PROJECT REPORT ON

PYROLYSIS OF CARBONACEOUS SOLID WASTES AS A MEANS OF DISPOSAL AND GENERATION OF VALUE ADDED FUELS AND CHEMICALS

Submitted to

Department of Science, Technology and Environment, Govt. of Pondicherry

Prepared by

Dr. K.Subbarayudu,
Asst. Professor

Department of Mechanical Engineering

PONDICHERRY ENGINEERING COLLEGE
(Sponsored by Govt. of Pondicherry and affiliated to Pondicherry University)

Pondicherry – 605 014.
Ph. Nos: 0413-2655281-287 Fax No : 0413-2655101 Internet : www.pec.edu

PYROLYSIS OF CARBONACEOUS SOLID WASTES AS A MEANS OF DISPOSAL AND GENERATION OF VALUE ADDED FUELS AND CHEMICALS

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The project titled “Pyrolysis of carbonaceous solid wastes as a means of disposal and generation of value added fuels and chemicals” is a small step in the research and development of a promising means of waste disposal. thank all those who are in one way or other connected with the project. At the outset, I thank Dr. V.Soundararajan, Head of Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pondicherry Engineering College, for his support in the execution of the project and also for allowing me to use the facilities available in the department. I am grateful to Dr. T.G.Palanivelu, Principal, Pondicherry Engineering College, for allowing me to take up the project and for his help in the procurement of equipments pertaining to the project. This project was executed with the financial grant from Department of Science, Technology and Environment (DSTE), Government of Pondicherry. I express my gratitude to DSTE for selecting the project for funding. I sincerely thank It is my duty to

Dr. P. T. Rudra Goud, Director, DSTE, and Er. S.Sekar, Scientific Officer, DSTE for their constant support in the successful completion of the project. I appreciate the assistance rendered by Mr. L.Kumararaja, Sr. Lecturer, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pondicherry Engineering College for helping me in the execution of the project.

Dr. K. SUBBARAYUDU

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-----------------------------------------------------------Acknowledgements List of Figures List of Tables Summary 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Introduction Solid Wastes and their Properties Literature Review Design and Construction Experiments Results and Discussion Conclusions Related Literatures iii v vi vii 1 2 6 11 16 18 24 25 ------------------------------------------------------------ iv . Title Page No.CONTENTS -----------------------------------------------------------Chapter No.

No.5 6.5 4.3 4.3 6.1 4.6 6.4 4.LIST OF FIGURES -----------------------------------------------------------Fig. 11 12 13 14 14 15 18 19 20 20 21 21 ------------------------------------------------------------ ------------------------------------------------------------ v .6 Title Schematic diagram of pyrolysis system Pyrolysis Reactor Schematic View of Heaters Volatiles condenser Gas liquid separator Overall experimental set up Types of solid wastes and final residues after pyrolysis Plot of temperature Vs time for pyrolyser without charge Plot of temperature Vs time for scrap tyre pyrolysis Plot of temperature Vs time for LDPE pyrolysis Plot of temperature Vs time for PVC pyrolysis Yield of pyrolysis products Page No. 4.1 6.2 4.2 6.4 6.

LIST OF TABLES -----------------------------------------------------------Table No. -----------------------------------------------------------2.3 2.5 3.4 2.2 Composition of tyre samples Elemental composition of scrap tyres Elemental composition of Polyethylene Elemental composition of PVC Average composition of MSW Pyrolysis reactor details Average pyrolytic reactivities of different wastes pH values of water after pyrolysis of different wastes 2 3 3 4 5 9 22 23 ------------------------------------------------------------ vi .1 2. Title Page No.2 2.1 6.1 6.

Among the safer methods of waste disposal. pyrolysis is a technique in which the feedstock is thermally degraded in the absence of oxygen. screened MSW and dry leaves were pyrolysed. average pyrolytic reactivity for each type of waste were determined. yields of residual char. The yields of different products depend very much on the process variables.SUMMARY The ever increasing quantity of solid wastes generated in the modern world has posed several social and health problems. vii . liquid pyrolytic oil and gases. General types of solid wastes like scrap tyres. The pyrolytic waste disposal will also mitigate the problems of environmental pollution. LDPE. specific electrical energy consumption for pyrolysis. gas-liquid separator etc. The pyrolytic oil can be blended with the conventional liquid fuels. Specific energy consumption is lowest for tyre pyrolysis. Temperature rise. PVC. Each of the products formed has potential usage as energy carriers and chemical feed stocks for further processing. The resulting products of pyrolysis are solid char. The temperature rise for scrap tyre pyrolysis is faster than other types. pyrolytic oil and gases. In this work. a lab scale semi batch type pyrolyser was fabricated along with the downstream components like volatiles condenser.

