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72 Marketing Definitions
Posted on March 29, 2011 in Actionable Marketing 101, Marketing Resources | 31 Comments inShare170

What is Marketing?

Marketing comes in a wide variety of flavors based on audience, media platform and business in today’s evolving and dynamic marketplace. Therefore, it’s no surprise that marketers define what they do differently. Inspired by the 31 PR Definitions article, here’s a roundup of seventy-two marketing definitions by experienced practitioners across different specialties.

Marketing Definitions
To start, here are explanations from the American Marketing Association (AMA), marketing’s professional organization, and Dr. Philip Kotler, the author of business school marketing classics. They’re followed by the other definitions in alphabetical order by author’s last name.
1. According to the American Marketing Association (AMA) Board of Directors,

Marketing is the activity, set of institutions, and processes for creating, communicating, delivering, and exchanging offerings that have value for customers, clients, partners, and society at large.
2. Dr. Philip Kotler defines marketing as “the science and art of exploring, creating, and

delivering value to satisfy the needs of a target market at a profit. Marketing identifies unfulfilled needs and desires. It defines, measures and quantifies the size of the identified market and the profit potential. It pinpoints which segments the company is capable of serving best and it designs and promotes the appropriate products and services.”
3. Marketing is the messages and/or actions that cause messages and/or actions. Jay Baer

– President, Convince & Convert. Author with Amber Naslund of The Now Revolution
4. Marketing is traditionally the means by which an organization communicates to,

connects with, and engages its target audience to convey the value of and ultimately sell its products and services. However, since the emergence of digital media, in particular social media and technology innovations, it has increasingly become more about companies building deeper, more meaningful and lasting relationships with the people that they want to buy their products and services. The ever-increasingly fragmented world of media complicates marketers’ ability connect and, at the same, time presents incredible opportunity to forge new territory. Julie Barile – Vice President of eCommerce, Fairway Market
5. Marketing includes research, targeting, communications (advertising and direct mail)

and often public relations. Marketing is to sales as plowing is to planting for a farmer—it prepares an audience to receive a direct sales pitch. Mary Ellen Bianco – Director Marketing & Communications, Getzler Henrich & Associates LLC
6. Marketing is an ongoing communications exchange with customers in a way that

educates, informs and builds a relationship over time. The over time part is important because only over time can trust be created. With trust, a community builds organically around products and services and those customers become as excited about the products as you are — they become advocates, loyal evangelists, repeat customers and often, friends. Marketing is a really great way to identify what grabs people and gets them excited about your brand and give it to them, involve them in the process, and yeah, the best part, build great friendships in the process. Renee Blodgett – Chief Executive Officer/Founder, Magic Sauce Media
7. Professor Philip Kotler explained that marketing was “meeting the needs of your

customer at a profit.” For me that definition extends beyond just communicating product features. Marketers are responsible for a 360-degree experience. For example, in the social media world, a customer’s Twitter needs may differ from her needs to “play with the brand” in terms of a social game promotion. Every customer touchpoint from customer service to sales to accounting and more are part of the “new marketing.” Toby Bloomberg – Bloomberg Marketing/Diva Marketing

but not entirely.) 13. As a function. It’s impression. investors. 17. PR. Lisa Buyer – President and Chief Executive Officer. Steve Dawson – President. marketing strategies. Marketing in the twenty-first century must be (c) largely.8. Keeping it simple is sometimes the best strategy. Blue Focus Marketing 10. Marketing is the process of getting a product or service from a company to its end customers from product development through to the final sale and post purchase support. Jeff Cutler – Executive Vice President and General Manager. 12. target customers. Andrew Cohen – President. Vitals. Walkers Shortbread Inc. post-purchase (including supplemental support and returns) and advocacy. marketing strategy consists of business goals. go to market strategy. Finding someone who has a personal connection with your product. brand(s) and business. partners. and brand positioning and image to the world. measurable and accountable around driving business goals. social media and broadcast delivering a specific message with one unified goal.com 16. Fresh Books 15. To this end. Marketing is making connections between customers with your products. attention and disposable income. Some of the best marketing outcomes come from the simplest initiatives. and is steeped in a culture of (c). Marketing when not done well is (b) an endless checklist of advertising and promotional to-dos that can never be completed. Inc. Marketing is creating irresistible experiences that connect with people personally and create the desire to share with others. Intuitive by design. Marketing is building your brand. disciplined subset of (b). service or cause in a way that is unobtrusive and inviting. In line with the firm’s business goals. Or as Regis McKenna said. marketing extends across the customer’s entire purchase process including research. engagement. It’s the script that helps users decide if they’ll welcome you into their lives as a staple. Riverside Marketing Strategies 14. last and everything in between. Marketing is meeting the needs and wants of a consumer. marketing tactics and related metrics. digital. employees and anyone else your company interacts with. Marjorie Clayman – Director of Client Development. to drive profitable revenues. Matt Blumberg – Chairman and Chief Executive Officer. Marketing when done brilliantly is driven by (a) includes a small. first. such that they are likely to buy from you. Mark Burgess – Managing Partner. The Buyer Group 11. Marketing is products that don’t come back and consumers that do. It’s the way that everyone interacts with your brand. nice-to-have or necessary annoyance. Marketing when done well is (a) the strategy of the business – its value proposition. purchase. Marketing can be as simple as networking at an event or as complex as a multi-million dollar global campaign that integrates print. marketing attracts consumers’ scarce resources. marketing matches the right message/cause to the right person. Marketing is the process by which a firm profitably translates customer needs into revenue. Saul Colt – Head of Magic. Clayman Advertising. The A Team (Disclaimer: I’m not related to Andrew. convincing people that your brand (meaning your product/service/company) is the best and protecting the relationships you build with your customers. Return Path 9. . Heidi Cohen – President. Marketing is how you tell your story to attract customers.

