirable characteristics.[22] If the middle NAND gate is omitted.[23][22] Intentionally skewing the clock signal can avoid the hazard.[20] A successful alternative is the Earle latch. then one gets the polarity hold latch.[23] . Merging the latch function can implement the latch with no additional gate delays. When E/C is high. the two gate levels of the Earle latch can be merged with the last two gate levels of the circuits driving the latch. which is commonly used because it demands less logic. the output equals D.[19] Earle latch uses complementary Enable inputs: Enable active Low (E_L) and Enable active High (E_H) The Earle latch is hazard free. Designers looked for alternatives. In addition. The input-to-output propagation is not constant – some outputs take two gate delays while others take three.Flip-flop 241 E/C D 0 1 1 Q Q Comment X Qprev Qprev No change 0 1 0 1 1 0 Reset Set |+ Gated D latch truth table Symbol for a gated D latch The truth table shows that when the enable/clock input is 0. The input-to-output propagation may take up to three gate delays. the D input has no effect on the output.[21] It requires only a single data input. and its output takes a constant two gate delays.

and subsequent changes on the D input will be ignored until the next clock event. The advantage of the D flip-flop over the D-type "transparent latch" is that the signal on the D input pin is captured the moment the flip-flop is 4-bit serial-in. That captured value becomes the Q output. An exception is that some flip-flops have a "reset" signal input. and may be either asynchronous or synchronous with the clock. which will reset Q (to zero). the illegal S = R = 1 condition is resolved in D-type flip-flops. meaning the signal is irrelevant) Most D-type flip-flops in ICs have the capability to be forced to the set or reset state (which ignores the D and clock inputs). which are an essential part of many electronic devices. At other times. Truth table: D flip-flop symbol Clock D Qnext 0 1 Q Rising edge 0 Rising edge 1 Non-Rising X ('X' denotes a Don't care condition. much like an SR flip-flop. as they form the basis for shift registers. the output Q does not change. or a delay line. By setting S = R = 0. parallel-out (SIPO) shift register clocked. The D flip-flop can be viewed as a memory cell. Usually. The above circuit shifts the contents of the register to the right. a zero-order hold. It is also known as a data or delay flip-flop. the flip-flop can be used as described above. one bit position on each active transition of the clock. Inputs S R D > 0 1 X X 1 0 X X 1 1 X X Outputs Q 0 1 1 Q' 1 0 1 These flip-flops are very useful. The input X is shifted into the leftmost bit position.Flip-flop 242 D flip-flop The D ﬂip-ﬂop is widely used. . The D flip-flop captures the value of the D-input at a definite portion of the clock cycle (such as the rising edge of the clock). [24][25].

the outputs keep their states regardless of the data input and force the output latch to stay in the corresponding state as the input logical zero remains active while the clock is high. This has a truth table like this: . Master–slave pulse-triggered D flip-flop A master–slave D flip-flop is created by connecting two gated D latches in series. The term pulse-triggered means that data is entered on the rising edge of the clock pulse. The role of these latches is to "lock" the active output producing low voltage (a logical zero). if D = 1. This allows the "master" latch to store the input value when the clock signal transitions from low to high. Nearly simultaneously. the lower output becomes low. Hence the role of the output latch is to store the data only while the clock is low. When the clock signal returns to low (1 to 0). a D-type flip flop that strobes on the falling edge of a clock signal can be obtained. but the output does not reflect the change until the falling edge of the clock pulse. both the output signals of the input stage are high regardless of the data input. 243 A positive-edge-triggered D flip-flop The circuit is closely related to the gated D latch as both the circuits convert the two D input states (0 and 1) to two input combinations (01 and 10) for the output SR latch by inverting the data input signal (both the circuits split the single D signal in two complementary S and R signals). When the clock signal changes from low to high. It responds on the negative edge of the enable input (usually a clock) An implementation of a master–slave D flip-flop that is triggered on the positive edge of the clock By removing the leftmost inverter in the circuit at side. As the clock signal goes high (0 to 1) the inverted "enable" of the first latch goes low (1 to 0) and the value seen at the input to the master latch is "locked". and the value seen at the last rising edge of the clock is held while the "master" latch begins to accept new values in preparation for the next rising clock edge. the output latch is unaffected and it stores the previous state. A master–slave D flip-flop. If the clock signal continues staying high. The difference is that in the gated D latch simple NAND logical gates are used while in the positive-edge-triggered D flip-flop SR NAND latches are used for this purpose. For a positive-edge triggered master–slave D flip-flop. It is called master–slave because the second latch in the series only changes in response to a change in the first (master) latch. only one of the output voltages (depending on the data signal) goes low and sets/resets the output latch: if D = 0. the twice inverted "enable" of the second or "slave" D latch transitions from low to high (0 to 1) with the clock signal. If the clock is low. thus the positive-edge-triggered D flip-flop can be thought of as a gated D latch with latched input gates. the upper output becomes low. and inverting the enable input to one of them. the output of the "slave" latch is "locked". This allows the signal captured at the rising edge of the clock by the now "locked" master latch to pass through the "slave" latch. The input stage (the two latches on the left) processes the clock and data signals to ensure correct input signals for the output stage (the single latch on the right).Flip-flop Classical positive-edge-triggered D flip-flop This clever circuit[26] consists of two stages implemented by SR NAND latches. when the clock signal is low (logical 0) the "enable" seen by the first or "master" D latch (the inverted clock signal) is high (logical 1).

