This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
the psychological approach asserts that individuals involved in an innovation or change inevitably and gradually progress through a developmental set of psychological phases with regard to the innovation or change. Many were research based. ROBBINS AND LoIS Y DON Landmark Education Corporation 353 Sacramento Street. One-first order change is more psychological in nature. L. One of the constants within education is that someone is always trying to change it. An answer has been proposed by those who study the phenomenon of change. the other. An important question relative to these defunct innovations is "Why did they fail?" All seemed quite logical at their conception. and is rejected when it does not fit into the current framework. Specifically. LINDA ZRAIK. Weakland and Fisch (1974) distinguish between two types of change-first order change and second order change. Watzlawick. it seems that someone is always proposing a new practice. That is. Those stages are: Stage 1 Awareness: participants exhibit little awareness about the innovation Stage 2 Informational: participants exhibit an awareness 162 . Perhaps the most popular educational model used to described these changes is the Concern Based Adoption Model or CBAM by Hall and Loucks (1978). For example. Cuban (1987) has chronicled the fate of a number of educational innovations over the last three decades. Researchers and theorists who study the change process assert that the failure of many innovations is not due to inherent weaknesses in the innovations themselves but in the basic nature of the change process.second order change is more ontological in nature. differentiated staffing and flexible scheduling. Specifically. examining two types of change-first order and second order change. First order change assumes innovation is assimilated into existing beliefs and perceptions. open classrooms.A NEW PARADIGM FOR EDUCATIONAL CHANGE ROBERT 1. Second order change addresses the existing framework of perceptions and beliefs. or paradigm. San Francisco. as part of the change process. We briefly consider the psychological approach before examining the ontological approach in some depth. The authors explore the nature of the change process. This article describes the theoretical base and practical application of second order change in schools. That model identifies seven phases or stages individuals progress through as they become aware of. the Platoon System. The most important aspect of this distinction is that first and second order change involved two distinct processes. SANFORD STEVE ZAFFRON. The authors propose one reason for the short-lived nature of educational innovations is that most do not address the dynamics of second order change. a new technique to change education for the better. MARZANO. Yet many seemingly powerful change-oriented innovations are short-lived. understand and then gradually accept and then apply an innovation. article examines why powerful change-oriented educational innovations often fail. Some of the more visible one that have not endured include: programmed instruction. CA 94111 This. Suite 200. a new program. The Psychological Approach The psychological approach to change assumes that any innovation must be assimilated into the beliefs and basic operating principles of those for whom the innovation is proposed.
the innovation is soning and creativity . Kuhn equated the conunonly held Stage 3 perspective relative to a phenomenon with the Personal: participants are uncertain about the paradigm relative to that phenomenon. That is. on the digm to modem day science is commonly credited to Thomas Kuhn and his influential other hand. For demands of the innovation and are conKuhn. 1982. Since its initial introducManagement: participants have basically tion as a perspective taken during scientific "accepted" the innovation as useful and are inquiry. / 163 book. it is by interrejected-in CBAM terms. our shield against bewilderment. a paradigm was a mental percerned about how it will affect their lives spective or "mental set" one took while engaged Stage 4 in scientific inquiry. actions Refocusing: participants' concerns are focused and events are interpreted in light of these paron improving the innovation or identifying adigms. Stage 5 Lincoln and Guba (1985) define paradigms as Consequences: participants are concerned about the impact of the innovation on their systematic sets of beliefs that help one make clients (Le. reaan innovation must be integrated. the root of agement stage of the CBAM model implies a all learning. To illustrate. In short. appears central to how one interacts with One of the paradoxical features of paraproposed changes.57) then. then.. the source of all hopes and framework of beliefs and principles into which fears. they provide frameworks The introduction of the concept of parawith which to organize sensory stimuli. as it relates to everyday functioning.If we can make sense of the world at all. a theory that beliefs and perceptions. beliefs and perdigms is that their interpretative power creates ceptions have been shown to be organized into complex networks called "paradigms". the concept of paradigm has been used concerned about accurately and effective.. the is the basis of all our perceptions and very