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Physics Department SSIJB
PHYSICS FORM 4 [INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS-CHAPTER 1]
1.1 Understanding Physics
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The word physics comes from the Latin word, ‘physikos’ meaning the science of natural things. Physics is the branch of science concerned with the study of __________________and properties of matter and energy. The study was divided into separated fields; heat, the properties of matter, light, sound, wave, electricity, magnetism, mechanics, nuclear physics etc. In physics, there is the need to make careful observations, precise and accurate measurements. Understanding natural phenomena and observing everyday objects such as a table, a mirror etc and discuss how they are related to physics concepts has always been a central aim of physics. The roots of all science are firmly based in experiment. Of course, mastering scientific skills applying scientific knowledge must be the important thing to learn physics.
Importance of physics 1. 2. 3. 4. There is a close relationship between the study of physics and other sciences, including astronomy, biology, chemistry and geology. There is a close connection between physics and the practical developments in engineering, medicine and technology. The application of fundamental laws and theories has enabled engineers and scientists to put satellites into orbit, receive information from space probes, and improve telecommunications. Physics improves the quality of life, i.e. many home appliances function through the operation of principles of physics.
Physics Department SSIJB
4. 2.1 1. It is called the SI unit (Le Systeme International d’Unites). 6. Physical quantities are categorized into ________________band _________________ Base quantities is ______________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Every physical quantity is expressed as a numerical value in a particular unit of measurement. A physical quantities is a quantity that can be measured. 8. Quantities that cannot be measured are non-physical quantities. Example: Length of meter rule = Physical quantity 100 Numerical value cm Unit of measurement 7. Table below shows five base units and their corresponding physical quantities.2 Physical Quantities 1.2. Base quantities Name Length Mass Time Electric current Temperature Symbol l m t I T Name meter kilogram second ampere kelvin SI base units Symbol m kg s A K Physics Department SSIJB 3 .PHYSICS FORM 4 [INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS-CHAPTER 1] 1. 3. In 1960. an international conference in Paris had agreed to fix an international system of base units for base quantities throughout the world.be measured. 5. Base Quantities Measurement is the process of ________________________ of quantity using a __________________ with a standard scale.
Derived quantities Derived quantities are physical quantities __________________________ by multiplication or division or both. 2. W Area Volume Velocity Acceleration Density Force momentum Work Power = m s-2 mass volume kg = kgm-3 m3 Mass x acceleration Mass x velocity Force x displacement work time taken kg x m s-2 = kg m s2 kg x m s-1 = kg m s1 kg m s-2 x m = kg m2 s-2 J = J s-1 s Physics Department SSIJB 4 . The unit for a derived quantity is known as a derived unit.2. Derived quantities Name Symbol A V v a ρ F p W P Length x breadth Length x breadth x height displacement time taken change in velocity time taken Formula Derived units Units m x m = m2 m x m x m = m3 m = m s-1 s ms s 1 Special name Newton Watt.2 1.PHYSICS FORM 4 [INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS-CHAPTER 1] 1. Table below lists some common derived quantities and their units.
which act as multipliers. Scientific notation/standard form is a method of expressing very large or very small numbers.8 x 10-7 300 000 000 m s-1 = 3. We use prefixes _________________ the expression of ____________________l numerical values of physical quantities.000 000 58 m travels at a speed of 300 000 000 m s-1. A space is used between symbols in derived units.000 000 03478 2.2.000 000 58 m = 5.0 x 108 m s-1 5. Prefix Tera Giga Mega Kilo Deci centi Milli micro nano Pico Note Symbol T G M k d c m µ n p Power/factor 1012 109 106 103 10-1 10-2 10-3 10-6 10-9 10-12 A prefix is written in front of the symbol for the unit without a space. A prefix is a group of letters placed at the beginning of a word to modify its meaning.4 Scientific Notation/ Standard Form 1. For example. Work example – text book page 7 Physics Department SSIJB 5 .478 x 10-8 4.34 x 108 5 x 102 3. Example 1: Value Value in standard form 234 000 000 500 0. 2. Express the value in scientific notation. Prefixes are usually used to express some physical quantities that are either very big or very small. kilowatt is written kW. Example 2: A yellow light of wavelength 0. Standard form is written in the form of A x 10n where 1 ≤ A < 10 and n is an integer. 2.PHYSICS FORM 4 [INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS-CHAPTER 1] 1. The SI allows other units to be created from standard or base units by using prefixes. 0.3 Prefixes 1. 12. 3. For example. Newton meter is written N m.