This behavior is described by the characteristic equation: (expanding operator) and can be described in a truth table: the XOR A circuit symbol for a T-type flip-flop . its components are each triggered by clock levels. A common dynamic flip-flop variety is the true single-phase clock (TSPC) type which performs the flip-flop operation with little power and at high speeds. dynamic flip-flops will typically not work at static or low clock speeds: given enough time. This means that the digital output is stored on parasitic device capacitance while the device is not transitioning. While the master–slave D element is triggered on the edge of a clock. However. it is still called a flip-flop for its functional role. T flip-flop If the T input is high. does not have the master–slave properties. the flip-flop holds the previous value. leakage paths may discharge the parasitic capacitance enough to cause the flip-flop to enter invalid states.Flip-flop 244 D Q > Qnext 0 1 0 X Falling 1 X Falling Edge-triggered dynamic D storage element An efficient functional alternative to a D flip-flop can be made with dynamic circuits as long as it is clocked often enough. the T flip-flop changes state ("toggles") whenever the clock input is strobed. The "edge-triggered D flip-flop". A CMOS IC implementation of a "true single-phase edge-triggered flip-flop with reset" Edge-triggered D flip-flops are often implemented in integrated high-speed operations using dynamic logic. as it is called even though it is not a true flip-flop. while not a true flip-flop. If the T input is low. This design of dynamic flip flops also enables simple resetting since the reset operation can be performed by simply discharging one or more internal nodes.

K = 0 is a command to set the flip-flop. that is. Similarly. the toggle flip-flop divides the clock frequency by two. the combination J = 0. if clock frequency is 4 MHz. A T flip-flop can also be built using a JK flip-flop (J & K pins are connected together and act as T) or D flip-flop (T input and Qprevious is connected to the D input through an XOR gate). The characteristic equation of the JK flip-flop is: A circuit symbol for a positive-edge-triggered JK flip-flop and the corresponding truth table is: JK flip-flop timing diagram . or a T flip-flop. A T flip-flop can also be built using an edge-triggered D flip-flop with its D input fed from its own inverted output. K=Reset) by interpreting the S = R = 1 condition as a "flip" or toggle command. JK flip-flop The JK flip-flop augments the behavior of the SR flip-flop (J=Set. The JK flip-flop is therefore a universal flip-flop. Setting J = K = 0 does NOT result in a D flip-flop. will hold the current state. Specifically. the output frequency obtained from the flip-flop will be 2 MHz. K = 1 is a command to reset the flip-flop. to synthesize a T flip-flop. and the combination J = K = 1 is a command to toggle the flip-flop. This "divide by" feature has application in various types of digital counters. change its output to the logical complement of its current value. but rather. set K equal to J. because it can be configured to work as an SR flip-flop.. i. the combination J = 1.e. a D flip-flop. simply set K equal to the complement of J. To synthesize a D flip-flop.Flip-flop 245 T flip-flop operation Characteristic table Comment 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 hold state (no clk) hold state (no clk) toggle toggle 0 1 0 1 [27] Excitation table Comment 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 No change No change Complement Complement When T is held high.

putting the machine into an inconsistent state. are changing at about the same time. or even oscillating several times before settling. this metastability can cause corruption of data or a program crash. which can happen when two inputs. one path can interpret it as a 0 and the other as a 1 when it has not resolved to stable state. In a computer system. such that the resulting state would depend on the order of the input events. such as data and clock or clock and reset. within appropriate timing constraints. When the order is not clear. if two different logical paths use the output of a flip-flop.Flip-flop 246 JK flip-flop circuit diagram JK Flip Flop operation Characteristic table [27] Excitation table J K Qnext Comment Q Qnext J K Comment 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 Q 0 1 Q hold state reset set toggle 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 X No change 1 X X 1 Set Reset X 0 No change Metastability Flip-flops are prone to a problem called metastability. Theoretically.[28] Timing considerations Setup and hold times . if the state is not stable before another circuit uses its value. the result is that the output may behave unpredictably. in particular. the time to settle down is not bounded. taking many times longer than normal to settle to one state or the other.