anaerobic digestion etc. thermo chemical methods such as incineration. bio residues etc. The benefits resulting from pyrolysis are: • 60-90 % of volume reduction and 70-98 % of weight reduction are possible which means only lesser land area requirement for filling. and nature of solid wastes. . their relative proportions vary much with the reaction parameters during pyrolysis. During pyrolysis. pyrolysis.. water vapour etc. Pyrolysis oil is a source of various chemicals. Municipalities and Panchayats face a difficult task in the safe disposal of wastes. is steadily rising. pyrolytic oil and char are produced. mosquitoes etc. and bio chemical methods such as composting. plastic wastes like LDPE. The local civic bodies like Corporations. PVC. plastics. PVC. Water contamination There are several scientific disposal methods like materials recovery and recycling. • • • • • Certain products can be recovered and recycled.. Emissions of pollutants and obnoxious gases. gasification. were scrap tyres. The gases are a mixture of carbon dioxide. Requirement of more land filling sites. gases. a promising method is pyrolysing the carbonaceous solid wastes. The solid wastes selected for testing in this project. Pyrolysis oil can be used directly as fuel or blended with petroleum products. There are no health hazards and there is a possibility of clean environment. The pile up of these wastes in the land filling sites cause problems such as: • • • • Breeding of insects. Among them. Pyrolysis is defined as the thermal decomposition of the solid wastes in absence of oxygen. screened municipal solid wastes and bio residues.Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION The generation of solid wastes like waste tyres. These are the various safe disposal methods. The resulting char can be used as a fuel or it can be activated for a more valuable purpose.. methane and hydrocarbons.

1 Scrap tyres: The composition of tyre varies with manufacturers. composition of tyres is given in Table 2.1 100.3 23.5 Total 100.0 Tyre of company B (wt%) 41. the properties of some of them are given below. The elemental analysis of a typical tyre is shown in Table 2.1.2. Table 2.9 19. tyre rubber could be a source of alternate fuel for power generation and other usage. Among these types of wastes.3 22. through their various activities involving a variety of products and commodities.5 4. For example.1 36.1 Composition of tyre samples Sl. 2.1 9. Even in the same tyre. -2- . 1 2 3 4 5 6 Composition Tyre of company A (wt%) 39. the used tyres can be burn directly in co-fired boilers to generate power. The quantum of solid wastes generated is also burgeoning as people’s activities have increased very much in this materialistic world. the composition differs between the tread and side wall portion.0 Tyre of company C (wt%) 20 45 25 10 100 Some of the typical Styrene Butadiene Rubber Natural Rubber Butadiene Rubber Carbon Black Oil Others The heat content of rubber is higher than that of coal.2 4.Chapter 2 SOLID WASTES AND THEIR PROPERTIES The solid wastes are of different types. because they are generated by different people of various economic statuses. No.

flexibility. 1 2 Element Carbon Hydrogen Total Wt% 85. HDPE are linear having only 2 – 5 branches per 1000 linear carbon atoms. clarity etc. 2.3 Elemental composition of Polyethylene Sl.2 Elemental composition of scrap tyres Sl..24 7.39 7.3. Table 2. No. No.0 100. The factors contributing to widespread use of polyethylene are low cost.3 100. chemical inertness.) Total Wt% 84. 25 – 50 branches per 1000 linear carbon atoms. Commercial categories are (a) Low Density Poly Ethylene (LDPE) of density range 915 – 940 kg/m3 and (b) High Density Poly Ethylene (HDPE) of density range 945 – 960 kg/m3 LDPE is more branched i.7 14.2 Polyethylene (PE): Polyethylene of different density ranges are obtained by chain polymerization of ethylene. It has higher melting point of 125 – 130 °C. 1 2 3 4 5 Element Carbon Hydrogen Nitrogen Sulphur Other (by diff.0 The disposal of used automotive tyres is becoming an ever more pressing problem as it causes many environmental and economical problems to most of the countries. low temperature toughness. It has lower melting point of 110 – 117°C.e. LDPE is permeable to gases than HDPE. easy processability. Their continuing accumulation is one of the worst solid waste disposal problems plaguing the countries. The elemental composition of PE is given in table 2. The chemical structure of rubber used in making tyres makes them difficult to recycle.24 1.Table 2. HDPE is more resistant to chemicals than LDPE.0 -3- . electrical insulation properties.13 0.