notion of acceptance explicit in the manunderstanding of the world. One's existing set of perceptions and beliefs. difficult to teach. motives and expectancies. (Smith. a teacher might cation) and their work in general possess a belief that students of certain ages are Stage 6 . and it unavoidable "blind spots" in our perceptions.. ception. they limit what can be perceived . commonly students within edusense of the world. paradigms both enable and inhibit peris paradigms that drive behavior. Indeed. These beliefs. Referring to paradigms as a "theory of other uses of the innovation the world in our heads. then. "The Structure of Scientific Revolution" of the innovation and a desire for more (1962) although it can be traced to the philosoinformation about the innovation pher Hegel.p. For ly utilizing the innovation example. help the teacher make sense of the with others regarding the innovation students' actions and the administrator make Stage 7 sense of the teachers' actions. The theory is those for whom the innovation is intended. to describe a plethora of human endeavors. More specifically.A New Paradigm . If integration does not occur." Frank Smith notes Underlying the CBAM model (and other psychologically based models) is the assumpthat What we have in our heads is a theory tion that innovations must fit within individuals' of what the world is like. A school administrator might have a belief that teachers with certain charCollaboration: participants' concerns are focused on coordination and cooperation acteristics are difficult to interact with. On one hand. the innovation never preting our interactions with the world gets past the personal stage in the minds of in the light of our theory.
1641 Education Vol. 6).. then. Proposed changes that do not fit within existJust a paradigms have been used to explain the behavior of individuals. In short. revolutionary science occurs through a shift in existing paradigm. personal stage. 203). If it were been used to explain the nature and function of not for the fact that paradigms can "shift. A few additional culture must eventually "accept" the innovation births (without an equivalent number of deaths) as consistent with the reigning paradigms. Tofler (1984) described the ture dictating what is accepted and not accepted. p. As Sathe notes. perspective relative to the phenomenon under Paradigms. p. the size of the population remains stable. constitute both their strength and their weakness-their strength in that Paradigms form the boundaries or parameit makes action possible. 259)." there culture. culture can be defined as would be little or no hope for substantive the shared beliefs-shared paradigms-of a set of change within a culture or any given system people. tioned assumptions of the paradigm (patton. important understanding (often times unstated) The Nature of Paradigm Shift that members of a community share in comThomas Kuhn not only popularized the conmon. he also introduced the notion the extreme. 1978. Assuming clear from the psychological model of change why some innovations are doomed to failure adequate food and other resources. so too. viduals perceive (and what they do not perceive) regarding the world around them. of the basic elements of a system are altered: Imagine a primitive tribe. Proposed weakness in that the very reason changes that do not fit within existing parfor action is hidden in the unquesadigms simply do not succeed. the tendency of members of a society to spontaneous change in a paradigm. stated in nontechnical terms. As Patton explains. indievery situation without the need for deep philoviduals or an entire culture never get past the sophical consideration. culture is the "set of within a culture. not only dictate what indistudy. have they ing paradigms simply do not succeed.116 No. paradigms are the between the "personal" and "management" basic structures we use to interpret the world. 2 inference one can conclude that this occurs because of inherent assumptions that underpin them. steps of the CBAM model. these shared beliefs can engenof paradigm shift-the radical and sometimes der sociocentricity or." (1983. The system may move . to progress logical equilibrium. By might have little effect. dynamics of such radical change. through the CBAM stages an individual or a Now increase the birthrate. it is and death rate are equal. He explained what is perceived and not perceived within a that a paradigm shift occurs when one or more society. the tribe forms part of a local system in ecofrom their outset-they simply do not fit within existing paradigms. If its birthrate Given the importance of paradigms to the functioning of individuals and societies. p. then. Paradigms. form the But it is this aspect of paradigms that boundaries or parameters of possible change. That is. Specifically. If an innovation is They tell us what to do and what to expect in not consistent with an existing paradigm. their ters of possible change. He noted that "normal science" occurs from discontinbehave as though the members of their group uous breakthroughs that demand a whole "new" are categorically different from and better than members of other groups (paul. but Where Kuhn introduced the concept of parshared paradigms form the very fabric of cul. Richard Paul notes that in cept of paradigm. 1990. adigm shift.