. When the transitions in the clock and the data are close together in time. because the flip-flop may be connected to a real-time signal that could change at any time. it is important to ensure that the tCO of a preceding F/F is longer than the hold time (th) of the following flip-flop. which is the time the flip-flop takes to change its output after the clock edge. the flip-flop is forced to decide which event happened first. but never to zero. When cascading F/Fs which share the same clock (as in a shift register). Flip-flop setup. It is therefore logically impossible to build a perfectly metastable-proof flip-flop. Furthermore. This applies to synchronous circuits such as the flip-flop. which work by reducing the setup and hold times as much as possible. The time for a high-to-low transition (tPHL) is sometimes different from the time for a low-to-high transition (tPLH). Hold time is the minimum amount of time the data signal should be held steady after the clock event so that the data are reliably sampled. This applies to synchronous circuits such as the flip-flop. The probability of metastability gets closer and closer to zero as the number of flip-flops connected in series is increased. and are typically between a few nanoseconds and a few hundred picoseconds for modern devices. it is easy to verify that the clock period has to be greater than the sum tsu + th. it is not always possible to meet the setup and hold criteria. the best the designer can do is to reduce the probability of error to a certain level. Propagation delay Another important timing value for a flip-flop (F/F) is the clock-to-output delay (common symbol in data sheets: tCO) or propagation delay (tP). for correct operation. hold and clock-to-output timing parameters Unfortunately. So-called metastable-hardened flip-flops are available. there is always the possibility that the input events will be so close together that it cannot detect which one happened first. This is because metastability is more than simply a matter of circuit design. However fast we make the device.Flip-flop 247 Setup time is the minimum amount of time the data signal should be held steady before the clock event so that the data are reliably sampled by the clock. In this case. The metastability in flip-flops can be avoided by ensuring that the data and control inputs are held valid and constant for specified periods before and after the clock pulse. These times are specified in the data sheet for the device. called the setup time (tsu) and the hold time (th) respectively. One technique for suppressing metastability is to connect two or more flip-flops in a chain. the probability of a metastable event can be reduced to a negligible value. With this method. and all devices share a common clock. so data present at the input of the succeeding F/F is properly "shifted in" following the active edge of the clock. This relationship between tCO and th is normally guaranteed if the F/Fs are physically identical. but even these cannot eliminate the problem entirely. outside the control of the designer. depending on the required reliability of the circuit. so that the output of each one feeds the data input of the next. To summarize: Setup time -> Clock flank -> Hold time.