Table 2.3 Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC): Its monomer is CH2 = CHCl.4 Municipal Solid Wastes (MSW): MSW is the most heterogeneous substance with the quantity of any particular constituent varying widely with location. for a general idea a normal -4- .0 100.) Total Wt% 40. the most widely used being phthalates. This residue can be burnt at higher temperatures without any chlorine related limitation. window frames. PVC decomposes into HCl and a coke like residue. 1 2 3 4 Element Carbon Hydrogen Chlorine Other (by diff. composition of MSW is given in table 2. PVC is used in chemical plant equipments. However. sheets. The elemental composition of PVC is given in table 2. H C == C Cl H H H H H H —C— C— C—C— Cl H Cl H Vinyl Chloride monomer Poly Vinyl Chloride polymer It has a chlorine content of 53. No. PVC is a hard plastic that is made softer and more flexible by the addition of plasticizers.4. HCl is liberated as volatile. In the temperature range of 200 – 400°C. pipes. On heating.2.1 5.8%.4 Elemental composition of PVC Sl.0 2.8 1. transparent roof sheeting.5.1 53.

6 2.Table 2.8 4.5 Average composition of MSW Sl. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Constituent Paper Plastics Rubber and leather Textiles Wood Food wastes Yard wastes Glass and ceramics Metals Miscellaneous Wt (%) 37.0 14.2 14.6 9.3 3.2 3.0 8.2 3.1 -5- .

It has been reported that experimental research was conducted to get optimum operating parameters for pyrolysis of rubber scrap tyres. [2] authored a paper titled “Technical Advances on the Pyrolysis of Used Tyres in China”.Gonullu. 5. Experimental results showed that synthesized catalysts from fly ash can be used for the pyrolysis of most of waste plastics including the olefin series to make fuel oil. pyrolysis mechanism and design of pyrolysis reactor. [5] described their work in the paper “Pyrolysis of waste derived fuel mixtures containing PVC”. M.al. [1] in their paper “Pyrolysis of Waste Plastics using Synthesized Catalysts from Fly Ash” proposed that waste plastics can be converted into fuel oil by pyrolysis using suitable catalysts. 3. internet and books related to pyrolysis was done before embarking on the project. et. They also describe the kinetics of pyrolysis. [3] in their paper titled “An Experimental Research on Pyrolysis and Gasification of Scrap Tyres” described that pyrolysis is a method to get valuable new materials and energy. They have reported that tyre pyrolysis systems and processes were developed which include feeding tyre shreds to a pyrolysis reactor.al. Soo Hyun Chung. E. et. These synthesized catalysts were more effective for PP than for PE which is difficult to pyrolyse. [4] authored a paper titled “Process for pyrolyzing tyre shreds and tyre pyrolysis systems”. heating was done upto 600°C. 1.T.Arslankaya.Chapter 3 LITERATURE REVIEW An extensive survey of technical journals. This was done to keep ourselves abreast with the latest developments in the field. thermal decomposition of waste tyres began at temperature 150°C and almost finished by 550-580°C. Ron Zevenhovena and Ernst Petter Axelsenb. Masemore.al. 2. The objective of their work is to give an outline of the research activities on the pyrolysis of tyre rubber. A brief summary of the technical articles collected from the technical journals are given below. This paper describes the experimental analysis of pyrolysis of PVC and mixtures of PVC with wood (Finnish pine) and LDPE (Low Density Poly Ethylene) in nitrogen at 250±400oC. In their experiments. et. et. pyrolyzing the shreds in the pyrolysis reactor to produce a hydrocarbon rich gas and carbon rich solid fuel. 4.al. -6- . Yang Yongrong.