It is this type of paradigm shift that is ontological in nature. Many cognitive psychologists postulate that thought has two basic forms or exists in two basic systems: a linA second type of paradigm shift occurs guistic system and a non-linguistic when existing paradigms are judged as system (Gazzaniga.g./ 165 to a near-equilibrium state. systems do strange things. Gazzaniga and LeDoux (1978) state that their paradigms are no longer useful or . paradigms may shift in a more form of coding that arguments and. To understand the relationship of ontology to second order change one must first understand the inter-relationships among language. But if the birthrate should suddenly soar. . vouchers. paradigm shifts generated by the movement of a system to a far from equilibrium state can be quite unpredictable and not necessarily positive. itself in ways that strike us a bizarre. it is important to remember Tofler's warning that the entire system may reorganize effective as tools to interpret and interact with existing situations. mental pictures. startling effects. and abolishment of district. In this state. According the Dictionary of Philosophy. p. in terms more germane to this article. ontology is the study of being (Runes. However. In education such variables might include a change in funding formulae. unfortunately. controlled and less dangerous fashion. such a position assumes a narrow and inaccurate view of the nature and function of language. & LeDoux. The entire system may reorganize itself in ways that strike us as bizarre. philosopher Martin Heidegger referred to language as "The House of Being" (heidegger. birth rate). thought and paradigms. The linguistic system is a unique Fortunately. It takes a big jolt to produce bit consequences in systems that are in equilibrium or near equilibrium states. pp. 1984.) This might seem counterintuitive if one assumes that language is simply a . The Basis of the Ontological Approach Although basic to the study of philosophy. and so on). a second type of paradigm shift occurs when existing paradigms are judged as "bankrupt" by those who live within them. a foreign domain to most educators. of related systems that include information represented in a variety of sensory modes (e. For occurs when members of a society conclude example. 1971). However. It is this type of paradigm shift that we refer to as second order change. As the example of the primitive tribe illustrates. ontology is. 1977. They become inordinately sensitive to external influences. is. movement to a far from equilibrium state is commonly precipitated by drastic changes in variables that affect resources (e. reporting or encoding of thought. Small inputs yield huge. (Tofler.. 193. over time. 1985. p. xvi) In their analysis of Tofler's description. That . 285 and 212) or. it is the study of the basic assumptions which underpin our paradigms. The It is this type of paradigm shift that we non-linguistic system is actually a set refer to as second order change. 1978. 1984. One of the most powerful distinctions within the ontological approach to change is that paradigms exist or dwell within language. the system is pushed into a far-from-equilibrium condition. Sawata and Caley (1985) explain that to create paradigm shift a system must be pushed to a far from equilibrium state and held at the state for an extended period of time.A New Paradigm .. Gazzaniga "bankrupt" by those who live within them. This synthesizes the non-linguistic system. as the example of the primitive tribe illustrates. In short.. In fact.g. and here non-linear relationships prevail. Nothing much happens. In effect. Paivio. paradigm shifts generated from spontaneous changes in variables can be quite dangerous. smells.
that "the behaviors that these separate (nonlinguistic) systems emit are monitored by the one system we come to use more and more. the linguistic system be comes dominant. 1993. One of the most important characteristics of propositions as they relate to paradigms and second order change is that all human experience is encoded in propositional form. In simple terms "a proposition is the smallest unit of knowledge that can stand as a separate assertion. namely. 1975. the verbal nature language system" (p. In other words. The concept of a proposition has a rich history in both psychology and linguistics (Frederiksen. Figure 1 represents a small portion of the propositional network an individual might use to encode his experience of going to the store to buy his father a present. In fact. 1975). Kintsch. the information in propositions is represented as abstract concepts that can be represented by words. 123). 156). the smallest unit about which it makes sense to make the judgment true or false" (Anderson. 116 No. see Marzano. over time. p.166 / Education Vol. 2 Figure 1 A Propositional Network Note: It is important to realize that human beings do not actually encode their experiences as statements with words as represented above. Rather. For a detailed description of the nature and function of these abstract concepts. 1990. It is the format in which information is represented linguistically that serves as an operational basis for defining thought. 1974. humans cannot help but encode their experience as propositions. For example. that is. . Specifically. the most popular mode for describing the basic unit of though within the linguistic system is the proposition. Norman & Rumethart.