vol. 1958 (filed Sept. (letter dated June 13. 13. 10. pages 143–146 (December 1919). Moullin (1943). Chapman & Hall Ltd. google. ISBN 9780824703684." [3] William Henry Eccles and Frank Wilfred Jordan. google. p.[29] In a conventional flip-flop. com/ ?id=-ZAccwyQeXMC& pg=PA329& dq=latches+ flip-flops+ transparent+ clock#v=onepage& q=latches flip-flops transparent clock& f=false)." [16] Sajjan G. US Patent 2850566. google. McGraw-Hill Book Co. [6] Earl D. [14] Montgomery Phister (1958). berkeley. 1223. [17] Langholz. and by adapting them to logic with more than two states. p. Feb. respectively.). L. Shiva (2000). ISBN 9780262161237. 1942. Johnson.[30] Alternatively. p. [13] P. . com/ ?id=kKQFttdG7hcC& pg=PA81& dq="delay-flip-flop"+ "data-flip-flop"#v=onepage& q="delay-flip-flop" "data-flip-flop"& f=false) (3rd ed. 1949). Volume 1 (http:/ / books. or multi-valued ternary logic. 1. Jordan (19 September 1919) "A trigger relay utilizing three-electrode thermionic vacuum tubes. 83. [10] Owen Standige Puckle and E. Eccles and F. (1998). Wireless Engineer (Iliffe Electrical Publications) 26 (1): 139. [2] Latches and Flip Flops (http:/ / rfic. each output. CRC Press.Flip-flop 248 Generalizations Flip-flops can be generalized in at least two ways: by making them 1-of-N instead of 1-of-2. . com/ ?id=Zpwtq_SjKSoC& pg=PA1223& dq="flip-flop"+ circuit+ transistors+ gates#v=onepage& q="flip-flop" circuit transistors gates& f=false) (revised ed. exactly one of the two complementary outputs is high.. exactly one of which is high (alternatively. (http:/ / books. Signals applied separately to the j-input and k-input terminals set the flip-flop to conduction states corresponding to the binary values one and zero. Pugh. Research & Education Assoc. [7] Max Fogiel and You-Liang Gu (1998). The Electronics problem solver. Logical Design of Digital Computers.[31] Another generalization of the conventional flip-flop is a memory element for multi-valued logic. Time bases (scanning generators): their design and development. In the special cases of 1-of-3 encoding. Delmar Thomson (Cengage) Learning. Foundations of Digital Logic Design (http:/ / books. [12] O. The output is therefore always a one-hot (respectively one-cold) representation. published: 5 August 1920). Kandel. ISBN 9780878915439. when high. Morgan Kaufmann. google. . S. with notes on the cathode ray tube. EDN (magazine). google. com/ ?id=4sX9fTGRo7QC& pg=PA344& lpg=PA344& dq=sr+ characteristic+ latch+ equation#v=onepage& q=sr characteristic latch equation& . In this case the memory element retains exactly one of the logic states until the control inputs induce a change. Digital electronics and design with VHDL (http:/ / books. com/ patents?id=JNUAAAAAEBAJ& pg=PA15). . Abraham. Introduction to electronics (http:/ / books. [8] Wilfred Bennett Lewis (1942). more or less conventional flip-flops can be used.[32] In addition. Lindley. "Development of Time Bases: The Principles of Known Circuits". 1968). hereinafter termed the j-input and the k-input terminals. [9] The Electrician 128. Nelson (Sept. [15] Eldred C. H. B. with additional circuitry to make sure only one at a time can be true. com/ origdoc?DB=EPODOC& IDX=GB148582& F=0& QPN=GB148582)" British patent number: GB 148582 (filed: 21 June 1918. where exactly one of N is low). and two output terminals for producing complementary bivalued electrical output signals hereinafter termed Q and Qbar. 19 of MIT Radiation Lab Series ed. one per output. eecs. com/ ?id=IwC5GIA0cREC& pg=PA299& dq="flip-flop"+ circuit+ transistors+ gates#v=onepage& q="flip-flop" circuit transistors gates& f=false) (4th ed. 1953)). Wiley. edu/ ee100/ pdf/ lect24. Computer design and architecture (http:/ / books. Aug. IBM's 360 and early 370 systems (http:/ / books..[33] References [1] Volnei A. p. Mott. W. 81. com/ ?id=MFGj_PT_clIC& pg=PA10& dq=eccles-jordan-trigger+ vacuum& q=eccles-jordan-trigger vacuum). 68. 299.. This can be generalized to a memory element with N outputs. while signals applied simultaneously to both input terminals trigger or change the conduction state of the flip-flop. 2. leading to new possible clock transitions. 167. com/ ?id=Ri1IAAAAIAAJ& q=inauthor:phister+ j-k-flip-flop& dq=inauthor:phister+ j-k-flip-flop). pdf) (EE 42/100 Lecture 24 from Berkeley) ". Electrical counting: with special reference to counting alpha and beta particles. The construction is similar to a conventional cross-coupled flip-flop. google. no. [11] Britton Chance (1949).). Lyle R. Gates (2000)." The Electrician. a multiple-valued clock can also be used. google. ISBN 9780123742704. espacenet. Puckle (Jan. 51. "Each flip-flop or bistable multivibrator includes two input terminals. MIT Press. " Improvements in ionic relays (http:/ / v3.. Joe L. [5] Emerson W. . [4] W. Reprinted in: Radio Review.). p. 128. p. John H. respectively.). these elements may be referred to as flip-flap-flops. Gideon. vol. "High-Speed Printing System" (http:/ / www. page 298. CUP Archive. inhibits all the other outputs. . p. p.. 1968. respectively. .Sometimes the terms flip-flop and latch are used interchangeably. p. Waveforms (Vol. 3. 8. 329. Pedroni (2008). google. ISBN 9780766816985. Palmer (1991).