in promoting the corporate goals of the company it is serving. Marketing is the process of exposing target customers to a product through appropriate tactics and channels. Gini Dietrich – Chief Executive Officer. but if people don’t know you have it. As with successful hockey franchises. It is the process through which companies accelerate returns by aligning all communication objectives (advertising. satisfying their needs while simultaneously positioning the service provider as a trusted advisor and source. Social media made that happen. Steve Dickstein – Chief Executive Officer. the most valuable player is not always the player who scores the most goals but the player who creates the play that allows others to score (think Gretzky. there will be no path beating and no conversation going on. Marketing has little to do with the service provider and everything to do with the customer. Mass Relevance 18. there needs to be a strategy or big idea to whet peoples’ . Shennandoah Diaz – President and Master of Mayhem.” Sam Fiorella – Web/Social Media Strategist. Hugo Naturals 20. Experiate. and the bridge between paid and earned media. Chris Garrett – Chrisg. The Social Roadmap 25. Marketing is the process of building relationships with prospects and customers so that you can profitably develop and promote products and services. Marketing is delighting a consumer. Antoine Didienne 21. Brass Knuckles Media 19. creating desire for that product and letting the right people know you have it. Marketing is about knowing the market. 27. Marketing is the word we use to explain how we encourage people to buy our products. and ultimately facilitating their path to purchase. 22. and they don’t know where your door is. Inc. naming. maps it against their team’s position. Good marketing is a two way street. A great marketing team assesses the brand’s playing field. customer and/or user to achieve a profit or other pre-established goal. strengths and weaknesses and puts the puck on the stick of the salesperson with the greatest opportunity to score. It is NOT sales. Augustine Fou. strengths and weaknesses. Paul Flanigan – Consultant. The old adage that says. Crosby or Orr). Marketing is essentially involved in outward communication. Inc. Marketing is helping people buy your product or service.com 28.” Sam Decker – Co-founder and Chief Executive Officer. Marketing today is finally customer-focused. Jason Falls – Social Media Explorer 24. Sally Falkow – APR. “If you build a better mousetrap people will beat a path to your door” doesn’t hold true without marketing. quickly captures their competitor’s position. Dr. creating the right product. Great marketing understands what the customer wants and gives it to them.“Marketing is everything. pricing. etc). Arment Dietrich. sales. Marketing is branding. If it’s going to work in a big way. You might indeed have a better mousetrap. gauging their reaction and feedback. Founder. Marketing is the act of developing an engaging relationship with every single human being that shows an interest in you. into one department to more efficiently achieve the overall corporate goals. Markets are once again conversations.net 26. Marketing Science Consulting Group. PRESSfeed 23. marketing. Marketing educates and engages the customer. Marketing is the business’ play-maker.

Get your business . responding to consumer/business interests and needs. that conversation is being disintermediated by word of mouth referrals. data driven and customer-centric. Effectively educating people about any good product will create the desire needed to produce action. Cathy Halligan – Senior Vice President Sales & Marketing. It’s a process that helps companies build relationships with prospects and customers and creates unique value for them… when it’s done right. Marketing is the single point of accountability for growth. Marketing ensures the delivery of a compelling. new offerings & new market profitable growth. To do so. price and distribute your products and services for an exchange that will satisfy both your and your customers’ objectives. buzz is NOT sales. MarketingProfs. the face of the business strategy. It is multi-faceted. Student Funding Group. PCH Online-Publishers Clearing House 31. there has to be a plan—and it must be tied to specific sales expectations –clear conditions of satisfaction. Passion is not a substitute for planning. Chapman of Content Rules 34. No one ever died because of a marketing campaign.C. preference or a transaction. Lois Geller – President. marketing can all be boiled down to education. Traditional marketers will have to work harder to get ahead of and to influence this trend. With a good product. DMA 30. Marketing has to examine why you’re in the game and ask the tough questions. Marketing is a way to connect what products and services you have to offer with customers who want and need such products and services. The goal is to develop a strategy to create. Remember. Marketing is ultimately responsible to create enterprise value via the brand. we begin with a plan: objectives. Marketing drives the organization to define the single minded. and the brand health and strength. Josh Glantz – Vice President and General Manager. Author of Response! The Complete Guide To Profitable Direct Marketing 29. LLC 32. Author with C. identifying and delivering on new customers. marketing identifies the target. If you want to grow you’ve got to get out there. strategy and tactics (how we implement the strategy). Trish Green – Executive Vice President. When we’re marketing. Head of Marketing. Lois Geller Marketing Group. In today’s socially networked world. Marketing should be channel agnostic. attractive high growth segments. Next. Take risks and don’t be afraid to make mistakes. And. differentiated brand value proposition and deliver on it every single day across every touch point. It is an ever evolving process – always evaluating that your message still meets the needs and wants of your market. PowerReviews 33. Marketing is the conversation between a company or brand and a consumer that ultimately leads to brand recall. marketing measures and improves the consumers/businesses/partner satisfaction. Jeffrey Harmon – Chief Marketing Officer. Good healthy debate causes tension and moves your group forward. Marketing is anything you create or share that tells your story. Sue R. Orabrush 35. This provides measurable results leveraging the marketplace at large. Ann Handley – Chief Content Officer.E. differentiated offer to that target and proposition. Germanian – Senior Vice President and Chief Communications Officer. Tension is good. starting with researching your target market and how best to deliver the message to coming up with a plan to execute your promotion via various marketing media.appetites for what we’re selling.

events/digital print.g. advertising. and strive to make the world a better place. marketing discovers and tells the right story about its product or service that engages the consumer in an authentic conversation including true listening. Dave Kerpen – Chief Executive Officer. that I will carry a frequent buyer card in my wallet. and constantly refining the process based on learnings and marketplace developments. Max Kalehoff – Vice President of Marketing. Historically. branding.org 41. The primary stages include identifying target audiences. over and over. Robin Korman – Senior Vice President. 45. and that I already interact on your Facebook page. many disciplines and every organizational function. Marketing can also become a feedback loop between an . Gerry Lantzm – Stories That Work. Author of The Mirror Test 36. pricing and promotions. Jerry Kaup – MemberLink. Marketing is the art and science of persuasive communication. engagement. Marketing is discovering what the prospect wants and demands and delivering it more efficiently and effectively than the competition. while making a profit and building enterprise value. Marketing is the art and science of creating.com 38. packaging. advertising. is a two-way exchange of value between a marketer and a consumer by providing the right product or service to the right target in the right state of need and by using the right vehicles for interaction and purchase. Jeffrey Hayzlett – The Hayzlett Group. Marketing should embrace the highest ethical standards. marketing was a one-way interaction but is increasingly becoming two-way through the use and influence of social media and viral marketing which is often fueled by the company offering the good or service. developing a marketing/communications strategy that usually includes several methods and channels (e. Marketing integrates. at an acquisition cost lower than your allowable acquisition cost. Marketing is the practice of increasing awareness. advertising. Joey Iazzetto – President. promotions. Marketing. delighting and keeping customers. purchase/repurchase and preference for a product or service through consumer-driven benefits. Profitable marketing is reminding likely-to-buy prospects of the value of your products/services in meeting their needs.into a new stratosphere. As a conversation. Paul Kulavis – Managing Partner. Marketing is the umbrella term covering research. loyalty. Ari Herzog – Policy and Communications Specialist 37. Inc. respect the environment. PR. placement. WhichTestWon. Wyndham Hotel Group 43. broadcast). measuring and assessing results. Anne Holland – Publisher. affiliation. and ultimately purchase. formally or informally. demand generation. Marketing is a strategic and tactical multifaceted process that supports sales as well as customer service and retention. consideration. defined as a value-exchange. etc. Likeable Media 42. Clickable 40. Marketing is defined as we help people sell more stuff. Sterling Park Group 44. PR. Global Loyalty and Partnerships. UniCom Marketing Group 39. direct response. Marketing is about knowing the customer (whether current or prospective) so well that there is no question I will read your newsletter and share it with your friends. content.