p. p. How the On. In effect.. Whorf proposed that we dissect nature along the lines laid down by our native languages. p. Knowledge is quantitative. In other words. then. 1981. and the like.tological Approach Works In contrast to the psychological approach to change which operates within existing paradigms. From this perspective. Wharfs (1956) concept of linguistic relativity epitomizes this assertion.A New Paradigm . As McNeil (1975) notes. the learner is trapped in a dualistic interpretation of the world-one in which everything is perceived in terms of absolutes: Good versus Bad. 13)." Authority. Some philosophers and psychologist assert that it is part of the human condition to equate one's paradigms or interpretation of the world with the reality of the world. in fact. the truth" (Rorty. These experiences provide individuals with an opportunity to try out new paradigms that might allow them to be more effective in dealing with current problems. Without such a realization. As philosopher Rorty notes. even when experiences do not necessarily fit into these partitionings. some theorist have conjectured that the basic propositional form oflanguage shapes perception. 1989. "it is easy to run together the fact that the world given states and events with the assumption that our linguistic description of those states and events along with their causes and consequences is. Based on this notion. Human beings quite naturally define them- . human beings partition their experiences into agents. Agency is experienced as "out there.213).. the Right job (Perry. 1956. location. Perry (1981) characterizes both ethical and cognitive growth as involving the central realization that there are differing perspectives or interpretations as to the nature of truth. it is clear that paradigms are. / 167 Note that the lines in Figure 1 are labeled agent. the world is presented in a kaleidoscopic flux of impressions which has to be organized by our minds-and this means largely by the linguistic systems in our minds" (Whorf. All that is not Success is Failure. Right Answers are to be memorized by hard work.79) The experience of consciousness other than the "I" embedded in one' propositional networks might be considered a natural outgrowth of the experience of paradigms as interpretations of reality as opposed to reality itself. and 2) an experience of consciousness other than the "I" embedded in their paradigms. The ontological approach to change seeks to provide individuals with this unique perspective-one which Perry asserts is the critical juncture in the development of an autonomous learner. Right versus Wrong. test scores. first and foremost. Building on the teaching of Sapir (1921). Paradigms. can be operationally defined as propositional networks created by our linguistically determined encoding of information from the senses. objects. language forces us to interpret or "encode" the information we receive from our senses into propositions that articulate relationships among different entities. Right Answers exist somewhere for every problem and authorities know them. and it is this characteristic that provides the power behind the ontological approach to change. asserts Perry. and the like. the ontological approach to change seeks to provide individuals with: 1) an experience of their paradigms as constructed realities as opposed to absolute reality. The thoughts we isolate from the world of sensory stimuli are not there because they stare every observer in the face: "On the contrary. These represent the relationships that language imposes on the information we receive from the senses. location and so on. we confuse our descriptions of the world with world itself. human constructions that dwell in language. Specifically. says Rorty. We versus They.