CRC Press. . Steven R. and Shiva. J. [24] The D Flip-Flop (http:/ / www. com/ 1411FlipFlap_engl. for example. ISBN 978-981-02-3110-1. [29] Often attributed to Don Knuth (1969) (see Midhat J. ieee. 249 . 40–42. IBM Technical Disclosure Bulletin 7 (10): 909–910 [22] Omondi. espacenet. 1964). Electronics and Power (IET) 10 (2): 36–39. Journal of Electronics (China) 8 (Volume 8. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co. (1999). Sajjan G. ti. Morris. Peter M. James E.). com/ ?id=0pA7AAAAMAAJ& q=flip-flap-flop+ core& dq=flip-flap-flop+ core). google. [28] Thomas J. ee. "Latched Carry-Save Adder". M. ist. com/ lit/ ds/ symlink/ sn7474. (1981). Ptc. Amos R. .1973. Farhat (2004). University of North Dakota. . doi:10. pdf) [27] Mano. . Kime. [30] "Ternary "flip-flap-flop"" (http:/ / www. McGraw-Hill. edu/ viewdoc/ download?doi=10. Number 3 / July. NJ. 57. doi:10. The design and application of a "flip-flap-flop" using tunnel diodes (Master's thesis) (http:/ / books. ISSN 0163-5964. . html) [25] Edge-Triggered Flip-flops (http:/ / www. Troy (March 1976). com/ textdoc?DB=EPODOC& IDX=US6975152) [32] Irving. pp. pp. psu. com/ scholar?gcx=c& q=alexander+ flip-flap-flop& um=1& ie=UTF-8& hl=en& sa=N& tab=ws). "Circuit Implementation of High-Speed Pipeline Systems". Upper Saddle River. Bowdon (1960). Thurman A. [18] Hassan A. ISBN 9780849311918. Number: from Ahmes to Cantor (http:/ / books.1145/17356.1976. USA: Pearson Education International. (May 1986). Computers. html) [26] SN7474 TI datasheet (http:/ / focus. p. [19] Kogge. ACM SIGARCH Computer Architecture News (ACM) 14 (2): 404–411. [23] Kunkel. The Architecture of Pipelined Computers.1109/T-C. 2773& rep=rep1& type=pdf). google. doi:10. doi:10. 1991): 268–275. 1965). Volume 1 (http:/ / books. and Nagle. google. usyd. com/ ?id=hARkwMkeliUC& pg=PA57& dq=flip-flap-flop+ knuth& q=flip-flap-flop knuth). jsp?arnumber=1672323).. edu. (Feb. com/ ?id=QypINJ4oRI8C& pg=PA270& dq="jk+ latch"+ oscillate#v=onepage& q& f=false). W. Chaney and Charles E. "Flip-Flops for Multiple-Valued Logic". W.1109/TC. Smith. the term flip-flap-flop actually appeared much earlier in the computing literature..1007/BF02778378. 25–27. (1965). 1. p. ISBN 0-07-035237-2 [20] Cotten. Gazalé (2000). and in Alexander. goldenmuseum. "The ternary computer" (http:/ / scholar. AFIPS Proc. com/ ?id=Pf2ZbKM2-5MC& pg=PA39& lpg=PA39& dq="earle+ latch"#v=onepage& q="earle latch"& f=false). "Optimal Pipelining in Supercomputers" (http:/ / citeseerx. H. "Research into ternary edge-triggered JKL flip-flop". google. 3rd Edition. (March. The Microarchitecture of Pipelined and Superscalar Computers (http:/ / books. IEEE Transactions on C-25 (3): 237–246. Charles R.17403. Logic and Computer Design Fundamentals. Fall Joint Computer Conference: 489–504 [21] Earle. ISBN 0-13-1911651. [33] Wu Haomin and Zhuang Nan (1991). p. Molnar (April 1973). html). IEEE Transactions on Computers C-22 (4): 421–422. ISSN 0018-9340. [31] US 6975152 (http:/ / worldwide. 344. Ltd. 274.5009250. L. 1. Edward K. pg283. google. 99. play-hookey. com/ digital/ d_nand_flip-flop. (2004). ISBN 9780691005157.223730. ISBN 978-0792384632. . "Anomalous Behavior of Synchronizer and Arbiter Circuits" (http:/ / ieeexplore. org/ xpls/ abs_all. Princeton University Press.Flip-flop f=false).. pp. Digital design and computer organization. au/ tutorials/ digital_tutorial/ part2/ flip-flop02.

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