Chief Marketing Officer. Rebecca Lieb. Sharon Mostyn – Assistant Vice President. to acquire customers. public relations. Altascend Consulting 48. Ochman – President. Author of The Truth About Search Engine Optimization 46. identifies profitable customers and products/services that will meet customer needs. What’s Next 54. drives customer demand and communicates corporate or product/services value. through multiple online and offline channels. increase share of wallet and shorten the sales cycle. marketing is not a discipline or an activity – it is everything a company is – at least if the company wants to be successful. segment. Lee Odden – Chief Executive Officer. 53.” Paul Mosenson President. interest. desire. marketing integrates a great product or service with PR.” Ann Z. B. Marketing defines the business opportunity. how quickly and effectively they respond to email. TopRank Online Marketing 55. Successful marketing is recognized at the precise moment when your target consumer feels so strongly about your company they integrate you into their daily routines and lifestyle. to how they treat their employees and customers. Marketing is the ongoing process of engagement whereby strangers are nurtured into advocates. followed by analyzing the metrics to refine your strategy and repeat the process as needed to optimize the ROI (return on investment). and direct marketing. TheLeadersCouncil. Marketing is the unique opportunity to establish respect and a relationship with your target audience in a way that compels them to become addicted to your products or service. personal contact. Marshman – Executive Director. Done right. In other words. In action. Those communications and relationships influence consumer behavior to drive revenue outcomes. Marketing is strategic communications and promotions delivered in a mix of forms. such as advertising. and convince potential clients to purchase your product or service. builds customer relationships. Marketing is the art and science of creating demand to drive profitable growth. Jeanniey Mullen – Global Executive Vice President. Valerie Oben – President. sales. customer-centric process used to define.L. from how they answer the phone. 1st Mariner Bank 51. that means knowing and meeting target audience/community information discovery. Trey Pennington .organization and its customers and prospects that helps to inform and shape the business going forward. David W. Marketing is an integrated. Marketing is helping your customers understand how much they need something they never knew they needed. action. consumption and sharing behaviors with relevant and timely communications throughout the customer lifecycle. The modern definition of marketing is the practice of creating value for the mutual benefit of meeting consumer needs and business objectives. Mischler – President. Doreen Moran – Digital Strategist 49. retain customers. Marketing is everything a company does. Zinio and VIVmag 52. NuSpark Marketing 50.com 47. advertising. to how they handle accounts payable. Marketing is the art and science of persuading a potential buyer of a product/ service to purchase from a company that’s responsible for creating a compelling message and communicating that message through targeted channels with enough reach and frequency to guide that potential buyer through the purchase cycle of “attention. your support. new media. reach. multi-channel (online and offline). Foxboro Consulting Inc.

developing content and processes to best solve those pain points – which ultimately makes it easier for your customers to buy or stay customers. Charlene Samples – Director of Marketing. Viewpoint Construction Software 57. Includes inbound and outbound marketing tactics across all channels – one-to-one and one-to-many. and the cycle begins again. an urge to purchase an item. when done correctly. Marketing is the combination of messages and programs (the 4 P’s–product/packaging. Author of Customer Service – New Rules for a Social Enabled World [Affiliate link] 66.) 59. Ideally. Marketing. Content Marketing Institute (Disclaimer – I write for the Content Marketing Institute. placement and promotion) that drive shoppers to choose your product or service over someone else’s. support and customer service. for more money. Marketing is influencing behavior to get more people to buy more stuff. This response can take the form of a positive impression of your company brand. includes the entire customer brand experience – i. Performance Works 61.e.56. Marketing is about focusing efforts to develop deep insights into customer behavior and overall market conditions to drive sustainable profitable growth for the company. Ken Rosen – Managing Partner. Marketing strives to connect a product or service with a market for that product or service. David Meerman Scott – Bestselling author of Real-Time Marketing and PR 64. Joe Pulizzi – Founder. Marketing is marshaling all available resources to deliver constantly on the fundamental principle that it’s not what you want to sell. Marketing is identifying the pain points of your customers. really well. Heartland Sweeteners 63. Patrick Prothe – Marketing Communications Manager. is creating such an amazing experience around your brand or product. that people with no other connection to it want to tell their friends about how amazing it is. price. Humphry Rolleston 60. Then creating valuable products. Marketing is understanding your buyers really. Marketing is the ability to communicate a message to your audience and soliciting a response from them. Marketing is all activities designed to attract and connect customers with the products and services they need. marketing fosters a long-term relationship. Marketing starts with the design of the product itself and extends through post purchase. services.’ Successful marketers earn trust through every contact and . and information especially for them to help solve their problems. ‘What’s in it for them?. Mark W. Michael Puican – Associate Director of Corporate Training. Schaefer – Executive Director of Schaefer Marketing Solutions. to reach out to your company for more information or even spread your message to others. And no matter what the desired response is. Peter Shankman – Founder of Help A Reporter Out (HARO) and Social Media Consultant. Marketing is deciding how to offer something specific customers crave and then engaging customers and other stakeholders to create preference. more often. marketing should always map it back to your overall business objectives. Author of The Tao of Twitter 65. Successful marketers constantly think from the customer’s viewpoint and constantly ask. DePaul University 58. Cece Salomon-Lee – PR Meets Marketing 62. but what customers are looking to buy.