there must exist something which creates our propositional networks or. a paradigm shift may occur through volition rather than through drastic changes in resource variables. Rather. For example. No more are their energies devoted to weighing alternatives or considering contingencies. human beings obtain their sense of "self' from the "I" in their propositions. then. Rorty explains this as a process of inventing new tools: "the proper analogy is with the invention of new tools to take the place of old toos . In fact.. In effect.1681 Education Vol. Oftentimes. One "way of being" that is quite different from the common way of interacting with the world is to experiment with new paradigms when old paradigms are viewed as limiting-when old paradigms are declared bankrupt. and the chock because one has envisioned the pulley or like discarding gesso and tempera because one has now figured out how to size canvas properly. It is a form of consciousness within which commitments can be made. if propositional networks are created interpretations. This is the self that McCarl (1993) refers to as the transcendental. these experiences allow one to interact with situations and events in ways that provide access to second order change. In fact. to new paradigms consciously selected as opposed to culturally or situationally imposed that is at the core of second order of change. 1989. (Heckhausen and Kuhl. In other words. the individual who generated the propositional network in Figure 1. the experience of paradigms as interpretations and the experience of a consciousness other than the "1" of one's paradigms-form the basis of the ontological approach to change. More accurately. energies are focused on manifesting the commitment In short. However. In effect. a fundamental dynamic of the creative process is experimenting with new ways of looking at things. the normal state of human consciousness is that the "I" is the self. without commitment. consequently." (Como. even a slight change in one's perspective (paradigm) open up an entirely new vista of possibilities. consciousness." CRony. second order change does not exist. (it) is more like discarding the lever . then the "I" components of those networks are themselves creations. says Amabile. 1993. its most relevant feature is that "different information processing principles seem to account for performance before and after the point of commitment. p. In fact. Once multiple paradigms have been considered. p. two experiences-namely. Heckhausen and Kuhl note that once individuals have made a commitment to a selected paradigm. Although a discussion of action control theory is beyond the scope of this article. one may be adopted. In summary. would define who he is by the cumulative information continued in the propositional networks which contain an "I" element. 14) In fact. in Perry's A New Way of Being Ultimately second order change is brought about by interacting with events and situations in a new way. 116 NO. That is. Key to such conscious or controlled paradigm shift is commitment on the part of those who have adopted the new paradigm.2 selves as the "i" within their propositional networks. the world occurs for them in an entirely different way. 1985) It is commitment. This "new way of being" involves: 1) experimentation with new paradigms and 2) commitment to selected paradigms. Psychologist Como (1993) explains that action control theory is the foundation for modern studies of commitment. there must be a self separate from the "I" of our thinking. individuals behave in a totally different manner than they did prior to the commitment and. they have crossed a metaphorical Rubicon.. stated differently. 12) This flexibility of perspective has been identified by psychologist Amabile (1983) as central to creativity.
o • Percent reporting a need for or possibility of substantive change regarding their relationship with those supervised prior to the seminar Percent reporting a possibility of and a commitment change regarding Ibis relationship after the seminar 10 o c. 1981). The authentic self is not one which managed to escape everyday throw- . • Percent reporting a possibility of aDd a commitment to change regarding their effectiveness as a change agent after the seminar Percent reporting a need for or possibility of substantive change regarding their effectiveness as a communicator prior 10 the seminar Percent reporting a possibility of aad a commitment to change regarding their effectiveness as a communicator after the seminar Percent reporting a need for or possibility of substantive change regarding relationships with colleagues prior 10 the seminar Percent reporting a possibility of and a commitment to change regarding their relationship with colleagues after the seminar o e. Drawing on the work of Heidegger. the ontological approach to change has been practiced within business and industry for at least a decade. 100% • schema of intellectual and moral development. In fact. o • Percent reporting a need for or possibility of substantive change regarding their relal:ionship with administrators prior to seminar Percent reporting a possibility of aad II commitment change regarding Ibis relationship after the seminar 10 b... the leaders of the program refer to the interaction patterns used within their seminars as "authentic" speaking and listening. • Percent reporting a need for or possibility of substantive change regarding their alignment with the goals of the school or district prior to the seminar Percent reporting II possibility of and a commitment to change regarding their alignment after the seminar Percent reporting a need for or possibility of substantive their effectiveness as a change agent prior 10 the seminar O change regarding d.A New Paradigm . Specifically. Landmark Education Corporation has developed an educational experience that provides access to second order change. The Ontological Approach in Action One danger in describing the ontological approach to change is that it might appear as an intellectual game rather than as a viable tool for innovation within education. the ability to make commitments to selected paradigms represents the highest level of development. / 169 Figure 2 Effects of Seminar a. • o f. Authentic speaking and listening involves taking possession of one's self as one is. The format of the experience is a three day seminar during which a workshop leader interacts with participants in such a way that participants have an opportunity to interact with the world around them in a new way--one in which they can objectively consider new paradigms and ultimately make commitments to selected new paradigms. (Perry.