(a) the unit of speed is meter per second or m s-1. which is a multiple of the base unit meter.PHYSICS FORM 4 [INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS-CHAPTER 1] 1. (b) the unit of area is square meter or m2. Convert the unit of area in m2 to cm2 1m = 100 cm 2 1m = (100 cm)2 = 10 000 cm2 = 1 x 104 cm2 2.001 = 1 x 10-3 m 1 mm3 = (1 x 10-3 m )3 = 1 x 10-9 m3 Physics Department SSIJB 6 . Example Derive the units for the following physical quantities. (a) Velocity (b) Acceleration (c) Density Solution (a) Unit [Velocity] = = Unit [Displacement] Unit [Time] m s = m s-1 (derived unit of velocity) (b) Unit [Acceleration] = = Unit [Change in velocity] Unit [Time] ms s 1 = m s-2 (derived unit of acceleration) (c) Unit [Density] = = kg m3 = kg m-3 (derived unit of density) Solving Problems Involving Conversion of Units 1. which is in terms of the base units meter and second. 1.2. For example. the derived unit shows the relationship between the derived quantity and the base quantity. Derived quantities and their units can be separated into their respective base quantities and base units.6 Expressing Derived Quantities and Their Units in Terms of Base Quantities and Base Units. Convert the unit of volume in mm3 to m3 1 mm = 0. Sometimes.
0 x 10-2 m 1.01 m or 1. 72 km h-1 = = 72km 1h 72x10 3 m 1x60x60s = 20 ms-1 5. 1g = 0. Express the unit of density 1.05 x (1 x 10-3 kg) x (1 x 10-2 m)-3 = 1.05 x 103 kg m-3 4.05 g cm-3 in the unit kg m-3.2341 mg (Mg) 3) 3 854 000 Gm (km) 4) 7 530 nA (mA) 5) 5 K (pK) Physics Department SSIJB 7 .0 x 10-3 kg 1 cm = 0. Complete the table below with standard form and convert the unit Standard form Quantity Scientific notation Convert to unit 1) 0.000 000 18 Ts (µs) 2) 0.05 g cm-3 = 1.PHYSICS FORM 4 [INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS-CHAPTER 1] 3.001 kg or 1.
Measurement of length Metre rule 1. Solution Physics Department SSIJB 8 . For example: A ruler is to determine the diameter of the wire. To measure length from a few cm up to 1 m. A scalar quantity is a quantity which has only __________________ 2. 2. A vector quantity has both _______________ and ________________ 3. We frequently need to make measurements for physical quantities by using standard measuring instruments.PHYSICS FORM 4 [INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS-CHAPTER 1] 1. Table below shows examples of scalar quantities and vector quantities.4 Understanding Measurement Using Appropriate Instrument to Measure 1.3 Scalar and Vector Quantities 1. (b) avoid parallax errors (c) avoid zero error and end error. 3. Choosing an appropriate instrument to measure a physical quantity is important to ensure that the measurements are accurate. Scalar Quantity Distance Speed Mass Energy Vector Quantity Displacement Velocity Weight Momentum Scalar Quantity Temperature Time Electric current Power Vector Quantity Pressure Impulse Acceleration Deceleration 1. 2. Precautions to be taken when using a ruler: (a) ensure that the object is in contact with the ruler to avoid inaccurate readings.
