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So far, we’ve been concentrating on the capacitors that are external to the transistor in an amplifier circuit and provide coupling or bypass functions. These components are treated as series capacitances and determine the low frequency response of the amplifier, which may be found by the method of short circuit time constants using the ac small signal model as discussed in the previous section. What we’re going to do now is look at the internal capacitances of the transistor that dominate the high frequency amplifier response. All external capacitors, which are much larger than internal capacitances, are considered to be short circuits in the high frequency region of operation. Internal capacitances are modeled as shunt (parallel) capacitances and involve enhancements to the small signal model we’ve been using so far. In Section H2, an approximation for the high frequency cutoff was given in terms of the transfer function poles as
ω H ≅ ⎢∑ τ i ⎥
1 . ∑ C i Reqi
Once again, we will be looking at relevant capacitances one at a time, finding the equivalent resistance seen by the individual capacitance, and then performing a summation to determine the cumulative effect. However, instead of the method of short circuit time constants in which we set all other capacitors to infinity (zero effective impedance), we will be using the method of open circuit time constants for the high frequency cutoff. In this method, independent sources are again set to zero (short voltage sources and open current sources), but now all capacitors other than the one of interest are set to zero (infinite effective impedance). Just as a heads up, a more accurate approximation for the high frequency cutoff may be found by including the effect of the transfer function zeros as
2 ω P1
2 ω P2
2 ω P3
2 ω Z1
2 ω Z2
2 ω Z3
while always keeping in mind that if we can define a dominant pole, life is good and calculations become easy!
By analyzing each of the above circuits individually. Specifically. into the equivalent circuit of Figure 10. as shown in Figure 10. your author derives expressions for the shunt impedances Z1 and Z2 in terms of the series impedance Z as Z1 = Z 1 − Av and Z2 = Z 1− 1 . the Miller theorem allows us to transform a circuit in the form of Figure 10.14b (below right) where the input and output circuits have been separated and may be analyzed independently. Av (Equations 10.13 and reproduced to the right.14a (below left). and realizing that the voltage gain. I1 and I2. Av. sCR + 1 1 + jωRC The input-output relationship of this circuit is therefore given by . must remain constant regardless of the circuit representation.47) If we can create these shunt capacitances. we can model each side of the circuit as a simple RC network. Using a voltage divider. By appropriately selecting the values of the impedances Z1 and Z2. in which an impedance element connects the input and output. the capacitance C exists between two of the device terminals and the resistance R is the equivalent resistance seen by the capacitance. In this figure. This theorem allows us to transform a series capacitance into equivalent shunt (parallel) capacitances that are much larger than the original capacitance value. the output voltage is equal to v out = (1 sC )v in R + 1 sC = v in v in = .46 & 10.Miller Theorem The Miller Theorem is very useful in the development of high frequency equivalent transistor circuits. the two circuits will behave identically and we can efficiently determine the high frequency response of the entire amplifier circuit. and currents.
rπ ≈ hie = (β + 1)re ≈ βre gm ≈ ro ≈ I β +1 β 1 1 ≈ = ≈ ≈ C hib re hie hie VT Equation 4. by a resistance denoted rbb’.v out 1 1 = = . B. rb’b. a modified version of Equation 4. B. Note an additional terminal. it contributes to high frequency response. B’. Although this resistive component is negligible at low frequencies since it is usually less than 100Ω. . The point denoted as B’ represents an internal base terminal that is not accessible to the outside world and that is separated by the physical base terminal.43) The high frequency hybrid-π model for the BJT is given in Figure 10. v in 1 + jωRC 1 + jωτ where the time constant. is equal to RC.15a will be defined and/or related to h-parameters as follows: Base spreading resistance.18 V 1 = A hoe IC Using this information. Since manufacturer’s data sheets typically specify parameter values in terms of h-parameters. and the intrinsic base terminal B’. has been added to the schematic and that resistance and capacitances have been defined between each pair of terminals. High-Frequency BJT Model (Equation 10. τ. the resistances indicated in Figure 10.15a of your text and is duplicated to the right.18 (see Section C3) is repeated below for reference purposes. The value of this resistance depends on the total current level and appears in the total input resistance as defined below. The base spreading resistance models the equivalent resistance of the silicon between the physical base terminal.
