Carboxylic acids:
    

Named with (oic) Carbon in the carboxylic acid counts as one of the carbons in the chain. 2 carboxylic groups it’s name ends with (dioic) Methanoic acid = formic acid. Ethanoic acid = acetic acid.

A carboxylic acid attached to a benzene rings:

Carboxylic acid deratives are when the OH in the carboxylic acid is replaced. Some examples are: Acid anhydride: Acyl chloride: Ester: Amide: Important things to consider: Carboxylic acid + alkali = strong base. Esters:
 

Carboxylic acid + alcohols = ester + water (Usually happens in a condensation reaction)

The reaction involves: small amounts of: concentrated sulphuric acid  concentrated hydrochloric acid  catalyst

Salicylic acid = 2- hydroxybenzoic acid has a phenol group attached to it. A phenol group always has a benzene ring attached to an OH. An ester can also be made reacting: a phenol and carboxylic acid or its carboxylic acid derative. Or it can be made usually by reacting an alcohol and carboxylic acid. Aspirin is an ester made by reacting the phenol OH group with the carboxylic acid. It’s chemical name is 2-ethanoyloxybenzoic acid. The process from salicylic acid to Aspirin looks like this:

Properties of aspirin: Soluble in water. Oil of Wintergreen: Oil of wintergreen is formed when reacting the COOH in the salicylic acid with an alcohol (methanol) which still forms an ester. The product made is called methyl 2-hydroxylbenzoate. Wintergreen is used as a liniment which is a lotion or liquid used to relieve pain. Properties of it are its soluable in fats, not water so it’s absorbed by the skin. Its helps pain and swelling. Wintergreen looks like this:

Definitions to know:  Condensation reaction is when two molecules react to form a larger molecule and get rid of a smaller molecule like water.  Esterfication is when a condensation reaction happens and an ester link is formed between the hydroxyl of the alcohol and the carboxyl group in the acid. The reverse of this is called ester hydrolysis which involves breaking down an ester using water.  Esters are named using the alcohol and acid which formed it and ends with oate. Example is ethanol and ethanoic acid gives ethyl ethanoate or phenol and benzoic acid gives phenyl benzoate. The phenyl comes from the alcohol and named. The benzoic comes from the acid. The c=o is from the acid while –o- is from the alcohol.  Molecule: Is the smallest part of a compound.

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