5.1 mm. (c) Hence 1 mark on the vernier scale is equal to 0. 6. The tail is used to measure depths. The main scale is marked in divisions of 1 mm.1 (a) Vernier calipers have two scale. he The screw clamp may be used to ensure that the vernier scale does not move while you take the reading.INTRODUCTION PHYSICS-CHAPTER 1] PHYSICS FORM 4 [INTRODUCTION TO PHYS Vernier Calipers 1. main scale vernier scale The inside jaws are used to measure internal diameters. (b) The length of this 10 divisions are equal to 0. o Figure 1.01 cm. 0. Principle of vernier calipers.09 cm. (b) (c) (d) (e) 4. The vernier scale is marked in divisions of 0. the difference between the sizes of one division on the main scale and one ifference division on the vernier scale is. The outside jaws are used to measure external diameters and thickness.9 cm. 3. 7. 2. (a) The vernier scale is divided into ten equal division.09 = 0. Vernier calipers can be used to measure thickness.1 – 0.1 shows the vernier calipers Figure 1.1 shows. diameter of a wire and depth of a liquid.1 mm or 0.01 cm . A vernier caliper is used to measure an object with dimensions up to 120 mm/12 cm. (d) Figure 1. The vernier caliper has an accuracy of 0.
Physics Department SSIJB 10 . (d) figure 1. How to read the vernier calipers.PHYSICS FORM 4 [INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS-CHAPTER 1] Figure 1.6 mm = 34.6 mm.2 shows.2 (b) read the main scale before ‘0’ mark on the vernier scale.6 mm = 34. (a) to measure with a vernier caliper.1 8. Figure 1.0 mm + 0. The main scale reading The vernier scale reading Therefore the reading is = 34.0 mm = 0. slide the vernier scale along the main scale until the object is held firmly between the jaws of the caliper. (c) take the vernier scale reading that lines up with any main scale reading.
81 cm Physics Department SSIJB 11 .1mm = 8. What is the reading of the vernier calipers below.0mm + 0.01 cm (b) 8.1 = 30.1 mm/0. (a) 30.0 + 0.PHYSICS FORM 4 [INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS-CHAPTER 1] 9.1 mm/3.
3 12. Physics Department SSIJB 12 . Before we used the vernier calipers. Figure 1. 11. we need to check for zero error in order to obtain accurate readings. Positive zero error occurs if the ‘0’ mark on the vernier scale is to the right of the ‘0’ mark on the main scale as shown in figure 1.8 mm 10.7 mm = 12.3.PHYSICS FORM 4 [INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS-CHAPTER 1] (c) 12.1 mm + 0. When the jaws are closed and the ‘0’ mark on the main scale is exactly in line with the ‘0’ mark on the vernier scale there is no zero error as shown in figure 1.4.
6 mm – (+0.04 cm. Figure 1.0.5 The negative zero error as shown in figure 1.4 mm) = 34.PHYSICS FORM 4 [INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS-CHAPTER 1] Figure 1.4 is +0. .4 The positive zero error as shown in figure 1.2 above must be corrected by subtracting Correct reading = 34.2 mm +0. +0. Correct reading = (Caliper reading) – (+zero error) The reading in figure 1. Negative zero error occurs if the ‘0’ mark on the vernier scale is to the left of the ‘0’ mark on the main scale as shown in figure 1.5 is – 0.04 cm to the reading. 13.4 mm/ To eliminate the zero error.02 cm.5.2 mm/ To eliminate the negative zero error. Physics Department SSIJB 13 .
Figure 1.6 mm – (.00 mm. (b) The object that is to be measured is placed between the jaws. he (c) The thimble is turned until its jaw touches the object. The micrometer screw gauge can be used to measure diameter of wires and thicknesses sheet of paper to an accuracy of 0.10 mm up to 25.1 shows the micrometer screw gauge.0. Figure 1.2 mm) = 34.8 mm . (d) The ratchet knob ________________________________ by making a click sound when the micrometer is ready to be read. .2 cm to the reading. A micrometer screw gauge is used to measure very small thickness and diameters ranging between 0.2 above must be corrected by subtracting Correct reading = 34. 2.0. main scale marked on the sleeve thimble scale/vernier scale marked on the thimble. Micrometer Screw Gauge 1.1 (a) The micrometer scale comprises. 3.INTRODUCTION PHYSICS-CHAPTER 1] PHYSICS FORM 4 [INTRODUCTION TO PHYS Correct reading = Caliper reading – zero error The reading in figure 1.01 mm mm.