Marketing romances the consumer in the hopes of establishing a long term commitment. SOBCon. and tested. is the communication of information about a product or service to an audience. Marketing from a scope perspective is anything that modifies the perceived value and/or desirability of a product or service. Belo 71. competitors). it is not “push” or “pull”. in general. Epic Media Group 69. what are the measurable business objectives in terms of where to take that business. . Marketing is inextricably linked to sales and unless it drives a trial or sale. and building in some extraordinary value that only you can provide — an extraordinary surprise that makes customers fall in love.’ The critical steps in marketing include defining what is currently known about a business (trends. brand. Inside-Out Thinking 70. And it’s constantly listening to polish. regulations. H. HealthCare Chaplaincy 67. target audience. It is a discipline with no end game that must be constantly honed. Each step in the marketing process is meant to move the user or buyer closer to making a buy decision. understanding how it best interacts with customers or users in the most conducive and accepting environment. This marketing approach can be applied whether the objective is expanding a current business or entering new markets. Liz Strauss – Founder. reducing the elasticity of demand. This takes persuasion and nothing moulds opinion like the third party endorsement power of PR. what is the plan to get there and what are the measures of success of initiatives defined to reach those objectives. Jayme Soulati – Soulati Media 68. and Chief Executive Officer. Marketing.transaction. adding more of what customers love. and refine that offer so that it’s irresistible by taking away whatever customers don’t need. I’d spend it on PR. together create a brand personality designed to be compatible with the target. Effective marketing builds relationships and inspires trust. The many disciplines that go into the process. Marketing creates integrated campaigns to generate leads that positively influence sales. Which of these definitions of marketing do you think is best? Please feel free to add your own definition of marketing in the comment section below. Marketing is building an offer you believe and know in your bones you can deliver on consistently and elegantly to the people who will love it.” Deborah Weinstein – President. tweak. A. Strategic Objectives While the definitions of marketing vary based on perspective. The key to effective marketing is getting the communication mix correct for your brand. Bill Tanner – Senior Director of Strategic Research. As Bill Gates says “If I was down to my last dollar. Marketing builds relationships between consumers and brands. tweaked. product or service. Mike Sprouse – Chief Marketing Officer. Alexandra Tyler – Vice President of Branded and Social Media Marketing. Citi Global Transaction Services 72. From a function perspective is moving the demand curve to the right. Effective marketing is a two-way communication that combines both art and science. the effort should not be labeled ‘marketing. who are the target users or buyers. they generally refer to engaging a target market of consumers or other users to ultimately sell a product and hopefully to maintain a relationship beyond the purchase. value and vision. Jim Siegel – Director of Marketing and Communications.

Understandably. ← QR Codes Are Here to Stay [Data] LinkedIn Celebrates 100 Million Members → • • Disqus ○ Login ○ About Disqus • • Like Dislike ○ • Glad you liked it. Would you like to share? Facebook Twitter • • Share No thanks Sharing this page … Thanks! Close . As editor. All book links are Amazon affiliate URLs. As stated above. Here are some related columns that you may be interested in reading: • • • • Branding – Not just a logo – Branding checklist How to celebrate your customers – 100 ways to thank your customers Do you really know how to communicate? [Chart] Where’s your marketing communications? [Chart] Photo credit: Microsoft Clipart inShare170 Tags Marketing. Note: Definitions were gathered from a variety of sources. Heidi Cohen Big tip of my hat to everyone who contributed to this column and helped clarify the definition of marketing. Respondents were asked to reply in one to five sentences. some answers ran long given the topic.Happy Marketing. Any errors or misstatements introduced in the editing are mine. minor changes were made for usage and spelling. readers are invited to add their definitions or modifications in the comment section below. Marketing Defintiion. Bookmark the permalink.

PR. It is important to recognise that we can't simply refer to a text book to define these terms. Nearly 25 years ago I earned a bachelor degree in Marketing. . Social Media). and the one that brought me to your blog.Login Add New Comment • • • Post as … Image Sort by popular now Showing 26 comments • • jhon 1 comment collapsed Collapse Expand this is the more useful: "Marketing is a study of market behavior and study to know the market environment " ○ ○ ○ ○ A Like Reply 1 month ago F ○ 0 Like • • • T Pleasant 1 comment collapsed Collapse Expand Dear Heidi. I really appreciate your lists of definitions (Marketing. I still enjoy falling back on some of the principles of Marketing but as I observe modern Marketing practiced on the grand scheme I often find myself annoyed. I worked in several fields but realised quickly that working in corporate America was not for me. offended and sometimes disgusted.

An English teacher in Asia ○ ○ ○ ○ A Like Reply 1 month ago F ○ 0 Like • • • Gomathisankar . modification. It bounded with customer satisfaction. reasonable cost and product stability. ○ ○ ○ A Like Reply 10 months ago . promotion. There are a lot to take in but somehow we can relate to every definition in one way or another. When I tell my students that I actually majored in business in university I always end up telling them my definition of Marketing: The act of convincing consumers that they need (or would greatly benefit from) whatever you have to sell.K) ○ ○ ○ ○ A Like Reply 7 months ago F ○ 0 Like • • • Investment Consultant 1 comment collapsed Collapse Expand This is definitely a great list for Marketing descriptions.I ended up working in Education and have been employed abroad for 8 years. (Gomathisankar. growth and stability of a product (or) brand.k 1 comment collapsed Collapse Expand Marketing is an essential process leads to the movement. I love Bill Sander's marketing definition and I agree with you Heidi that it is poetic. trust. Regards. Please allow me to share my layman's opinion.

Great post! The last thing you need are more definitions for marketing.quora.○ 0 Like ○ F • • • Patrick Pichette 1 comment collapsed Collapse Expand Hello Heidi. whilst maintaining a profitable business dynamic and exceeding all customers expectations in both service and quality.. quality communication to retain existing customers. That's how I see it! A great post!! Thank you. gain customers from referrals and attract new customers.com/What-is-m.. ○ ○ ○ ○ A Like Reply 11 months ago F ○ 0 Like • • • Peter L Masters MCIM 1 comment collapsed Collapse Expand How about: Marketing is a corporate responsibility to provide well placed. Several great answers. but take a look at this Quora discussion (What is marketing?) that was initiated on March 10: http://www. regards Peter ○ ○ ○ ○ A Like Reply 11 months ago F ○ 0 Like • • ..