8. 9. carbon and gaseous products. The experiments were performed in a captive sample reactor at atmospheric pressure under helium atmosphere. Pinto et.Results are presented for various process temperatures for PVC. The pyrolysis reactor was maintained at 500°C and the influence of catalyst temperature between 430°C and 600°C on the yield and composition of the derived oils were examined. PVC/wood and PVC/LDPE mixtures. [8] have written a paper titled “Pyrolysis of used automobile tyres and residual char utilization”. 7. gas and char. in addition to the steel cord. 6. The effect of temperature on the products yield was investigated by them. The physicochemical properties and the rheological behavior of the pyrolytic oil residue obtained from the vacuum pyrolysis of automobile shredder residues have been studied.al. The tyres were first pyrolysed in a fixed bed reactor and then the evolved pyrolysis gases were passed through a secondary fixed bed reactor containing Zeolite catalyst.Effect of plastic waste composition on product yield”. They have reported that pyrolysis of tyres produced oil. Paul T. [7] have written a paper titled “Pyrolysis of plastic wastes . [9] described their work in their paper “Vacuum pyrolysis of automobile shredder residues: use of the pyrolytic oil as a modifier for road bitumen”.. T. A.e. The pyrolysis experiments were performed batch wise in a large retort. F. Pyrolysis of plastic waste can have an important role in converting this waste into valuable hydrocarbons. Chaala et. 10. In this paper. process routes have been described for the production of high grade activated carbon and high value aromatic chemicals from the pyrolysis of scrap tyres which may improve the commercial viability of tyre pyrolysis. pyrolysis-catalysis of used tyres was done by them. Williams et. the rubber portion of used car tyres was transformed by atmospheric pyrolysis into oil. In their study. A.al.al. -7- . They opined that accumulation of enormous amounts of plastic waste produced all over the world has negative implications on the environment. Two stage thermal decomposition i. P.A. [10] described their work in the paper “Catalytic pyrolysis of tyres: influence of catalyst temperature”.al. all of which have the potential to be recycled. Williams [6] described their work in the paper “High Value Products from the Pyrolysis of Scrap Tyres”. Zabaniotou et.

11. 12.al. EPA. [23] have written a paper titled “Pyrolysis products from different biomass: application to thermal cracking of tar”. CO in the sequence of their yields. During the trials. including carbon monoxide. Engineering Bulletin. design and operation of thermal conversion system a challenge. and other hydrocarbons. 13. This bulletin describes that pyrolysis could transform hazardous organic materials into gaseous components.1. [12] in their paper titled “Pyrolysis characteristics and kinetics of municipal solid wastes”.al. [11] have written a paper titled “Pyrolysis of Waste Tyres with Copper Nitrate”. L. Jian-Bing Zhao et. 1992. The pyrolysis reactor details which have been compiled from the different articles collected from international technical journals are given in Table 3. C3H8. CH4.Sorum et. CO2. The results showed that the gaseous mixture contained H2. hydrogen and methane. They studied the influence of copper nitrate on the pyrolysis of waste tyres in a 50 cm3 static batch reactor in nitrogen atmosphere. 14. The heating is achieved either by dropping the biomass basket into the heated section or by placing a small quantity of biomass on a wire mesh and passing required current through it or by feeding at slow rates in to the heated reactor. and a solid residue (coke) containing fixed carbon and ash. small quantities of liquid. -8- . inert gas was used to sweep the volatiles produced during the pyrolysis. Fagbemi et. C3H6. have observed that the large variety in municipal solid waste (MSW) composition and difference in thermal degradation behaviour of MSW component makes modelling. Their work involved conducting experiments in a small capacity pyrolyser provided with external heaters. [13] Pyrolysis Treatment. C2H6.al. Pyrolysis of organic materials produces combustible gases.

5.8mm Stainless steel __ __ Electrical heating __ __ 550 Continuou s ablative reactor (CAR) Used tires Stainless steel __ __ __ Hardware component waste pyrolysis energy recovery and liquid fraction valorization[15] 4 70 600 Tubular quartz reactor Hardware component __ __ __ Electrical heating Vacuum pyrolysis of automobile shredder residues: use of the pyrolytic oil as a modifier for road bitumen [9] 60 300 450 Vacuum Pyrolysis in a pilot plant Automobile shredder residues: 130 kg __ __ __ Electrical heating -9- .3.1 Pyrolysis reactor details Diameter (cm) Height (cm) Temperature (°C) Type of reactor Sample used and quantity Material used for reactor Heating rate (°C s-1) Thickness of the reactor wall (cm) Type of heating Electrical heating 70-90 1 Title of paper Pyrolysis of used automobile tires and residual char utilization[8] 7 12 390-800 Captive sample reactor Used tyres of 500 g Stainless steel Experimental studies on pyrolysis of Dantong coal with solid heat carrier in fixed bed reactor [13] Characterization potential application of pyrolytic char ablative pyrolysis of used tires[14] 12 45 350-500 Fixed bed reactor Datong coal of 1.Table 3.