PHYSICS FORM 4 [INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS-CHAPTER 1] 4.2 (b) (c) (d) Read the main scale marking just before the thimble. 5. (a) (b) The main scale is marked in divisions of 0.38 mm = 7.5 mm. The main scale reading The vernier scale reading Therefore the reading is = 7. Figure 1. How to read the micrometer screw gauge. Find the vernier scale marking where the horizontal reference line of the main scale is in line with the graduation mark on the thimble scale.5 mm + 0.88 mm Physics Department SSIJB 15 . Figure 1. the object is placed between the jaws and the thimble is rotated using the ratchet until the object is secured until 3 clicks sound is heard. Principle of the micrometer screw gauge.5 mm = 0.01 mm. (a) In order to measure an object.2 shows.38 mm = 7. One division on the thimble scale is equal to 0.
46 mm = 3. (a) Figure 1.3 7.4 3.396 cm Physics Department SSIJB 16 .22 = 7.PHYSICS FORM 4 [INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS-CHAPTER 1] 6. What is the reading of the micrometer screw gauge below.96 mm/0.72 mm (b) Figure 1.5 mm + 0.5 mm + 0.
5 mm + 0.5 5. we need to check for zero error in order to obtain accurate readings.30 mm = 5. When the jaws are fully closed and the ‘0’ mark on the thimble scale is exactly in line with the horizontal reference line there is no zero error.80 mm 7.PHYSICS FORM 4 [INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS-CHAPTER 1] (c) Figure 1. Before we used the micrometer screw gauge. Physics Department SSIJB 17 . 8.
6). when the horizontal reference line is in the positive side of the ‘0’ mark on the thimble scale.6 is + 0. Physics Department SSIJB 18 .88 mm – (+0.04 mm.84 mm +0.7 10.2 above must be corrected by subtracting Correct reading = 7. The positive zero error as shown in figure 1. Correct reading = (Micrometer reading) – (+zero error) The reading in figure 1. Figure 1.PHYSICS FORM 4 [INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS-CHAPTER 1] Figure 1.6 9. Negative zero error occurs if the horizontal reference line on the main scale is below the ‘0’ mark of the thimble scale. Positif zero error occurs (figure 1.04 cm to the reading. To eliminate the positive zero error.04 mm) = 7.
zero error) The reading in figure 1.0.7 The negative zero error as shown in figure 1.2 above must be cor corrected by subtracting . reading Correct reading = 7.7 is . Some others measuring instruments: Analogue Stopwatch Digital Stopwatch Thermometer Miliammeter Measuring Tape Measuring Cylinder Beaker .03 mm) = 7.INTRODUCTION PHYSICS-CHAPTER 1] PHYSICS FORM 4 [INTRODUCTION TO PHYS Figure 1.03 cm to the reading.91 mm 11.0.03 mm To eliminate the negative zero error.88 mm – (.0. Correct reading = (Micrometer reading) – (.
11 (b) is the most accurate shot. 6. we can consider of gunshots fired at a target board. No measurement is exact. An accurate instrument is able to give readings ______ t _____________ to or ______________ to the actual ___ value of a quantity.11. 5.11 (a) are clustered together and hence the distribution of the shots is 1 consistent. The drawings in figure 1. When we measure a physical quantity. . (a) Figure 1. 3. accuracy and sensitivity. The bulls eye in the centre of the target accurate represent the actual value. Every measurement is an estimation of the actual value. Accuracy of a measurement is ___________________________________________________________________________ _____________________ ____________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________ _________________ 9.11 (b) 4. we need to consider its magnitude and then choose a suitable instrument and also measurement should be done with considering consistency. 8. which show the distribution of gunshots fired at a target board. The shots in figure 1. 2.INTRODUCTION PHYSICS-CHAPTER 1] PHYSICS FORM 4 [INTRODUCTION TO PHYS Consistency and Accuracy 1. The consistency of a measuring instrument is its __________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ 7. To see the distinction between consistency and accuracy. The shot in figure 1. Physical quantities involve measurements.
