Scraper is a machine for moving earth over short distances (up to 2 miles) over relatively smooth areas.

Either self-propelled or towed, it consists of a wagon with a gate having a bladed bottom. The blade scrapes up earth as the wagon pushes forward and forces the excavated material into the wagon. When the wagon is filled, the gate is closed, and the material is carried to the place of disposal. The scraper is the dominant tool in highway construction. 2 types: Pull-type scraper

Tractor-scraper

If the truck cannot get close enough to the site to use the chutes. Types: Front discharge Rear discharge . connected to a flexible hose. In one rotational direction. The drum is traditionally made of steel but on some newer trucks as a weight reduction measure.A concrete mixer (also commonly called a cement mixer) is a device that homogeneously combines cement. They can be charged with dry materials and water. With this process. The concrete mixing transport truck maintains the material's liquid state through agitation. multi-floor buildings. A typical concrete mixer uses a revolving drum to mix the components. This is known as "charging" the mixer. From there it may go onto chutes to guide the viscous concrete directly to the job site. until delivery. or onto a conveyor belt which can be extended some distance (typically ten or more meters). The interior of the drum on a concrete mixing truck is fitted with a spiral blade. aggregate such as sand or gravel. the Archimedes' screw-type arrangement "discharges". or forces the concrete out of the drum. or turning of the drum. and water to form concrete. the concrete is pushed deeper into the drum. A pump provides the means to move the material to precise locations. the material has already been mixing. the concrete may be discharged into a concrete pump. Special concrete transport trucks (in–transit mixers) are made to transport and mix concrete up to the construction site. fiberglass has been used. with the mixing occurring during transport. This is the direction the drum is rotated while the concrete is being transported to the building site. and other distance prohibitive locations. When the drum rotates in the other direction.

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