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An integrated waste management approach as an alternative solid waste management strategy for Mbare Township, Zimbabwe.

By

Maxwell Saungweme
(Student ID Number: 2009126893)

A mini-dissertation presented to the University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Masters in Development Studies

Supervisors: Ms Anita Venter and Professor Lochner Marais


Version: Final Draft

Date submitted: 9 February 2012.

February 2012

Authors Declaration

I declare that the mini-dissertation hereby submitted for the Masters in Development Studies at the Centre for Development Support, University of the Free State, is my own independent work and that I have not previously submitted this work for a qualification at/in another university/faculty.

In addition I cede copyright of this mini-dissertation to the University of the Free State.

Signed: Name: Maxwell Saungweme Student ID Number: 2009126893 Date: 9 February 2012 Place: Harare, Zimbabwe

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Abstract

This dissertation considers the possibility of adopting an integrated solid waste management system as an alternative to the current solid waste management system in Mbare Township in Zimbabwe. The study analysed literature on solid waste management and established that there are three paradigms in solid waste management which include early practices, contemporary practices and the integrated sustainable solid waste management model. Analysis of key policy documents and laws governing waste management in Zimbabwe was done. The study established that Zimbabwe has a comprehensive set of laws capable of making waste management sustainable and effective. However, there is poor implementation and lack of enforcement of these laws. Zimbabwe as a country has no national level waste management policy and the study found this as a major weakness that militated against adequate and environmentally sound solid waste management in the countrys towns and cities.

The study analysed and documented the solid waste management system of Mbare. A household survey using a pretested questionnaire was done in Mbare. A sample of 80 households participated in the household survey. The household survey was triangulated with field observations, key informant interviews, and secondary data sources. The solid waste management system in Mbare was found to be leaning more towards the early approaches in solid waste management where the system was mainly comprised of waste generation, collection, transportation, transfer and disposal while little attention was given to waste reduction, recycling and reuse. The study found this system to be unsustainable. Other findings of the study include that there is very little involvement and participation of residents and stakeholders in solid waste management in Mbare and the municipal authorities viewed residents as mere consumers of a service that they had to pay for. The Mbare solid waste management system was found to be fraught with many problems that included inconsistencies and irregular collection

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of waste, proliferation of illegal dumping sites, overflowing waste receptacles and dumping of waste on roadsides and in Mukuwisi River.

In the light of the challenges of the Mbare solid waste management system, the study recommended the adoption of waste reduction methods at household level, adoption of a three way waste segregation system at source, adoption of 3R (reduce, recycle and reuse) practices and principles, community education campaigns, greater community and private sector involvement in waste management and the development of a long term integrated sustainable solid waste management plan for Mbare. At a national level the study recommended better enforcement of existing laws on waste management and the formulation of a national level waste management policy in Zimbabwe.

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Acknowledgements I would like to acknowledge God and all the blessings he gave me including the ability to conceive and complete this dissertation. My gratitude goes to Ms Anita Venter and Professor Lochner Marais, my supervisors, who were so patient with me and guided me throughout the process of coming up with this dissertation. My sincerest gratitude also goes to Professor Lucius Botes for the help in reading through my second draft and giving me advice on further changes that were required in my dissertation.

Sincerest gratitude to Professor Lovemore Madhuku and Mrs. Noreen Gumbo, who provided the required references for me to enroll in the Masters in Development Studies Degree Programme with the University of the Free State.

Many thanks to Tamuka Chorimambowa, who helped with logistics in the data collection phase of the study. Tribute is due to the data gathering assistants for the household survey without whom this study would have been impossible: Martha Chimene, Admire Mutize, Tinashe Chirimambowa, Olivia Chimwai and Angeline Makande. My gratitude is also due to the Matapi Police Station officers who helped me get permission to do the household survey. I also thank all the City of Harare Waste Management staff who participated in the key informant interviews and gave me very useful data and documents for this study. Thank you all the household survey respondents for your priceless responses. To Tabani Moyo, Takura Zhangazha, Takesure Mugari, Oliver Mutanga, Shamiso Makande, Phillan Zamchiya, Blessing Mutsaka, Memory MaphosaMutsaka, Caroline Takawira, Margaret Masanga, and Rumbidzai Mupahlo, thank you for your advice and support during this study.

Sincere thanks to my work colleagues who kept encouraging me to do and finish the dissertation: John Templeton, Rachel Shue, Daniel OBrien, Angel Pesevski, Janee Crane, and Gabriel Kroes. To my Afghan national team members, Madina Mahboobi, Sadia Haya, Shoaib Shija, Kamran Samady, Fardin Samadi, and Dr. Khushal Moradzai: you were a great team and were with me throughout this process- thank you.

Dedication This dissertation is dedicated to my mother, Mary, Otillia, Manyara who inculcated a belief in me that education opens gates to unlimited opportunities at a very tender age. She toiled to send me to school during hard times, but my education and that of my siblings remained her priority. Her unwavering support and asking for updates during the penning of this dissertation were ever encouraging.

This piece is also dedicated to my son, Divinepanacea, Tinotenda, who would begrudgingly allow me to get lost into drafting this dissertation at a huge opportunity cost of not spending quality time with him. Just at grade 2, he understood that dad needed no distraction when writing his book. Dee, I hope this work will encourage you to do the same in the world of education in the future.

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Table of contents Authors Declaration ..................................................................................................... ii Abstract......................................................................................................................... iii Acknowledgements....................................................................................................... v Dedication ..................................................................................................................... vi Table of contents ........................................................................................................ vii Table of figures ........................................................................................................... xii List of tables ............................................................................................................... xiii List of acronyms ........................................................................................................ xiv CHAPTER 1 : BACKGROUND AND MOTIVATION OF STUDY ................................... 1 1.1 Background of the study ................................................................................................1 1.2 Statement of the problem ..............................................................................................2 1.2.1 Research questions .................................................................................................2 1.3 Aim and objectives of the study ....................................................................................3 1.3.1 Aim ............................................................................................................................3 1.3.2 Objectives .................................................................................................................3 1.4 Brief background of study area .....................................................................................4 1.5 Research methodology ..................................................................................................4 1.5.1 Research design ......................................................................................................4 1.5.2 Population.................................................................................................................5 1.5.3 Respondents ............................................................................................................5 1.5.4 Sampling procedures ..............................................................................................6 1.5.5 Data collection..........................................................................................................7 1.5.6 Data analysis and presentation ............................................................................13 1.6 Research ethics ............................................................................................................14 1.6.1 Objectivity and integrity .........................................................................................14 1.6.2 Privacy, confidentiality and anonymity.................................................................14 1.6.3 Informed consent and voluntary participation ....................................................15 1.7 Chapter organisation ....................................................................................................15 1.8 Fieldwork .......................................................................................................................15
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1.9 Limitations of the study ................................................................................................16 1.10 Summary .....................................................................................................................17 CHAPTER 2 : LITERATURE REVIEW ......................................................................... 18 2.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................................18 2.2 Waste.............................................................................................................................18 2.2.1 Solid waste .............................................................................................................19 2.2.2 Sources and types of solid waste.........................................................................19 2.2.3. Components of solid waste..................................................................................21 2.3 Solid waste management ............................................................................................22 2.3.1 Solid waste management processes ...................................................................22 2.4 Early solid waste management practices...................................................................25 2.5 Contemporary solid waste management methodologies .........................................26 2.5.1 Source reduction....................................................................................................26 2.5.2 Sanitary landfill .......................................................................................................26 2.5.3 Recycling ................................................................................................................27 2.5.4 Composting ............................................................................................................28 2.5.5 Incineration .............................................................................................................28 2.6 Integrated solid waste management...........................................................................29 2.7 Impact of solid waste on human health and environment ........................................33 2.8 Challenges in solid waste management.....................................................................34 2.9 Summary .......................................................................................................................35 CHAPTER 3 : POLICY FRAMEWORK ON WASTE MANAGEMENT IN ZIMBABWE 37 3.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................................37 3.2 Waste management policies in Zimbabwe ................................................................37 3.2.1 The Environmental Impact Assessment Policy of 1994.....................................38 3.2.2 The National Sustainable Development Strategy of 2004 .................................39 3.2.3 The Draft Strategic Document on Waste Management of 2004 .......................41 3.2.4 The Science and Technology Policy of 2002 ......................................................42 3.2.5 The Draft National Environmental Policy of 2003...............................................42 3.2.6 Gaps and challenges of national policies ............................................................43
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3.3 National legislation on waste management in Zimbabwe ........................................43 3.3.1 The Environmental Management Act (EMA) (Chapter 20:27) of 2002.............44 3.3.2 Rural District Councils Act (Chapter 29:13) of 1988 ..........................................47 3.3.3 The Urban Councils Act (Chapter 29:15) of 1997 ..............................................48 3.3.4 Regional, Town And Country Planning Act (Chapter 29:12) of 1976 ...............49 3.3.5 Water Act (Chapter 20:24) of 1998 ......................................................................50 3.3.6 The Public Health Act (Chapter 15:09) of 1924 ..................................................50 3.3.7 Harare municipality by-laws on waste management ..........................................51 3.3.8 Gaps between legislative requirements and practice.........................................52 3.4 Summary .......................................................................................................................52 CHAPTER 4 : RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DATA ANALYSIS .................................. 55 4.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................................55 4.2 Waste management and waste profile in Harare and the Mbare neighborhood .55 4.2.1.1 Solid waste management in Harare and Mbare ..............................................56 4.2.1.2 Mbares Solid waste management system ......................................................57 4.2.1.3 Residents and stakeholder participation in waste management processes .59 4.2.1.4 Waste management challenges in Mbare and Harare ...................................61 4.2.1.5 Effects of poor solid waste management in Mbare and Harare ...................62 4.2.2 Waste composition and profile in Harare and Mbare ........................................62

4.2.2.1 Solid waste profile of Harare .............................................................................63 4.2.2.2 Solid waste profile of Mbare ..............................................................................63 4.2.3 Comparison of solid waste composition between Mbare and Harare.................64 4.2.3.1 Mbare generates less waste percentage wise compared to Harare .............65 4.2.3.2 Mbare generates more agricultural waste than Harare ..................................66 4.2.3.3 Mbare generates more construction waste than Harare ................................66 4.2.3.4 Mbare generates more metal and textile waste than Harare .........................67 4.3. Waste management strategies and awareness of policies among Mbare households: Survey results ................................................................................................67 4.3.1 4.3.2 Socio-economic profile of respondents ...........................................................67 Solid waste management strategies of household survey respondents......70
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4.3.3 Solid waste handling .............................................................................................70 4.3.4 Solid waste separation ..........................................................................................72 4.3.5 Solid waste collection ............................................................................................73 4.3.6 Solid waste collection, transfer and transportation .............................................74 4.3.7 Solid waste disposal ..............................................................................................76 4.3.9 Extent of household 3R practices ............................................................................79 4.3.9.1 Waste reduction.................................................................................................79 4.3.9.2 Composting ........................................................................................................80 4.3.9.3 Recycling and reuse...........................................................................................80 4.3.10 Residents awareness of waste management policies.........................................82 4.4 Summary .......................................................................................................................82 CHAPTER 5 : OVERVIEW OF MAIN RESEARCH FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ................................................................................................. 84 5.1 Introduction ...................................................................................................................84 5.2 OVERVIEW OF THE MAIN FINDINGS OF THE RESEARCH ................................85 5.2.1 Unsustainable solid waste management system................................................85 5.2.2 Inadequate resources............................................................................................86 5.2.3 Factors influencing solid waste management .....................................................86 5.2.4 Little practice of reduce, recycle and re-use principles ......................................87 5.2.5 Lack of private actors and stakeholders participation ........................................88 5.2.6 Policies and implementation .................................................................................89 5.3 RECOMMENDATIONS................................................................................................91 5.3.1 Reducing waste .....................................................................................................91 5.3.2 Promotion of 3R practices.....................................................................................92 5.3.3 Communal composting .........................................................................................93 5.3.4 Regular collection of waste ...................................................................................94 5.3.5 Waste disposal .......................................................................................................94 5.3.6 More involvement of the private sector................................................................94 5.3.7 Greater involvement of community ......................................................................95 5.3.8 Public campaigns and education .........................................................................95
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5.3.9 Develop a long term integrated solid waste management plan ........................95 5.3.10 Review existing laws and policies ......................................................................96 5.4 THE VALUE OF THE RESEARCH AND FUTURE POSSIBILITIES ......................96 List of references ........................................................................................................ 98 Appendices ................................................................................................................ 110 Appendix A: Semi-structured interview guide for Mbare solid waste management household survey.............................................................................................................. 110 Appendix B: Semi-structured key-informant interview guide for Mbare solid waste management service provider interviews. ...................................................................... 125 Appendix C: Observation guide for Mbare for solid waste management study .......... 141 Appendix D: Centre for Development Support field work support letter...................... 142

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Table of figures Figure 2.1: Integrated solid waste management model ................................................. 32 Figure 4.1: Comparison of solid waste composition between Mbare Township and greater Harare city......................................................................................................... 65 Figure 4.2: Waste handling methods in Mbare .............................................................. 71 Figure 4.3: Mixing of solid waste ................................................................................... 72 Figure 4.4: Types of receptacles used by households in Mbare ................................... 73 Figure 4.5: Overflowing skip bins in Matapi area ........................................................... 74 Figure 4.6: Other methods of waste disposal in Mbare ................................................. 77 Figure 4.7: Illegal disposal of waste in Mbare ............................................................... 78 Figure 4.8: Reuse of metal waste in Mbare ................................................................... 81 Figure 4.9: Elements of Mbares solid waste system..................................................... 83

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List of tables Table 1.1: Participant response rate................................................................................ 5 Table 1.2 Summary of research methods used ............................................................. 13 Table 2.1 Sources and types of solid waste .................................................................. 20 Table 3.1: Action plan for waste disposal systems rehabilitation................................... 41 Table 3.2: Summary of shortcomings of policies and laws on waste management ....... 53 Table 4.1 Socio-economic profile of survey respondents .............................................. 68 Table 4.2 Residents ability to pay for refuse ................................................................. 76 Table 4.3 Respondent feelings about recycling of waste .............................................. 81

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List of acronyms CED CZI DNR EIA EMA EMB GIM HIV/AIDS LEAP MDC MET NAC NGOs NSDS NWPCC ORO SIRDC SPSS UN UNCED UNEP USA US USEPA USPS WHO ZANU PF ZELA ZINWA ZPS Centre for Environment and Development Confederation of Zimbabwe Industries Department of Natural Resources Environmental Impact Assessment Environmental Management Act Environment Management Board Ghana Innovation Marketplace Human Immune Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Local Environmental Action Plan Movement for Democratic Change Ministry of Environment and Tourism Neighborhood Advisory Committee Non Governmental Organisations National Sustainable Development Strategy National Waste Paper Collection Company Operation Restore Order Scientific and Industrial Research and Development Centre Statistical Package for Social Sciences United Nations United Nations Conference on Environment and Development United Nations Environment Programme United States of America United States United States Environmental Protection Agency Urban Sector Programme Support Secretariat World Health Organisation Zimbabwe African National Union (Patriotic Front) Zimbabwe Environmental Law Association Zimbabwe National Water Authority Zimbabwe Population Services
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CHAPTER 1 : BACKGROUND AND MOTIVATION OF STUDY

1.1 Background of the study Solid waste management is one of the major problems confronting Zimbabwes towns and cities and the problem is increasing with rapid urbanisation, increasing population, industries and increased use of non-biodegradable plastics and bottles (Maseva, 2005: 9; Kaseke, 2005:1). Solid waste management can be defined as activities to handle, process, transport and dispose of waste regarded as non-liquid waste, in order to reduce or avoid the human health and environmental negative impacts of solid waste. Yedla (2005:93) adds that solid waste management is one of the most important aspects of urban development, and is gaining importance among developing nations. Solid waste management has emerged as a dominant urban environmental issue that has attracted academic, economic and media debates, and has over the years developed into an independent discipline (Manyanhaire et al., 2009: 127; and Yedla, 2005:94). However, this growth in content and general awareness is faced with crumbling solid waste management systems in the cities and towns (Manyanhaire et al., 2009:127).

Yedla (2005:94) ascribes the increase in solid waste problems in cities to changes in living conditions and influence of western throw away culture. This increase in solid waste generation results in environmental degradation and huge loss of natural resources (Parikh and Parikh, 1997). Zurbrgg (2002:1) revealed that inadequate waste disposal creates serious environmental problems that affect human health.

Environmental degradation caused by inadequate disposal of waste is evident through the contamination of surface and ground water via leachate, soil contamination through direct waste contact or leachate, air pollution from waste burning, spreading of diseases via vectors that include birds, insects and rodents, and uncontrolled release of methane by anaerobic decomposition of waste (Zurbrgg, 2002:1).

Given the magnitude of the challenge of solid waste management in developing countries, Zimbabwe and its towns and cities and the apparent lack of integrated
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sustainable solid waste management systems, it is important that more is done to advocate for solid waste management systems that are sustainable. This study will add to the body of knowledge on solid waste management and looks at the possibility of adopting and integrated solid waste management system in Mbare Township. 1.2 Statement of the problem Poor solid waste management is one of the environmental problems facing urban areas in the third world (Hope and Lekorwe, 1999:837; and Manyanhaire et al., 2009:129). Very few urban areas in the developing world have adequate and sustainable waste disposal systems and litter is a growing problem which has not received much attention in Southern Africa and the problem of litter is mainly attributable to the increase in packaging and plastics (Jansson, 1997).

Accumulated waste threatens health, damages the environment and adversely affects the quality of urban life (Agunwamba, 1998:850; and Hardoy, 2001). Given these adverse consequences of poor solid waste management, sustainable solid waste management is of great importance (Jin et al., 2006:1047; and Turan et al., 2009).

In Mbare, health problems are compounded by a combination of overcrowding, uncollected accumulated solid waste from the main market, residential areas and industrial sites (Sachiti, 2010). The solid waste management system used in Mbare is failing to address the challenge of accumulated solid waste in the Township. Uncollected accumulated waste, disposal of waste on the illegal dumps, in Manyame River and on the roadside characterise the current system. Due to the inadequacy of the current system this study will put forward the need of pursuing an integrated solid waste management system as an alternative to the existing Mbare solid waste management system.

1.2.1 Research questions Given the background above, the study seeks to answer the following questions: What are the composition and profile of solid waste in Mbare and Harare?
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What are the solid waste management strategies in Mbare? What is the current solid waste management system in Mbare and is it sustainable?

What are the current 3R (reduce, recycle, reuse) practices done by Mbare residents?

What are the gaps in policies on waste management in Zimbabwe? How can an integrated sustainable solid waste management system be established in Mbare?

1.3 Aim and objectives of the study 1.3.1 Aim To do an analysis of the current solid waste management system of Mbare Township and provide recommendations on the need to adopt an integrated solid waste management system in the Township. 1.3.2 Objectives The research objectives include: To study the magnitude and dimensions of solid waste generated by Mbare township; To document the current Mbare Township solid waste management system; To map stakeholders in the Mbare solid waste management system and establish their role and influence in an integrated solid waste management system; To analyse the various sustainability aspects of the Mbare solid waste management system; To determine the effectiveness of policies and laws on solid waste management in Zimbabwe that have a bearing on Mbare Township waste management; and To determine the feasibility of establishing an integrated solid waste management system in Mbare.

1.4 Brief background of study area Mbare is one of Zimbabwes oldest townships and was created in 1907. It is located on the south eastern part of Harare. Mbare is home to about 120,000 people. Mbare hosts the main bus terminus in Harare and the biggest agricultural produce market (Mbare Musika). Mbare is one of the townships that were heavily affected by the governments Operation Restore Order (ORO) campaign which saw many houses and slums being destroyed in many towns in Zimbabwe in May 2005. Mbare is also one of the townships where the poorest residents of Harare stay. Housing units in Mbare are generally overcrowded.

1.5 Research methodology 1.5.1 Research design The research design for this study can be described as represented by Mouton (2001:146), under his classification frameworks of research design types as being: Primarily empirical but with some components that are non-empirical. Conceptual and theoretical work informed and guided primary data collection in the field and the primary data was also employed to develop and refine the theory and concepts in the study; Hybrid use of primary and relevant secondary data. This involved the analysis of primary data vs existing data; A combination of numeric and textual data; and Medium control the researcher had some degree of control over the information collected and the methods of collection, nevertheless control over responses from study participants and the availability of secondary data used in the research was low.

The research design for the study is mixed and a mixed method research design can help bridge the schism between quantitative and qualitative research (Johnson and Onwuegbuzie, 2004:15). White (2009:280) states that mixed methods are combinations

of qualitative and quantitative approaches, and that all quantitative studies have some measure of qualitative analysis.

