971, St.

Xavier’s Catholic College of Engineering
(Affiliated to Anna University, Chennai-25)
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Subject : ME 61, DESIGN OF TRANSMISSION SYSTEMS

Part-A Questions & Answer

UNIT-V
Clutches
1. What is the function of clutch? The clutch is a mechanical machine element which is used to connect or disconnect the source of power at the operator’s will.
 To connect or disconnect the driving shaft at will.

 To start or stop a machine without starting or stopping the prime mover (engine).  To reduce the shock transmitted between machine shafts.  To maintain constant torque.

2. What are the uses of clutch in power transmission systems?  To connect and disconnect the shaft at will.  To maintain constant speed, torque and power.  To reduce shocks transmitted between the machine shafts.  To start or stop a machine without starting and stopping the prime mover.

3. Classify clutches based on the coupling methods. a. Positive contact clutches b. Frictional clutches

2 Design of Transmission Systems c. Overrunning clutches d. Magnetic clutches e. Fluid clutches

4. List the advantages and applications of multi plate clutch. Advantages:  Large amount of torque can be transmitted.  The number of frictional linings and the metal plates are increased. Application:  Motor cars, machine tools etc.

5. What is the difference between a clutch and coupling? Couplings Clutches as temporary

Couplings are used as permanent Clutches are used connecting elements between two power connecting elements. transmitting elements.

Periodical engagement and disengagement Periodical engagement and is not possible in couplings. disengagement is possible in clutches.

6. Name four materials used for lining of friction surfaces in clutches. Write the desirable properties of lining materials. Clutch lining materials: i) Wood ii) Leather iii) Asbestos based friction materials iv) Powered metal friction materials Desirable properties of lining materials  It should have high and uniform coefficient of friction.
St. Xavier’s Catholic College of Engineering, Chunkankadai - 629003, Kanyakumari District

Prof. V. Alfred Franklin Department of Mechanical Engineering

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 It should have high heat resistant.  It should have high heat conductivity.
 It should have high resilience.

 It should have high mechanical and thermal strengths.  It should have high resistance to wear, scoring and galling.  It should have high resistance against environmental conditions.

7. What are the desirable properties of friction material to be used for clutches?

A good friction material should have the following properties:  It should have high and uniform coefficient of friction.  It should have high heat resistant.  It should have high heat conductivity.
 It should have high resilience.

 It should have high mechanical and thermal strengths.  It should have high resistance to wear, scoring and galling.  It should have high resistance against environmental conditions.

8. How the uniform rate of wear assumption is valid for clutches? In clutches the value of normal pressure, axial load for the given clutch is limited by the rate of wear that can be tolerated in the brake linings. Moreover the assumption of uniform wear arte gives a lower calculated clutch capacity than the assumption of uniform pressure. Hence clutches are usually designed on the basis of uniform wear.

9. Why should the temperature rise be kept within the permissible range in clutch? Because the temperature rise beyond the permissible range in brakes will cause: i) Excessive wear ii) Distortion of the brake lining iii) Surface crack due to thermal stresses.

St. Xavier’s Catholic College of Engineering, Chunkankadai - 629003, Kanyakumari District

4 Design of Transmission Systems 10. Sketch a cone clutch.

Brakes
11. What is fading of brakes? When the brake is applied continuously over a period of time, the brake becomes overheated and the coefficient of friction drops. This results in sudden fall of efficiency of the brake. This phenomenon is known as Fade or Fading. (The co-efficient of friction gradually rises, reaches a peak value and falls rapidly as brake drum temperature is increased. This rapid fall is known as fade.)

St. Xavier’s Catholic College of Engineering, Chunkankadai - 629003, Kanyakumari District

Prof. V. Alfred Franklin Department of Mechanical Engineering

5

12. What is meant by self locking & self-energizing brake brakes?

Taking moment about O, Nb= Pa+Fe’ When the frictional force[F=µN] is sufficient enough to apply the brake with no external forces, then the brake is said to be self locking. Since no external forces, P=0 locking. When the moment of applied force (P.a) and the moment of the frictional force (µ.N.e’) are in the same direction, then frictional force helps in applying the brake. This type of brake is known as a self- energizing brake. , ( ie,) Nb = Fe’ (or) b≤ µ.e’ , This is the condition for self

13. Why in automobiles braking action when travelling in reverse is not as effective as when moving forward? When an automobile moves forward, the braking force acts in the opposite direction to the direction of motion of the vehicle, whereas in reverse travelling the braking force acts in the same direction to the direction of motion of the vehicle. So it requires more braking force to apply brake.

14. Give the reason for left and right shoes of internal expansion brakes having different actuating forces. Depending upon the direction of the drum rotation, one shoe would be leading shoe and another shoe is trailing shoe. The leading shoe is self energizing whereas the trailing shoe is not. In the leading shoe the friction force helps the applied force and hence more actuating force than the trailing force.

St. Xavier’s Catholic College of Engineering, Chunkankadai - 629003, Kanyakumari District

6 Design of Transmission Systems 15. How does the function of a brake differ from that of a clutch? The functional difference between a clutch and a brake is that a clutch connects two moving members of a machine, whereas a brake connects a moving member to a stationary member.

16. List the characteristics of material used for brake lining.  It should have high coefficient of friction.  It should have high heat resistant.  It should have high heat dissipation capacity.  It should have high mechanical strength.  It should have low coefficient of thermal expansion.

Cam
17. What is the function of a cam? A cam is a rotating mechanical member used for transmitting desired motion to a follower by direct contact.

18. What is undercutting in cams? The cam profile must be continuous curve without any loop. If the curvature of the pitch curve is too sharp, then the part of the cam shape would be lost and thereafter the intended cam motion would not be achieved. Such a cam is said to be undercut.

19. What are the different types of followers?  According to follower shape or the surface in contact: a) Knife edged follower b) Roller follower c) Mushroom or flat faced follower d) Spherical faced or curved shoe follower
St. Xavier’s Catholic College of Engineering, Chunkankadai - 629003, Kanyakumari District

Prof. V. Alfred Franklin Department of Mechanical Engineering

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 According to the motion of the follower: a) Reciprocating or translating follower b) Oscillating or rotating follower  According to the path of motion of the follower: a) Radial follower b) Off-set follower

20. What is the significance of pressure angle in cam design? The pressure angle is very important in cam design as it represents steepness of the cam profile. If the pressure angle is too large a reciprocating follower will jam in its bearing.

21. What is jerk? Name the profile of the cam that gives no jerk The rate of change of acceleration (sudden change in acceleration) is called jerk. The cycloidal cam profile with roller follower gives no jerk. Jerk= dα/dt = d3θ/dt3, where α- angular acceleration, θ- angular displacement.

22. Define base circle and pitch circle with respect to cam. Base circle: It is the smallest circle that can be drawn to the cam profile. The radius of the base circle is called least radius of the cam. Pitch circle: It is the circle passing through the pitch point and concentric with the base circle.

St. Xavier’s Catholic College of Engineering, Chunkankadai - 629003, Kanyakumari District

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