1 80 400-700 Fixed bed tubular reactor Sunflower Stainless Steel 316 7 Kmin-1 __ Electrical heating 2 30 700 Fixed bed reactor Wood Inconel 600 alloy __ __ Electrical heating .bed reactor [13 ] Diameter (cm) Height (cm) Temperature (°C) Type of reactor Sample used and quantity Heating rate (°C s-1) Type of heating 60 300 500 Horizontal reactor Used tyres (SBR) 19 kg __ __ __ __ 0.1 : Pyrolysis reactor details (Contd. 30wt%.6 202 450 Fixed bed reactor Polyester/gla ss fibre .10 - .7wt% 1.) Material used for reactor Thickness of the reactor wall (cm) Title of paper Charecterisation of pyrolytic light napha from vacuum Pyrolysis of used tyres comparition with petroleum naphtha [17] Charecteristion of product from the recycling of glass fibre reinforced polyester waste by pyrolysis[18 ] Catalytic pyrolysis of tyres: influence of catalyst temperature[10] Production of biocrudes from biomass in fixed bed tabulated reactor: product yields and compositions [21 ] Characteristics of evolution of tar from wood pyrolysis in a fixed.5 kg Used tyres 200 gm of sample Stainless steel __ __ Electrical heating 10 15 500 Fixed bed reactor Stainless steel 10 __ Electrical heating 1.Table 3.

Refer fig. The net volume of the reactor is about 5.2 Pyrolysis reactor: The reactor which has been designed for the solid waste pyrolysis is a cylindrical shell. 5 1 2 3 Pyrolytic oil 6 4 Water Water in out 1. so that the total rate of heating comes to about 3 kW.3.4. Gas burner Fig. it was found that most of the researchers had developed only lab scale model for their investigation on pyrolysis This is because.4. Volatiles condenser 3. The schematic diagram of solid waste pyrolysis system is shown in fig. all the three heaters are connected in parallel to the applied external power supply. During the reaction. There are three heaters arranged inside the cylindrical shell vertically protruding into the reactor from the bottom closed side. Gas-liquid separator 4. The thermal degradation of the waste is caused by electrical resistance heating. The top side is open through which solid wastes are fed at the beginning and the solid residue is removed after pyrolysis. Each heater is rated 1 kW. The heater is made up of 20 SWG nichrome wire wound in the form of a coil. It is a semi batch type.3 l. Scrubber 5. Sucking blower 6.4. They form the three vertices of a virtual equilateral triangle inside the shell.1. fixed bed reactor made up of mild steel sheet. the top side is kept closed by a cover plate tightly secured to the 11 .2. the solid wastes pyrolysis must be analyzed first in the lab scale reactor. Pyrolysis reactor 2.4. The essential components of the pyrolysis system have thus been identified from the literatures collected. Refer fig. The total resistance has been measured as 16 ohms.1 Schematic diagram of pyrolysis system 4.Chapter 4 DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 4. before the establishment of any large scale pyrolyser plant.1 System components: On the basis of literature survey conducted.

This prevents ingression of atmospheric air into the reactor. The temperature inside the reactor is measured by a thermocouple. thereby achieving pyrolysis.4. φ 152 Top lid Exit pipe Thermocouple 380 250 Heater 350 All dimensions are in mm Fig. The pyrolyser is provided with ceramic wool insulation on the outer side.flanged opening. An exit pipe at the side carries away the evolved gases during pyrolysis.2 Pyrolysis Reactor 12 . The reactor weighs approximately 17 kg.

the condensable gases become liquid which is called pyrolytic oil. they are passed on the tube side.4.Heater φ 42 φ 152 All dimensions are in mm Fig. As a result of cooling.4. As the evolved gases may contain particulate matter and tar. so that cleaning would be easier after the experiments.3 Schematic View of Heaters 4.4. 13 . Instead of room temperature water being circulated from the water pump. The cooling water is circulated by a water pump. It has 1.shell pass and 1.tube pass counter flow type of arrangement. The evolved gases from the pyrolyser pass through the tubes and the cooling water is circulated on the shell side.3 Volatiles condenser: The condenser is provided to cool and condense the gases evolved out from the pyrolyser. However. chilled water from a water chiller can also be supplied to increase the pyrolytic oil yield. a certain fraction of gases cannot be condensed and they are termed as non condensable gases. The condenser is a vertical shell and tube type heat exchanger as shown in fig.