The study also employed a cross-sectional survey study design i.e. collecting of data from respondents at one point in time and from more than one case or respondent (Bryman and Bell, 2007:55). According to Bryman and Bell (2007:55) a cross sectional design will also include collecting data on two or more variables and data in this study was collected from many households and key informants. Data was collected on refuse disposal methods, refuse collection methods, perceptions on waste management and effects and challenges of poor solid waste management.

1.5.2 Population A study population is the universe of units from where a sample is drawn (Bryman, 2004:87). Sampling according to Seale (2004:510) is an attempt to statistically represent a population. The study population included households in Mbare. Mbares population is roughly estimated at 120,000 according to Zimbabwe Population Services (ZPS). Mbare has roughly 15000 households. 1.5.3 Respondents A variety of research instruments were used in this study, mainly household survey questionnaires, self-administered key informant interview questionnaires and a field observations guide. Table 1.1: Participant response rate
Respondents and type of instrument Responded and returned Household survey (questionnaire) Key informant interviews Total 80 2 82 Total sent/ administered 80 5 85 Response rate (%) 100 40 96.4

Sources: Household Survey and Key Informant Interviews.

From the table above the study participant response rate for the household survey and the key informant interviews was 96.4 percent. All 80 households (100%) responded to the survey as the questionnaires were physically administered. If a respondent refused to participate the researcher would move to the next household or interview a willing participant at the same household. The survey questionnaires were administered faceto-face to ensure that all the required 80 responses were obtained. Only 2 out of the 5 respondents who received the self-administered key informant interview questionnaires responded. Telephone follow ups with the respondents who did not respond revealed that they were not comfortable responding to the study questions for political reasons. Most of the key informants were supposed to be municipal workers of the City of Harare. One of the respondents who could not participate in the study revealed that there was a lot of political polarisation within the municipality structures and no one was willing to give out much information. Instead two of the respondents opted to give the researcher documents with statistics and reports rather than responding to the survey questionnaires in spite of the researchers assurances that they would not be identified in the study report. 1.5.4 Sampling procedures A sample can be viewed as part or segment of a population which is selected for the study. This study largely used non-probability sampling in which according to Bell (2004:543) and Bryman and Bell (2007:197) some people have unknown chance of being selected. Non-probability sampling was used to purposely identify respondents to the household survey who would provide required information. As noted by Trochim (2006) in applied social science research it is permissible to consider varieties of nonprobability sampling alternatives where it is not practical or theoretically sensible to do random sampling.

Sampling techniques that included cluster, purposive and convenient samplings were used. Firstly, the study area was zoned into the administrative wards of Mbare Township, Ward 3 and 4. Then, based on initial field observations, four areas within these wards were identified for the purpose of conducting the household survey. The
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areas were Mbare National, Matapi, Matererini and part of Ward 3. Twenty household survey questionnaires were then administered face-to-face in each of these four areas to resemble geographical spread and increase representativeness.

Purposive sampling can be defined as a qualitative research based sampling method which entails attempts to establish a good connection between research questions and sampling (Bryman, 2004:333). Participants in purposive sampling are selected based on their significance to the research questions (Seale, 2004:199). The initial field observations helped the researcher to identify the four areas to focus on. Observations like heaps of solid waste, overflowing skip bins, signs of over crowdedness, waste in open spaces and alleys helped the researcher to purposely select the four areas as areas where the household survey was to be conducted.

According to Bryman (2004:100) convenient sampling includes samples selected by a researcher on the basis of ease of accessibility of the sample objects to the researcher. The method was used in both the household survey and the key informant interviews. In the household survey if a respondent was unwilling to participate, the researcher would interview the next accessible and willing participants. This was also the same for the key informant interviews where waste management staffs of the City of Harare were interviewed. 1.5.5 Data collection This study used mixed methods data collection strategies. Mixed method data

collection strategies are those that are explicitly designed to combine elements of one method with elements of other methods, in either a sequential or a simultaneous manner (Axinn and Pearce, 2006:1).The selection of mixed methods for data collection for this study enabled the researcher to gain special opportunities to use of multiple sources of information from multiple approaches to gain new insights (Axinn and Pearce, 2006:2) into the solid waste management dynamics in Mbare.

Varying the data collection approaches in this study reduced non-sampling error by providing redundant information from multiple sources; and ensured that a potential bias coming from one particular approach is not replicated in alternative approaches (Axinn and Pearce, 2006:2).Using different sources of information gathering is also called triangulation and it helped in minimising biases coming from use of a single method.

Data in the study was collected from households in Mbare, employees of the City of Harare Waste management department, and informal business operators in Mbare. In addition to this, relevant secondary data was also used in the study. The data collection stage of the study had three phases namely, literature review and secondary data analysis; analysis of waste management policy and legal documents in Zimbabwe; and primary data collection which included, field observations, a household survey, and key informant interviews. The data obtained from literature review gave the researcher an overview of the extent of solid waste challenges in third world countries and the study area. The literature helped the researcher in understanding the key concepts in solid waste management. The literature review gave a lot of direction on areas to focus on during the policy analysis phase. After a clear understanding of concepts and challenges of solid waste management in Mbare and elsewhere and an understanding of the limitations in policies on waste management in Zimbabwe the researcher was able to have strong pointers on what to look for during the field observations. The information gathered from the literature review helped a lot in the design of the field observation guide the researcher used. The data gathered during field observations informed the selection of study areas where the household survey was conducted and the design of the of the household survey questionnaire. The data gathered in field observations and household survey was also very helpful in the design of the key informant interview questionnaire as well as noting down of questions to follow up with key informants regarding solid waste collection services.

1.5.5.1 Literature review and secondary data collection In this phase the researcher sought to construct a picture of the magnitude, extent, views, nature of, and paradigms in the problem of solid waste management through
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reading books, journal articles, dissertations, and newspaper articles. The researcher also read through reports of other players working in the area of waste management and public health in Mbare and in Harare in general that included NGOs. The

researcher also looked at local authority reports, archived data and other sources of information on solid waste management.

The use of written records and previous studies provided useful information for research on contemporary problems related to solid waste management (Axinn and Pearce, 2006:2). Bryman and Bell (2007:328) assert that the use of secondary data offers the prospect of having access to good quality information with very little resources (time and money) used in the process. However, secondary data may have content problem; low ecological and temporary validity; and low impetrative validity (Johnson and Turner, 2003).

The secondary data and literature review phase helped in guiding the researcher on issues worth analysing in the policy documents analysis phase and development of primary data collection tools that were used in the primary data collection stage.

1.5.5.2 Analysis of policy documents Analysis of key policy documents, Acts and City of Harare by-laws that had a bearing on solid waste management in Zimbabwe and Harare was done.

The following policy documents were reviewed: Environmental Impact Assessment Policy of 1994; National Sustainable Development Strategy of 2004; Draft Waste Management Strategy of 2006; Science and Technology Policy of 2002; and the Draft National Environmental Policy of 2003.

The following laws were reviewed: The Environmental Management Act (Chapter 20:27);
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The Urban Councils Act (Chapter 29:15); The Rural District Councils Act (Chapter 29:13); The Regional Town and Country Planning Act (Chapter 29:12); The Water Act (Chapter 20:22); The Public Health Act (Chapter 15:09); and City of Harare by-laws.

1.5.5.3 Primary data collection In the primary data collection phase data was collected through preliminary field observations, household survey and key informant interviews. These data collection methods are discussed below.

1.5.5.3.1 Preliminary field observations The field observations involved scouting through the research area to assess the following among other issues: Individual household waste collection receptacles; Communal waste collection skip bins; Presence of waste in alleys; Illegal dumpsites; Landfill sites; Presence of children, scavengers and pets at waste heaps and illegal dumpsites; and Types of waste found at disposals sites.

During this process which involved intensive walking and driving around the Mbare district, photographs were taken of waste heaps on illegal dumpsites and open spaces, overflowing skip bins, pictures of people reusing waste, and scattered waste around houses and along the roads (see figures 4.5, 4.6, 4.7 and 4.8).

The findings in the field observations were included in the analysis of data gathered. This process was very helpful in informing the design of the data gathering tools used in
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both the household survey and key informant interviews as well as sampling the areas where the household survey questionnaires were to be administered.

1.5.5.3.2 Household survey A semi-structured survey instrument/questionnaire with closed and open-ended questions was used in the survey. The design of the instrument was based on findings from literature review, analysis of policy documents and field observations. The use of open-ended questions in the instrument helped in eliciting participant views on the solid waste management system in Mbare that may not necessary have come out from the exclusive use of closed questions. Bryman and Bell (2007:261) noted that the use of closed questions lead to: ease of processing answers; enhanced comparability of answers, making it easier to show relationships between variables, to make comparisons between variables and to make comparisons between respondents; closed questions may clarify the meaning of questions to respondents and are easy for interviewers and for respondents to complete; and in interviews they reduce the variability in recording answers. However, closed questions have the following setbacks: loss of spontaneity in respondents answers; difficulty of making forced-choice answers mutually exclusive and exhaustive; variation of answers among respondents to force choice answers; irritate respondents if they feel the category of questions does not apply to them; when dealing with large numbers of respondents it may be difficult for interviewer and respondent to establish rapport (Bryman and Bell, 2007:261-2).

Open-ended questions lead to: respondents answering their own questions; allowing unusual responses to be derived; questions were not suggestive; and were useful to exploration of new areas; and generation of fixed-choice format answers (Bryman and Bell, 2007: 258-9). The following were some of the disadvantages of using open ended questions in the study as also confirmed by Bryman and Bell (2007:259) time consuming to administer interviews; answers had to be coded; and required great effort from respondents.

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The household survey instrument was pretested in the study areas before the full study was done. The questionnaires were administered on 80 respondents in National, Matapi, Matererini and part of Ward 3 during the actual survey. A face-to-face interview approach was used in administering the 80 survey questionnaires. The advantage of using this type of interviews in this study in Mbare Township where the literacy levels are low included ease and usefulness in interviewing less literate people, high response rate, ability of interviewer to explain and clarify issues; (Johnson and Turner, 2003). A response rate of 100% was recorded as a convenient sampling method was used and where a respondent was unwilling to participate in the survey the researcher would move to the next available and willing household respondent. However, the household survey took longer than planned to be completed as some people who claimed to be local Zimbabwe African National Union (Patriotic Front) (ZANU PF) members harassed the researcher and the data gathering assistants because they had not sought their permission to do the household survey. The researcher had sought permission from district administrators office and the local police to access the study areas and had avoided going to different political parties with a presence in Mbare as this would have politicised the study.

1.5.5.3.2 Key informant interviews Due to constraints of time and money the key informant interviews were done using a self-administered questionnaire sent to the will-be respondents by email. The questionnaire was sent to 3 waste management department staff at the local office in Granitesite near Mbare and 2 staff in the waste management head office in the city centre. These respondents had been identified as key during the preliminary investigations and the researcher had established contact with them prior to sending the semi-structured questionnaires by email. Only 2 of the key informant interview respondents returned the questionnaires. Telephone calls were done to follow up on clarifications on some responses by the two who responded. Telephone follow ups were also done to the three who did not return their questionnaires and one of these respondents informed the researcher that there was a lot of politically related polarisation in the city council structures and it was risky to give out information. The
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respondent opted instead to give the researcher internal reports with statistics and other information on waste management than responding to the questionnaire. The fear within the municipality structures was understandable given that Zimbabwe is currently having a shaky inclusive government with officials in municipalities being employed on a political basis from the three political parties in government. The timing of the study also coincided with the exposure of United States (US) diplomatic cables by WikiLeaks where a lot of government officials were exposed to have been talking in secrecy with US diplomats in the country about the political future of Zimbabwe. So regardless of the assurances given by the researcher including the Center for Development Support letter showing that the data the researcher was gathering was to be used for academic purposes only, the key informants were very uncomfortable to give any responses through both email or telephone interviews.

Table 1.2 below summarises the data collection processes used in this study. It shows the data collection methods used to gather for each of the chapters; Table 1.2 Summary of research methods used
Chapter Literature review Analysis of policy documents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3 Chapter 4 Chapter 5 XXX XXX XX XX XXX XX XX XXX XX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XXX XX XX XX Household survey Observations Key informant interviews XX Photography

Legend: XXX: Very relevant method; XX: Relevant method; X: Lower relevance

1.5.6 Data analysis and presentation Questionnaires administered during the household survey and the key informant interviews were examined and checked for completeness, accuracy and consistency to minimise errors. The questions were then coded based on responses before the responses were captured in the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) database created for the study for easy of analysis of the quantitative data. The data
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was processed to produce statistical tables and charts for interpretation and discussions. The data was analysed both qualitatively and quantitatively. Data was also disaggregated according to the four study locations (Matapi, Matererini, National and part of Ward 3) to determine localised trends in the responses. 1.6 Research ethics Scientific research is a form of human conduct and should adhere to acceptable values and norms (Mouton, 2001:238). Bryman and Bell (2003:132) add that ethical issues in research should look at the four principles: whether there is harm to participants; lack of informed consent; invasion of privacy; and deception is involved. Following are some of the ethical issues that were considered in this study:

1.6.1 Objectivity and integrity The researcher strove to maintain objectivity and integrity in conducting research Mouton (2001:240). In line with Moutons (2001:240) recommendations, the researcher ensured that this study adhered to the highest possible technical standards consistent in conducting scientific researches. These included ensuring that the findings of the research study are represented fully without falsifying data and acknowledging sources of information for the study. By doing so the researcher achieved objectivity in a highly subjective study. 1.6.2 Privacy, confidentiality and anonymity This study strove to protect the rights of the subjects including their interests, psychological, physical well-being and sensitivities (Mouton, 2001:243). Where respondents explicitly stated that they wanted to remain anonymous, the researcher kept their identities private. The research also respected subjects right to privacy particularly those that refused to participate in the study through not forcing them to participate.

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1.6.3 Informed consent and voluntary participation The aims of the investigation were disclosed to the participants in clear, unambiguous and simple manner (Mouton, 2001:244). The researcher and the data collection assistants informed participants fully on the elements of the research and the possible consequences. The researcher assured the participants that any information they provided for the study was to be confidential, including their identities.

1.7 Chapter organisation This dissertation has 5 chapters. Chapter 1 gives the motivation and background to the study covering the research purpose, methodology, background of study area, field work, ethical considerations of the study and limitations. Chapter 2 looks at literature review where an exploration and analysis of various literatures on solid waste management was done to set the tone for the study and provide guidance to subsequent chapters. Chapter 3 looks at current policies in Zimbabwe with regards to waste management. An analysis of the gaps in policies and legislation that have a bearing on waste management in the country was done. Chapter 4 presents the empirical findings from the research and field work. Chapter 5, the last chapter, looks at main conclusions and recommendations.

1.8 Fieldwork Before carrying out the household survey meetings were arranged with ward councilors of the two wards in Mbare and officials from the district administrators office where negotiations for access into Mbare to do the survey were done. The officials from the district administrators offices agreed to the study and offered to help where they can. They however advised the researcher to inform the local police at Matapi Police Station as Mbare Township is known to be very polarised politically with councilors from the former opposition Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) party in place but the other political party, ZANU PF, does not recognise them and the ZANU PF supporters keep a close look at what happens in the whole of Mbare. To avoid any political problems and violence against the researcher and the data collection assistants the police at Matapi
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station asked the researcher to bring to them all the data collection tools to be used in the household survey for them to put the official police stamp on them in case some people doubted the motive of the household survey. All the questionnaires that were used in the survey were police stamped. However, during the survey some alleged ZANU PF youths tried to bar the researcher and the data collection assistants from collecting data in Mbare as they said the survey was not cleared by their party chairman. This problem led to a temporary stoppage in collecting data during the

survey. The problem was resolved after the intervention of police officers at Matapi police station who explained to the suspected ZANU PF officials that the data was being collected for an academic study and not for political reasons and the police had cleared the process to go on.

For the household survey 5 data collection assistants who included 3 females and 2 males among them 3 recent graduates from a local university and 2 university students were recruited and trained in administering the questionnaires. The data collection assistants helped in both the pre-testing of the questionnaire and the actual survey. A data capturing assistant was later hired to help in entering data into the SPSS package database after coding of responses.

1.9 Limitations of the study Firstly, the empirical findings for this study were based on a small sample of 80 households due to constraints of time and monetary resources that made it impossible to have a bigger sample. This fact may make generalisation of some of the findings problematic.

Secondly, due to a lot of political polarisation in Mbare some of the respondents may have not been so free to air their views on matters like the challenges the authorities were facing with waste management and this may have influenced them to answer these questions in a particular way.

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Thirdly, some independent and useful views of the waste management staff who participated in the key informant interviews may not have come out clearly as the study coincided with the WikiLeaks exposures that were implicating some government officials in saying out state secrets to American diplomats. This challenge also accounted for the low response rate among the key informant interview participants. Furthermore, the study did not look at issues like technological design, ecological and economic analysis as well as gender analysis in an integrated sustainable waste management system. These are very important issues in establishing an integrated sustainable waste management system but they fell outside the scope of this study.

Finally, as noted in literature review, Chapter 2, there are different sources of solid waste that include domestic, agricultural and industrial waste. This study concentrated more on domestic solid waste due to scope of the study and resource constraints. 1.10 Summary This chapter gave a brief overview of the study background and motivation. It also looked at the problem statement for the study, the scope, purpose and objectives of the study and methodology used in the study. The chapter also looked at some challenges encountered during the research, the ethical considerations for the study and the possible limitations of the study. The next chapter will look at the analysis of literature on solid waste management.

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CHAPTER 2 : LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Introduction Rapid urbanisation and the resultant solid waste generation have rendered the traditional solid waste management system whose main elements are collecting, transporting and disposing of solid waste unsustainable and inefficient as urban centres continue to grapple with the challenges of huge volumes of uncollected solid waste (Puorideme, 2010:7). Changes in living conditions and influences of western throw away culture have also exacerbated the challenge of solid waste management in developing countries (Yedla, 2005:94). With the increased worldwide calls for the

promotion of environmental sustainability, many scholars have developed interest in the concept of integrated sustainable waste management as opposed to the traditional waste management practices that did not pay much attention to environmental sustainability issues.

This chapter explores various literatures on solid waste management. It examines key concepts in solid waste management, early and contemporary methods of managing solid waste, and a discussion on integrated solid waste management. The chapter also looks briefly on health problems caused by poorly managed solid waste and challenges in solid waste management in developing countries.

2.2 Waste It is easy to recognise or call something as waste but very often it is difficult to define waste. Puopiel (2010:8) notes that waste is easily recognised than defined and that there are basically two types of waste namely solid and liquid waste. Scholars in waste management broadly define waste as materials that are no longer wanted by the owner (Mader, 2011:5) or material discharged and discarded as unnecessary from each stage of daily human life activities, which leads to adverse impacts on human health and the environment (Dev, 2007:3). Dev (2007:3) concludes that waste is useless, unused, unwanted, or discarded materials. However, Rimberg (1975:5) contends that discarded materials that are recyclable cannot be termed waste as the word waste connotes negative economic value yet discarded recyclable material will still have
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economic value. As will be seen in the next section and chapters 4 and 5, the author takes waste to be any discarded materials that may have value or not. The study will advocate for measures like recycling and reuse of some waste as measures that will lead to recovery of some value from waste and reduction of the waste that is finally discarded. This study will focus on solid waste and therefore what follows is a brief discussion on the concept of solid waste.

2.2.1 Solid waste Solid waste is a term that has been defined variably by many scholars. Solid waste can be defined as materials, discarded from industrial, commercial, mining or agricultural operations, and from community activities (Kemal, 2007:17). It can be distinguished from liquid waste, a term often used to refer to sewerage or waste water (Mader, 2011:5). Tchobanoglous et al. (1993) view solid waste as any material that come out from human and animal activities and are normally discarded as useless or unwanted. Solid waste includes non-hazardous industrial, commercial and domestic waste including: household organic trash; street sweepings; institutional garbage; and GIM (2009) define solid waste as neither

construction wastes (Zerbock, 2003).

wastewater discharges nor atmospheric emissions emanating from domestic, commercial, industrial, and institutional activities in urban areas.

For the purpose of this study, solid waste will be defined as non-wastewater and nonatmospheric discarded waste materials emanating from human activity. The materials can have economic value or may not have any economic value. The study will focus on residential solid waste, and some commercial solid waste from business activities in Mbare. 2.2.2 Sources and types of solid waste Solid waste can be classified into many types depending on source: house hold waste (municipal/domestic waste), industrial waste, agricultural waste, bio-medical waste; hazardous waste, non-hazardous waste, bio-degradable waste, and non-bio degradable waste (Kemal, 2007:17; and Mader, 2011:5). Tchobanoglous et al. (1993) classify types
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of solid waste in terms of the relationship of solid waste to sources and generation facilities, activities, or locations associated with each type.