Happy marketing. like and trust you. Thank you for sharing it. Those that hear the sound you make and resonate with it will follow.This is the most poetic definition of marketing that I have ever heard. Heidi Cohen ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ A Like Reply 11 months ago in reply to Bill Sanders F ○ 0 Like • • • John Jantsch 2 comments collapsed Collapse Expand I've been using this definition of marketing for 10 years and it gets more relevant with each passing year. Marketing is .• Bill Sanders 2 comments collapsed Collapse Expand Marketing is a sound. getting someone who has a need to know. . ○ ○ ○ ○ A Like Reply 11 months ago F ○ 0 Like • • • Heidi Cohen 1 comment collapsed Collapse Expand Bill . . ○ ○ ○ A Like Reply 11 months ago ○ 0 Like .

Great piece Heidi and I will use for future reference! Alex ○ ○ ○ ○ A Like Reply 11 months ago F ○ 0 Like • • • deborah weinstein 1 comment collapsed Collapse Expand What a fab collection! Def bookmark-worthy. LOVE the short and sweet.○ F • • • Heidi Cohen 1 comment collapsed Collapse Expand John--Love your short and sweet approach to defining marketing! Thank you for stopping by. Happy marketing. Especially @jaybaer & @markwshaefer But of course. Heidi Cohen ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ A Like Reply 11 months ago in reply to John Jantsch F ○ 0 Like • • • Alexandra Tyler 1 comment collapsed Collapse Expand I feel honored to be in such wonderful company. being a PR. @billgates was my fave! . tweet variety.) ○ A Like .

I reckon the best definitions are those that remain flexible but aren't tied to technology.and hence the opportunity. Heidi. ○ ○ ○ ○ A Like Reply 11 months ago F ○ 0 Like • • • Augustine Fou 1 comment collapsed Collapse Expand Great illustration of the enormous variety of definitions of marketing -. ○ ○ ○ ○ A Like Reply 11 months ago F ○ 0 Like • • • Gini Dietrich 2 comments collapsed Collapse Expand . Heidi It's interesting to see how definitions evolve but the principles stay the same.○ ○ ○ Reply 11 months ago F ○ 0 Like • • • Mark Kaigwa 1 comment collapsed Collapse Expand Great collection. Thanks for collecting and organizing this.

○ ○ ○ ○ A Like Reply 11 months ago F ○ 0 Like • • • Davina K. nobody knows what to do when. sales objectives and models for online or retail. it's also a little scary. strategic pricing.and yet marketers are mixed with the sales team..Isn't it funny how PR and marketing can't really be defined? We all have different definitions. paid and earned media. I'm not sure what the 'fix' is thought. those lines are being blurred. and ITA with Dave. But social media will fix it all. and those various promotional functions. This is why so many people struggle with marketing overwhelm . ○ A Like . etc. so we can rest easy. I tend to favor the more 'umbrella' definitions that use a lot of Ps and define marketing against the mix of product development. which further the "huh?" perception. Brewer 1 comment collapsed Collapse Expand It is funny Gini. A lot of these are really about just the communications and promotions aspect of marketing. FWIW. or just the sales function. for good and bad. ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ A Like Reply 11 months ago in reply to Gini Dietrich F ○ 0 Like • • • Dave Van de Walle 2 comments collapsed Collapse Expand Brilliant! And scary at the same time..with so many definitions and so many experts. Part of that I think is integration.

In addition to the one that I sent above.” -. I found these from him: -.○ ○ ○ Reply 11 months ago F ○ 0 Like • • • Heidi Cohen 1 comment collapsed Collapse Expand Dave-Part of the challenge with defining marketing is the fact that it encompasses a broad range of specialities which color how professional view the art and science of presenting. Social media adds complexity rather than simplifying the process in my opinion. Heidi Cohen ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ A Like Reply 11 months ago in reply to Dave Van de Walle F ○ 0 Like • • • Jim Siegel 2 comments collapsed Collapse Expand Heidi -. Happy marketing."Marketing is the whole business seen from the customer's point of view." .Your request for a definition of marketing coincides with a pro bono marketing consulting assignment that I'm doing for another nonprofit where I need to explain what marketing is and its value. I thought that quoting Peter Drucker would be good to click with a Board that's full of non-marketing people.The aim of marketing is to know and understand the customer so well the product or service fits him and sells itself.

He turned Orabrush into a YouTube viral sensation and got retailers to ask to carry the brush." . true pull marketing.. check out Orabrush. To this point.. like you and trust you."I don't know who you are." Link here includes a link to the ad: http://www. When the above criteria is met.Also. Sally Falkow's great definition that building a better mousetrap is not enough. "marketing is the process of getting your qualified buyers to know you.you've got to tell people about it reminds me of the classic McGraw Hill B2B ad -. " ○ ○ ○ ○ A Like Reply 11 months ago F ○ 0 Like • • • Heidi Cohen 1 comment collapsed Collapse Expand Jim-Thank you for your contribution to the list. Happy marketing.com where Jeffrey Harmon showed that it was critical to get a new product recognized in order to build a market. Sally Falkow's point is critical in today's marketplace. sales are guaranteed to follow..sales-leadinsights. Heidi Cohen ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ A Like Reply 11 months ago in reply to Jim Siegel F ○ 0 Like • • • Nick Rice 2 comments collapsed Collapse Expand Here's what I have adopted..

Thank you for jumping into the conversation. Heidi Cohen ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ A Like Reply 11 months ago in reply to Nick Rice F ○ 0 Like • • • Sharon Mostyn 2 comments collapsed Collapse Expand Great post. Sharon @sharonmostyn ○ ○ ○ ○ A Like Reply 11 months ago F ○ 0 Like • • . Heidi! It's interesting to see the wide variety of Marketing definitions everything from "sound bites" to the official AMA definition! Thanks again for including me in such auspicious company.○ ○ ○ ○ A Like Reply 11 months ago F ○ 0 Like • • • Heidi Cohen 1 comment collapsed Collapse Expand Nick-. I like your emphasis of qualified buyers! Happy marketing.