this shift from a perception of no need or possibility for change to a recognition of possibilities to a conscious commitment to enhanced effectiveness is equally dramatic in all six areas. this area and a commitment to make improveexpressing no more than a tiny piece of the system of interconOne can only imagine what happens within nected belief of which it is a part . see Marzano and Zraik. Although such speaking listening may prior to the seminar. 5) effectiveness as a change agent. it is see no reason for or possibility of substantive quite consistent with what educators refer to as change in this important area. 2) relationships with supervisors. 94% of partici. as opposed to synonymous with one's laborative/cooperative workplace culture is paradigms. fundamental to an effective institution. In terms more Socratic inquiry. make commitments to selected paradigms and then naturally engage in tasks consistent with those commitments. As Figure 2 illustrates. authentic listening and even recognized a need to attend to the imporspeaking involve engaging in these processes tant area of increased relationship with from the perspective of the "self' that is sepacolleagues.2 ness of human being. prior than continuing to be owned by it. Again. there are specific domains in which seminar effects are most dramatic. 1993. p. Figure 2 It has appropriated the everyday way of being. more effective paradigms.) Specifically. the paradigms through which 90% of involves the gradual disclosure of the assumpparticipants viewed their relationships with their tions underlying one's system of thinking: colleagues created blind spots to the possibiliSocratic questioning is based on the idea ty of substantive change. 4) alignment with the school or district's with the school or district's goals or when 86% of the staff make a commitment of being more effective change agents. The ultimate proof of the effectiveness of the seminar is the extent to which participants consider new. 94% of participants reported an awarethat anyone statement only partially ness of new possibilities for improvement in reveals the thinking underlying it. summarizes the results in these areas. In terms of to the seminar only 10% of the participants the previous discussion. and owned it.269). 90% of participants could appear foreign to the field of education. Noted educator. in terms of the previous discussion of second order change. 116 No. rather As Figure 2 indicates (see section 0. seminar.. a school or district when 94% of the staff Its purpose is to expose the logic make a commitment to a greater alignment of someone's thought (paul. However. pants had reached a level of conscious commitment to a new paradigm for relating to their colleagues. and has taken hold of that throwness in its own way.. 1990. Richard Paul. yet many would assert that a colrate from. Although the type of issues participants deal with in the seminar are not limited. 6) effectiveness as a communicator. participants experience a heightened awareness of a new paradigms and an opportunity to commitment to selected paradigms in the domains of: 1) relationships with colleagues. recognized it. 3) relationships with supervise. rather it is a self which goals. germane to this discussion of second order has explained that at its core Socratic dialogue change. Specifically in addition to the change in the domain of relationship with colleagues. after the that all thinking has a logic or structure. ments in this domain. In effect.170/Education Vol. the following trends were noted: a) prior to the seminar 19% of partici- . allowed it. (For a comprehensive review of the effects of this seminar. by the completion of the seminar.