Table 2.1 Sources and types of solid waste


Source Residential Typical location Household dwellings: low, medium, and high-rise apartments. Type of solid waste Food waste, rubbish, ashes, special wastes

Commercial/ Municipal

Stores, restaurants, markets, offices, hotels, shops, medical facilities and institutions.

Food waste, rubbish, ashes, demolition /construction waste, special wastes,

occasionally hazardous wastes Food waste, rubbish, ashes, demolition /construction wastes, special wastes, occasionally hazardous wastes.

Industrial

Construction, fabrication, light and heavy manufacturing, refineries, chemical plants, lumbering, mining, demolition.

Open areas

Streets, alleys, parks, vacant plots, playgrounds, beaches, highway and recreational areas.

Special wastes, rubbish

Treatment plant sites

Water, wastes water, and industrial treatment processes.

Treatment plant wastes, residual sludge

Agricultural

Field

and

row

crops,

orchards,

Spoiled food wastes, agricultural wastes, rubbish, hazardous wastes

vineyards, dairies, feedlots and farms.

Sources: Dev (2007:6-8); Madewe and Madewe (2006); Tchobanoglous et al. (1993:52-53) and Puopiel (2010:9).

The types of waste identified in table 2.1 above are further explained below:

Food waste:

also known as garbage includes all the animal, vegetable and plant

residue emanating from handling, preparation, cooking and eating of foods. Food waste is highly putrescible and decomposes rapidly in warmer temperatures and often decomposes leaving behind bad odor. In most residential areas the putrescible nature of this type of waste has a great influence on design and operation of solid waste collection systems (Puopiel, 2010:10).

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Rubbish: Rubbish or trash on the other hand includes paper, plastics, cans, bottles, glass, metals, ceramics, dust, garden waste. With the exclusion of garden waste, these are materials regarded non-putrescible (Dev, 2007:8). This type of solid waste also includes combustible material like paper, cardboard, plastics, textiles, rubber, leather, wood, furniture, and trimmings and non-combustible materials like glass, tin cans, aluminum cans, ferrous and non-ferrous metals(Puopiel, 2010:10).

Ashes: this is also a form of waste resulting from combustion processes in households. These are remains from burning of wood, coal, coke and other materials from domestic, store, institutional, industrial and municipal facilitates (Dev, 2007:8 and Puopiel, 2010:10).

Special waste: these include street sweepings, roadside litter, municipal container litter, catch basin debris, dead animals and abandoned vehicles (Puopiel, 2010:10 and Tchobanoglous et al., 1993)

Types of solid waste can also be classified according to origin (i.e. food waste, rubbish, ashes, residues, demolition and construction waste, and agricultural waste (CED, 2003; Madewe and Madewe, 2006; Kutiwa et al., 2010). Waste can also be classified based on its characteristics (biodegradable and non-biodegradable) or based on risk potential (i.e. hazardous waste) (Puopiel, 2010:10). CED (2003), Cointreau-Levine (1982), Dev (2007), Mader (2011), and Kemal (2007) all note the sources of solid waste as residential, shops, commercial establishments, hotels and restaurants, open areas, and agricultural activities. These scholars do confirm the sources and types of solid waste enumerated by Tchobanoglous et al. (1993). From this discussion one would conclude that types of solid waste include: food waste, rubbish, ashes, demolition waste, agricultural waste, special waste and treatment plant waste.

2.2.3. Components of solid waste Since solid waste does include a lot of materials some which are combustible and some noncombustible, some biodegradable and
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some

non

biodegradable

clear

understanding of the composition of solid waste would greatly influence the proposed solid waste management methods for any given community. Combustible materials include paper, plastics, yard debris, food waste, wood, textiles, disposable diapers and other organic materials (Puopiel, 2010:11). Glass, metal, bones, leather and aluminum are some of the non-combustible materials forming solid waste (Dension and Ruston, 1990; Kreith, 1994; and Zerbock, 2003).

2.3 Solid waste management Solid waste management can be defined as the administration of activities that include collection, sources separation, storage, transportation, transfer, processing, treatment and disposal (Kumah, 2007:2). Tchobanoglous et al. (1993:7) defined solid waste management as a discipline that is associated with, control of generation, storage, collection, transfer and transport, processing and disposal of solid waste in a manner that is in accordance with the best principles of public health, economics, engineering, conservation, aesthetics and other environmental considerations and that is also responsive to public attitudes.

From the definitions propounded above it can be seen that it is imperative to understand the important aspects and relationships involved in a solid waste management system. For the purpose of this study solid waste management will therefore be taken to incorporate elements of: generation, source separation, storage, collection,

transportation and transfer, processing, recovery, and disposal in a manner that is environmentally sustainable.

2.3.1 Solid waste management processes As noted in the previous section elements of solid waste management include: generation, source separation, storage, collection, transportation and transfer, processing, recovery, and disposal. These elements are further described below.

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2.3.1.1 Generation Waste generation includes activities and processes where materials are deemed to be no longer of use and no longer have value and are thrown away or gathered pending disposal (Dev, 2007:11; Momoh and Oladebeye, 2010). In 2006 the global amount of municipal solid waste generated was 2.02 billion tones, representing 7% annual increase since year 2003 (UNEP, 2009). Between 2007 and end of 2011 global generation of municipal solid waste was expected to rise by 37.3% , a figure equivalent to around 8 % increase per year (UNEP, 2009). The assertion by UNEP (2009) that at a global scale waste generation is increasing at a faster rate is confirmed by Menshah and Larbi (2005) in their study of solid waste in Ghana, Monahan (2004) on his study of solid waste in New Hampshire and Manyanhaire et al. (2009) in their study of solid waste in Sakubva.

Waste generation forms differ from different towns and cities. Manyanhaire et al. (2009:127) found out that a number of determinants account for the type of waste generated and these include consumption patterns and lifestyles. In Indias low income cities, it is estimated that around 15.62% of household solid waste is vegetable matter, 4.35% is paper, 0.55% is rubber and leather, 0.62% are plastics, 4.00% are rags, 0.40 % wooden paper, and 0.62% are metals (Bhatia, 2003). While in Africa, 10% of household waste is paper, 7% plastic, 6% metal, and 72% food waste (Masundire and Sanyanga, 1999). These differences are attributable to varying lifestyles and consumption patterns between towns and cities of different countries and regions.

2.3.1.2 Storage Solid waste storage is a place where solid waste is stored before it is collected (Tchobanoglous et al., 1977). Solid waste storage facilities can be categorised as primary (or individual) and secondary (or communal) storage facilities (Dev, 2007:12). Solid waste can be stored in dustbins, big community bins or thrown away indiscriminately.

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2.3.1.3 Collection Collection of solid waste includes the gathering, picking and hauling of waste to places where the contents of hauling vehicles are emptied (Dev, 2007:12 and Kreith, 1994). Collection of waste may be done using concrete receptacles placed at strategic points and conveyed by trucks (Kreith, 1994) or bins and containers provided at various points placed alongside shops or residential areas (Puopiel, 2010:13).

2.3.1.4 Transfer and transportation Transfer and transportation of solid waste include two steps: the transfer of waste

from smaller collection vehicle to bigger transportation equipment; and final transportation of the waste over long distance to final disposal site (Kreith, 1994 and Puopiel, 2010:13)

2.3.1.5 Processing and recovery The processing and recovery in the solid waste management system includes elements of technologies, equipment and facilities meant to improve efficiency of other functional elements to recover usable materials, and covert some solid waste into energy (Tchobanoglous et al., 1977). Resource recovery includes the extraction of economically usable material or energy from solid wastes (Dev, 2007:13). Recovery or recycling of resources differs between developed and developing countries. In the former the recovery and recycling processes are institutionalised and supported by government while in the latter most of the recovery and recycling is done by waste scavengers (Fudery, 1990).

2.3.2.6 Disposal Disposal is the final stage in most solid waste management processes. This is when waste is finally disposed of in landfills or other places. Having looked at the key elements of the solid waste management processes, the next section looks at practices in solid waste management. The section is divided into two: early practices in solid waste management and contemporary methods of solid waste management.

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2.4 Early solid waste management practices The early solid waste management practices include waste management practices used in the 1950s which were limited in scope to storage, collection and disposal. Disposal was normally via combustion or dumping on land or water bodies (Gotoh, 1989). The early approaches looked at waste as a problem to be dealt with through disposal and does not pay attention to preventive strategies to reduce waste (Buclet, 2002), while recovery and stakeholder participation are not regarded (Mader, 2011:7). The problem of waste was viewed as an engineering challenge to be addressed by technologicallyheavy solutions (Buclet, 2002) and the problem was looked at in similar ways irrespective of local context (Mader, 2011:7).

The early approaches to waste management that were technology-oriented failed in developing countries due to a multiplicity of factors that included the use of inappropriate and heavy technologies that cannot be maintained locally, poor governance, poor economic capacity, lack of recognition of varying social, physical and climatic differences between countries among other factors (Arlosoroff, 1991; Van de Klundert and Anschutz, 1999).

The common methods of solid waste disposal used in the early practices in solid waste management included, dumping on land, canyons and mining pits, dumping in water, ploughing waste into the soil, and feeding to hogs. (Tchobanoglous et al., 1993:17).

Some of these early methods in solid waste disposal used in the 1950s still exist today for instance indiscriminate dumping of waste on open land and in gutters is still evident in many towns in developing countries as well as dumping of waste in water in coastal areas (Puopiel, 2010: 14). Burning of waste is also common in towns in Africa including dumping of waste in gutters, drains, dumping of waste by the roadside, and on unauthorised dumping sites (Momoh and Oladebeye, 2010).

Having looked at some of the early practices in solid waste management, the next section looks at the contemporary methods used in solid waste management.
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2.5 Contemporary solid waste management methodologies In this section attention is given to the contemporary methods of solid waste management that include source reduction, sanitary landfills, composting, recycling and incineration. These are solid waste management methods that were mainly used from around 1980 to present day. Denison and Ruston (1990) noted that the contemporary methods in management of solid waste include, source reduction, sanitary landfills, composting, recycling, and incineration. 2.5.1 Source reduction Source reduction includes actions that are performed to reduce the volumes and toxicity of solid waste before its processing and disposal in incinerators and landfills (Denison and Ruston, 1990; Kreith, 1994). Source reduction also includes reclaiming reusable products and packages like returnable bottles (Puopiel, 2010:15). USPS (2000) contends that in order to sustainably reduce waste problems in the future, reduction of waste generation plays a very important role. At a consumption level reduction can include reuse of containers and bags, changing buying habits, reducing the use of disposable products, and packaging among other ways (USPS, 2000). Source separation makes collection, recovery and reuse of solid waste easy. Tsiboe and Marbel (2004) note source separation as a very important factor in achieving source reduction of solid waste. 2.5.2 Sanitary landfill Use of sanitary landfills in waste management includes the confining of waste through compacting and covering with soil. Sanitary landfill is one of the oldest but common ways of disposal of solid waste that can neither be reclaimed nor reused. CED (2003) note that sanitary landfills prevent burning of solid waste and help the reclamation of land for other valuable uses. Landfills can be looked at as open and controlled dumps and their difference from ordinary dumps is their level of engineering, planning and management involved (Zerbock, 2003). Dumps are differentiated from landfills because dumps are characterised by lack of engineering measures, lack of leachate
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management, non-consideration for landfill gas management, non-registration of users, no control of tipping fronts and no control of waste composition (Zerbock, 2003).

While there is some criticism for landfills and also that the landfill is the most unlikeable method of waste management, there is evidence that landfills are a necessary and very important component of most solid waste management approaches. Kreith (1994) argues that there are simply no combinations of solid waste management techniques that do not need land filling for them to work and he adds that landfills are the only solid waste management technique that is necessary and sufficient among the basic solid waste management techniques. Some solid wastes cannot be recovered or recycled, and recycling itself produces residuals and furthermore recyclable wastes eventually reach points where their intrinsic value is entirely dissipated and these cases justify the eventual need of land filling (Kreith, 1994). Kreith (1994) further notes that with improved technology and operation of modern land filling, protection of human health and the environment can be achieved.

While many authors have concentrated on justifying the need and advantages of sanitary landfills, little attention has been given to the negative side of sanitary landfills. Some of the disadvantages of landfills are that, they are costly to construct and maintain and landfills may pollute ground water through leaching. Furthermore, their location in terms of land availability in cities is always problematic (Puopiel, 2010:16). 2.5.3 Recycling Most scholars argue for more use of recycling in the solid waste management equation and assert that recycling is the most efficient and effective method of solid waste management. However, many authors ignore the cost element of recycling which limits its use in both developing and developed nations.

Momoh and Oladebeye (2010) view recycling as an efficacious methodology in reducing the amount of household waste that enters into dumpsites and landfills. They also add that recycling provides raw materials for industries. USEPA (1999) also recommended
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recycling as one of the most effective ways of solid waste management in developing countries. Recycling turns materials that would otherwise be waste into valuable resources, yields environmental, financial, and social returns, helps in energy conservation, pollution reduction, and economic expansion and competitiveness (Puopiel, 2010 and USEPA, 2009). Kreith (1994) also adds that recycling presents many advantages including returning of raw materials back to the market by separating reusable products from municipal solid waste, saves finite resources, and reduces the need for mining of virgin materials thereby curtailing environmental degradation.

In spite of the support for recycling, many authors ignore the fact that recycling faces low adoption due to among other factors its inhibiting cost and even developed countries are not able to successfully do recycling (Puopiel, 2010:17). The United Kingdom only recycles 11% of its household solid waste; Italy and Spain only recycle 3 %, Netherlands 43%, Denmark 29%, and Austria 50% (Tsiboe and Marbel, 2004).

2.5.4 Composting Composting is the biological decomposition of biodegradable solid waste under controlled aerobic conditions to a state that is sufficiently stable for handling and nuisance free storage of waste for agricultural and other uses (UNEP, 2009). Composting at best is an option suited to contexts of limited resources in developing countries and its highly adaptable (Puopiel, 2010:17-18). Composting is a lowtechnology approach of solid waste reduction and suited for developing countries since over 50% of solid waste in developing countries is organic material (Zerbock, 2003).

2.5.5 Incineration Incineration is the controlled combustion process for burning combustible solid waste to gases and reducing to residues of noncombustible substances (CED, 2003). During the process of incineration moisture in the solid waste gets vaporised and the combustible elements of the waste are oxidised, carbon dioxide, water vapour, ash, and noncombustible residues form the end products of the incineration process (CED, 2003).

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Incineration can reduce the amount of solid waste by 90% and incineration can recover useful energy in the form of steam or electricity (Kreith, 1994).

The main constraints of incineration are relatively high costs of set up, maintenance and operation, high degree of sophistication required for safe and economic operation as well as the tendency to emit carbon dioxide that pollutes the environment (Kreith, 1994; Puopiel, 2010:18). After looking at the various contemporary methods is solid waste management documented in literature, literature also uncovers an alternative method that exists which is the main focus of this study, the integrated solid waste management approach. This forms the discussion in the next section.

2.6 Integrated solid waste management In spite of talks and efforts by many governments to deal with the problem of solid waste management, major gaps still exist that are evidenced by many waste related problems in many countries (UNEP, 2009). While municipalities in many developing countries spend 20-30% of their budgets in solid waste management 30-60% of solid waste remains uncollected and less than 50% of the population gets waste collection services (UNEP, 2009). UNEP (2009) recommends that one of the ways to get around the problem of solid waste management in developing countries is implementing an integrated solid waste management system where waste is diverted for materials and resource recovery and substantial volumes of waste are reduced while recovered materials can be used to generate income that can fund solid waste management.

Integrated solid waste management systems based on 3R principles of reduce; reuse and recycle have been piloted with high levels of acceptance and success in Wuxi in China, Pune in India, and Maseru in Lesotho (Puopiel, 2010:19). With appropriate segregation and recycling systems in place great amounts of solid waste can be diverted from landfills and turned into useful resources and it is therefore paramount that when considering an integrated solid waste management system consideration is given to the hierarchy of methods which are reduce, recycle, incineration and landfill (Baud and Schenk, 1994; UNEP, 2009; USEPA, 1999).
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Integrated solid waste management system recognises that solid waste management methods cannot be similar or universal across communities but should be tailor made to the communities served (Kollikkathara et al., 2009; Korfmacher, 1997). Unique factors across communities like fuel costs, capital costs, waste quantities and composition as well as socio-cultural attitudes demand that solid waste management modalities be customised to communities served (Cointreau, 1984). Zuilen (2006) summarises integrated solid waste management as a waste management system that best suits the society, economy and environment in a given location, a city in most cases.

Tanskanen (2000) defines integrated solid waste management as the selection and application of suitable techniques, technologies and management programs to achieve waste management objectives and goals. The integrated solid waste management approach views waste management as an equity and public health issue and this means that all people have a right to a regular waste collection and proper sanitation (Anschiitz and Van de Klundert, 2000).

Puorideme (2010:8) defines integrated solid waste management as a comprehensive solid waste model that combines elements of waste prevention, recycling, composting, and disposal with active stakeholders participation which ensures efficient and sustainable waste management. Integrated solid waste management looks at managing solid waste in ways that protect the health of the humans and the environment and takes into account an evaluation of local needs (USEPA, 2002).

In their study Mangkoedihardjo et al. (2007:33) note that in order to make waste management sustainable in low income urban areas the provision of neighborhood advisory committee (NAC) for solid waste management, which is a key component in the integrated solid waste management process, should be part of each management scheme. Integrated solid waste management differs from the conventional approach towards waste management by seeking stakeholder participation, covering waste prevention and resource recovery, including interactions with other systems and
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promoting an integration of different habitat scales (Van de Klundert and Anschutz, 1999). The integrated solid waste management approach to solid waste management is a multi-faceted approach, which will make technology choices easier and more sustainable.

Bartone (2000) suggest that the anticipated benefits of an integrated solid waste management approach include: lower costs, better cost management and cost

recovery, fewer health hazards, less environmental pollution, conservation of natural resources, better coordination and performance, and improved public participation.

Various scholars look at aspects, sustainability factors, principles and objectives of integrated solid waste management differently. Rosario and Scheinberg (2004) contend that sustainability aspects in integrated solid waste management are aspects through which the existing waste system can be assessed and they include; policy or legal; institutional and organisational; cultural and social; financial and economic;

technological and technical; and environmental aspects. Van de Klundert and Anschutz (1999) and Lardinois (1996) view aspects of integrated solid waste management as technical or operational, environmental, financial, socio-economic and institutional or administrative and policy or legal. Kollikkathara et al. (2009) argue that the aim of integrated sustainable solid waste management is achieving environmental benefits, economic optimization and societal acceptability. For the purpose of this study the sustainability aspects of the integrated solid waste management system will be social, environmental, economic and management. The four main principles on a solid waste management system for Mbare used in this study will then be social acceptability, environmental sustainability, economic affordability and management effectiveness. Thus, the integrated solid waste management system that will be recommended for Mbare will be one that is acceptable to the community, which is economically viable and brings economic gains to the community, and can easily be managed and has minimal damage to the environment.

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In order to realise success in solid waste management it is important that other stakeholders like NGOs, private and the informal sector be involved in solid waste management processes. The success of an integrated solid waste management model in India hinges on the innovative waste management activities that consider the participation of both local government and non-governmental players (Adarsh, 1996) and these innovative practices are location-specific viable options in response to analyses of the local needs and are successful in ensuring efficient solid waste management in Indian urban centres particularly Bangalore and Madras (Puorideme, 2010). From the foregoing review of literate on integrated solid waste management I propose a model for integrated solid waste management below (Figure 2.1). Figure 2.1: Integrated solid waste management model

Sustainability aspects Social acceptability, environmental sustainability, economic affordability, management effectiveness

1. Reduce the amount of solid waste generated

Stakeholder Participation

2. Recycle as much materials as possible

4. Incinerate/landfill remaining portion of waste stream

3. Composite biodegradable waste that can be reused in gardens

Benefits lower costs better cost management and cost recovery fewer health hazards less environmental pollution conservation of natural resources better coordination and performance improved public participation Improved public health

Adapted from Bartone (2000) and Puopiel (2010:19).