Thank you for your contribution.• Heidi Cohen 1 comment collapsed Collapse Expand Sharon--Thank you for participating in the conversation. As the marketplace has gotten more diverse in terms of offerings and channels. Heidi Cohen ○ ○ ○ ○ A Like Reply 11 months ago in reply to Mark W Schaefer . At the same time. it's become more accessible and personal. marketing has gotten broader and more complex. Happy marketing. Heidi Cohen ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ A Like Reply 11 months ago in reply to Sharon Mostyn F ○ 0 Like • • • Mark W Schaefer 2 comments collapsed Collapse Expand I defer to Prof. Happy marketing. marketing has evolved to meet those needs. Kotler! ○ ○ ○ ○ A Like Reply 11 months ago F ○ 0 Like • • • Heidi Cohen 1 comment collapsed Collapse Expand Mark--In today's social media enabled landscape.

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Twitter Etiquette: 24 Guidelines to Tweet By 5.• Categories • Popular Posts 1. 125 Free Blog Topics-Corporate and Personal Blogging 7. Twitter: Make Every Tweet Count [Research] 10. Mobile Marketing: 56 MUST Have Facts [Data] 8. 72 Marketing Definitions 2. 31 Ways to Make Your Blog Stand Out • Archives • Tags #UsGuys Blog blogchat Blogging Brand Branding Call-to-action Chart Charts Chris content Brogan content marketing Crisis management Customer Service Editorial . QR Codes: 26 MUST-HAVE Facts [Data & Charts] 6. 30 Social Media Definitions 3. 31 Public Relations Definitions 4. Content Marketing Must Have Checklist 9.

ISSN : 0975-4024 April . According to the various literature reviews on failure analysis.3 (2). 131-135 FRACTURE ANALYSIS OF EXHAUST MANIFOLD STUD OF MAHINDRA TRACTOR THROUGH FINITE ELEMENT METHOD (FEM) – A PAST REVIEW MAHESH M. retaining and harvesting operations and then in mechanization sector. Keywords: FEM.calendar Email eMarketer Facebook groupon HARO Heidi Cohen LinkedIn Mack Collier Margie Clayman Marketing Marketing Metrics marketing persona Mobile Mobile marketing PR Promotion qr code Research smartphone Social Media Social Media Guidelines Social media marketing social media ROI social media tribe Tips Twitter writing Quote Rebecca Lieb YouTube Mahesh M. / International Journal of Engineering and Technology Vol. But same is not true with non metals (like polymers etc. Fatigue failure. JAJU 2 1* P G Student – M. Sonekar et al. fatigue and longetivity of the manifold stud will be carried out in the FE code Analysis ANSYS. Fracture failure of mechanical components is a process of cyclic stress/strain evolution and redistributed in the critical stresses volume.cicet@gmail. NAGPUR. Very few cases of fatigue failure analysis of agricultural vehicles have been reported till date.440016 Email: 1* info. Analysis. Calculation based on failure life and accurate loading histories permit components to be optimized for durability without the need for expensive and time-consuming testing of series of prototypes. FEA based fatigue analysis of metals (iron.In general while using FEM technique for failure analysis. Endurance limit.). on failure of exhaust manifold stud of tractor. engine parts and other area of applications using FEM (ANSYS). Results proved that the component fails at values below yield stress when subjected to time varying load. The nonlinear fatigue behavior is not yet completely understood and still in research phase.com Abstract The present paper is a review of the past work done in the field of analysis on fracture of various casting components. In the future study. aluminium etc. It may be imagined that due to stress concentration the local material yield firstly to redistribute the loading to the surrounding material defects or surface. Fracture. then follows with cyclic plastic deformation and finally crack initiates and the resistance is lost.Tech (CAD /CAM) 2 Prof. and mostly the casted components has been well established. It was also observed that below a specific stress value components were not failing at all. Failures were observed even after designing the components with maximum stress value well below yield / ultimate stress. Optimization.May 2011 131 . Mechanical Engineering Department G H Raisoni College of Engineering & Technology. This paper proposes the use of Finite Element Method (FEM) with ANSYS and ABAQUS as one of the helping software for better result analysis in most of the failure applications. which were then used for critical points evaluation. steel. 1. DR. Introduction Tractor as the most important agricultural machinery has main share in planting. 2011. a finite element routine would be first used to calculate the static and dynamic displacement and stresses under the maximum compression and tension loading. Tests were then carried out for time varying loads. For example yield stress for general steel is around 250 N/mm2 and endurance limit 160 N/mm2. Later it was concluded that the failure is because of variation of load with respect to “time” not being taken in to account. SANTOSH B.com 2 sbjaju@gmail. This stress value was termed as endurance limit.). SONEKAR 1*. (India) . Hence in order to reach sustainable agricultural machinery and also its quantity must be reached to optimum level.