Figure 1.01 cm 0. However.13. 3. 2. A pair of vernier calipers is more sensitive because it can measure reading accurate to 0.001 cm Table 1.3 shows the accuracy and sensitivity of each measuring instrument.12 5.12 shows the sensitivity of different types of ammeter.3 4.01 mm/0. The smaller the change which can be measured by the instrument. the more sensitive the instrument. a micrometer screw gauge is the most sensitive of the three instruments because it can measure readings accurate to 0.1 cm 0.PHYSICS FORM 4 [INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS-CHAPTER 1] Sensitivity 1.1 mm/0. A ruler can measure reading accurate to 0.1 cm. shows the sensitivity of different types of stopwatch. Table 1.001 cm. Figure 1. Figure 1. Sensitivity of an instrument is its __________________________________ in the quantity to be measured.13 Physics Department SSIJB 21 . Measuring instrument Ruler Vernier caliper Micrometer screw gauge Accuracy Sensitivity Low Moderate High 1 mm/0.01 cm. Figure 1.
An error is a __________________ between the __________________ of a quantity and the __________________ in measurement. There are two main type of error in measurements. Systematic errors may be due to. All measurements are value of approximation only. This is because errors exist in all measurements. (i) ___________________ (ii) ___________________ 4.14 shows the observer’s eye at three different positions.PHYSICS FORM 4 [INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS-CHAPTER 1] Errors in Measurements 1. Physics Department SSIJB 22 . 3. (a) _______________________ of the observer when making a measurement (b) _______________________ when reading a scale (c) _______________________ such as the temperature. (b) _________________ of the instrument. a measurement which is 100% accurate is impossible. Figure 1. wind. humidity. In scientific research. pressure. (d) Systematic errors will lead to decrease in accuracy 5. magnetic field or gravity. 2. (d) __________________ ( instrument does not respond / indicate insignificant or small change ) (e) __________________ ( applying excessive pressure when turning a micrometer screw gauge ) 6. Random errors occur due to. In other words. refraction. (c) A problem which persists throughout the experiment such as repeated error in reaction time and wrong assumption. Parallax errors will be giving inaccurate readings. which means the pointer of the instrument does not return to zero when not in use. it is a matter of how close the measurement is to actual value. (a) _____________________ of instrument which makes the instrument defective.
2.PHYSICS FORM 4 [INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS-CHAPTER 1] Figure 1. Errors in measurements must be reduced as much as possible to increase the accuracy. Physics Department SSIJB 23 . If zero error is present. 3. 4.14 Techniques to Reduce Errors in Measurements 1. adjust the pointer to zero before taking any measurements. check whether there is any zero error or not. Before using an instrument. Choosing an appropriate measuring instrument can reduce errors. Repeat the measurements a number of times and find the average.
Observation is the listing and tabulation of all data obtained in the experiment. By comparing with the aim stated.5 Analysing scientific investigations 1. (i) _____________ variable is a quantity we manipulate / variable which causes other secondary variables to _______________ _______________ variable is the _____________ which is _________ (ii) ___________________ variable and is measured experimentally. (iii) ________ variable is the quantity that ________________ throughout the experiment. to reduce the experimental error or to improve the result of the experiment. When observing we come out some questions. Precautions of the experiment can be suggested to overcome the weakness. touching. smelling. seeing) (b) Making _____________ is a early assessment or explanation that is carried out to answer the question raised. Analysing of data can be carried out by plotting the graph. The following processes are involved in scientific investigations. (c) Form a ______________ which is the statement of relationship between the manipulated variable and the responding variable we would expect. (a) A scientific investigation begins with _____________. Procedure is the sequence of action or operation in order to carry out the experiment according to the instructions given. Inference is an early conclusion to what we observed. (d) _______ has to be stated so that all the investigating effort is centered on the main subject. Discussion needs to be stated to find out whether the result obtained support the stated hypothesis. followed by the interpretation of graph or calculation to obtain the required value. (e) Identify all the ______________ .e : hearing. Physics Department SSIJB 24 . this will determine whether the hypothesis is accepted or rejected.PHYSICS FORM 4 [INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS-CHAPTER 1] 1. (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k) Apparatus / Materials needed to be listed according its specification example measuring instrument to ensure the success the experiment. tasting. A conclusion is stated concerning the result of the experiment (is written in accordance with the aim of the experiment and based on graph). (i.