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The model represented schematically above looks at a hierarchy of methods of reduce, recycle, composting and incineration/landfill with stakeholder participation playing a role on all methods. The model also presents some of the benefits of integrated solid waste management as the outcomes. As noted earlier, social acceptability, environmental sustainability, economic affordability and management effectiveness were noted as key principles that will guide the establishment of a sustainable integrated solid waste management system in a low income area like Mbare. This model takes these four principles as crosscutting issues in the proposed integrated sustainable solid waste management system. The four sustainability principles have a bearing on the hierarchy of methods used, the stakeholder participation and the benefits the benefits that will come out of the integrated solid waste management model proposed in this study. 2.7 Impact of solid waste on human health and environment Poorly managed solid waste affects human health adversely (Mader, 2011:6). Medical solid waste can cause transmission of infectious diseases including HIV/AIDS and hepatitis B and C (Ramokate and Basu, 2009:444), and other solid wastes may cause other infectious diseases like dysentery, enteritis, typhoid fever and cholera, while dust from the waste causes lung diseases (Holmes, 1984; Taru and Kuvarega, 2005:155). Solid waste that is not collected or improperly stored or placed in unclosed dumps encourages the reproduction of flies and rats and these can be vectors of diseases (Tchobanoglous, et al., 1993). Warm climates that provide conducive environments for speedy reproduction of disease vectors in most developing countries further compound the negative health consequences from improperly managed solid waste (Boadi and Kuitunen, 2005; Korfmacher, 1997).

Solid waste also blocks storm drains leading to the creation of pools of water where insects breed including malaria carrying mosquitoes, and if the contaminated water is used by humans it will cause diseases (Galishoff, 1998). Environmental impacts of uncollected waste include soil, water and air pollution (Mader, 2011:6). Decomposing organic matter accounts for 3.6% of methane and other green house gas emissions in

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the world (Kollikkathara et al., 2009), while uncontrolled dumps leach into soil contaminating both surface and ground water (Mader, 201:6).

Rapid urbanisation brings with it increased consumption levels and increased generation of solid waste and use of toxic materials and raw materials that lead to deletion of natural resources and environmental degradation (Clagget, et al., 1998, Maseva, 2005; and Kollikkathara et al., 2009).

2.8 Challenges in solid waste management Solid waste management systems in developing countries in general face many problems that include low collection coverage, irregular, inconsistent and inadequate, collection services, crude open dumping, and burning without air and water pollution control (Ogawa, 2005; Manyanhaire et al., 2009:129; Masocha and Tevera, 2003; Zurbrgg, 2002). The problems of solid waste management in developing countries can be grouped into technical, institutional, financial and social constraints (Ogawa, 2005). What follows is a brief discussion of these problems.

2.8.1 Human resources challenges Ogawa (2005) contends that in developing countries there are inadequate human resources at national and local levels with relevant technical expertise required for solid waste management, planning and operations. He adds that most of the personnel responsible for solid waste management have limited technical know-how and little engineering and management training relevant for the effective management of a solid waste system. UNEP (2007:4) confirms this view by noting that problems in waste management systems in developing countries are also caused by extremely weak technical and human capacity within the government sector. Chenje (2000); Komani (2008), LEAP (2008); Rathana (2009) and Segosebe and Van der Post (1991), all attribute lack of appropriate human resources in terms of capacity and numbers as one of the key problems in solid waste management in developing countries.

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2.8.2 Financial challenges Solid waste management is often given low attention by governments except in capital cities or in low density high income areas (Ogawa, 2005; Puopiel, 2010). The effects of inadequate waste disposal systems impact the poor more than the rich. Throughout the cities it is the urban poor that suffer most from the life-threatening conditions deriving from deficient solid waste management, as municipal authorities tend to allocate their limited financial resources to the richer areas of higher tax yields where citizens with more political power reside. The challenge for poor cities is on how to extend waste disposal services to the urban poor (Hope and Lekorwe, 1999; and Zurbrgg, 2002). Ogawa (2005) suggests that local governments may supplement their financial resources for waste management through collection of user charges. However, he also quickly points out that in poorer developing countries the ability of many to pay for waste management service may be limited.

2.8.3 Institutional challenges Generally in developing countries several agencies at a national level are usually involved in solid waste management but their efforts are rarely coordinated properly leading to duplication of efforts and lack of extension of services to areas of most dire need (Buenrostro and Bocco, 2003; Ogawa, 2005; Zurbrgg, 2009: Mangizo, 2010). Arlosoroff (1991) confirms these views by pointing out that lack of proper governance structures and policy frameworks also create problems in effective solid waste management in developing countries. Policy and legal frameworks as well as institutional and organisational capacity are key factors in the sustainability of a solid waste management system and weaknesses in these aspects create huge challenges for solid waste management in developing countries (Klundert and Anschutz, 1999; Kollikkathara et al., 2009; Rosario and Scheinberg, 2004; Van de Lardinois, 1996).

2.9 Summary This chapter looked at various literatures on solid waste. Conceptual issues on waste and solid waste were explored followed by a discussion on solid waste management processes, early solid waste management practices, contemporary solid waste
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management practices and a discussion on integrated solid waste management. Definitions of solid waste and types of solid waste were explored. A solid waste management system was seen as including waste generation; storage; collection; transfer and transportation; reduce, reuse, recycling and recovery; and disposal processes(Dev, 2007 and Manyanhaire et al., 2009).

The effects of poor solid waste management on human health and the environment were reviewed. Uncollected solid waste leads to the multiplication of disease vectors and spread of diseases like cholera. Uncollected waste also cause unsightly scenes and may contaminate water bodies. The chapter closed by looking at key challenges in solid waste management in developing countries. Some of the key challenges discussed include human resources, financial, and institutional challenges that municipalities in developing countries face when managing solid waste.

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CHAPTER 3 : POLICY FRAMEWORK ON WASTE MANAGEMENT IN ZIMBABWE 3.1 Introduction This chapter explores and analyses the main policies, laws and by-laws that exist in Zimbabwe and Harare that are relevant to waste management. Brief discussions on the motivation of the origin of the laws and policies were done followed by an analysis of some of the gaps that exist within the policies and laws. The major gaps that are found in the current regime of policies and laws on waste management in Zimbabwe are lack of enforcement and lack of public awareness on the existence of these policies and laws. Funding is also one of the factors that limit enforcement of these laws and policies.

Maseva (2005:13) defined policy broadly as action outlining goals, aims and ideals of an organisation in pursuit of its ends. Maseva (2005:13) looks at policy as a framework of guidelines packaged in a document in order to direct how waste management activities should be executed. For the purposes of this study I will define policy as a document drafted by a government or local authority outlining the goals, aims, ideals, activities and responsibilities pertaining to waste management in a given municipality, suburb, town, or country. Legislation on the other hand can be defined as laws or set of rules applicable in a country (Maseva, 2005:13) and exist in the form of Acts passed by parliament and signed off by a countrys President into law. Policies are not legally binding and organisations formulating them may choose which provisions to follow and which ones not to follow whereas, Acts of parliament have legal force and have to be followed. This chapter begins by looking at waste management policies in Zimbabwe, then some of the key pieces of legislation that govern waste management in the country. A brief look at by-laws on waste management in the city of Harare will conclude the chapter.

3.2 Waste management policies in Zimbabwe Zimbabwe as a country does not have a national level waste management policy and this has been widely criticised as the main driver of the waste management crisis in that country (Maseva, 2005:13 and Government of Zimbabwe, 2004).The
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fact that

there is absence in the country of policy directives from the central government demanding local authorities to implement waste management in a particular way leaves local authorities with leeway to implement waste management programmes that suit them rather than promote environmental integrity and the health of the residents. Nevertheless, a plethora of policy documents that recognise the significance of developing workable and efficient waste management systems for the protection of human and environmental health do exist and the discussion that follows will touch on these policies. Practical Action Southern Africa (2006:13) indentified the following policies as having a bearing on waste management in Zimbabwe: Environmental Impact Assessment Policy (1994); National Sustainable Development Strategy (2004); Draft Waste Management Strategy (2006); Science and Technology Policy (2002); and the Draft National Environmental Policy (2003).

The next sections analyses each of these policy documents in detail.

3.2.1 The Environmental Impact Assessment Policy of 1994 This policy, developed in 1994, was inspired by proceedings of United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) done in 1992 in Rio de Jeneioro. The 17th principle of the Rio Declaration states that: Environmental impact assessment as a national instrument shall be undertaken for proposed activities that are likely to have a significance adverse impact on the environment and are subject to the decision of a competent notional authority (UN, 1992:7).

The EIA sets out that development projects that fall in the category of prescribed activities do go through the EIA process where their benefits and costs are measured and evaluated to enable mitigation strategies to be built in their implementation from the onset. Under the EIA, waste management infrastructure like dumps and incinerators are required to be subjected to EIA before their implementation.

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UN (1992) notes the following activities as prescribed activities in the EIA policy: Toxic and hazardous waste: incineration plants, offsite recovery plants, offsite waste water treatment plants landfills, and offsite storage facilities; Municipal solid waste: incineration, composting and recovery and recycling plants, landfill facilities; and Municipal sewage: treatment plants, outfalls of aquatic systems, and effluent water irrigation schemes (Maseva 2005: 14).

The EIA policy package has a comprehensive set of guidelines on how EIA studies should be conducted. Volumes 8 and 10 of the guidelines for example, deal with urban infrastructure and waste management respectively. Volume 8 places a lot of emphasis on the following two key issues when conducting EIA for urban waste management infrastructures: Waste handling, storage and treatment for both solid and waterborne waste; and Influx of solid waste and waste water volumes during the inception and operational stages of the project (Government of Zimbabwe, 1994).

Volume 10 on the other hand provides a long checklist of issues to pay attention to during planning, construction and operational stages of a waste management facility (Government of Zimbabwe, 1994). This volume directly addresses issues related to environmental impacts arising from waste management and how they can be mitigated.

The EIA policy now carries legal force since its enactment into an Act of parliament in 2002. Prior to 2002 it carried no legal force and hence municipalities and private sector practitioners in waste management were implementing waste management facilities without applying precautionary procedures stipulated by this policy (Practical Action Southern Africa, 2006:16).

3.2.2 The National Sustainable Development Strategy of 2004 This policy was motivated by proceeding of the Johannesburg 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development. Following these proceedings the Ministry of Environment
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and Tourism set up a National Sustainable Development Committee which then worked to draft this policy. The committees mandate was to ensure that actions noted in the Agenda 21 are implemented in Zimbabwe and the committee consists of government representatives, ministries, departments, representatives of industry, NGOs, and civil society (Government of Zimbabwe, 2004).

The National Sustainable Development Strategy (NSDS) summarises the various actions the country is implementing to fulfill its pronouncements and commitments made at the 1992 Rio Deceleration. The policy also represents a national programme of action for each of the three pillars of sustainable development namely, the social, environmental and economic pillars, with clear indicators to measure progress. The NSDS aptly notes that the urban environment is threatened by poverty and highlights the close link between poverty and environmental degradation (Maseve, 2005:15 and Practical Action Southern Africa, 2006:18).

The NSDS notes poor domestic and hazardous industrial waste management as key problems in urban areas and recommends the adoption of cleaner production technologies as the only viable solution to tackle the problem of industrial waste management. It also recommends the need to promote safe disposal of waste and chemicals through the provision of support in construction and rehabilitation of waste disposal systems (Government of Zimbabwe, 2004:13 and Maseva, 2005:15).

Table 3.1 below summarises the action plan, indicators and division of responsibilities related to the NSDS policy.

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Table 3.1: Action plan for waste disposal systems rehabilitation


Action Development of guidelines for waste management Indicators Putting in place by end of 2006 of Waste management guidelines and policy. Responsibility Ministry of Environment and

Tourism(MET), Ministry of local Government, Zimbabwe National Water Authority (ZINWA),

Department of Water Lobby and advocacy of on waste Advocacy plan designed by end of 2004 MET, society local authorities, civil

development

management policy Integration into scientific waste management researched waste practices. Sources: Government of Zimbabwe (2004:13) and Maseva(2005:15). approaches and of good documented Documenting and publishing of best case management ZINWA, Department of Natural Resources( DNR)

management

While the NSDS policy document clearly states that poor waste management practices are a threat, there is need to sell its vision by widely publicising it and secure donor and other funding to fully implement its action plans (Practical Action Southern Africa, 2006). 3.2.3 The Draft Strategic Document on Waste Management of 2004 The Draft Strategic Document on Waste Management was drafted in 2004 and sets out a programme code named A Clean Environment Everyones Duty which is being spearheaded by a taskforce comprising representatives from the health department of the City of Harare, MET and Confederation of Zimbabwe Industries (CZI) (Government of Zimbabwe, 2004).

The overall objective of this ambitious programme is to restore Zimbabwes cities to their former status of cleanliness. The programme also identifies the problem of vagrants and street kids as one of the major challenges Zimbabwe cities face in their pursuit of adequate waste management systems (Maseva, 2005:16).

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Defective sewer systems; improper waste disposal practices; dumping; littering; high numbers of vagrants and street kids; and uncontrolled vending are the key issues the programme identified that need urgent resolution (Government of Zimbabwe, 2004). Maseva (2005:16) contends that albeit responsibilities for this ambitious programme are shared among various institutions, little progress has been done yet on a programme that was initially intended to start in March 2004.

3.2.4 The Science and Technology Policy of 2002 The Science and Technology Policy was launched in 2002 and its main objective is promotion of self-reliance in national science and technology including having environmentally sustainable projects and good health systems (Government of Zimbabwe, 2002).

The policy notes that water, air and general environmental pollution are increasing problems in Zimbabwe that need urgent action and points to industrial waste as one of the greatest problems adversely affecting the environment. The policy just as the NSDS recommends the adoption of cleaner production technologies as the panacea to industrial waste challenges (Practical Action Southern Africa, 2006:18).

3.2.5 The Draft National Environmental Policy of 2003 This policy focuses on preserving the broad spectrum of biodiversity in order to sustain the ability of natural resources to meet the basic needs of the people, enhance food security, raise economic growth, reduce poverty and uplift the welfare of the people of Zimbabwe. Its main goal is to avoid irreversible damage to the environment so as to maintain essential environmental processes to continue to work to the benefit of the people. The policy also recognises the fact that while economic development is important it also brings with it negative impacts on the environment. The policy notes also the environment and poverty nexus and clearly illustrate that poverty is a threat to environmental quality as the poor engage in environmentally damaging activities in their pursuit of better livelihoods (Government of Zimbabwe, 2003).

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The policy focuses on strengthening of livelihoods of the poor by preventing, mitigation and remedying negative impacts on their right to a clean, healthy and productive environment (Maseva, 2005:16 and Practical Action Southern Africa, 2006:18). The policy like the Environmental Management Act places emphasis on a healthy environment as a right of every citizen and calls for the adoption of sustainable integrated waste managed strategies.

3.2.6 Gaps and challenges of national policies The various policies discussed above are national and are supposed to give guidance to stakeholders and local authorities on waste management. However their major weaknesses and challenges as noted by Maseva (2005:17) and Practical Action Southern Africa (2006:18) include that: the policies fall short of providing practical steps needed to achieve their desired goals; funding to implement steps outlined in the policies is difficult to get given the economic challenges faced by local authorities and country at large; the policies largely fail to consider communities as a resource as they ignore communities potential role in the waste management; the policies do not take the interests of small community enterprises into consideration as they are biased more towards industrial development; there have been poor and inadequate communication of the policies to local authorities, hence lack of programmes of action geared at raising public awareness among residents on the existence of these policies; and there is no legal obligation on the part of local authorities to adhere to of these policies.

3.3 National legislation on waste management in Zimbabwe Zimbabwe has a comprehensive legislative framework for dealing with waste management and environmental pollution. Several Acts exist and the administration of these Acts is spread across three ministries with the MET taking the overall accountability and responsibility for the administration of these Acts. To add to the Acts
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most of the city councils do have by-laws used to regulate waste management activities done in these towns and cities. A discussion of the by-laws used in Harare was done as this study focuses on Mbare, a township in Harare.

The following are the Acts that deal with waste management which this section will analyse: The Environmental Management Act (Chapter 20:27); The Urban Councils Act (Chapter 29:15); The Rural District Councils Act (Chapter 29:13); The Regional Town and Country Planning Act (Chapter 29:12); The Water Act (Chapter 20:22); and The Public Health Act (Chapter 15:09) (Practical Action Southern Africa, 2006).

The next section will focus on each of the Acts looking at their key aspects and their strengths and weaknesses as legislation governing waste management.

3.3.1 The Environmental Management Act (EMA) (Chapter 20:27) of 2002 This piece of legislation was enacted in 2002 and it provides for sustainable management of natural resources, protection of the environment and prevention of pollution and environmental degradation (Parliament of Zimbabwe, 2002). EMA is the principal law governing waste management in Zimbabwe and provides for the preparation of the National Environmental Plans and other plans.

Section 4 of EMA provides for environmental rights and principles that have strong bearing on waste management. The environmental rights that accrue to every person stipulated in this law include the following: The right to live in a clean environment that is not harmful to peoples health; Equal access to environmental information; Right to protect the environment for the benefit of present and future generations; and Right for everyone to participate in the implementation of legislation and policies that prevent pollution, environmental degradation and promote sustainable
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management and use of natural resources while promoting justifiable economic and social development (ZELA, 2003:3 and Parliament of Zimbabwe, 2002).

EMA also stipulates principles of environmental management that are pivotal in waste management and Maseva (2005:18) contends that EMA embraces the polluter-pays principles that are widely used as tools for environmental management globally. While EMA stipulates clear rights that every person has with regards to a safe environment to human health, these rights are however not enshrined in the countrys supreme law, the Constitution of Zimbabwe (Maseva, 2005:18-9 and ZELA, 2003:3).

Section 9 of EMA read with Section 10(1) (b) (ii), (vii), (viii), (xii), (xiii) and (xiv) provides for the setting up of a Environmental Management Agency whose functions and powers are as follows: To formulate quality standards on air, water, soil, noise, vibration, radiation and waste management; To assist and participate in any matters concerning the management of the environment, and in particular; To regulate and monitor the collection, disposal, treatment and recycling of waste; To regulate and monitor the management and utilisation of ecologically fragile ecosystems; To make model by-laws to establish measures for the management of the environment within the jurisdiction of the local authorities; To undertake any works deemed necessary or desirable by councils for the protection and management of the environment; To serve written orders on any suspected breaches of the Act and/or adopt such measures specified in the orders to protect the environment; To carry out periodic environmental audits of projects including projects whose implementation started before this Act in order to ensure the projects implementation complies with the requirements of this Act (Maseva, 2005; Parliament of Zimbabwe, 2002 and ZELA, 2003:12).
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The Act provides for a clear framework for monitoring waste management and empowers the staff and inspectors of Environmental Management Agency to enter premises or serve written orders for the protection of the environment. The Act also provides for ministerial orders to be given for the purpose of removing or disposing of waste from premises (Parliament of Zimbabwe, 2002).

A key aspect of EMA pertaining to waste management lies in the Acts key provisions for the formulation of waste standards (section 69 (1), prohibition against discharge of wastes (section 70), minimisation of waste through treatment, reclamation and recycling (Section 70 (3)), classification of hazardous waste (section 72 (1-2)); and prohibition against littering covered in (section 83 (1-4)) (Parliament of Zimbabwe, 2002).

Section 72 of the EMA caters for the control of imports/exports of toxic and hazardous chemicals, distribution, storage, transportation and handling of chemicals and materials in line with the Bamako Convention which banished the trans-boundary and transnational movement of waste (Maseva, 2005:20-1).

One of the key weaknesses of the Act as mentioned earlier is the lack of enshrinement in the Constitution of Zimbabwe of the environmental rights that accrue to all persons as stipulated in the Act. Furthermore, weak implementation of the Act as noted earlier is a major concern.

Maseva (2005:21) noted that one of the key weaknesses of the ACT was its failure to clearly stipulate waste management standards that have to be adopted. Even though some useful provisions do exist in the Act, the overall enforcement of the Act is still very weak.

Section 70(4) of the Act stipulates fines for illegal disposal of waste and pollution in monetary terms(Parliament of Zimbabwe, 2002) and with the hyperinflationary history of the countrys currency some of the fines that had been charged in the past had little

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monetary value and hence failed to act as deterrents to the would-be polluters (Maseva, 2005:21).

Finally, the Act also leaves out important aspects of waste management such as the sorting and separation of waste at source. From Chapter 2 we noted that separation of waste at source helps in reduction in the amount of waste disposed of at landfills, hence ensuring that landfills last longer; and creates opportunities for income generation through the recovery and sale of paper and other non-biodegradable material. 3.3.2 Rural District Councils Act (Chapter 29:13) of 1988 Enacted in 1988, the Rural District Councils Act gives mandate to rural district councils to regulate activities in their jurisdiction areas. Section 88 of the Act empowers rural district councils to make and enforce by-laws covering among other issues sewerage, effluent, killing of insects and vermin, and refuse and vegetation removal (Parliament of Zimbabwe, 1988).