Fig.4 Gas-Liquid Separator The pyrolytic oil formed in the volatiles condenser drips down and get collected at the bottom of the gas liquid separator.4 Volatiles condenser 4.5. The separator has two chambers separated Fig. flow downwards and then rise up in the second chamber.4. The non condensable gases are taken through a pipe and bubbled into water kept in a pan. 14 .4.4. Refer fig. the liquid oil gets collected at the bottom and the non condensable gases rising up in the second chamber leaves through a hole at the top. The oil laden gases enter the separator from the top into the first chamber. those liquid droplets borne by the gases can also be separated out due to differential inertia as the velocity is very much reduced in the separator. Besides.5 Gas liquid separator by a segmented baffle. During the flow.

MCB.4. voltmeter. The pH is determined in Deluxe pH meter (Model 101E).6. The weights of input feedstock and residue after pyrolysis are measured by a digital weighing balance of 1 gm accuracy.01 second accuracy. on-off switch. Fig. The temperature of the pyrolyser is measured by a K.4. The time is measured by a digital timer of 0.5 Instrumentation: The instrumentation panel consists of a fuse unit. ammeter and single phase energy meter.type thermocouple connected to a digital temperature indicator of 1°C accuracy.6 Overall experimental set up 15 .4. The overall arrangement of the components is shown in fig.

tests were conducted for three different heating rates.1 Heating without any charge: Initially. This was done to compare the electrical energy consumption for the pyrolysis of feed stocks with that of the uncharged pyrolyser.Chapter 5 EXPERIMENTS The experiments were conducted by maintaining the pyrolyser under nonisothermal conditions by heating. LDPE. 5.4 Procedure: 5. were involved in the experimental studies. 16 . pyrolysis was carried out only in the range from slow to moderate rate of heating.2 Parameters observed: • • • • • • • • • • • Initial weight of raw feedstock Initial weight of water in bubbling tank Temperature of pyrolyser at regular time intervals Voltage at regular time intervals Current at regular time intervals Heater energy consumption at regular time intervals Time period to attain 600°C in every trial Final weight of solid residue Final weight of liquid oil collected Final weight of water in bubbling tank pH value of water in bubbling tank 5. The time to reach 600°C was also noted.1 Variables changed: • • Type of raw feedstock (Scrap tyre. PVC) Rate of heating The following quantities For each type of raw feedstock. the rate of temperature rise of the pyrolyser without containing any charge was observed when heated. 5.3 Parameters calculated: • • • Rate of temperature rise Reactivity Yields of pyrolysis products 5. During the experiments.4.

The procedure detailed in Section 5. current. Pyrolysing PVC: PVC pipes were procured and cut into pieces so that they could be easily charged into the pyrolyser up to the brim. The initial quantity of scrap tyre pieces was weighed before charging into it. The stopper at the bottom of the gas-liquid separator was also opened and pyrolytic oil was drained into a jar. the heating was stopped at this condition.4. The same procedure was followed for the cases of a) when two heaters ‘ON’ and b) when all the three heaters ‘ON’. solid residue remaining in the pyrolyser was taken out and weighed. The procedure detailed in Section 5.2 for scrap tyre was followed for PVC also. Cooling water was circulated in the volatiles condenser by means of a pump.2 Pyrolysing scrap tyre: Scrap tyre of a two wheeler was obtained and cut into pieces so that they can be easily fed into the pyrolyser to occupy its full volume.3 Pyrolysing LDPE: LDPE roll of virgin grade was procured and cut into pieces and then fed into the pyrolyser till it covers the entire volume of the reactor.4.4. heater energy consumption were observed at regular time intervals. The pyrolyser was cleaned with acetone and made ready for the subsequent test. The system was allowed to cool up to room temperature naturally. 5. voltage.4.5. This was continued till the pyrolyser temperature reached 600°C. The top lid was tightly secured to the pyrolyser by bolts and nuts. temperature.4.2 for scrap tyre was followed for LDPE also. Then the top lid of the pyrolyser was opened. only one heater was energized ‘ON’. 5. In the first test. 17 . A measured quantity of water was taken in the bubbling tank.4. During the heating process.