Using finite element analysis (FEA) techniques. The maximum deflection at the point of outer pad loading was found to be 0.3 (2). ISSN : 0975-4024 April . Table 1.04887in.2 Stress distribution in crank end resulted from preloading force considering Van Misses. As a result of the lower scatter a more robust and compact product may be obtained through powder forging. 2011. Mohtasebi. Analysis focused on comparing and then optimizing a rod design using crackable forged steel (C-70).2 Fatigue Test Result (Connecting Rods. r = -2) HS150TM HS160TM C-70 Fatigue Limit @ 90% (MPa) 363 352 283 Scatter (Mpa) 8 13 48 The implication of the above data is that PF materials demonstrate improved fatigue strength on the order of 2533% over C-70 material of the same design.3 (2).3 (2). and for calculating the maximum load various physical parameters would be taken in consideration: . . 131-135 Fig 1. S. Fatigue analysis and longevity after a 1000000-cycle load. Omid. Reza Asaid. Kamran Kheiralipour [2] The work carried on Tractor part (Mf-285) connecting rod.03 0. Mahmoodi [3] In this paper a finite element routine was used to calculate the static and dynamic displacement and stresses under the maximum compression and tension loadings in the connecting rod of universal tractor (U650). 131-135 Therefore the simulation for cyclic stress/strain evolution and redistributions are critical for predicting fatigue/ fracture. The effect of strain hardening on the contact behavior of a non-adhesive frictionless elastic-plastic contact is analyzed using commercial finite element software ANSYS. Dale [1] The paper Connecting Rod Evaluation shows the forging processed components. / International Journal of Engineering and Technology Vol. was able to reduce the weight by 10% and by using “crackable” C-70. those forces must be transmitted to the suspension of the vehicle. M.1 Exhaust Manifold Stud under analysis 2.3 a) Von Misses stresses in compressive loading b) node 46 Prasanta Sahoo.12 Bal.33 0.May 2011 133 Mahesh M. using Finite Element Method to obtain the maximum stress in different sections of connecting rod and proper profile for that was studied for future optimization. A cliper abutment bracket must take the frictional forces generated by the brake system and not yield or overly deflect. With the increase in strain hardening the resistance to deformation of a material is increased and the material becomes capable of carrying higher amount of load in a smaller contact area.06 0. the author.Mahesh M.FE mesh of the component . Review of past work carried out on Failure Analysis James R. Fig 1.57 0. 131-135 Jesse Doty [5] As braking forces are applied at the wheel of an automobile. meshing and loading using FEM. Ali Jafari. 2011. and between bearing cup and connecting rod linkage. The result shows the maximum pressure stress was between pin end and rod linkage. S A Mireei and E. The result of strain hardening effect shows a generalized solution cannot be applicable for all kind of materials as the effect of strain hardening differently influenced the contact parameters. This analysis found the maximum stress of 45Ksi and its location. Md. Mansour Rasekh. / International Journal of Engineering and Technology Vol. 1. With the increase in the value of hardening parameter this effect also increases. 2011. Dipankar Adhikary [4] Their study considers an elastic-plastic contact analysis of a deformable sphere with a rigid flat using finite element method. ISSN : 0975-4024 April . assessed through using ANSYS software. / International Journal of Engineering and Technology Vol.31 0. their entire property during process and investigated the weight and cost reduction opportunities of steel forged connecting rods. Biplab Chatterjee.1 Chemical Composition of Powder Forged Materials Cu C Mn S Fe HS150TM 3.May 2011 132 Mahesh M. improving the accuracy of fracture life prediction of mechanical components. Sonekar et al. Sonekar et al. reduce the costs by 25% (over current forged steel connecting rods) and ostensibly 15% less than a PF rod with similar or better fatigue behavior.Numerical analysis & Validation Fig.12 Bal/ HS160TM 3. For carrying out the fracture analysis it is necessary to determine the maximum load. in the direction of the load and was compared to hand calculations done using Castigliano’s method to find deflection at the same point. It can be extract that cause of high fail of forged component is over stresses of common range. Table 1.50 0. The study identifies the fatigue strength as the most significant design factor in the optimization process. which were then used for critical points evaluation. S. Also the common stresses in carbon steel connecting rods is between 160 to 250 MPa. Sonekar et al. Using ABAQUS a finite element analysis was performed on a caliper abutment bracket. Results of FEM method and results of experimental equations were similar 9Maximum difference was only 13%) which shows the accuracy of the modeling.

Ugine & ALZ [6] The paper deals with the recent progress in the development of thermomechanical fatigue design tools using FEA related to the design of stainless steel exhaust manifold. Moreover we have illustrated several representative platforms for the scope of FEM in future applications. in inches for the point where outer brake pad force is applied. such as references. Ramsey [7] This article discusses two popular parts of modern day structural dynamics technology.May 2011 134 Mahesh M. The use of a virtual thermomechanical fatigue design approach permits to optimize the design of the manifold and limits both the number of prototype and motor bench tests. it shows how structural modification techniques are used as a complement to both methods and how all of the tools may be combined on an inexpensive desktop computer. Mohtasebi. The analysis was carried out on the metatarsal bone ‘I’ – compression screws system. Future work Our review suggests that in forthcoming efforts. They can be applied in selection of stabilization methods or rehabilitation as ISSN : 0975-4024 April . causes major losses to companies.5 Checking the position of the screw in 4 planes: axial. An accurate elastoviscoplastic behavior model has been identified and is available to simulate the stresses and strains in a part submitted to thermal fatigue.) could be best possible with Finite Element Method with ANSYS or ABAQUS as one of the helping software. reduces the risk of failure. Still there is an essential need for an efficient use of FEM technique with other multiuser software so that accuracy of result could be maintained for better analytical treatment. It discusses how experimental and analytical methods are used to solve design various problems and the importance of using modal parameters to link testing and analysis. features.03273 -0.. S. Reza Asaid. Vol 2 Issue 1: ISSN : 0975-4024 [5] Jesse Doty “FEA Analysis of a Caliper Abutment Bracket” ME 404 – March 17th 2008.123. Our future work is to propose a better analysis technique using FEM with ANSYS for concluding the fracture analysis and design optimization of exhaust manifold stud. Biplab Chatterjee. Kenneth A. J.4 Mesh and contour plot of Von Mises stress for solid model using tetrahedral elements. 2011. In FEM the theoretically calculated results are compared with the measured ones (result validation) and found a good conformity. S A Mireei and E. The obtained results could be used for clinical practice. 45osupination Fig 1. 5. The aim of the work was determined stresses. Lateran. which is referred to a Finite Element Analysis (FEA) or Finite Element Modeling (FEM). 2008. ISSN 1812-5654.compression screw system.04887 -0. analytical treatment and technologies. Ali Jafari. ABAQUS HAND CALCULATIONS Wireframe (Beam) 3-D (Tetrahedral) -0. 45opronation. and finally. Conclusion In this paper we have proposed FEM from a variety of aspects. 2 model of diverse mechanical properties of screw – Ti-6Al-4V alloy – model 1. ISSN 1991-8178. The influence of the loads and displacements on the bone – screws system on the results of numerical analysis was analyzed. Vol.6 Insertion of the screw & FEM analysis of bone – compression screw made of Ti-64i-4V alloy. 3(2): 1438-1449. The article concludes with an example showing how experimental modal analysis. Kajzer. 3. A numerical method was proposed for the design and the lifetime prediction of stainless steel exhaust manifold under thermal fatigue load. [2] Mansour Rasekh. The result obtained is promising and has the potential as an alternative processing method for failure analysis for different mechanical components. Mahmoodi “Fatigue analysis of connecting rod of U650 tractor in the Finite Element Code ANSYS” Journal of Applied Sciences 8 (23): 4338-4345. In order to accurately analyse and optimize the fracture part. stainless steel (Cr-Ni-Mo) – model 2 and two load steps were selected. and the analytical portion. 2009.. Kajzer.Table 1. Dipankar Adhikary “Finite Element based Elastic-Plastic Contact Behaviour of a Sphere against a Rigid Flat? Effect of Strain Hardening” International Journal of Engineering & Technology (IJET) 2(1) 2010.. 4. . analysis of mechanical components (casted components. [3] M. 131-135 well as in describing the biomechanical conditions connected with type of bone fracture obtained from medical imaging.2 Comparison of hand calculations and ABAQUS model results. there is a need to experiment with multiple fractures parts taking live examples from the companies. In future we explore the failure analysis of exhaust manifold stud and such other components which tends to fail. Finally. In order to carry out calculations.3 (2). Marciniak [8] The paper presents results of numerical analysis in metatarsal bone ‘I’. the experimental portion which is referred to as experimental modal analysis or modal testing.03082 Fig 1. S.. engine parts etc. structural dynamics modification and finite element analysis were used to analyze the dynamic properties of a test structure. strain and displacement in the inserted screws. A. W. Dale “Connecting Rod Evaluation” ASME Journal of Mechanical Engineering January 2005. [4] Prasanta Sahoo. These are deflection values. Kamran Kheiralipour “Obtaining maximum stresses in different parts of tractor (Mf-285) connecting rods using Finite Element Method” Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. References [1] James R. / International Journal of Engineering and Technology Vol. Sonekar et al. Fig 1. Md. Omid.