The Second Schedule, Part VII, of the Act specifies the making of the by-laws on the following related to waste management: removal and disposal of human waste, effluent, water waste, and decaying and unhealthy matter (Parliament of Zimbabwe, 1988).

The Second Schedule also provides for provisions on the following: The specifications of containers used by owners of premises for refuse collection purposes and places they should be located; Regulation of places where the containers above should be placed for collection; and The regulation of arrangements and placing of refuse collection facilities and affluent conveyance facilities in premises.

Section 75 of this Act provides for councils to levy or charge for refuse removal to owners of properties, stands, lots or premises whose refuse is collected. Maseva (2005:21-2) notes the strength of this Act is that it does not mention the monetary value
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of the charges; hence it provides room for councils to make adjustments to the charges whenever they are uneconomic. However, a possible weakness of this provision in the Act is that the charges are not given as percentages of the costs of the refuse collection and at times rural councils charge very low amounts for refuse collection or abuse this provision by overcharging.

Maseva (2005:22) also observed that the money levied for refuse collection is often not ploughed back to support refuse collection but used for other purposes unrelated to refuse collection. He recommends that the Act needs to be amended and provisions for ensuring that this money charged is ploughed back to refuse collection to make the refuse collection system self sustainable and this could greatly improve the waste management services delivery in rural councils. 3.3.3 The Urban Councils Act (Chapter 29:15) of 1997 This Act, first enacted in 1997, bears many similarities with the Rural District Councils Act and their major difference is that the former is for urban areas and the latter is for rural areas.

Section 218 (b) of this Act like Section 75 of the Rural District Councils Act provides for urban councils to levy fees for refuse collection and the Act does not stipulate the amount to be levied. The major difference however is that under this Act urban councils have to put their fees for the year in their annual budgets that have to be approved by the resident associations and then the Minister of local government and this maybe be a problem for urban councils as their proposed fees may be rejected by residents or fail to be approved by the Minister (Parliament of Zimbabwe, 1997 and Maseva, 2005:22).

The Act like the Rural District Councils Act is also silent about how the money charged for refuse collections should be used and this money is often not ploughed back to refuse collection services.

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The Third schedule of the Act mandates the urban council to put in place by-laws for sewerage, sanitary fittings, and effluent and refuse removal, cleansing of private sewers, streets and yards as well as crops, vegetation, rubbish and waste material (Parliament of Zimbabwe, 1997).

The Urban Councils Act just like the Rural District Councils Act gives the councils power to provide and operate services for removing and treating trade and other effluent, refuse and human waste for the council area and to make use of the service compulsory. These provisions ensure that councils provide the required waste management services in their areas of jurisdiction (Maseva, 2005:23-4).

The following are the major gaps and weaknesses found in the Urban Councils and Rural district Acts: Both Acts are silent on important integrated sustainable waste management practices like 3Rs (reduce, recycle and reuse); Both Acts are silent on what councils should do with the waste they collect; Both Acts are silent on what should be done if councils fail to put waste management systems in place or fail to collect refuse as is the case with most councils in Zimbabwe at present; Both Acts do not have provisions requiring that money levied for refuse collection services be ploughed back to waste management systems for them to be self sustainable 3.3.4 Regional, Town And Country Planning Act (Chapter 29:12) of 1976 The Regional, Town and Country Planning Act provides for planning and controlling of the development at a local level. It outlines planning methods and tools for the management of physical environment, public health, welfare including residents safety. It provides for regional, master and local plans and local councils are empowered to acquire land for development purposes in the Act (Parliament of Zimbabwe, 1976). However, this Act is surprisingly silent on the issue of waste management and it does not even mention anything to do with design and selection of waste disposal sites
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notwithstanding that the planning stages of site selection and design of waste disposal facilities determine the impact that the facilities will have on the environment and on public health (Maseva, 2005:24).

3.3.5 Water Act (Chapter 20:24) of 1998 The Water Act addresses the issue of waste management in Section 68 (1) where it prohibits the discharge or disposal of any organic and inorganic matter into any surface or groundwater, either directly or indirectly so as to cause pollution of the water (Parliament of Zimbabwe, 1998). This is important, as it ensures that whoever disposes of waste, including local authorities, should do so in a manner that does not cause pollution to surface and groundwater resources. Local authorities are required to construct and manage waste disposal sites so as to avoid causing pollution. The Act requires polluters to pay the costs of cleaning up polluted water resources. Some local authorities in the country have already been fined for contravening sections of this Act; while others have pending court cases (Practical Action Southern Africa, 2006:17).

3.3.6 The Public Health Act (Chapter 15:09) of 1924 This Act, a remnant of the colonial era, was first enacted in 1924 and subsequently amended many times after independence. Section 68 (1) (b), of the Act provides that the Minister of Health and Child Welfare should regulate the construction of dwellings, sanitary conveniences, stables, cattle kraals, pig sties, ostrich pens, dipping tanks, factories or other works likely to engender risk of harmful pollution of water supplies (Parliament of Zimbabwe, 1924).The Act addresses the issue of waste coming from livestock. The Act also prohibits nuisances potentially hazardous to human health.

Section 82 of the Act mentions that: No person shall cause a nuisance or shall suffer to exist on any land owned or occupied by him, or of which he is in charge, any nuisance or other condition that is likely to be dangerous or injurious to health. The word nuisance is elucidated in

Section 85 paragraphing (e) as: Any accumulation or deposit of refuse, offal, manure, or other matter whatsoever which is injurious or dangerous to health.
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The Act has a couple of weakness. Firstly, the Act prohibits people from causing nuisances on land and places they own and occupy but is silent on land or places people do not own, and this may be a grey area that may be interpreted to mean that the Act does not cover for people causing nuisances on land and places they do not own (Practical Action Southern Africa, 2006:17).

Furthermore, Section 87 and 88 of the Act stipulates fines for failure to comply with a notice to remove nuisances as $100 and $20 Zimbabwean dollars. The Zimbabwean currency is valueless at present and such ridiculous fines will certainly not deter wouldbe offenders. Pegging such finds in the US dollar will help deter would be offenders.

3.3.7 Harare municipality by-laws on waste management Section 227(1) of the Urban Councils Act mandates local municipalities to make their own by-laws to help them oparationalise the main national Acts within their areas of jurisdiction. By-laws are formulated out of existing national laws (Practical Action Southern Africa, 2006:19).

Maseva (2005:28) contends that the city of Harare has a comprehensive set of by laws covering virtually all urban functions and activities and citys by-laws on waste management date back to 1948, during the colonial era. The by-laws on waste management together with the Anti-litter by-laws of 1981 are the two most important sets of by-laws on related to waste management currently in use in Harare. The Control of Vegetation and Waste by-laws of 1982 complement these main waste management by-laws.

The set of by-laws used in Harare has provisions on the following: Only the council or its contractors have the responsibility for removing all domestic waste from premises(City of Harare, 1979); Council may demand that the owner of a premise removes all domestic waste and deposit it at a waste disposal site(City of Harare, 1979);
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Council supplies standard waste receptacle to residents(City of Harare, 198a); Domestic waste is collected at least once a week(City of Harare, 1981a); No person shall deposit waste on any vacant land, public place or premises other than waste- disposal site(City of Harare, 1981b);

Access to waste is restricted once the waste is deposited at disposal sites (City of Harare, 1981b).

3.3.8 Gaps between legislative requirements and practice Maseva (2005:25-26) and Practical Action Southern Africa (2006:18) note that Zimbabwe as a country has comprehensive laws that can ensure sustainable waste management and that the city of Harare does have relevant by-laws, but waste management remains a major problem. The main weaknesses in the laws governing waste management include: Lack of enforcement of otherwise good laws that are capable of effectively dealing with the waste management problem; Lack of public awareness on the existence of the laws and by-laws on solid waste management; and Gaps in provisions within the laws that limit obligations on enforcement and these necessitate the need to amend some of the key laws on waste management. 3.4 Summary This chapter explored the various policies and laws Zimbabwe has on waste management. While the country has a comprehensive set of laws and policies on waste management, the country continues to face significant waste management problems. Table 3 below presents a summary of the gaps and shortcomings in polices and laws that govern waste management discussed in this chapter and in Chapter 2.

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Table 3.2: Summary of shortcomings of policies and laws on waste management


Main policies and laws Environmental Impact Assessment Policy National Sustainable Development Strategy Draft Waste Management Strategy Science and Technology Policy Draft National Environmental Policy The Environmental Management Act (Chapter 20:27) The Urban Councils Act (Chapter 29:15) The Rural District Councils Act (Chapter 29:13) The Regional Town and Country Planning Act (Chapter 29:12) The Water Act (Chapter 20:22) The Public Health Act (Chapter 15:09) Poor policy governance (Arlosorff, 1991 and Van de Klundert and Anschutz, 1999). Policies silent on source separation, a very important factor in source reduction of solid waste (Tsiboe and Marbel, 2004). Policies do not mention composting, a low-cost technology suited to developing countries (Zerbock, 2003). Waste problem looked at in similar ways irrespective of local context (Mader, 2011: Kollikkathara et al., 2009: Korfmacher, 1997) Recovery and stakeholder participation not regarded in policies (Mader, 2011). Policies viewing waste as an engineering problem to be addressed by technologically heavy solutions (Buclet, 2002). Policies looking at waste as a problem to be dealt with through disposal and without paying attention to preventive and waste reduction strategies (Buclet, 2002). Shortcomings revealed in literature review Lack of clear policy direction on recovery and recycling and leaving these to scavengers than instutionalising recovery and recycling (Fudery, 1990). Other shortcomings indentified Policies falling short of providing practical steps needed to achieve their desired goals. Funding to implement steps outlined in the policies is difficult to get given the economic challenges faced by local authorities and country at large. Policies largely fail to consider communities as a resource as they ignore communities potential role in the waste management. Policies do not take the interests of small community enterprises into consideration as they are biased more towards industrial development. Poor and inadequate communication of national policies to local authorities, hence lack of programmes of action geared at raising public awareness among residents on the existence of these policies. Lack of legal obligation on the part of local authorities to adhere to of policies. Lack of enforcement of laws. Lack of public awareness on

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Policies do not address energy recovery from incineration (Kreith, 1994).

the existence of the laws and by-laws on solid waste management. Gaps in provisions within the laws that limit obligations on enforcement.

Policies silent on implementation of integrated solid waste management (UNEP, 2009).

Policies do not address the mismatch between big waste management budgets and the low level of waste collection services (UNEP, 2009).

Policies and laws failing to adequately address waste management as an equity and public health issue (Anschiitz and Van de Klundert, 2000).

Policies do not adequately address the evaluation of local needs (USEPA, 2002).

Policies do not clearly spell out the need for neighborhood advisory committees for solid waste management and stakeholder participation (Mangkoedihardjo, 2007).

Policies not addressing the issue of lack of appropriately skilled waste management personnel (Chenje, 2000: LEAP, 2008: Ogawa, 2005).

Policies not addressing coordination problems at both local and national level (Buenrostro and Bocco, 2003: Ogawa, 2005: Mangizo, 2010).

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CHAPTER 4 : RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DATA ANALYSIS

4.1 Introduction Chapter 2 and 3 looked at literature review and policy analysis with regards to solid waste management respectively. Chapter 2 noted that solid waste management was a growing problem in most towns and cities in developing countries and that most of the approaches used in managing solid waste were unsustainable leading to many challenges and adverse affects on human health and the environment. The integrated sustainable waste management approach was put forward as a viable waste management strategy in low income areas in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 looked at the policies and laws that have a bearing on solid waste management in Zimbabwe. It was noted that Zimbabwe has no clear national waste management policy and there are major schisms between the content of existing policy documents and practice.

This chapter will present a discussion on empirical findings regarding Mbares solid waste management. This chapter will look at waste management and waste profile for Harare and Mbare; and waste management strategies for Mbare residents based on empirical study results.

4.2 Waste management and waste profile in Harare and the Mbare neighborhood Understanding of the components of solid waste in a community is important as was noted in Chapter 2, as the composition of solid waste greatly influences proposed waste management methods (Puopiel, 2010). This section summarises a discussion on findings regarding the main components of solid waste of Harare city and Mbare. A comparison of waste composition is also done which shows that there are some differences in waste composition for the Harare city and Mbare Township. However, the waste management system used in Mbare Township mirrors that used in Harare city as the citys waste management approach is similar across townships.

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4.2.1.1 Solid waste management in Harare and Mbare Harare municipality uses the same approach to solid waste management in the whole city in spite of peculiarities in the waste composition of different suburbs in the city. The use of similar or universal solid waste management methods across communities makes the solid waste management processes unsustainable as noted in literature review, Chapter 2, where Cointreau (1984), Kollikkathara et al. (2009), Korfmacher (1997), and Zuilen (2006) asserted that unique factors across residential areas like fuel costs, waste quantities, waste compositions, capital costs and social-economic attitudes require that solid waste management approaches be customised to local conditions to ensure sustainability and efficaciousness of the waste management methods.

Based on review of internal documents from the citys waste department, observations and the household survey, the current waste management approach used in Mbare can be described as a mix of the early solid waste management approach noted in Chapter 2 which focused on the limited scope of storage, collection and disposal (Gotoh, 1989) and contemporary approaches that included sanitary landfills, composting, recycling and incineration (Denison and Ruston, 1990). The approach used in Harare and Mbare is where solid waste generated by households is temporarily collected into receptacles, skip bins or dumped on the roadside and occasionally refuse trucks come to collect the waste for final disposal at two landfill disposal sites in Harare, Pomona and Golden Quarry. Waste disposal at these landfill sites is done using the principles of spread and compacting (City of Harare Department of Waste Management, 2011:14). It is also important to note that the Pomona and Golden Query sites, though they are called landfills in Zimbabwe, they do not meet engineering standards for landfills hence, the use of landfills when referring to them in this dissertation.

The approach to waste management in Mbare has a lot of characteristics noted in Chapter 2 as resembling early solid waste management practices. Solid waste is viewed as a problem to be dealt with through disposal while little attention is given to preventive strategies to reduce waste (Buclet, 2002); recovery and stakeholder
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participation are not given attention (Mader, 2011); the authorities still view waste as an engineering challenge requiring technologically heavy solutions and their view at the waste problem is similar in all suburbs regardless of local context (Buclet, 2002 and Mader, 2011). Dumping solid waste on land, pits, in water, burying waste underground and incineration are some disposal methods of early solid waste management practices according to Tchobanolglous et al. (1993) noted in Chapter 2, and these methods are used in the Mbare solid waste management system. Dumping of waste in gutters, drains, by the roadside and illegal sites (Oladebeye, 2010) are early waste disposal methods noted in Chapter 2, which are also evident in Mbare. Elements of contemporary methods noted in Chapter 2 like source reduction (Denison and Ruston, 1990: Kreith, 1994; Puopiel, 2010; USPS, 2000; and Tsiboe and Marbel 2004); sanitary landfill (CED, 2003; and Zebock, 2003); recycling ( Momoh and Oladebeye, 2010; and USEPA, 1999); composting ( UNEP, 2009; Puopiel, 2010; and Zerbock, 203); and incineration (CED, 2003; Kreith, 1994) are also evident in the

Mbare solid waste management system. The next section is built on the foregoing discussion on methods of solid waste disposal and handling and looks at findings with regard to the elements of the Mbare solid waste management system 4.2.1.2 Mbares Solid waste management system As noted in Chapter 2, a solid waste management system may include the following elements: generation, source separation, storage, collection, transportation and transfer, processing, recovery and disposal (Dev, 2007; Manyanhaire et al., 2009 and Tchobanoglous et al., 1993). From the study findings, the Mbare waste management system has all these elements that are found in various literatures but the emphasis of these elements vary. The Mbare solid waste management system as noted in the section above leans more towards the early approach to solid waste management though with some elements of contemporary and integrated sustainable solid waste practices like source reduction, separation, recycling albeit at a very low scale. Figure 4.9 is the authors schematic representation of the Mbare solid waste management system based on research findings.
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From the study findings the Mbare solid waste management system like revealed with the Sakuva Township solid waste management system by Manyanhaire et al., (2009) has two streams: the legal and the illegal. The legal stream is where waste is stored in receptacles and then transferred and transported to legal landfill sites by the municipal workers. The legal stream also includes activities by private players sanctioned by the city authorities like clean up campaigns by NGOs and volunteers and collection of waste by private companies that do recycling.

The illegal stream on the other hand is mainly caused by the inadequacy of services provided by the municipality which sees huge waste accumulations in residential areas and open spaces. The illegal stream accounts for all the waste that is not collected by the municipal workers or private companies. Some of the waste is dumped by the street side, some buried underground, and some is deposited in Mkuwisi River, while some is just dumped at open spaces and in alleys. The Mbare solid waste management system has the following elements: generation, storage, source separation, reuse/recycling, collection, transportation, disposal and recovery.

Solid waste collected in Mbare by the municipality is disposed of at the Pomona landfill. The landfills in Harare do not meet the engineering standards of landfills as they face problems of seepage. The City of Harare has only two landfill sites, Pomona and Golden Quarry. The methods used to dispose of the waste at the Pomona site is the spread and compact method. The Golden Quarry landfill was closed for all solid waste disposal and is only being used for disposal of liquid waste and natural decomposition and evaporation are the main drivers of the system used at Golden Quarry (City of Harare Department of Waste Management, 2011:14). As noted in Chapter 2 sanitary landfills are one of the common ways of disposal of solid waste that cannot be reclaimed or reused and as CED (2003) contended, sanitary landfills prevent burning of solid waste and help reclamation of land for other valuable uses. Zerbock (2003) as noted in literature review asserted that sanitary landfills are different from illegal dump sites due to the level of planning and engineering as well as their
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management. However, the problem with the two landfills in Harare is that they do not meet the required international standards of engineering stipulated by EMA.

The problem of seepage and leachates in the landfills is high and City of Harare cannot at present afford to erect engineered landfills that comply with modern standards as required by EMA (City of Harare Department of Waste Management, 2011:14). As noted in the Chapter 3, EMA is not enshrined in the Constitution of Zimbabwe and this makes it difficult for legal action to be taken against the City of Harare with regards to their failure to ensure the set engineering standards for landfills. 4.2.1.3 Residents and stakeholder participation in waste management processes A stakeholder is important in an integrated solid waste management system. From literature review in Chapter 2, stakeholder participation was noted as a key aspect of a sustainable integrated solid waste management system. Mangkoedihardjo et al. (2007) noted that in order for solid waste management to be sustainable in low income areas there was need to form what they termed neighbourhood advisory committees (NAC) which are groupings of residents and other key players in waste management in an area. The NAC will be part of each management scheme. Adardsh (1996) as noted in Chapter 2 pointed out that the success stories of various integrated solid waste management schemes in India hinged on the participation and acceptance of the schemes by stakeholders.

The Mbare solid waste management system does not take stakeholder participation seriously. Residents are treated as service users who pay for a service that is provided by the municipality and no consultations are done with residents and other stakeholders. Companies and NGOs are only approached to help with clean up campaigns as part of their social corporate responsibility but are not really involved in key decisions regarding planning, implementing and management of the solid waste system.

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The policies that have a bearing on solid waste management in Zimbabwe do not really emphasise the important role of stakeholders in solid waste management systems. The NSDS policy document only mention of stakeholders at national level that form the National Sustainable Development Committee but do not take this committee approach to local levels. Some of the major weaknesses of national level policies on waste management as documented by Maseva (2005) and Practical Action Southern Africa (2006) and reflected in Chapter 3 include the fact that the national level policies fail to consider communities as resources as they ignore communities potential roles in waste management. The national policies also ignore the interest of small communities and are biased towards the interest of big industrialists.

The study established that in Mbare the stakeholders in solid waste management include: the municipality, National Waste Paper Collection Company, Delta Beverages, Informal traders, residents, informal waste collectors, scrap metal dealers and NGOs.

The municipality lacks capacity to collect solid waste in Harares suburbs including Mbare but at the same time it is not opening up to private players to work in waste collection. From key informant feedback it emerged that the role of waste management under the City of Harare had changed hands 5 times since 1998. Before 1998 the responsibility for waste management fell in the citys department of works in amenities division. In 1999, it was transferred to the city health department. In 2005 it became a standalone department of waste management. For some time in 2005, 56% of the city waste collections were covered by three private refuse contractors. However, due to political problems regarding the tendering of these contractors their services were terminated in May 2005. According to City of Harare Department of Waste Management (undated) refuse collection problems increased after the termination of these private contractors. To date in spite of the city council admitting that it has not enough capacity to collect waste and manage waste, no private players are being contracted to do waste collections. The few private players doing some work on waste management and waste collection are doing so on voluntary bases or as part of their corporate social responsibility which at times is not regular or systematic. Informal waste collectors who
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include waste scavengers collect reusable waste like plastic bottles, glass bottles, plastic containers which they clean up in nearby Mukuwisi River and resale to vendors at Mbare Musika. Collected plastics and plastic containers are also used to package products like vegetables and peanut butter at Mbare Musika. Other informal waste collectors are those hired by wealthier families to collect and dispose their accumulated solid waste at illegal dumpsites sites and open areas.