1. 6.1 Types of solid wastes and final residues after pyrolysis 18 . Type of Solid wastes Final residues Scrap tyres Polyethylene PVC pipes MSW Fig. 6.Chapter 6 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 6.1 Physical observation: The photographs of raw feed stocks and the solid residues obtained after pyrolysis are shown in fig.

after which it becomes slower due to increased heat loss by radiation. Pyrolyser without charge 700 600 500 Temperature (C) 400 300 200 100 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Time (min) Fig. 6.6.6.2 Plot of temperature Vs time for pyrolyser without charge It is observed from the graph. that the temperature rise is faster initially up to a temperature of 400°C. 6.3 Pyrolysis of scrap tyre: The temperature variation of the pyrolyser with respect to time in the case of scrap tyres when all the three heaters were ON is shown in fig. The temperature Vs time graph for that case is shown in fig.6. The rate of temperature rise is higher in the case of scrap tyre pyrolysis than that for uncharged condition of the pyrolyser.2 Heating without any charge: Without taking any solid wastes in the pyrolyser.3. 19 .2. the temperature rise of the reactor when it had been heated was observed. This may be due to certain exothermic reactions occurring during pyrolysis of scrap tyres.

It also 20 .4. The temperature Vs Time chart is shown in fig.Tyre Pyrolysis 800 700 Temperature (C) 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Tim e (m in) Fig.6.3 Plot of temperature Vs time for scrap tyre pyrolysis 6.6.4 Pyrolysis of LDPE: Low Density Poly Ethylene sheets of virgin grade were pyrolysed in the reactor. The temperature rise is faster when compared to LDPE.5 Pyrolysis of PVC: The pyrolysis of Poly Vinyl Chloride was carried out under the same conditions similar to LDPE.4 Plot of temperature Vs time for LDPE pyrolysis 6.6. LDPE Pyrolysis 800 700 Temperature (C) 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Tim e (m in) Fig. But the evolution of HCl vapours contributes very much to environmental pollution.5. It was observed that the rate of temperature rise was slower for LDPE. This may be due to the occurrence of a number of endothermic reactions. The variation of temperature Vs time for PVC pyrolysis is shown in fig.6.

Better the cooling of gases. more the quantity of oil collected.6.6.6.6 Products yield: The products of pyrolysis are solid residue.5 Plot of temperature Vs time for PVC pyrolysis 6. b) LDPE and c) PVC are shown in fig. PVC Pyrolysis 800 700 Temperature (C) 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 10 20 30 Tim e (m in) 40 50 60 Fig.6. The typical yield of products of pyrolysis for a) scrap tyre. Yield 100% 80% % b y weight 60% 40% 20% 0% Tyre LDPE Material PVC Gas Oil Char Fig.converts the water in the pan through which the gases are bubbled out to become strongly acidic. liquid pyrolytic oil and gaseous volatiles.6 Yield of pyrolysis products 21 .

This was done to prevent ingression of outside air into the reactor. The results are shown in table 6. This type of MSW which is rich in plastics called hereinafter as ‘screened MSW’ was collected from the centre and analysed in the pyrolyser. The pH value of the pan water was measured after pyrolysis of each feed stock. Table 6.6. this segregation is dumped in landfills. As a result of passage of gases through water. Pondicherry.019 0. One of the segregations is the MSW containing more amount of plastics. 1 2 3 4 5 Solid wastes Scrap tyre LDPE PVC MSW Dry leaves Avg.1. In this centre.02201 0.00909 0.1 Average pyrolytic reactivities of different wastes Sl. raw MSW from Pondicherry Municipality is segregated mechanically in the process of composting. Villianur Commune. PVC. Arasur. No.6 Reactivity of feed stocks: In order to analyze a more practical kind of waste. LDPE. 22 . Experiments were also conducted to determine the average reactivity of different feed stocks such as scrap tyres.7 Nature of collection water after pyrolysis: The non-condensable pyrolysis gases coming from the gas-liquid separator are bubbled through water kept in a pan. screened MSW and dry leaves. pyrolytic reactivity (min-1) 0.02105 6. a type of MSW was obtained from Garbage Compost Production Centre. The Centre is run by PASIC an Undertaking of Pondicherry Government.2.01843 0. The average pyrolytic reactivity ‘r’ of a feedstock during a time period of ‘t’ minutes is given by min-1 r = W1-W2 x 1 W1 t Where W1 = initial weight of raw feed stock taken in the pyrolyser W2 = final weight of residue after pyrolysis The average reactivities of various types of feedstock are shown in table 6. it gets contaminated and its nature changes.

Table 6.2(Moderately alkaline) 2.9 (Moderately acidic) 3.78 (Acidic) 0.8 (Moderately acidic) 23 .2 pH values of water after pyrolysis of different wastes Sl.1 (Strongly acidic) 3. 1 2 3 4 5 Solid wastes Scrap tyre LDPE PVC MSW Dry leaves pH value of water 9. No.