In addition./171 pants reported a need for or possibility of substantive change in the domain of relationship with administrators. after the seminar 93 % of participants reported a recognition of the possibility for change and a commitment to enhancing this relationship-increase of 80% in terms of levels of awareness and commitment. one can only imagine what happens within a school or district when 94% of the staff make a commitment to a greater alignment with the school or district's goals (c above) or when 86% of the staff make a commitment to being more effective change agents (d above). Conclusions To date. after the seminar 95% of the participants reported a recognition of the possibility for increased effectiveness as a change agent and a commitment to increased effectiveness-a 86% increase in levels of awareness and commitment.) What is perhaps most informative regarding the effectiveness of the seminar is that five months after their involvement in the seminar 56% of those participants polled rated the lasting effects of their experience very high. (For a discussion of comparative results between education and business see Marzano and Zraik. a seminar designed to enhance second order change would have little if any lessening of value for participants since it would have altered the way participants interact with the world around them. Most school administrators would agree that a change in anyone of the sic domains described above could have a profound impact on a school or district. after the seminar 91 % reported a recognition of the possibility for change and a commitment to enhancing this relationship-an increase of 72% in terms oflevels of awareness and commitment. 90% of the participants surveyed rated the seminar as far superior to or better than other school/district sponsored workshops that address similar issues. . c) prior to the seminar 0% of participants reported a need for or possibility of substantive change in the domain of alignment with the goals of their school or district. after the seminar 98% of the participants reported a recognition of the possibility of substantive change in this domain and a commitment to more effective communication-a 71 % increase in levels of awareness and commitment. An interesting aside to this discussion is that the changes reported in the six domains is more dramatic in education than those reported within the business community.A New Paradigm . Perhaps this is because such seminars and workshops are confined to first order change. One possible reason for these events is that those . For example. b) prior to the seminar 13% of participants reported a need for or possibility of substantive change in the domain of relationship with those supervised. 1993. Not surprisingly. d) prior to the seminar 9% of the participants reported a need for a possibility of substantive change relative to their effectiveness as a change agent. after the seminar 94% of participants reported a recognition of the possibility for change and a commitment to increased alignment-a 94% increase in levels of awareness and commitment. then. the majority if not all of the innovations designed to improve education in substantive ways have not endured. Those familiar with the current state of educational workshops and seminars are painfully aware that those workshops and seminars are commonly forgotten with five months after their completion. e) prior to the seminar 27% of the participants reported a need for a possibility of substantive change in terms of their effectiveness as a communicator..
106-111. Toward a theory-based review of research on vocabulary. New York: W. Erlbaum. W. Frese & J. Educational Researcher. J. Smith. 24-42).. (pp. and Zraik. (1992). In A. (1983). Forward. Hillsdale. New York: Harcourt Brace Janovich. In C.R. Semantic processing units in understanding text. 2 innovations simply have not addressed the dynamics of second order change which is fundamentally ontological in nature.J. Sawada. The representation memory. Gordon. Explorations in cognition. Marzano. Eric Voeglin's theory of consciousness. J. New York: Holt. E. Norman. Imagery and verbal processing. (197S). Contingency. Beverly Hills. iii-xx). NJ.) (1983). D. 22(2) pp. Cognitive psychology and its implications. L.H. (1962). The social psychology of creativity. Patton. Beverly Hills.E.P. England: Cambridge University Press. S. Heckhausen. Innovation configurations: Analyzing the adaptation of innovations. The best-laid plans. R. and W. Keystone. (1990). Ablex. R. (1975). T. D. CA: Landmark Education Corporation. Kuhn. NJ: Erlbaum.I. This article bas described a theoretical base for second order change and reported the results of one organization's efforts to foster second order change in schools and districts. Hillsdale.. CO.D. (1984). Implications of corporate culture: A manager's guide to action. Paper presented at the Conference on Restructuring Education. R. Norwood.S. McCarl. Cuban. M.172/ Education Vol.E. Sabini (Ed. Elementary reading process and practice (pp. W.D. (1993). Dictionary of philosophy. 