4.2.1.4 Waste management challenges in Mbare and Harare Based on findings from the key informant interviews with waste management staff and review of key documents from the municipalitys waste department, the following are key challenges being faced in solid waste management in Mbare and Harare: Inadequate refuse receptacles; Increased volumes of waste in 2010 attributable to improvement in the economy; Ransacking of refuse bins by street kids and vagrants; Sanitary lanes being fouled and filled with litter as they are not fenced or manned; High vehicle traffic volumes along main roads making some sanitary lanes and properties inaccessible; Inadequate refuse collection vehicles; Long distance between refuse collection points and landfill disposal sites making refuse disposal at these sites very expensive (for example the Pomona landfill site if situated 12.66 kilometers from Mbare); and Lack of community awareness on reducing, recycling and separation of waste.

The challenges noted above are consistent with some of the challenges noted in Chapter 2 as waste management challenges confronting cities in developing countries. Ogawa (2005), Manyanhaire et al.(2009), Masocha and Tevera (2003) and Zurbrgg (2002) noted in their various studies that solid waste management systems in developing countries in general face challenges that include low collection coverage, irregular, inconsistent and inadequate collection services, crude open dumping, and burning without air and water pollution control.
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The various policy documents on waste management in Zimbabwe also confirmed the existence of these challenges. For instance The Draft Strategic Document on Waste Management of 2004, as noted in Chapter 3, identifies the problems of street kids and ransacking of waste skips as some of the challenges in waste management in Zimbabwes cities. The Science and Technology Policy of 2002 notes that general environmental pollution is increasing and this is posing a great challenge to waste management. Section 70 of EMA notes that minimisation and treatment of waste is necessary to curb the growing challenge of increasing waste generation in Zimbabwes towns and cities.

4.2.1.5 Effects of poor solid waste management in Mbare and Harare In Chapter 2, it was noted that some of the effects of poor solid waste management included adverse effects on human health and the environment. Ramokate and Basu (2009:444) noted that poor solid waste management may lead to transmission of infectious diseases like HIV/AIDS and hepatitis B and C. Holmes (1994) and Taru and Kuvarega (2005) noted that infectious diseases like dysentery, cholera, enteritis, typhoid fever and lung ailments caused by dust from waste lumps were some of the negative effects of poor solid waste management on human health.

When asked what they thought were some of the effects of poor solid waste management in Mbare, respondents to the household survey mentioned outbreaks of diseases like cholera, increase in disease vectors, ugly scenery, rodents and mice, children playing with waste and waste lumps, children being cut by sharp objects deposited in waste lumps as some of the negative effects of poor solid waste management in Mbare. Residents also revealed that Mbare suffered recurrent cholera outbreaks. This was also confirmed by the key informant interviews that revealed that the City of Harare regarded Mbare as one of the endemic areas for cholera. 4.2.2 Waste composition and profile in Harare and Mbare This section elaborates on the waste profile of Harare and the neighborhood of Mbare.
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4.2.2.1 Solid waste profile of Harare According to findings from the key informant interviews done with staff from the City of Harare Waste Department, the city has an estimated population of 2.5 million. The citys per capita waste generation is estimated at 0.9 kilograms per person per day. The citys waste collection efficiency is estimated at 70%. The projected waste generation is approximately 730 000 tons annually. Estimated collected waste is 511 000 tons per year (City of Harare Department of Waste Management, 2011:1). These figures correspond with figures elsewhere in developing countries, for instance the waste collection efficiency of 70% (though this may be a bit high for Harare) agrees to the findings of UNEP(2009) which show that 30-60% of solid waste in developing countries is uncollected. From the key informant interviews with the citys waste department staff and review of internal documents from the waste department, the citys solid waste is estimated at 2,250,000 tons per year.

The following estimates in percentages are made about solid waste composition of Harare: about 15,5% is rubbish, 6.5% food waste, paper 20%, plastics 20%, glass 5%, agricultural 15%, construction 8%, metals 5%, textiles 2% and other 3%(City of Harare Department of Waste Management, 2011:2). The key constituents of solid waste in Harare correspond to what various literatures on waste management, reviewed in Chapter 2, noted as key components of solid waste found in third world countries (CointreauLevine, 1982; Dension and Ruston, 1990; Kemal, 2007; Mader, 2011; Madewe and Madewe, 2006; Tchobanoglous et al, 1993; Puopiel, 2010; Kreith, 1994; and Zerbock, 2003).

4.2.2.2 Solid waste profile of Mbare Based on key informant interviews and review of waste department statistics the following estimates of solid waste in Mbare were established; 10% rubbish, 3% food, 12% paper, 14% plastics, 5% glass, 29% agricultural waste, 10% construction waste, 10% metals, 6% textiles, 0.5% other (City of Harare Department of Waste

Management, 2011). The above statistics indicate that more than 50% of Mbares solid waste is organic materials (rubbish, food, paper, agricultural waste) and these figures
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compare with those of other developing countries as noted in literature review, Chapter 2, where Zerbock (2003) contended that over 50% of solid waste in developing countries is organic material. High composition of organic material in solid waste justifies the use of composting as a sustainable method of managing organic waste as noted by Puopiel (2010), UNEP (2009) and Zerbock (2003) unlike the system used in Mbare where organic waste is transported together with other waste for final disposal in landfills or illegal dumpsites. Composting is also a low-technology approach (Zerbock, 2003) suited to low income areas (Puopiel, 2010) like Mbare. 4.2.3 Comparison of solid waste composition between Mbare and Harare An interesting picture emerges when a comparison between waste composition for the whole of Harare and that of Mbare is done. A graphical representation of the comparison between solid waste constituents in percentages terms in Mbare and Harare city was done as shown in figure 4.1 below and is followed by a brief discussion on the picture painted by the graph and figures.

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Figure 4.1: Comparison of solid waste composition between Mbare Township and greater Harare city

Harare & Mbare solid waste comparison


35 30 25 20 20 15.5 10 3 Rubbish Mbare Harare 10 15.5 6.5 Paper 12 20 Plastic 13.5 20 12 20 13.5 10 5 5 Glass 5 5 Agric 30 20 Constr 10 8 8 10 5 Metal 10 5 6 5 2 0.5 3 Other 0.5 3 0 20 15 10

Food 3 6.5

Texitiles 6 2

Sources: City of Harare Department of Waste Management (2011) and Household survey.

Firstly, Mbare generates less waste percentage wise than the whole of Harare. Percentages of Mbares rubbish, food, paper, and plastic waste were found to be much lower than those of Harare. However, Mbare generates higher agricultural, construction, metal and textile waste in percentage terms than Harare. The discussion below explains the key findings.

4.2.3.1 Mbare generates less waste percentage wise compared to Harare Percentages of rubbish, food, paper and plastic waste compared to the total estimates of Mbare solid waste are in general lower than percentages of the same wastes for Harare relative the total estimates of Harares total solid waste. This could be due to the fact that Mbare is one of the poorest areas in Harare and most of the households in Mbare are low income so the level of rubbish, food, paper and plastic wastes they generate are lower relative to other wastes when compared to the same statistics for the whole of Harare that would include high income areas. Higher volumes of rubbish,
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Percentage of solid waste

30

food, paper and plastic waste in higher income areas and lower volumes of rubbish food, paper and plastic wastes in low income areas may be due to consumption habits as higher income areas generally consume more, hence generate more waste in these category types. This finding confirms to what was noted in Chapter 2 that waste generation is dependent on consumption patterns (Manyanhaire et al., 2009:126). 4.2.3.2 Mbare generates more agricultural waste than Harare Agricultural waste is about 29% of the Mbares solid waste while for Harare it is about 15% of the total estimate of the citys solid waste. The reason for much higher composition of agricultural waste in Mbare relative to the total estimate of the suburbs total solid waste can be attributed to the fact that Mbare hosts the biggest agricultural produce market (Mbare Musika) in Harare and a lot of agricultural produce waste is generated from the market. Residents of Mbare also use most of the open land for illegal urban agriculture and waste from these agricultural activities finds its way into the suburbs waste streams.

4.2.3.3 Mbare generates more construction waste than Harare Construction waste constitutes a much higher percentage of the total estimate of Mbares solid waste than it is as a constituent of the Harares total estimate of solid waste. Mbare is one of the suburbs that were heavily affected by demolition of houses and slums during the 2005 Operation Restore Order (ORO) and some of the construction/demolition waste has not been cleared. The findings regarding construction waste in Mbare and Harare differ greatly from the study done by Madewe and Madewe (2006) in Gweru town where they concluded that demolition waste constitutes between 30-50% of the Zimbabwe towns solid waste. As seen in the figures and tables above construction/demolition waste constitutes only about 10% of Mbares solid waste and 8% of Harares solid waste total estimate. The reason for this huge difference may be due to the time period between this study and that of Madewe and Madewe (2006). Madewe and Madewe (2006) carried out their study hardly a year after the demolition campaign, ORO, which started in May 2005. It may be that at the time of their study

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most of the demolition wastes were not yet cleared in most urban areas that were affected by these demolitions.

4.2.3.4 Mbare generates more metal and textile waste than Harare The composition of metal and textile waste is much higher as constituents of solid waste in Mbare than they are as constituents of solid waste in Harare as a whole. This can be due to the fact that Mbare has a booming informal metal and fabric industry and many people do operate back-yard cloth making and metal crafting activities to supplement their incomes. The differences in waste composition in Harare and Mbare call for adoption of sustainable waste management approaches that pay attention to local factors than the system used in Harare where the same waste management methods are applied universally across the city. 4.3. Waste management strategies and awareness of policies among Mbare households: Survey results This section will look at the key findings from the household survey. The section will look at the socio-economic profile of survey respondents, waste management strategies among Mbare households and residents awareness of polices on waste management. As will be noted in the next sections residents generally have low incomes with an average household income of USD$ 143.25. Mbare is generally overcrowded and the waste management strategies used by residents are very basic and are characterised by throwing of waste in overfilled skip bins, compacting, some composting, dumping of waste on the roadside and open spaces and dumping of waste in Mukuwisi River. The solid waste management services provided by the municipality are not adequate and most residents are unable to pay for the services. 4.3.1 Socio-economic profile of respondents This section elaborates on the socio-economic profile of the respondents of the survey. Table 4.1 reflects on the age, level of education, household size, employment status, and monthly income of the respondents.

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Table 4.1 Socio-economic profile of survey respondents


Categories 18 to 29 years old 30 to 39 years old Age groups 40 to 49 years old 50 years and older Total None Primary school/ Junior school Highest level of Some secondary schooling education Completed secondary school (A level) Vocational college Total Less than 5 people in household Between 6 and 10 people in household Household size More than 10 people in household Average household size Total Informal employment Formal employment Employment Unemployed Other (Housewife, pensioner, student) Total $0 to $50 $51 to $150 $151 to $350 Income More than $351 Average monthly income in $ Total Source: Household survey. N 34 15 20 11 80 3 6 59 5 7 10 62 8 7.19 80 62 3 12 3 80 30 19 27 4 143.25 80 % 42.5 18.75 25 13.75 100.0 3.75 7.5 73.75 6.25 8.75 100.0 12.5 77.5 10 100.0 77.5 3.75 15 3.75 100.0 37.5 23.75 33.75 5 100.0

The following notes relate to the socio-economic profile of the respondents:

4.3.1.1 Age groups As shown in the table above, all respondents to the study survey were people of 18 years and above. From the household survey 42.5% of the respondents were in the 1829 years age group, 18.75% were in the 30-39 age group, 25% in the 40-49 age group, 13.75% were 50 years and older. These percentages suggest that the majority of Mbare residents are young people between the 18 and 39 years old. Mbare attracts many young people as it is located near the city centre and is home to many informal business activities, the main agricultural market, and the biggest long distance bus terminus in Harare. As mentioned in Chapter 1 and earlier sections of this chapter, Mbare is a low income area as it is one of the poorest suburbs in Harare. It has a lot of
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slum dwellings and overcrowded households comprising of many young people who come to Harare and find residence in the township as they look for employment. The young job seekers end up getting involved mainly in informal business and criminal activities as formal employment opportunities in Harare are scarce and unemployment levels in Zimbabwe are above 80%.

4.3.1.2 Highest level of education. Most of the respondents to the household survey had at least completed secondary education (73.75%) while only 3.375 had not received an education, 7.5% had gone as far as primary school, 6.25% had completed advanced level education and 8.75% had gone to vocational college.

4.3.1.3 Average household size. The average household size based on responses from the survey respondents was 7.19. This is quite high and suggests that there is overcrowding in most households in Mbare as the national average household number in Zimbabwe is 6. It was revealed that in most flats and houses in Mbare more people than the expected number of people to stay in those housing units were present. In Matererini and Matapi flats as much as 9 people in some instances were staying in tiny flats that were originally built for bachelor workers during the colonial era. In housing units in Ward 3 and National it was revealed that in some cases more than three families were staying in one house as owners of the houses rented out rooms to tenants to supplement their income. The big household sizes coupled with lack of adequate waste receptacles provided by the municipality are attributed to overflowing of waste in skip bins and disposing of waste along the roadsides.

4.3.1.4 Employment The majority of the respondents to the survey were informally employed (77.5%) while only 3.75% were formally employed and 15% were unemployed. As mentioned earlier Mbare hosts a lot of informal business activities. These activities range from agricultural products vending, clothing, metal smith activities, and informal trading in other goods
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and services. As noted in section 4.2 Mbare produces more agricultural, metal and textile waste than the rest of Harare in percentage terms and this waste in mainly due to these key informal business activities.

4.3.1.5 Income Mbare is generally a low income area as mentioned in Chapter 1 and other sections of this chapter. From the household survey 37.5% of respondents make a monthly income between $0-$50, 23.75% make a monthly income between $51 and $150, 33.75% make a monthly income between $151 and $350 and only 5% make a monthly income of over $351. The average monthly income of the respondents is $143.25. Low incomes in most developing countries as noted in Chapter 2 make solid waste management unsustainable and collection services irregular. The low incomes in Mbare makes the current solid waste management system untenable as it is based on polluter pays principles yet most polluters in Mbare cannot afford to pay due to low income levels.

4.3.2 Solid waste management strategies of household survey respondents The solid waste generated in Harare is estimated to be 2 million tons per year (City of Harare Department of Waste Management, 2011:2). The household survey revealed that waste generation in Mbare had increased and this confirms to what was noted by the municipality that waste generation in Harare in general had increased. During the household survey, 37.5% of the respondents said that the waste they generated in the past year had increased while only 6.3% said the waste they generated had not changed and 56.3% said the waste they generated had gone down. These findings confirmed the findings of Manyanhaire et al. (2006), Monahan (2004) and UNEP (2009) who in their various studies as noted in Chapter 2 found out that the global rate of municipal solid waste being generated was increasing.

4.3.3 Solid waste handling Waste handling is a key process within the solid waste management system. About 60% of respondents to the household survey viewed waste handling as a dirty and time consuming exercise. Most of the respondents to the household survey as was also
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confirmed with review of reports from the waste department are not aware of the benefits of recovery, reuse and recycling of waste. Figure 4.2 below shows the most common waste handling methods in Mbare mentioned by the respondents to the household survey. Figure 4.2: Waste handling methods in Mbare

4% 4%

13% 29%

Wrapping food in plastics or newspaper Mixing variuos waste types

50%

Shredding/grinding Compaction Seperation

Source: Household survey.

As shown in figure 4.2 above 50% of the respondents to the household survey said they mixed various wastes in plastic bags, bins or skip bins. Mixing of waste can be attributed to lack of knowledge on the benefits of recycling and also that most households only have one bin to put their waste in and in cases where bins and other receptacles are not supplied households tend to use one plastic bag to put their waste and throw the mixed waste away. From the household survey 29% of the respondents mentioned that they sometimes wrapped their food waste in paper or plastic before disposing it in skips or bins, 5% of the households mentioned that they compacted waste for it to fit in one bin provided. About 5% of the household survey respondents also mentioned that they do separate waste as sometimes waste collection companies come and collect cardboards and paper although this was not regular. Households also separate bottles, plastics and cans as sometimes these are collected by informal waste collectors who pay small amounts of money for these or households exchange the

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recyclable waste with informal waste collectors for foodstuffs like eggs. The informal waste collectors will then sale the recyclable waste to recycling companies.

4.3.4 Solid waste separation The study revealed that most households in Mbare do not separate their waste. Most of the times waste is mixed and this makes any recovery, reuse and recycling difficult as noted in Chapter 2. Only 31.3% of the respondents to the household survey said they separated their waste while 68.8% said they do not separate their waste. Figure 4.3 below, a photograph taken by the author during field observations also confirms that households in Mbare did little separation of waste at source as various waste types are seen mixed in a skip bin. The findings of low levels of separation of waste at source also confirmed findings by Tsiboe and Marbel (2004) in Chapter 2 who noted that while source separation is very important in achieving solid waste reduction, separation was not widely done in third world cities.

Figure 4.3 below shows mixed solid waste overflowing in a skip bin in Mbare, Matapi area. Figure 4.3: Mixing of solid waste

Source: Author, August 2011.

Respondents to the household survey who separated their waste noted that they mainly separated paper/cardboard boxes, plastics, cans, bottles and plastic containers. When asked why they separated these materials some said they separated paper so that the National Waste Paper Collection Company (NWPCC) that does paper recycling can collect it during their occasional collection rounds and some residents separated paper
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and card boxes so that they can use them for generating fire for cooking. Bottles, and plastics containers are separated for reuse in the household or selling to informal waste collectors who sale these to traders at Mbare Musika who in turn package food stuffs like peanut butter and vegetables in these containers and plastics. 4.3.5 Solid waste collection From the household survey it was found out that residents use various types of

receptacles to collect waste that include skip bins, metal bins, plastic bins, mealie-meal bags, cardboard boxes, and sacks. Figure 4.4 below shows the percentages of usage of various receptacles based on the household survey.

Figure 4.4: Types of receptacles used by households in Mbare


30 25 24 19 14 15 10 5 4 Type of receptacles 1 0 Skip

Percentage

23

20 15

Plastic bins Meali meal bags Sacks Plastic bags Cardbord boxes Metal bins

Source: Household survey.

As shown in figure 4.4 above, the most common place of waste collection or receptacle based on responses from the household survey is the communal skip bin (24%). Most skip bins are situated in Matapi, Matererini, and Ward 3. The skip bins provide a communal place of waste collection for residents who reside in the overcrowded flats of this area. From observations it was noted that most of the skip bins were overflowing with solid waste. Household survey respondents said the skip bins had gone for more than three months without being collected. Residents end up throwing waste around the

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overflowing skip bins. Figure 4.5, below is a photograph of overflowing skip bins in Mbare taken during field observations.

Figure 4.5: Overflowing skip bins in Matapi area

Source: Author, August 2011.

Plastic bags are the next common waste receptacle used in Mbare (23%). Residents who reside in houses around Mbare national area commonly use plastic bags as there are shortages of formal receptacles supplied by the city council or other waste collectors. Other informal receptacles used include mealie-meal bags (19%), sacks (15%), and cardboard boxes (4%). Over crowdedness in Mbare leads to a situation whereby supplied waste receptacles get filled within short periods of time. The problem of shortage of receptacles for collection of waste is a very big challenge in many African countries as also revealed in Chapter 2 by Puopiel (2010) in his studies in Ghana. Failure by the City of Harare to provide adequate and standard waste receptacles shows that the council is even failing to adhere to its own by-laws. As noted in the Chapter 3, under the citys Waste by-laws of 1982, the council has an obligation to supply standard and adequate waste receptacles to residents (City of Harare, 1981a).

4.3.6 Solid waste collection, transfer and transportation The study revealed that waste collection and transfer for final disposal at landfills was done at different intervals within the suburb and the collection was irregular. During the household survey 63.3 % of the respondents in Matapi area said Not at all in response to the question on frequency of waste collection in their area while 27.6% in the same
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area (Matapi) said once a week and 9.1% said twice a week. All (100%) respondents in Materereni area said Not at all to the same question. This differs greatly to Ward 3 and National where 86% of the respondents said waste was collected once every week and 14% of the respondents in the same areas said once in every two weeks. These findings were also triangulated with field observations as streets in Ward 3 and National area were observed to be cleaner than those in Matapi and Matererni which were characterised by litter in most places on the ground and overflowing skip bins. By failing to collect waste regularly the City of Harare is breaching its own by-laws of 1982 as discussed in Chapter 3 the by-laws stipulate that domestic waste should be collected at least once a week.