. although its value varies with the width of the junction depletion region. This capacitance is indicated in spec sheets as Cob. where hie is defined as the input resistance of the device with the output shorted. The transistor input resistance is between the base (B) and emitter (E) terminals and is indicated in the hybrid-π model by rπ. with typical values in the range of 0. and is typically on the order of 10βoro when the collector-base junction is reverse biased for normal active operational mode. (Equation 10. and realize that the base-collector junction is reverse biased so its resistance is much larger than the resistance associated with the forward biased base-emitter junction (i. Looking from the base. Input resistance.54) where the last approximation is made since rb’c >> rb’e. but may also be referred to as Cµ. Using Miller’s theorem. rb’c. If we short the output of the circuit above (i.Feedback resistance. The input resistance is approximately equal to the h-parameter hie. v ce rb'e + rb'c rb'c (Equation 10. it is usually considered to be constant over a specific region of transistor operation. The feedback resistance models the effect of the collector voltage on the base current. one between each of the device terminals. we get the complete expression for the transistor input resistance to be rπ = hie = rb'b + rb'e || rb'c ≅ rb'b + rb'e . The collector-junction capacitance is the capacitance of the collector-base junction. the series capacitance Cb’c may be transformed into two shunt capacitances of value . The feedback resistance is related to the reverse voltage gain h-parameter..5 to 5pF and. rb’c >> rb’e). but I wanted to bring up this point because most resources do.15a are three capacitances. Cb’c.48) Also included in Figure 10. It is small. Note that your author does not explicitly indicate the frequency dependence of β in this manner.e. where βo is the value of β at low frequencies (sometimes called dc gain). the collectoremitter pair of terminals). Specifically Collector-junction capacitance. through hre = rb'e r v b 'e = ≅ b'e .e. rb’c is at least equal to βοro. hre.
or C b'e = C de + C je . Note that. Putting all this information together. a figure of merit defined as the frequency at which the common emitter short circuit current gain is 0 dB (remember that 20log(1)=0 dB). This capacitance is the sum of two parts: the emitter diffusion capacitance (Cde) that is proportional to the dc bias current and an emitter junction depletion-layer capacitance (Cje) that is dependent on the value of baseemitter voltage. The output capacitance is defined between the collector and emitter terminals. since the gain-bandwidth product (GBP) is considered a constant figure of merit for an amplifier. It is usually extremely small and is generally ignored since the input capacitance is so much larger. Base-emitter capacitance.56) where fT is the unity gain frequency. Cce. often called Cπ to associate it with rπ. Cb’e.57) Output capacitance.C M1 = C b'c (1 − Av ) (input circuit ) . The value of Cb’e may be estimated by C b'e ≈ | I CQ | gm 1 . VBE. the unity gain frequency may be approximated by GBP.15b of your text. Note that ro is now explicitly included in . Since the first term is larger than the second. ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎟ (output circuit ) C M 2 = C b'c ⎜1 − ⎜ Av ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ (Equation 10. we can present the high-frequency BJT equivalent circuit in terms of the familiar hybrid-π model as shown to the right and in Figure 10. The base-emitter capacitance. is indicated in data sheets as Cib. = = 2πfT 2πfT re 2πfT VT (Equation 10. Cb’e is approximately equal to the diffusion capacitance (also called the base-charging capacitance) and usually has a value in the range of 1 to 200pF.
the circuit and must be considered in the calculation of equivalent resistances (recall that we usually neglected it for low and mid-range frequencies because it is so large). .
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