134-160).3-19.. Hall. S. Freeman and Company. & Kuhl. Chickering (Ed. Sonoma State University. Freedle (Ed. 1. Cognitive and ethical growth: The making of meaning. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Anderson. and Loucks. Discourse production and comprehension. (Technical report) San Francisco. Hillsdale. Rorty. (1921).S. The social brain.A. In R. Understanding reading. (pp. In Prigogine. Goal directed behavior: The concept of action in psychology. J. Freeman and Company. McNeil. Semiotic extension. 14. (Ed. & LeDoux. (March.G. (1971). Kudl Ed.. F. (198S). Needham Heights. NJ: Erlbaum. and Rumelhart. NJ. New York: Plenum Press. Los Angeles. of meaning in lincoln. Information processing and cognition: The Loyala symposium (pp. In M. D. Gazzaniga. Critical Thinking: What every person needs to survive in a rapidly changing world. 116 No. (D. 86(1). New York. Frederiksen. July). Solso (Ed. Dissipative structures: New metaphors for becoming in education. T. (1982). (1989). & Caley. Order out of chaos: Man's new dialogue with nature. CA: Sage Publications. 14-22. (198S). (1981). (1993). irony and solidarity. L. Sathe. From wishes to action: The dead ends and short cuts on the long way to action. Organizational Dynamics. (1990). 5. Heidegger. A. The integrated mind. (1977).H.Springer-Verlag. M. Given the dramatic effects produced by the efforts of that organization in business and now in education.. (1974). New York: Harper and Row. 76-116). E. 29-44).S. CA. MA: Ginn Press. G.O. McEachern (Eds. CA: Center for Critical Thinking and Moral Critique. Perry. The structure of scientific revolutions. Comparative effects in business and education of an intervention designed to produce second order change.I. the theory and practice of second order change appears to be a fruitful area for increased research and study. V. References Amabile. Modem conceptions of volition and educational research. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association. pp. (pp. In R. Naturalistic inquiry. Sapir. New York: W. A.. Rhinehart and Winston. (1987.).. C.T. (1977). 57-88).). Fintsch.). I. Rhinehart and Winston. New York: Holt. H. Paivio.). & Guba. Cambridge. G.L. (Vol. (1978). pp. (1985). Runes.E. 73-84. New York: Basic Books.P. (1993). M. D.Q. Marzano. Jr.G. M.M. D. New York: littlefield Adams. (1983). L. New York: Bantam Books. Rohnert Park. San Francisco: Jessey-Bass. . Educational Researcher. The modem American college.). 1978). Labercane. Paul. Utilization-focused evaluation. Constancy and change in schools (1880's to the present).H. & Stengers.). (1985). Gazzaniga. Tofler.R. M. (1978). I. R.iAnguage: An introduction to the study of speech. CA: Sage Publications. Y. American Political Science Review. Como. Basic writings.
B.. /173 director of Research.lDnguage. Lois Yoon. R. and also holds a position on the faculty of the University of Delaware. materials in the areas of language arts. Steve Zajfron. is a former educator who has worked for the past 15 years Whorl. Training and Development at the Mid-continent she has conducted workshops on personal and organizational development in the United States regional Educational Laboratory in Aurora. effective schooling and thinking skills. REPRINTED FROM VOLUME 116. Wa1ZIawick. and training change. Camwith a broad spectrum of culturally diverse bridge. 1. NUMBER 2 WINTER 1995 ISSUE OF EDUCATION . proparticularly successful in working with those ducing significant. He is widely recognized as an expert of Institutional Programs for Landmark Eduin both critical thinking and curriculum design.. (1956). Their broad-based initiatives nization or institution. and throughout the world. thought and reality. excellence possible at every level of an orgaond order change.. and educational institutions for both the university and high school levels and 20 years in affecting policy and structural written numerous articles. has worked extensively with business.W. Robert Marzano is Deputy Director of mark Education. Director Colorado.. New York: W. training and development company ments that dramatically increase performance headquartered in San Francisco which has been and create alignment around a new future. cation. the future and reach their long-term goals and Linda Zraik is a Senior Consultant for Landobjectives. (1974). Change: Principles of problem formation and problem resolution. and engagements work at a fundamental level to assure that schools continue to successfuldesigning and conducting corporate and instily generate new initiatives and approaches for tutional engagements.. His role is to design and plan engagetional. P. A former classroom teacher. Weakland.L. enterprises in applying breakthrough methodAutbor's Notes ologies to their organizational and institutional Landmark Education is a leading internaconcerns. Norton and Company. sustainable results that make in institutions and organizations to effect sec. & Fisch. Over the past twenty years he has taught at government.A New Paradigm . MA: The MIT Press. Sanford Robbins is a Senior Consultant for Landmark Education. Training and Development for Landmark Education. books.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.