The problem of irregular collection of skip bins in Matapai and Matererini is a problem facing most suburbs in Harare. According to its 2010 annual report, the City of Harare had a total of 160 skip bins and only 5 functional skip trucks. This gave a ratio of 32 skip bins per truck. Each skip bin was supposed to be emptied once in two days. To be able to ensure that skip bins are emptied regularly the council needed more skip trucks (City of Harare Department of Waste Management, 2011:10).

The findings in Mbare of low collection coverage, irregular, inconsistent and inadequate solid waste collection services are consistent with findings of other studies (Ogawa (2005), Manyanhaire et al. (2009), Masocha and Tavera (2003) and Zurbrugg (2002) in third world cities as revealed in Chapter 2. By failing to provide adequate and regular waste collection services in Mbare the municipality is breaching provisions of Section 9 of EMA that obligate the municipality to ensure adequate collection and monitoring of solid waste as noted in Chapter 3. 4.3.7 Household views on paying for solid waste collection services From the household survey 72.5 % of the respondents said that they were charged for refuse collection while 22% said no as they do not know if they are charged for refuse collection as they do not pay. Table 4.2 below shows a cross tabulation on residents responses on ability to pay for waste collection and reasons for paying or not paying.
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Table 4.2 Residents ability to pay for refuse


Reason Residents paying for refuse Afford(N) Cant afford(N) Yes No 18 0 18 Source: Household survey. 0 62 62 Total 18 62 80

A cross tabulation (Table 4.2 above) on responses of whether respondents were in a position to pay versus the reasons why they responded in the manner they did showed that only 18% of the survey respondents are in a position to pay refuse collection charges while 62% said they cant afford paying for refuse collection services. Polluter ability to pay in a waste management system is very important for sustainability of such a system as noted in literature review, Chapter 2. As was revealed in Chapter 3, EMA embraces the polluter pays principles but the problem is that there are no mechanisms or provisions obliging the municipality to plough back funds collected for waste collection into the actual waste collection itself, leaving residents less willing to pay for refuse services that are erratic and irregular. 4.3.7 Solid waste disposal As noted earlier other places in Mbare have irregular collection of solid waste while others do receive at least collections for final disposal once every week. The collection of waste for disposal by the municipality workers and private organisations forms the formal stream. However, given the inadequacy of waste collection services the illegal steam of waste disposal is also evident. The survey revealed that Mbare residents dispose their waste in various ways that include composting, burning, burying underground, selling recyclable waste, dumping by the roadside and on open spaces and dumping in Mukuwisi River. Figure 4.6 below is a pie chart showing the waste disposal methods of interviewed households in percentage terms.

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Figure 4.6: Other methods of waste disposal in Mbare

2% 18% 24% 16% 29% Composting Burn Bury underground Sell Dump on roadside Dump in open space Dump in the River

6%

5%

Source: Household survey.

From figure 4.6 above it can be seen that 18% of the respondents said they compost their waste, 29% burn in open spaces, 5 % bury their waste underground, 6% sell some of their waste, 16% dump some of the waste by the road side, 24% dump their waste in open spaces and 2% dump some of their waste in Mukuvisi River. The findings of the household survey were also triangulated with field observations where photographs were taken to capture some of the waste disposal methods. Figure 4.7 below is a pictorial showing the waste disposal methods captured during field observations.

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Figure 4.7: Illegal disposal of waste in Mbare

Slides a and d, waste dumped in open spaces in Mbare; b, waste thrown through windows in Matapi flats; slide c, waste dumped by the roadside, slide e and f , burning of waste (Source: Author, August, 2011, except slide b (Chirisa and Mlambo, 2008)).

The findings on waste disposal methods in Mbare confirm what was noted in Chapter 2 that some early methods that were used in the 1950s like dumping on land, burying waste underground, burning, dumping in water (Tchobanoglous et al., 1993), dumping on spaces and in gutters (Puopiel, 2010) and dumping in drains, and illegal dumping sites (Momoh and Oladebeye, 2010) were still being used today in third world cities.

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4.3.9 Extent of household 3R practices Chapter 2 proposed a model of integrated sustainable solid waste management that included a hierarchy of methods of reduce, recycling, composting, incineration and land filling, with stakeholder participation playing a key role in all these methods. The model of integrated sustainable solid waste management proposed in Chapter 2 was derived from many literature and studies including Bartone (2000) and Puopiel (2010). As noted in the literature review Puorideme (2010:8) defined integrated sustainable solid waste management as a model that combines, elements of waste prevention, recycling, composting and disposal with active stakeholders participation which ensures efficient and sustainable waste management. The discussion that follows looks at the study findings with regards to reduction, recycling, composting practices done by survey respondents. 4.3.9.1 Waste reduction Respondents to the survey said that they take measures like cooking less food, recycling and reusing some of their solid waste and composting in order to reduce waste that is collected for final disposal. There were no deliberate actions or practices by the municipality to promote source reduction of waste in Mbare. Various literatures reviewed in Chapter 2, converged on the role and importance of source reduction in a sustainable solid waste management system. Literature reviewed in Chapter 2 viewed source reduction as actions performed to reduce volumes and toxicity of solid waste before processing and disposal (Denison and Ruston, 1990; Kreith, 1994) and reclaiming of packages and returnable bottles and containers (Puopiel, 2010). Reusing of container bags, reducing buying habits, and reducing the use of disposable products were indentified in Chapter 2 as some of the ways to reduce waste generation at source (USPS, 2000). As noted in Chapter 3, the policies on waste management in Zimbabwe are silent on source reduction or practical steps that can be followed by local authorities or households to reduce waste.

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4.3.9.2 Composting As noted in Chapter 2, composting involves biological decomposition of biodegradable solid waste under controlled aerobic conditions to a state that is sufficiently stable and palatable for handling (UNEP, 2009). Other scholars that include Puopiel (2010) and Zerbock (2003) asserted that composting was a low income technology approach which is sustainable and suited to low income areas like Mbare as composts do not require expensive engineering and are easy and cheap to maintain. Findings from the household survey revealed that some composting is done in Mbare by individual households; however it is not systematic and is done at a very low scale. Only 36.3 % of the household survey respondents said they do composting for instance. Given that about 29% of solid waste generated in Mbare is agricultural waste there is scope for composting as a good strategy to reduce waste. The EIA policy document, as revealed in Chapter 3, noted composting as one of the prescribed activities under the management of municipal solid waste but does not propose practical steps in which this should be done. 4.3.9.3 Recycling and reuse Chapter 2 noted that many studies on solid waste management point to recycling as an efficient and effective method of solid waste management. Momoh and Oladebeye (2010) noted recycling as an effective waste reduction strategy. USEPA (1999) and Kreith (1994) viewed recycling as presenting advantages of turning waste into money generating materials, and reducing the need to claim more land in constructing landfills. As noted in earlier sections recycling and reuse of solid waste is done in Mbare albeit at a very low scale. When asked their thoughts about recycling and reuse of waste, 67.5% of survey respondents said it was a good idea worth exploring while 3.8 % said they had no idea and 28.75 said recycling should be discouraged. Some of the residents who said recycling should be discouraged remarked that recycling of waste was dirty. These responses showed that there was need for awareness campaigns on the benefits of recycling and teaching residents on how recycling can be done in ways that will not

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adversely affect their health. Table 4.3 below summarises respondents views on recycling. Table 4.3 Respondent feelings about recycling of waste
Response Good idea Recycling should discouraged No idea Source: Household survey. N 54 23 3 % 67.5 28.75 3.75

Recycling in Mbare is done by individual households who separate plastic containers, bottles, and paper and either sale these to informal waste collectors, reuse these or sale them to occasional formal waste collectors like Delta Beverages (for reusable empty beverage bottles) or NWPCC (for paper that will be recycled at their plant in Granitesite near Mbare). Plastics and plastic containers are sometimes cleaned up in Mukuwisi River and sold to vegetable vendors at Mbare Musika to package vegetables for sale. Paper and cardboard boxes are also used to generate fire for cooking. During field observations the researcher encountered a group of scrap metal dealers who reuse metal waste from abandoned cars and other objects made of metal and produce various artifacts that are sold to some locals dealers who then re-sale them abroad. They said on a good month they make profits ranging between $400 and $600. Figure 4.8 are photos that show some of the artifacts and the waste produced in the process of making these artifacts out of abandoned metal objects. Figure 4.8: Reuse of metal waste in Mbare

Slide a. Author posing in front of some of the artifacts produced through reuse of metal waste in Mbare; slide b. scrap metal waste from reuse of metal waste. Source: Author, August, 2011.

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The EIA policy document as noted in Chapter 3 makes recovery and recycling of waste as one of its prescribed activities but again like with composting the policy document does not spell out practical steps with which this should be done.

4.3.10 Residents awareness of waste management policies In Chapter 2 it was noted that Lardinois (1996), Van de Klundert and Anschutz (1997), and Rosario and Scheinberg (2004) deemed policy and legal frameworks as some of the key aspects in a sustainable integrated solid waste management system. Residents awareness of the policies and laws governing waste management is key in ensuring that residents are conscious of their roles and responsibilities in waste management in their areas. During the household survey 82 % of respondents said they were not aware of any policies and laws governing solid waste management in Mbare. Of those who said they knew some policies and laws most of them only mentioned that they knew that it was illegal to dispose waste in open areas and by the roadside. These findings of little awareness of policies and laws governing waste management among residents also confirmed the findings of Maseva (2005) and Practical Action Southern Africa (2006) whose studies concluded that there have been poor communication of national policies on waste management to local authorities in Harare, hence the lack of programmes of action aimed at raising public awareness among residents on the existence of these policies. As also noted in Chapter 3, one of the main weaknesses with regards to laws governing waste management in Harare is lack of public awareness on the existence of these laws. 4.4 Summary This Chapter revealed that quantities of waste generated in Mbare are increasing and this increase is not matched by the municipalitys limited waste collection activities. At the same time one of the two landfills used for final disposal of solid waste by the City of Harare was closed for solid waste disposal. The differences in waste profiles of Harare and Mbare point to the need to adopt different waste management methods that suit the peculiar circumstances of Harares suburbs, unlike the system that exists where uniform approaches to waste management are used. The Mbare waste management is
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close to the early approach which has elements of generation, collection, transfer and transportation and final disposal at landfills. Very little attention is given to reduce, recycling and reusing of waste. The system is unsustainable. Low incomes of the residents also make it impossible for the residents to pay for waste they generate yet the municipality emphasises on the polluter pays principle. Figure 4.9 is the authors schematic representation of the Mbare solid waste management system.

Figure 4.9: Elements of Mbares solid waste system


Generation (households, medical facilities, businesses, informal businesses, Mbare Musika) Food Agricultural Paper Plastics Metals Glass Rubbish Construction Textiles Other Reuse/Recycle -Households: plastics, containers, paper, cardboards, construction waste -Metal dealers: metal -Informal traders: plastic containers, bottles -Private companies: paper, cardboards, cans, bottles, scrap metals

Recovery -Households -collection crews -Scavengers

Source separation -households Disposal -Illegal dumping -Crude dumping -Burning -Composting -Landfill- spread and compacting -Dumping in Mukuwisi River

Storage -Bins -Skip bins -Plastic bags

Collection -Municipal workers -Private companies -Informal waste collectors

Transportation -Municipal trucks -Private companies

Irregular/non collection attracts pest and rodents

Waste scattering Gases, leachate, litter, sharp objects

Environmental and health effects/risks -land, water, air, soil pollution, -unsightly scenes, -diseases vectors, -odors, pests, parasites, rodents, -children being harmed in illegal waste lumps

Source: Authors construct based on findings from the Field Observations, Household Survey, and Key Informant Interviews.

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CHAPTER 5 : OVERVIEW OF MAIN RESEARCH FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Introduction
The main objective of this research study was to provide a case for the adoption of an integrated sustainable solid waste management system as a strategy to manage solid waste in Mbare Township. In order to achieve the research aim and objectives it was important that an exploration and analysis of literature on solid waste be done as well as an analysis of policies and laws governing solid waste management in Zimbabwe be carried out. Chapter 2 explored various literatures on solid waste management and established the paradigms in solid waste management that include the early approaches, the contemporary approaches and the intergraded solid waste

management approach. Chapter 3 was a critical analysis of the laws and policies governing solid waste management in Zimbabwe. It was found that Zimbabwe has a comprehensive set of laws capable of leading to sustainable solid waste management but poor implementation and enforcement of these laws is a key challenge militating against the attainment of adequate and sustainable waste management. The chapter also revealed that Zimbabwe lacks a national level policy on waste management which is a very big challenge in attaining of sustainability in solid waste management. In chapter 4, the focus of the study drifted from literature and policy analysis to the empirical research findings on the nature, extent, challenges of solid waste and solid waste management strategies in Mbare. The chapter also documented the existing solid waste management system in the township.

This chapter will provide an overview of the main research findings on solid waste management. This will be followed by recommendations to the local authorities in Mbare on what needs to be done to attain a sustainable integrated solid waste management system in the suburb. Recommendations at a national level on the need to enforce laws on waste management and establishing a national level policy on waste management are also given.

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5.2 OVERVIEW OF THE MAIN FINDINGS OF THE RESEARCH This section briefly looks at some of the key findings of the study.

5.2.1 Unsustainable solid waste management system In Chapter 1 it was noted that many towns and cities in the developing world are faced with the growing challenge of solid waste management as waste volumes are increasing due to many factors that include rapid urbanisation, increase in population, and use of use of non-biodegradable plastics and bottles (Maseva, 2005; and Kaseke, 2003). The increase in solid waste being generated as also noted in Chapter 1 was being met with inadequate and crumpling solid waste management systems (Yedla, 2005; and Manyanhaire et al., 2009). As noted in Chapter 2, most solid waste management systems in developing countries were failing to effectively address the challenge of solid waste management as there were tendencies to stick to the early waste management practices that were limited in scope to storage, collection and disposal of waste without paying attention to strategies like source reduction, recycling, reuse, and composting (Buclet, 2002; Gotoh, 1989; and Mader, 2011).

As noted in Chapter 4, the study revealed that the solid waste management system in Mbare is inadequate and unsustainable. The current Mbare solid waste management system leans more to what was indentified in Chapter 2 as early solid waste management approaches where the system concentrates on storage, collection and disposal (Buclet, 2002; Gotoh, 1989; and Mader, 2011). Elements of contemporary solid waste management methodologies, noted in Chapter 2, that included source reduction, sanitary landfills, composting, recycling and incineration (Denison and Ruston, 1990) were also noted as present in Mbare though at a very minimum scale.

In Mbare waste volumes are increasing, waste is not separated or segregated while collections, transfer and transportation of waste are inadequate and irregular. Methods used for collection, transfer and transportation are rudimentary and present a great risk to human health and the environment. Household incomes in Mbare are very low
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making residents ability to pay for waste transfer and collection impossible yet the municipality insists on polluter pays principles. Residents of Mbare dump waste on streets, opens spaces, and Mukuwisi River among other illegal places. The provided receptacles like skip bins are always overflowing as they are not adequate to serve an overcrowded population. The waste that is eventually collected through the formal

stream is finally disposed of at Pomona landfill site which is poorly engineered and lacks the basic requirements of a land fill as per the standards of EMA. The only other landfill, Golden Quarry, is now full and closed for solid waste disposal. The Pomona landfill is also far from most suburbs and is about 12.5 kilometers away from Mbare making it difficult for the municipality to transport solid waste for disposal to this landfill site regularly.

5.2.2 Inadequate resources In Chapter 2 it was noted that many authorities in urban areas of developing countries face human resources, institutional, financial and social constraints and challenges that affect their ability to adequately manage the problem of solid waste (Ogawa, 2005).

The study as noted in Chapter 4 revealed that the City of Harare is poorly resourced with an inadequate budget for waste management. It has very few refuse transfer trucks. According to its 2010 annual report for instance, the City of Harare has a total of 160 skip bins and only 5 functional skip trucks. This gives a ratio of 32 skip bins per truck. Each skip bin is supposed to be emptied once in two days. To be able to ensure that skip bins are emptied regularly the council needs more skip trucks. Part of the reason why the municipality cannot generate revenue from refuse collection is that the residents cannot afford to pay and more so the inability of the municipality to collect refuse regularly means more and more residents would not pay even if they can afford.

5.2.3 Factors influencing solid waste management According to Pradhan (2008:132) as noted in Chapter 2, key factors that influence solid waste management include: decision making process; public perception of the waste

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problem; transparency of information sharing; and self-organised grass root level organisations.

The study as noted in Chapter 4, revealed that decision making in the Mbare solid waste management system is top-down with residents not knowing what the plans of the municipality are with regards to waste management. Most of the residents in Mbare perceive solid waste as a nuisance leading to multiplication of disease vectors and ugly sites and most residents throw away waste at the most convenient and economically possible place for them. There is also lack of transparency in information sharing by local authorities. While the key informant interviews showed that there were some campaigns done by local authorities to share information and educate communities on waste management and policies, the household survey revealed that most of the residents are unaware of the municipality plans regarding waste management and a good number of respondents to the household survey did not even know the rates (amounts of money) that were charged for waste collection in their communities. Most of the respondents to the survey have not known or ever heard of waste management policies or by-laws in their areas. The study revealed that there were some small and very few organised groups of scavengers and informal solid waste collectors in Mbare. NGOs and private companies who at times participated in clean up campaigns or recycling activities were some identified organised groups. Scrap metal dealers and informal traders were identified as some of the groups that constitute stakeholders in the Mbare solid waste system.

5.2.4 Little practice of reduce, recycle and re-use principles In Chapter 2 it was noted that intergraded solid waste management systems based on 3R principles of reduce, reuse and recycling were success stories in some places in India, China and Maseru, Lesotho (Puopiel, 2010). Key to this approach was waste separation and segregation at source which is then followed by a hierarchy of methods that include reducing, recycling, incineration and land filling of remaining waste (Baud and Schenk, 1994; UNEP, 2009; and USEPA, 1999). In Chapter 3 it was noted that various policies and laws that have a bearing on solid waste management in Zimbabwe
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do make reference to 3R principles like the Environmental Impact Assessment Policy of 1994. However, as Maseva (2005) and Practical Action Southern Africa (2006) noted in the same chapter, the policies do not proffer practical steps with which local authorities managing waste can put these principles into practice.

As noted in Chapter 4, the study revealed that there was little reduction, reuse and recycling practices being done in Mbare. Most of the waste is not separated at source and those people that do separate waste do so in an unorganised manner or occasionally separate bottles, cans, paper, and plastic for their own reuse or for occasional collections by informal waste collectors or companies which do recycling. Reduction of waste is done by some residents at a very low scale. Reusing of waste is done, albeit at a small scale, and there is potential to encourage this. The most glaring finding with regards to 3R principles and practices is that the local authorities do not promote these actively and residents who practice the 3R principles do so at their own accord. However, notwithstanding the earlier point noted where residents viewed waste as a nuisance to be disposed of, a good number of respondents to the household survey viewed recycling and reuse of solid waste as a positive thing capable of generating income for the households and the majority of respondents to the household survey said they wanted to be educated more on reuse and recycling of waste. Some even said the municipality and NGOs should connect them to companies and people who buy recyclable waste. 5.2.5 Lack of private actors and stakeholders participation In Chapter 2 it was noted that success of innovative solid waste management systems depends on participation of local government and other non-governmental players (Adarsh, 1996). Mangkoedihardjo et al. (2007) and Van de Klundert and Anschutz (1999) mention stakeholder participation as key in the sustainability and efficaciousness of a solid waste management system. In Chapter 3 it was noted that various Acts and policies on solid waste management in Zimbabwe do have in part components of committee systems and stakeholder participation but these were not taken down to the

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municipality levels. Harare municipality by-laws as documented in Chapter 3 allow for private contractors to be hired by the council to do waste collections.

Chapter 4 revealed that in spite of the municipality admitting that they were poorly resourced to manage waste efficiently and adequately there were no private players contracted to collect waste. While the City of Harare acknowledges that waste

management greatly improved when three contracted private companies were collecting waste prior to 2006 and admit that the termination of these companies contracts compounded waste collection problems, there are still no private players being contracted to participate in solid waste management. As the study revealed it seems political bickering was the major barrier to entrance of private companies into solid waste management in Harare. The few private companies like Delta Beverages and NWPCC seem to collect solid waste as a social corporate responsibility and their collection of solid waste is irregular and limited to deposit refundable bottles (for Delta Beverages) and paper (for NWPCC).