Mahindra Tractors with sales of nearly 85. A. Mahindra was a sponsor of the McDonald Motorsports team which ran the #81 car in the NASCAR Nationwide Series.May 2011 135 Mahindra Tractors.1 Domestic (India) 3. In 2008.3 United States of America 3.the largest tractor market in the world. [8] W. tooling and manufacturing know-how gained from this relationship.. the farm equipment division of Mahindra & Mahindra. ISSN : 0975-4024 April . J.1 Mahindra India 1.[4] In 1963.[6] Ugine & ALZ “Thermomechanical fatigue analysis of stainless steel exhaust manifolds” Christian SIMON. Ramsey “Experimental Modal Analysis. Mahindra USA announced its new sponsorship in the NASCAR Nationwide Series with R3 Motorsports. and is number one in sales in India .[2] To expand into the growing tractor market in China.[2] Mahindra has a huge consumer base in India.2 Mahindra USA 1. Inc. Mahindra was the first Indian company to sponsor a car in NASCAR.[5] Armed with engineering.2 Mahindra Australia 3.3 Mahindra Australia 1. The company builds more tractors in India than any other manufacturer.[6] With this sponsorship.[6] Contents [hide] • 1 Mahindra Operations ○ ○ ○ ○ • • 1. Kajzer.000 tractors a year. Mahindra acquired majority stake in Jiangling. Structural Modifications and FEM Analysis on a Desktop Computer” International Journal of Science.5 Africa • • • 4 Competitors 5 References 6 External links .4 Jiangling 2 Brands 3 Assembly Plants ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ 3. Feburary 1983. builds and sources tractors that are sold worldwide across six continents. To raise awareness about Mahindra in the US. Isbergues. announced a 17-race primary and 18-race associate sponsorship for the 2009 NASCAR Nationwide Series. [7] Kenneth A. which is participating with a #23 Mahindra Tractors Chevrolet. Jr. M&M formed a joint venture with International Harvester to manufacture tractors carrying the Mahindra nameplate for the Indian market. The car will be driven by Robert Richardson. China and America and a growing base in Australasia. Pierre Olivier Santacreu Centre de Recherche d’Isbergues. France. the B275. Vol 33 Issue 2 April 2009.000 units annually is one of the largest tractor companies in the world.[1] Mahindra is also among the top three tractor manufacturers in the world. Marciniak “FEM analysis of compression screws used for small bone treatment” Journal of Achievements in Materials and Manufacturing Engineering (AMME).[3] and has the capacity to build 150. Mahindra USA. M&M developed its first tractor. Kajzer.4 China 3.

Mahindra purchased 100% of Gujarat Tractors from the Government of Gujarat ??[9] and Mahindra purchased a 64. seeing an opportunity to enter the growing tractor market in China. Serbia. Haryana. Texas. [10] In Western Australia and South Australia. North America and Australasia through its subsidiaries. in 2004. Mahindra Australia is a branch of Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd. California and the latest assembly and distribution center moved from Calhoun. a subsidiary of Mahindra Tractors. its tough. Mahindra tractors are distributed by McIntosh Distribution. [edit] Jiangling In 2004. Mahindra Gujarat and Swaraj.6% stake in Swaraj. Jiangling. Punjab. is responsible for sales in the North American continent. [edit] Mahindra USA In 1994. the company’s products are sold and serviced by 40 dealers throughout Australia. Georgia to Chattanooga.[8] [edit] Mahindra Australia Based in Brisbane. Its sales in Gujarat are under the label Mahindra Gujarat and its sales in Punjab are under the label Swaraj. the company entered the American market as Mahindra USA. Syria and a major part of the African continent among many more[7] Mahindra operates in China. [edit] Mahindra India Mahindra Tractors is number one in sales in India . In addition to building their own tractors. The Company's products are distributed in Fiji by Carpenters Motors.the largest tractor market in the world. These subsidiaries are also responsible for sales. and in the few years since. Iran. Mahindra has three assembly plants in the US. [edit] Brands . Mahindra purchased an 80% stake in Jiangling Tractors from Jiangling Motor Company. QLD. dependable tractors are being sold and serviced by hundreds of leading tractor dealers throughout the country.[edit] Mahindra Operations Mahindra Tractors operates in 10 countries and has a fairly large customer base in the United States. In 2005. Mahindra also has a factory in China. Tennessee at the end of 2009. China. In 1999. It also operates in some Indian states through its subsidiaries namely. Chile. Mahindra has bought tractors from Mitsubishi and Tong Yang Moolsan to cover selected product ranges.[10] Currently. Its sales are predominantly in the states of Gujrat. Maharashtra and the Southern States. another in Red Bluff. Indian Subcontinent. Australia. Mahindra USA. Mahindra also sources tractors from other manufacturers. One assembly plant is at its North American headquarters in Houston.[8] and it has been the market leader since 1983. the company entered the Australian market with the launch of its assembly & customer support centre in Acacia Ridge. Mahindra Australia is also responsible for sales in New Zealand and the rest of Australasia. Mahindra has also formed a joint venture with Yueda group in Yancheng. For the USA market. including dynamometer and road testing. In the United States. Mahindra USA and Mahindra Australia. the company performs final assembly and conducts a 51 point pre-delivery inspection.

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