Pyrolysis of solid wastes will yield solid char. PVC and dry leaves due to the presence of inert materials in it. The temperature rise of the pyrolyser is faster due to better heat transfer inside the reactor. • The pyrolysis of LDPE has produced only a little char. liquid oil. the following conclusions are derived. Pyrolysis of solid wastes is one of the safe methods of disposal. The temperature rise is slower when compared to that of scrap tyres and PVC due to poor heat transfer characteristics and drastic physical changes taking place during pyrolysis. • The pyrolysis of PVC has produced more solid char than LDPE. • The specific electrical energy consumption during pyrolysis is lowest for scrap tyre. but the evolution of HCl vapours requires pretreatment as they are strongly acidic. • The pyrolysis of PVC can be safely done only with the integration of a downstream treatment process for HCl vapours. and highest for PVC. and gases. all of them have considerable heating values. • • The hydrocarbon part of any solid wastes can be pyrolysed. instead of the electrical heating practiced in the case of lab scale pyrolyser.Chapter 7 CONCLUSIONS It is very much essential to scientifically dispose the ever increasing solid wastes generated by the growing population. LDPE. • The pyrolysis of scrap tyres has produced solid char containing steel wires which can be recycled and the percentage of liquid oil collected is more than that of gases. The temperature rise of the pyrolyser is faster than that for LDPE. theoretically up to 100 %. 24 . • The average specific reactivity of screened MSW is very low when compared to that of scrap tyres. • A real pyrolyser plant can be operated by deriving heat from a portion of the feed stock itself. From the experiments conducted on various types of solid wastes. but the percentage of volatiles is high which can be largely converted to liquid oil.

Vol 80. [10] Paul T. Williams.RELATED LITERATURES [1] Soo Hyun Chung.Gronli. Hangzhou.R. P. Engineering Bulletin. C. Inc. EPA. INETI. [11] Qing-Cao Ke-Chang Xie. “Pyrolysis of Waste Tyres with Copper Nitrate”.Gonullu. [12] L.. Sang Goo Jeon. pp 155–172. [6] P T Williams.Arslankaya. Y. Engg. “Pyrolysis of used automobile tyres and residual char utilization”. Azinhaga dos Lameiros.Goncaloglu Yildiz. Estrada do Paço do Lumiar. Mikko Hupac. 2000. Number 4. E. Helsinki University of Technology. Stavropoulos. Korea Institute of Energy Research 71-2 Jang-Dong. 305-343. Chaala.T. Vol 26. “Catalytic pyrolysis of tyres : influence of catalyst temperature”. “Pyrolysis of wastederived fuel mixtures containing PVC”.G. 1699 Lisboa Codex. I. Tech University Besiktas 80750. B. Fuel. Env. Ernst Peter Axelsenb. “High Value Products from the Pyrolysis of Scrap Tyres”. Pinto. 1992. Korea. 2001. G. pp 2425-2434. J. Resources. “Pyrolysis characteristics and kinectics of Municipal Solid Wastes”. [9] A. Turkey. Alexander J. OERR. Renaissance Recycling. Portugal. “ Pyrolysis of Waste Plastics Using Synthesized Catalysts from Fly Ash”.Avsar. Pyrolysis Treatment. Istanbul. “Process For Pyrolyzing Tyre Shreds And Tyre Pyrolysis Systems”. Fuel .CHINA. Conservation and Recycling Vol 26. Roy.Sorum. Yusong-gu.Chen Jizhong and Zhao Guibin. “An Experimental Research On Pyrolysis And Gasification Of Scrap Tyres”. Costa. pp711. Vol 70. Dept. Zhejiang University YuQuan Campus. “Technical Advances On The Pyrolysis of Used Tyres In China” Dept.A. Energy Sources. [2] Yang Yongrong . 25 . DE). [5] Ron Zevenhovena. [7] F. Laboratory for Energy Engineering and Environmental Protection. 2002. P.Brindle..722. [8] A. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis. [13] EPA. Washington. [3] M. O.Hustad. 310027. 2004. United Kingdom. Jong Jin Park. 1999. “Vacuum pyrolysis of automobile shredder residues: use of the pyrolytic oil as a modifier for road bitumen”.E. Zabaniotou. (New Castle. pp 397 – 407. of Chemical Engg.G. Cabrita “Pyrolysis of plastic wastes Effect of plastic waste composition on product yield. Ciochina.2003. Dong Chan Kim. 737221. University of Leeds. M.Vol 81. pp 1217-1227. et al. Taejon. [4] Masemore. Gulyurtlu and I.

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