Residents, informal waste collectors and other stakeholders are not involved in planning and implementation of waste management plans in Mbare as revealed by findings in Chapter 4. As mentioned earlier residents are viewed as mere consumers of waste management services run by the local authorities and the role of residents is viewed as that of paying for the service. 5.2.6 Policies and implementation Lardinois (1996) and Van de Klundert and Anschutz (1999) as noted in Chapter 2 viewed the policy and legal frameworks as some of the sustainability aspects of a solid waste management system. Arlosoroff (1991) also asserted as noted in Chapter 2 that lack of proper governance structures and policy frameworks created problems in effective solid waste management in developing countries.

Zimbabwe as a country has a comprehensive set of laws that if implemented properly and enforced can ensure sustainable waste management as noted by Maseva (2005)
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and Practical Action Southern Africa (2006) in Chapter 3. However, with regards to policies, Zimbabwe as a country has no national level waste management policy and this is one of the major problems making it difficult for the cities to manage waste adequately as noted in Chapter 3 by Maseva (2005) and Government of Zimbabwe (2004).

The analysis of policies regarding solid waste management in Zimbabwe (Chapter 3) revealed the following weaknesses with the current policy regime in the country: the policies fall short of providing practical steps needed to achieve their desired goals; Funding to implement steps outlined in the policies is difficult to get given the economic challenges faced by local authorities and country at large; The policies largely fail to consider communities as a resource as they ignore communities potential role in the waste management; The policies do not take the interests of small community enterprises into consideration as they are biased more towards industrial development; There have been poor and inadequate communication of the policies to local authorities, hence lack of programmes of action geared at raising public awareness among residents on the existence of these policies; The policies are silent on integrated sustainable waste management and 3R principles; and There are no legal obligations on the part of local authorities to adhere to some of these policies.

The study of laws that governed waste management in Zimbabwe (in Chapter 3) revealed the following gaps in the laws: Lack of enforcement of otherwise good laws that are potentially capable of effectively dealing with the waste management problem; Lack of public awareness on the existence of the laws and by-laws on solid waste management; and

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Gaps in provisions within the laws that limit obligations on enforcement and these necessitate the need to amend some of the key laws on waste management.

The lack of public awareness of the policies and laws is confirmed by the study findings in Chapter 4, as 82% of respondents to the household survey said they were not aware of any laws and policies regulating solid waste management in Mbare.

5.3 RECOMMENDATIONS Having an integrated sustainable solid waste management system depends on a multiplicity if factors but in the case of Mbare and Zimbabwe key among these factors will be the political will to have such a system in place and buy-in from the residents. As noted in the previous chapter and previous sections of this chapter buy-in from the people, the residents of Mbare, may not be anticipated to be a challenge since the people yearn for resolution of solid waste management problems in their township and more so the majority of the respondents to the household survey take 3R principles and practices as positive practices worth pursuing. The following sections will put forward some recommendations on what needs to be done in order to have an integrated solid waste management system in Mbare.

5.3.1 Reducing waste Key to a sustainable solid waste management system for Mbare is reducing amounts of solid waste that are disposed of in illegal dumpsites, Mukuwisi river, roadsides, receptacles, and eventually Pomona landfill. Clear goals must be set by the municipality to divert waste from eventual disposal either in the legal or illegal streams. The following concrete steps to achieving solid waste reduction are recommended:

5.3.1.1 Set a target of diverting solid waste that is to be disposed The municipality should in its next five year plan set realistic targets to divert waste that is disposed. A realistic target proposed will be at least 20%. This is attainable given that major constituents of waste generated in Mbare include biodegradable waste like

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agricultural produce waste and recyclable waste that includes paper, plastics and metals.

5.3.1.2 Promote separation of waste at source Education campaigns through road shows, distribution of information and

communication materials and radio/television programmes can be done to encourage residents to separate their waste at source. These campaigns should be supported by door-to-door visits and provision of adequate receptacles for households to put different waste types in different receptacles. Separation of waste as noted in Chapter 2 is key to any waste reduction strategy and recycling. The sustainability of a solid waste management system in the long run depends on waste segregation and separation. It is recommended that a three way waste segregation system be adopted in Mbare where waste is segregated at source into biodegradable waste, recyclables and garbage. Such waste segregation will help the municipal authorities and residents in choosing appropriate final waste disposal options.

5.3.1.3 Improve collection and recovery of recyclables Collection of recyclables and recovery of waste should be promoted. The informal sector should be involved more and more and should be given incentives for collecting recyclable materials.

5.3.1.4 Promote household composts Campaigns should be done to promote the use of household composts to dispose of biodegradable waste like food and agricultural material. Residents should be trained in proper digging and managing of composts. Low input backyard gardens should also be promoted to ensure that the compost materials are used to help the reproduction of food and keep the cycle going.

5.3.2 Promotion of 3R practices Reducing, reusing and recycling of waste should be promoted and these are key principles and practices in achieving a sustainable integrated solid waste management
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system. A deposit refund system is recommended and it will greatly help in reducing waste and ensure that waste produced by producers of certain goods becomes the producers responsibility (Pradhan, 2008). As already noted in Mbare companies like Delta Beverages buy back empty bottles and cans and pay consumers a deposit back for the packages. Such a practice should be promoted and made compulsory to producers who sale products to residents of Mbare whose packaging end up producing waste. A recommendation is made that for products that are packaged in glass bottles, plastic bottles, card board boxes, foil and plastics (like meal-meal) a certain percentage for instance between 5-20% be charged as an deposit price refundable when consumers bring back these packages to the producers after use of the products. This system should be supported by collection cages erected and positioned at convenient points and systems and mechanisms to quickly pay back the deposit refund in Mbare should be established. Recycling of waste that includes paper, plastics, and metals should be promoted and efforts to encourage recycling companies to operate in Mbare should be put in place by the municipality. Public awareness campaigns on recycling should also be carried out. 5.3.3 Communal composting Community level composts should be established and this will lead to great reduction of waste eventually disposed of in landfills from Mbare. As noted in Chapter 4, a huge percentage of solid waste generated from Mbare is organic and agricultural waste from Mbare Musika which can easily be managed through the use of community composting. The community composts will help a long way in reducing waste transportation costs and will prolong the life-span of the Pomona landfill. With a proper three way system of waste segregation in place, community composts will be very helpful in taking care of food and agricultural waste that cannot be recycled. Employment can also be generated for locals who will work at these compost sites. Community based composts are generally easy to run and manage.

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5.3.4 Regular collection of waste With proper segregation of waste and composting, regular collection of nonbiodegradable waste will be possible in Mbare. Collection of waste should be done at a regular basis from door to door. Apart from relying only on municipal trucks, a cadre of local waste collectors using carts and other simple methods of waste conveyance like push-carts can be trained to collect waste on a daily basis from peoples door steps and deposit this waste at communal collection points in skip bins which will then be emptied by municipal trucks from time to time and for final disposal at Pomona landfill. 5.3.5 Waste disposal Waste disposal at Pomona landfill should be done in a prescribed scientific manner and the landfill should be improved and engineered in a way that complies with EMA and international standards. The municipality needs to seek the support of the central government and private players in order to improve the conditions and engineering at Pomona landfill for it to comply with environmentally accepted standards of landfills. 5.3.6 More involvement of the private sector There is need for greater involvement of the private sector in solid waste management in Mbare. The interest shown by NGOs and private companies in waste management as revealed in Chapter 4 should be taken advantage of and be promoted. The municipality should allow unrestricted access to Mbare by NGOs who want to help in solid waste management campaigns or other waste related issues. Initiatives like the deposit pay back system noted in section 5.3.3 can also help bring the private companies that sale products that generate waste to be involved and be responsible for waste linked to their products. The municipality should also reconsider the issue of public-private sector partnerships in solid waste management and other services it delivers in Mbare. The issue of contracting private companies to collect waste should be re-looked at and reconsidered. The municipality may do well by contracting and monitoring private companies collecting and transporting waste than itself trying to do everything.
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5.3.7 Greater involvement of community As noted in Chapter 4 planning and decision making on solid waste management in Mbare is top-down and very little consultations are done with the residents. Little community involved and little residents participation makes a solid waste management system unsustainable. There is need to put in place mechanisms in Mbare to ensure that greater community involvement is achieved in the Mbare solid waste management system. A system of committees like the neighborhood advisory committees on solid waste is recommended. These committees can be set at ward levels and can have structures with responsibilities to oversee elements of solid waste in their wards like the three stream waste segregation system, composting, public campaigns, collection and transportation. The committees must also be involved in planning when the municipality is doing its five year plans. The committees can also be the focal points for community advocacy on environmentally sustainable waste disposal, and recycling campaigns. Committees can also be communication mechanisms to inform the municipality, NGOs and private players on waste problems in their areas and flagging out issues like shortage of receptacles for instance. 5.3.8 Public campaigns and education Public campaigns like clean up campaigns and public awareness on waste problems, policies, laws and issues like 3Rs should be promoted. The municipality, NGOs and private players can work together and do joint campaigns with established community committees proposed in 5.3.7 above. The use of information, education and communication materials like fliers and pamphlets will be helpful in these public campaigns. Radio promotional campaigns can also be used. Community workshops and door to door campaigns will also help and promote sustainable ways of waste management practices and make the residents embrace practices like recycling.

5.3.9 Develop a long term integrated solid waste management plan In the long run the municipality needs to develop a proper long term integrated sustainable solid waste management plan for Mbare which will be a key component of
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the municipalitys five year plans. This plan needs to be properly budgeted for. Members of the community, NGOs, private companies and other stakeholders need to be fully involved in developing this plan.

5.3.10 Review existing laws and policies As noted in chapters 2, 3 and 4 legal and policy frameworks are key sustainability aspects in an integrated sustainable solid waste management system. Zimbabwe as a country needs to ensure that the laws that exist are fully implemented and enforced to achieve sustainable waste management. The country needs to also engage in processes of putting in place a national level waste management policy where integrated sustainable waste management practices and principles are key components of the policy. The current set of municipal by-laws and policies on waste management should also encourage waste management entrepreneurship based of 3R practices. This will enable taking of advantage of the social, environmental and economic benefits that come with recycling, reuse and recovery of waste.

5.4 THE VALUE OF THE RESEARCH AND FUTURE POSSIBILITIES This research has provided some understanding into the profile of residents of Mbare, the profiles and constituents of solid waste generated in Mbare and an understanding into the current solid waste management system in Mbare. More importantly the research has documented the Mbare solid waste management system which is important in advocating for environmentally sustainable waste management practices. There is not much literature documenting solid waste management systems in Zimbabwe and this research contributes to literature on the subject.

The research will also contribute to the literature on analysis of laws and policies on waste management in Zimbabwe which is another area which is not well documented in solid waste management literature in the country. The research also contributes to the global campaign on creating environmentally sustainable cities by advocating for the adoption of an integrated solid waste management system based of 3R principles and practices in a township of a developing country.
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However, other studies looking at socio-economic, gender, geographical, hydrological and environmental sustainability issues and factors of a solid waste management system will be needed in the future to help in availing new avenues of knowledge and understanding of solid waste management challenges in Mbare and establishment and maintenance of an integrated solid waste management system.

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Appendices

Appendix A: Semi-structured interview guide for Mbare solid waste management household survey. UNIVERSITY OF THE FREE STATE, FACULTY OF ECONOMIC AND MANAGEMENT SCIENCES, CENTRE FOR DEVELOPMENT SUPPORT

Topic: Integrated sustainable waste management as an alternative solid

waste management strategy in Mbare Township, Zimbabwe.

Household survey semi-structured questionnaire

This research is only for academic purposes and information obtained and answers given will be treated in strict confidence. Thank you.

Location of house:

House Number and street: ..

Interview date:....

Questionnaire number:.

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SECTION A Background Information of Respondent

1. What is your age? (tick appropriate) 18-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55+

2. What do you do to earn an income?

3. Approximately how much money do you earn/generate in a month ($USD). .... 4. What is your highest level of education None Primary level Junior level/ZJC Secondary level/O level

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Advanced level/A Level Vocational/Training college Tertiary/degree

5. How many are you in your household?

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SECTION B Waste, Waste Generation, Separation, Disposal

6. What are the major constituents of the waste your household generated in the past year? Food Rubbish Ashes Special waste Plastics Paper/cardboard boxes Metals

7. How has the composition of waste you generate changed over the years?

8. Do you separate your waste before disposal? If yes, how? Why?

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9. Where do you dispose of your waste?

10. Are there skip bins in your area. How many metres are they from your house? How regular do you use them? 11. Have you ever dumped your waste at unapproved places? If so, where and why? 12. What are the other methods you use to dispose of your waste? Burn Composite Reuse
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Bury underground Sell Other 13. Explain the methods used in question 12 (as necessary): ..

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SECTION C Waste collection service 14. Which waste management institution has been collecting your waste since August 2010? (Tick appropriate, can be more than one option) Institution City of Harare NGOs Private company Informal waste collectors/volunteers Other Tick Name/Comment

15. How many times is waste collected in a week in your area? Frequency Not at all Once Twice Thrice Four times Five times Every day If not any of the above, how often? Tick

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16. What is the mode of waste collection used in your area since August 2010? Mode Door-to-door Tick Explain(how, e.g. refuse truck)

Communal

Other

17. Are you charged for waste collection? ..

18. If yes, how much do you pay per month? 19. Are you in a position to pay the charges? ..

20. If no, why? 21. Do you know where collected waste is disposed?
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22. Are you happy with the frequency and ways waste is collected in your area? 23. In your opinion what are some of the things the local council need to do to improve waste collection in your area? (if you can mention at least 4).

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SECTION D Reduce, Reuse/Recycle, Composting 24. What do you do to reduce waste generated by your household?

25. What do you think are some of the challenges you face in trying to reduce waste? 26. What can the council or other institutions do to help your capacity to reduce waste generated by your household?

27. What are your feelings on recycling/reusing waste?

28. What type of waste, if any, do you recycle/reuse at present? (Type of waste and how it is re-used) ..

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29. Do you think there is potential to generate income from waste recycling?

30. What can the council/government, NGOs and other institutions do to help you recycle waste?

31. Do you do composting?

32. If yes, what do you composite?

33. How?

34. What do you use the compost for?


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SECTION E Stakeholders 35. Please list at least five most important stakeholders in waste management in your area Name of Stakeholder Interest (What you think they want in Mbare?) Potential (What do you think they are able to bring to Mbare) Current support(What are they currently doing) What could they do in your opinion which they are not doing at present/ What you would want them to do?

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

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SECTION F Challenges in waste management 36. What do you think are five key challenges the local authorities are currently facing in solid waste management in Mbare?

37. What do you think are some of the solutions to these challenges?

122

SECTION G Waste management policies and laws 38. List any waste management policies and/ laws you are aware of. 39. What do you think are some of the problems with these laws/policies?

40. What do you think can be done to solve these problems related to the laws and policies?

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SECTION H Effects of poor solid waste management

41. What are some of the effects of uncollected solid waste in your area? ...

THANK YOU FOR YOUR TIME

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Appendix B: Semi-structured key-informant interview guide for Mbare solid waste management service provider interviews. UNIVERSITY OF THE FREE STATE, FACULTY OF ECONOMIC AND MANAGEMENT SCIENCES, CENTRE FOR DEVELOPMENT SUPPORT

Topic: Integrated sustainable waste management as an alternative solid

waste management strategy in Mbare Township, Zimbabwe.

Service provider interview guide

This research is only for academic purposes and information obtained and answers given will be treated in strict confidence. Thank you.

Position of respondent:..

Date of response: ...

Questionnaire number:.

125

SECTION A Waste Generation

1. Approximately what is quantity of solid waste generated in Mbare in a day in tonnes? ..

2. What is the quantity of waste generated per capita in a day in tonnes?

# i.

3. List the common types of solid waste generated in the area Type

ii.

iii.

iv. v.

4. Do you separate solid waste before disposal? 5. If yes to 4 above, explain how.
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# i.

6. If yes to 4, above why do you separate waste (list reasons)? Reasons

ii.

iii.

iv.

v.

7. What are the main components of waste generated in the Mbare area (indicate percentages) Type Percentage Plastic Glass Wood Metals

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Food waste Special waste Demolition/construction waste Other

8. List solid waste generators in Mbare and put approximate percentages of waste generated Solid waste generators Percentage of waste Households Light industries Agricultural produce vendors Informal businesses Shops Hospital/ health facilities Other 1 (name): Other 2 (name):

128

SECTION B Waste Collection 9. What are the modes of collection used and the number of times collection is done per week?

Mode of collection

Number of Times per week

10. Who is responsible for waste collections? 11. Does separation of waste happen at source 12. If yes to 11, above who does the separation and how is it done?
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13. Is there any organised scavenger force being used for collection?

14. Is there any special arrangement for collection of toxic wastes ( eg, batteries, paints, solvents, medical waste). If yes, explain. 15. What are the average total costs for waste collection per week? Indicate amount in USD$.

130

16. List the key challenges you are facing in waste collection # 1 2 3 4 5 Challenge

131

SECTION C Disposal 17. Where is waste collected in the area disposed?

18. What is the distance covered to final disposal site in kilometers?

19. Are there any problems associated with this distance? If yes, list them,

# 1 2 3 4 5

Problems of distance

20. How do the problems affect your ability to dispose frequently at site? # 1 2 3 4 5 How distance affect frequency of disposal at site

132

21. List methods you use to manage the solid waste generated (tick appropriate). Method Tick Approximately what percentage of total solid waste collected is managed this way?

Composting Recycling Incineration Reduction None Other 22. Why do you choose the methods above to manage solid waste

133

SECTION D Treatment 23. In there any treatment done to toxic waste (eg batteries)? ....................................................................................................................................

24. If yes, what type of treatment? Explain briefly.

25. Is composting practiced? 26. Is incineration used? If yes, is it done with energy recovery?

If no, has the possibility been explored? ..

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SECTION E Availability of waste management resources

27. Waste collection and disposal equipment Equipment Dustbins Skips Tricycles Motor cycles Graders Skip loaders Compaction trucks Roll on/Roll off trucks Bulldozers Road sweepers Others: Number available (if known) Number required

28. Availability of qualified staff to manage waste Personnel (Technical staff) Number available (if known) Qualifications

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29. What is your annual budget for waste management in USD$ ..

30. How do you finance the budget

Source of finance Government grant Own revenue collection Donations Other:

Percentage

31. Do beneficiaries of your waste management service pay fees? ..

32. What percentage of these fees is ploughed back to waste management?

33. What problems are you facing regarding financing your waste management budget if any?
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SECTION F Role of education and Public participation

34. Do you carry out campaign to raise awareness on waste problems?

35. If yes, please outline the type of campaigns and methodologies used?

36. What impact has the campaigns had so far? .

37. Are there ways women and children are involved in the campaigns? If yes, explain. .

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SECTION G Policy and legislative framework

38. Which policies and laws influence you most in your work on waste management?

39. What do you see as the gaps and weaknesses in policies and laws governing waste management ?

40. What needs to be done to address these gaps and in policies and laws?

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SECTION H Stakeholders 41. Please list for me at least five most important stakeholders in waste management in your area

Name of Stakeholder

Interest (What you think they want in Mbare?)

Potential (What you think they are able to bring to Mbare)

Current support What could they do in (What are they your opinion which currently doing) they are not doing at present/ What you would want them to do?

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

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SECTION I Challenges

42. What are the five key challenges you are currently facing in solid waste management in Mbare?

44. What do you think are some of the solutions to these challenges?

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Appendix C: Observation guide for Mbare for solid waste management study.

UNIVERSITY OF THE FREE STATE, FACULTY OF ECONOMIC AND MANAGEMENT SCIENCES, CENTRE FOR DEVELOPMENT SUPPORT

Topic: Integrated sustainable waste management as an alternative solid

waste management strategy in Mbare Township, Zimbabwe.


Observation guide

Observations Is waste left on the street and vacant land? What are the main components of the waste dumped in the open? Is there waste dumped in alleys? Is there waste dumped in water bodies? Streams? How far is the waste lumps from homes Do people try to avoid the waste hips? Are there communal waste collection areas Are there waste scavengers on illegal waste disposal places Do children play around the illegal waste disposal sites Do dogs and other pets scavenge for food on these illegal waste heaps? Do people burn waste? Why? (maybe lack of regular collection) Photography will be used to capture some observations and where peoples photographs are taken consent will be sought first and the use of photos in the dissertation will be acknowledged.

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Appendix D: Centre for Development Support field work support letter

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