thread. l (ii) Responding variable : Period.0 cm. l was measured by a metre rule. Calculate the period of oscillation by using. (iii) The time for 20 complete oscillations. (iii) Fixed variable : Mass of pendulum bob. Physics Department SSIJB 25 .PHYSICS FORM 4 [INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS-CHAPTER 1] 2. metre rule. the longer will be the period of oscillation// (c) Aim : To find the relationship between the length of a simple pendulum and the period of oscillation.0 cm. (b) Hypothesis : The longer the length of a simple pendulum.0 cm and 40.// A small brass or bob was attached to the thread. (ii) The length of the thread .0 cm.0 cm. T. stop watch. the period of oscillation also increases. 60. 50. The thread was held by a clamp of a the retort stand. (f) Figure thread Retort stand bob (g) Procedure : (i) Set up the apparatus as shown in Figure above. t was taken using the stop watch. m (e) Materials : Retort stand. // The period of pendulum is affected by the length of the thread. 70. pendulum bob. starting with 90. Example : A simple pendulum (a) Inference : When the length of a simple pendulum increases.0 cm. 20 (iv) The experiment was repeated using different lengths such as 80. T = t . The bob of the pendulum was displaced and released. (d) Variable : (i) Manipulated variable : Length.
55 1.6 35. Physics Department SSIJB 26 . Average values for t are taken to minimize errors • If the time taken for 20 oscillations is 38. T = T2 = (1.82 3. For example.2 28. t are recorded in one decimal place. (ii) All axes should be labeled with quantities and their respective units. t 40.1 31.65 s2 t 38.All sets of readings recorded must be consistent.A readings of length of string should be written in one decimal place.0 33.1 28.7 38.59 1.0 80.79 1.1 Period of oscillation t T = (s) 20 1.2 25.2 31.0 60.91 T2 (s2 ) 1.6 35.9 25.1 s.0 90. all reading time taken. t (s) t1 t2 Average.2 31. This is because the metre rule used to measure the length of string can measure accuracy to 0.40 2.0 33.91)2 = 3.8 38.2 28.1 = = 1.41 1. l / cm oscillation.68 1.Symbols and their respective units should be written in the table .0 33.9 37.0 25.65 Notes : .26 1.The graph should be labeled by a heading.1 cm .5 35.PHYSICS FORM 4 [INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS-CHAPTER 1] (h) Observation / Tabulate data Length of Time taken for 10 string.91 s 20 20 (i) Analysing : Plotting the graph T2 (s2 ) T2 (s2) against l (cm) x x x x x l (cm) Notes : (i) Plotting the graph . • Then the period of oscillation.20 3.0 70.99 2.0 50.
Draw the best straight line . The triangle drawn to calculate the gradient of the graph should not be less than half size of the graph drawn or ( . 1:7 . which is. (i) The bob of the pendulum was displaced with a small angle (ii) The amplitude of the oscillation of a simple pendulum is small. make sure that the size of the graph is large enough. (iii) The simple pendulum oscillate in a vertical plane only. 1:9 0r 1 :11should avoided in plotting graph. Make sure that the transference of data from the table to the graph is accurate. Dip Edu (UTM) Physics Department SSIJB 27 .the line that passes through most of the points plotted such that is balanced by the number of points above and below the straight line.> 6 cm x 8 cm ) Calculate the gradient using the formula Put the unit Discussion / Precaution of the experiment / to improve the accuracy.PHYSICS FORM 4 [INTRODUCTION TO PHYSICS-CHAPTER 1] (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix) (x) (j) The manipulated variable (l) should be plotted on the x-axis while the responding variable (T2 ) should be plotted on the y-axis Odd scales such as 1:3. BSc (UTM). not less than half the size of the graph paper or (> 8 cm x 10 cm). (iv) Switch off the fan to reduce the air resistance Conclusion The length of simple pendulum is directly proportional to the square of the period of oscillation // T2 is directly proportional to l (the straight line graph passing through the origin) (k) Prepared by: En Adnan Shamsudin Dip Sc (UiTM).